|Area (rank)||6,363.16 km² (21st)|
|- % water||0.2%|
|Population (March 1, 2008)|
|- Population||2,014,608 (19th)|
|- Density||317 /km²|
|- Flower||Japanese azalea (Rhododendron japonicum)|
|- Tree||Japanese black pine (Pinus thunbergii)|
|- Bird||Copper pheasant (Phasianus soemmerringii)|
|- Fish||Sweetfish (Plecoglossus altivelis)|
Symbol of Gunma Prefecture
|Template ■ Discussion ■ WikiProject Japan|
Japan was without horses until around the early centuries AD, and present-day Gunma was a center of the horsebreeding and trading activities when continental peoples and Japanese began a strong trade in the animals.
When Mt Haruna erupted in the late 6th century Japan was still in pre-history, but the Gunma Prefectural archaeology unit in 1994 was able to date the eruption through zoological anthropology at the corral sites that were buried in ash.
In the past, Gunma was joined with Tochigi Prefecture and called Kenu Province. This was later divided into Kami-tsu-ke (Upper Kenu, Gunma) and Shimo-tsu-ke (Lower Kenu, Tochigi). The area is sometimes referred to as Jomo (上毛, Jōmō). For most of Japanese history, Gunma was known as the province of Kozuke.
In the early period of contact between western nations and Japan, particularly the late Tokugawa, it was referred to by foreigners as the "Joushu States", inside (fudai, or loyalist) Tokugawa retainers and the Tokugawa family symbol is widely seen at public buildings, temples and shrines.
The first modern silk factories were built with Italian and French assistance at Annaka in the 1870s.
In the early Meiji period, in what was locally called the Gunma Incident of 1884, a bloody struggle between the idealistic democratic westernizers and the conservative Prussian-model nationalists took place in Gunma and neighboring Nagano. The modern Japanese army gunned down farmers with new repeating rifles built in Japan. The farmers in Gunma were said to be the first victims of the Murata rifle.
In the twentieth century, the Japanese aviation pioneer Nakajima Chikushi of Oizumi, Gunma Prefecture, founded the Nakajima Aircraft Company. At first, he produced mostly licensed models of foreign designs, but beginning with the all-Japanese Nakajima 91 fighter plane in 1931, his company became a world leader in aeronautical design and manufacture, with its headquarters at Ota, Gunma Ken. The factory now produces Subaru motorcars and other products under the name of Fuji Heavy Industries.
In the 1930s, German architect Bruno Julius Florian Taut (May 4, 1880, Königsberg, Germany - December 24, 1938, Istanbul) lived and conducted research for a while in Takasaki, Gunma Ken.
The Girard Incident, which disturbed US-Japanese relations in the 1950s, occurred in Gunma in 1957, at Somogahara Base near Shibukawa.
One of only eight landlocked prefectures in Japan, Gunma is the northwestern-most prefecture of the Kantō plain. Except for the central and southeast areas, where most of the population is concentrated, it is mostly mountainous. To the north are Niigata and Fukushima prefectures, while to the east lies Tochigi. To the west lies Nagano prefecture, and Saitama is to the south.
Some of the major mountains in Gunma are Mount Akagi, Mount Haruna, Mount Myōgi, Mount Nikkō-Shirane and Mount Asama, which is located on the Nagano border. The first three are known as the "Three Mountains of Jōmō", and are also featured in racing scenes of the anime and manga Initial D. Major rivers include the Tone River, the Agatsuma River, and the Karasu River.
Twelve cities are located in Gunma Prefecture:
Towns and villages in each district:
Because Gunma is situated in inland Japan, the difference in temperature in the summer compared to the winter is large, and there is less precipitation. This is because of the kara-kaze, a strong, dry wind which occurs in the winter when the snow falls on the coasts of Niigata. The wind carrying clouds with snow are obstructed by the Echigo Mountain Range, and it also snows there, although the high peaks do not let the wind go past them. For this reason, the wind changes into the kara-kaze.
Gunma's modern industries include transport equipment and electrical equipment, concentrated around Maebashi and the eastern region nearest Tokyo. More traditional industries include sericulture and agriculture. Gunma's major agricultural products include cabbages and konjacs. Gunma produces 90% of Japan's konjacs, and two-thirds of the farms in the village of Tsumagoi are cabbage farms. Also, the city of Ōta is famous for car industry, notably the Subaru factory.
Gunma has a traditional card game called Jomo Karuta (上毛かるた). Both children and old people can enjoy this card game. Mitsuru Adachi, one of the most famous Japanese manga writers, well-known for "Touch" and "H2",was born in Gunma.
Gunma is home to one of Japan's three Melody Roads, which is made from grooves cut into the ground, which when driven over causes a tactile vibration and audible rumbling transmitted through the wheels into the car body. It consist of 2,559 grooves cut into a 175 meter stretch of existing roadway. When driven over at 31 mph it produce the tune of "Memories of Summer".
The sports teams listed below are based in Gunma.
Gunma is also famous for its ski resorts in the mountains, which attracts many tourists.
Other attractions include:
The prefectural symbol consists of the first kanji of the word 'Gunma' surrounded by three stylized mountains symbolizing the three important mountains of Gunma Prefecture: Mount Haruna, Mt. Akagi, and Mt. Myogi.
For Marketing, The Prefectural Government also uses Yuma-chan, a small super deformed drawing of a horse character wearing green cap. He is used on promotional posters, banners and other notable printed matierals from the Prefectural Government. Other agencies and companies formally or informally use variations of his likeness and other horse shaped characters when making signs or notices for work on buildings, roads, and other public notices.
There are some tourist attractions in Gunma prefecture. Kusatsu is famous for hot springs. In winter, there are many ski resorts.