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Scientific classification
Kingdom: Chromalveolata
Superphylum: Alveolata
Phylum: Dinoflagellata
Class: Dinophyceae[1]
Order: Gymnodiniales
Family: Gymnodiniaceae
Genus: Gymnodinium
Stein, 1878

Gymnodinium is a genus of dinoflagellates. It is one of the few naked dinoflagellates, or species lacking armor (cellulosic plates). Since 2000, the species which had been considered to be part of Gymnodinium have been divided into several genera, based on the nature of the apical groove and the biochemistry (specifically, the identity of the main carotenoid):[2]


  1. ^ Guiry, M.D.; Guiry, G.M. (2008). "Gymnodinium". AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. Retrieved 2009-02-21.  
  2. ^ F Gómez, Y Nagahama, H Takayama, K Furuya (2005). "Is Karenia a synonym of Asterodinium-Brachidinium?(Gymnodiniales, Dinophyceae)". Acta Bot. Croat 64 (2): 263–274. ISSN 0365–0588.  


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