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Hüseyin Hilmi Pasha


In office
1909 – 1909

In office
1902 – 1908

In office
1908 – 1909

In office
1912 – 1918

Born 1 April 1855(1855-04-01)
Lesbos, Greece, Ottoman Empire
Died 1922
Vienna, Austria
Nationality Greek[1]
Religion Muslim

Hüseyin Hilmi Pasha (Ottoman Turkish: حسین حلمی پاشا, also spelled Hussein Hilmi Pasha) (1855 – 1922/1923) was a statesman and twice Grand vizier[2] of the Ottoman Empire in the wake of the Second Constitutional Era and was also Co-founder and Head of the Turkish Red Crescent[3]. Hüseyin Hilmi was one of the most successful Ottoman administrators in the explosive Balkans of the early 20th century, becoming Ottoman Inspector-General of Macedonia[4] from 1902 to 1908, Ottoman Minister for the Interior[5] from 1908 to 1909 and Ottoman Ambassador at Vienna[6] from 1912 to 1918.

Early life

Hüseyin Hilmi Pasha was born in 1855 on Lesbos (Midilli) to a family of Greek ancestry[7][8][9][10] who had formerly converted to Islam[11]. He did his primary studies in Lesbos, and he also learned good French at an early age. He started out as a clerk in the Ottoman state structure and gradually climbing up the ladders of hierarchy, became the governor of Adana in 1897 and of Yemen in 1902. The same year, he was appointed as inspector general with responsibility over virtually all Balkan territories of the Ottoman Empire at the time, namely the vilayets of Salonica, Kosovo and Manastir (Bitola).

After the re-enactment of the Ottoman constitution in 1908, he was appointed as Interior Minister, and then served as grand vizier, at first between 14 February 1909 and 13 April 1909 under Abdülhamid II and then, re-assuming the post a month later, between 5 May 1909 and 28 December 1909. As such, in his first vizierate, he was the last grand vizier of Abdülhamid II. This first vizierate had had to be suddenly interrupted because of the so-called 31 March Incident, when for a month fundamentalists had reigned in the streets of İstanbul till the arrival of an extraordinary army from Salonica.

He also held the post of Minister of Justice in the succeeding Gazi Ahmed Muhtar Pasha cabinet. In October 1912, he was sent as Ottoman ambassador in Vienna, a position he held till the end of the World War I. Due to health problems, he remained in Vienna till his death in 1922. He was buried in Beşiktaş, Istanbul.

See also

Preceded by
Kıbrısli Mehmet Sait Pasha
Grand Vizier
14 February 1909 - 13 April 1909
Succeeded by
Ahmet Tevfik Pasha
Preceded by
Ahmet Tevfik Pasha
Grand Vizier
5 May 1909 - 28 December 1909
Succeeded by
İbrahim Hakkı Pasha

References

  1. ^ Prothero, George Walter (1920). Peace Handbooks: The Balkan states. H. M. Stationery Office. p. 45. OCLC 4694680. "Hussein Hilmi Pasha, descended from a Greek convert to Islam in the island of Mitylene, was sent to Macedonia as High Commissioner."  
  2. ^ Archivum ottomanicum v. 23. Mouton. 2006. p. 272. "Hüseyin Hilmi (1855-1923), who was to become Grand Vezir twice in 1909"  
  3. ^ Trivedi, Raj Kumar (1994). The critical triangle: India, Britain, and Turkey, 1908-1924. Publication Scheme. p. 77. OCLC 31173524. "the Ottoman Red Crescent Society of which Hilmi Pasha was the head, which he said, utilized their money for the purpose it was contributed by Muslims in India."  
  4. ^ Kent, Marian (1996). The Great Powers and the End of the Ottoman Empire. Routledge. p. 227. ISBN 0714641545. "Hüseyin Hilmi Pasha (1855-1923) (Ottoman Inspector-General of Macedonia, 1902-8"  
  5. ^ Kent, Marian (1996). The Great Powers and the End of the Ottoman Empire. Routledge. p. 227. ISBN 0714641545. "Hüseyin Hilmi Pasha (1855-1923) Minister for the Interior, 1908-9)"  
  6. ^ Kent, Marian (1996). The Great Powers and the End of the Ottoman Empire. Routledge. p. 227. ISBN 0714641545. "Hüseyin Hilmi Pasha (1855-1923) Ambassador at Vienna, 1912-18"  
  7. ^ Prothero, George Walter (1920). Peace Handbooks: The Balkan states. H. M. Stationery Office. p. 45. OCLC 4694680. "Hussein Hilmi Pasha, descended from a Greek convert to Islam in the island of Mitylene, was sent to Macedonia as High Commissioner."  
  8. ^ Current Literature. Current Literature Pub. Co. 1909. p. 389. OCLC 4604506. "His Excellency Hussein Hilmi Pacha is a Turk "of the isles." The politest Turks of all come from the isles. There is also Greek blood in his veins,"  
  9. ^ Great Britain. Foreign Office. Historical Section (1920). Handbooks prepared under the direction of the Historical section of the foreign office. H.M. Stationary off.. p. 45. OCLC 27784113. "Hussein Hilmi Pasha, descended from a Greek convert to Islam in the island of Mitylene, was sent to Macedonia as High Commissioner."  
  10. ^ Abbott, George Frederick (1909). Turkey in transition. E. Arnold. p. 149. OCLC 2355821. "For Hilmi is a novus homo. A native of Mytilene, of obscure origin, partly Greek, he began his career as secretary to Kemal Bey"  
  11. ^ Prothero, George Walter (1920). Peace Handbooks: The Balkan states. H. M. Stationery Office. p. 45. OCLC 4694680. "Hussein Hilmi Pasha, descended from a Greek convert to Islam in the island of Mitylene."  
  • Emine Onhan Evered, "An educational prescription for the Sultan: Huseyin hilmi pasa's advice for the maladies of empire," Middle Eastern Studies, 43,3 (2007), 439-459.
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