Hồng Bàng Dynasty: Wikis

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History of Vietnam Map of Vietnam
Hồng Bàng Dynasty prior to 257 BC
Thục Dynasty 257–207 BC
First Chinese domination 207 BC – 39 AD
Triệu Dynasty 207–111 BC
Trưng Sisters 40–43
Second Chinese domination 43–544
Lady Triệu's Rebellion 248
Early Lý Dynasty 544–602
Triệu Việt Vương
Third Chinese domination 602–905
Mai Hắc Đế 722
Phùng Hưng 791–798
Autonomy 905–938
Khúc Family 906–930
Dương Đình Nghệ 931–937
Kiều Công Tiễn 937–938
Ngô Dynasty 939–967
The 12 Lords Rebellion 966–968
Đinh Dynasty 968–980
Early Lê Dynasty 980–1009
Lý Dynasty 1009–1225
Trần Dynasty 1225–1400
Hồ Dynasty 1400–1407
Fourth Chinese domination 1407–1427
Later Trần Dynasty 1407–1413
• Lam Sơn Rebellion 1418–1427
Later Lê Dynasty 1428–1788
• Early Lê 1428–1527
• Restored Lê 1533–1788
Mạc Dynasty 1527–1592
Southern and
Northern Dynasties
1533–1592
Trịnh-Nguyễn War 1627–1673
Tây Sơn Dynasty 1778–1802
Nguyễn Dynasty 1802–1945
Western imperialism 1887–1945
Empire of Vietnam 1945
Indochina Wars 1945–1975
Partition of Vietnam 1954
Democratic Republic
 of Vietnam
1945–1976
State of Vietnam 1949–1955
Republic of Vietnam 1955–1975
Provisional Revolutionary
 Government
1975–1976
Socialist Republic of Vietnam from 1976
Related topics
Champa Dynasties 192–1832
List of Vietnamese monarchs
Economic history of Vietnam
Prehistoric cultures of Vietnam

The Hồng Bàng Dynasty, also known as the Lạc Dynasty, is the first dynasty that supposedly ruled in Vietnam (then known as Văn Lang) for over 2000 years, until the third century BC. Its founder is said to have been Hùng Vương. There are many legends surrounding it, but little verifiable historical information is known about this dynasty.

Contents

How Vietnam was created

Vietnam, a nation located along the eastern coast of mainland Southeast Asia, has had a long and turbulent history. 5000 years ago, northern Vietnam was a place with mountains, forests, and rivers. Most ancient peoples lived around the Hồng River and the Mã River.

The first dynasty of Vietnam

According to the Đại Việt Sử Ký Toàn Thư, more than 1000 years after pre-historical inhabitants (post stone age), tribal populations grew and spread throughout Vietnam. Near the Hồng River, Cả River and Mã rivers, were 15 Vietnamese tribes. The 15 Vietnamese tribes were the primary tribes at this time. Their territory included the Hồng River to the foot of the Ba Mountain to the foot of the Tam Bao Mountain. An early tribal leader consolidated the other tribes to became leader of the 15 tribes. He declared himself "king" and took the title Hùng Vương, creating the first Vietnamese dynasty known as Hồng Bàng. He is considered a Vietnamese cultural hero who is credited with teaching his people how to cultivate rice. Hùng Vương was the first king in Vietnam (approx. 2897 BC) and the founding father of the country. King Hùng has named his Kingdom "Văn Lang" (that means Vietnam in the present), and set up the capital at Phong Châu (Việt Trì, Phu Tho Province) on the cross-point of three rivers where the Red River Delta begins from the foot of mountains.

Rule was passed to Hùng Vương's male heirs which formed the Hùng Dynasty. The Hùng Dynasty stopped after 18 lines of descent on the advent of the military leader An Dương Vương's conquest of Văn Lang. The Hồng Bàng Dynasty was ruled by 18 successive lines of descent (although only names of the first king of each line were recovered). Numerous wars were fought in the late period of the dynasty.

The Hùng Vương era was thriving along with the water-rice civilization in the Red River Delta, at the mid-Bronze Age.

Organization

The first Hùng Vương established the first state of Viet nation from 15 tribes of Lạc Việt in responding the needs of co-operation in constructing hydraulic systems, and in struggle against the enemies. This is a very primitive form of a State with the King Hùng on top, under him is a Court consisted of assistants - the Lạc Hầu. The country composes of 15 Bộ (region), each ruled by a Lạc Tướng, usually Lạc Tướng was a member of King Hùng's family. Bộ comprised the agricultural hamlets and villages based on a matriarchal clan relationship and headed by Bộ Chínhs (usually a male tribal elder).

The east border of the country was to the sea (Tonkin Gulf now), the west to Ba Thục (Sichuan), the north to Dongting Lake, and the south to Hu Tun Kingdom (Champa).

Economy

The economy was based mainly on water-rice cultivation, and in addition were handicrafts, hunting and gathering, husbandry and fishing. Especially, the skill of bronze casting was at high level. The famous relics are Đông Sơn Bronze Drums on which depicted house models, clothing, custom, habits, and cultural activities of Hùng era. The Hùng kings ruled Văn Lang in feudal fashion with the aid of the Lạc lords, who controlled the communal settlements around each irrigated area, organized construction and maintenance of the dikes, and regulated the supply of water. Besides cultivating rice, the people of Văn Lang grew other grains and beans and raised stock, mainly buffaloes, chickens, and pigs. Potterymaking and bamboo-working were highly developed crafts, as were basketry, leather-working, and the weaving of hemp, jute, and silk. Both transport and communication were provided by dugout canoes, which plied the network of rivers and canals.

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Đông Sơn culture

Image on the Ngoc Lu bronze drum's surface

By about 2000 B.C., the development of wet-rice cultivation and bronze casting in the Mã River and Hồng River plains led to the development of the Đông Sơn culture, notable for its elaborate bronze drums. The bronze weapons, tools, and drums of Đông Sơnian sites show a Southeast Asian influence that indicates an indigenous origin for the bronze-casting technology. Many small, ancient copper mine sites have been found in northern Vietnam. Some of the similarities between the Đông Sơnian sites and other Southeast Asian sites include the presence of boat-shaped coffins and burial jars, stilt dwellings, and evidence of the customs of betel-nut-chewing and teeth-blackening.

Final moments

The last Hùng Vương was overthrown in 258 B.C. by Thục Phán (An Dương Vương), the ruler of the Âu Việt. An Dương Vương conquered Văn Lang (Lạc Việt) and united the Lạc Việt and Âu Việt tribes to form the kingdom of Âu Lạc, building his capital and citadel at Cổ Loa, thirty-five kilometers north of present-day Hanoi.

Kings of the Hồng Bàng Dynasty

There were 18 consecutive Hùng reigns handed down from generation to generation, 18 titles of the first king of which are known:

Line of descent Title Real name Year of birth Reign
Chi Càn Kinh Dương Vương Lộc Tục 2919 BC 2879-2794 BC
Chi Khảm Hùng Hiền Vương Sùng Lãm 2825 BC Several kings ruled from 2793-2525 BC, all took the title Hùng Hiền Vương
Chi Cấn Hùng Quốc Vương Hùng Lân Several kings ruled from 2524-2253 BC, all took the title Hùng Quốc Vương
Chi Chấn Hùng Hoa Vương Hùng Bửu Lang Several kings ruled from 2254-1912 BC, all took the title Hùng Hoa Vương
Chi Tốn Hùng Huy Vương Bảo Lang 2030 BC Several kings ruled from 1971-1771 BC, all took the title Hùng Huy Vương
Chi Ly Hùng Hồn Vương Long Tiên Lang 1740 BC 2 kings ruled from 1771-1690 BC, all took the title Hùng Hồn Vương
Chi Khôn Hùng Chiêu Vương Quốc Lang 1702 BC 5 kings ruled from 1690-1490 BC, all took the title Hùng Chiêu Vương
Chi Đoài Hùng Vĩ Vương Thừa Vân Lang 1466 BC 5 kings ruled from 1435-1335 BC, all took the title Hùng Vĩ Vương
Chi Giáp Hùng Định Vương Chân Nhân Lang 1381 BC 3 kings ruled from 1336-1256 BC, all took the title Hùng Định Vương
Chi Ất Hùng Uy Vương Hoàng Long Lang 1294 BC 3 kings ruled from 1257-1167 BC, all took the title Hùng Uy Vương
Chi Bính Hùng Trinh Vương Hưng Đức Lang 1218 BC 4 kings ruled from 1168-1061 BC, all took the title Hùng Trinh Vương
Chi Đinh Hùng Vũ Vương Đức Hiền Lang 1114 BC 3 kings ruled from 1062-966 BC, all took the title Hùng Vũ Vương
Chi Mậu Hùng Việt Vương Tuấn Lang 990 BC 5 kings ruled from 967-862 BC, all took the title Hùng Việt Vương
Chi Kỷ Hùng Anh Vương Viên Lang 905 BC 4 kings ruled from 863-779 BC, all took the title Hùng Anh Vương
Chi Canh Hùng Triệu Vương Chiêu Lang 745 BC 3 kings ruled from 780-686 BC, all took the title Hùng Triệu Vương
Chi Tân Hùng Tạo Vương Đúc Quân Lang 740 BC 3 kings ruled from 687-595 BC, all took the title Hùng Tạo Vương
Chi Nhâm Hùng Nghi Vương Bảo Quang Lang 605 BC 4 kings ruled from 596-336 BC, all took the title Hùng Nghi Vương
Chi Quý Hùng Duệ Vương Huệ Lang 350 BC 3 kings ruled from 337-258 BC, all took the title Hùng Duệ Vương

External links

Preceded by
TBD
Dynasty of Vietnam
2897 BC-258 BC
Succeeded by
Thục Dynasty


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