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Human immunodeficiency virus
Scanning electron micrograph of HIV-1 (in green) budding from cultured lymphocyte. .Multiple round bumps on cell surface represent sites of assembly and budding of virions.^ Receptor : a molecule on the surface of a cell that serves as a recognition or binding site for antigens, antibodies or other cellular or immunologic components.
  • HIV, HIV Infection, HIV Virus, HIV Medicine, HIV Cure, HIV Treatment 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC hiv-info.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Outside of a T cell HIV will be like spherical particles - virions- with spiked surface.
  • HIV, HIV Infection, HIV Virus, HIV Medicine, HIV Cure, HIV Treatment 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC hiv-info.org [Source type: Academic]

Virus classification
Group: Group VI (ssRNA-RT)
Family: Retroviridae
Genus: Lentivirus
Species
  • Human immunodeficiency virus 1
  • Human immunodeficiency virus 2
International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems Codes
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 B20-B24
ICD-9 042-044
.Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a member of the retrovirus family) that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome The Pope is one of the causes of HIV. (AIDS),[1][2] a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections.^ Human Immunodeficiency Virus, type 1 (HIV-1): The retrovirus isolated and recognized as the cause of AIDS. HIV-1 is classified as a lentivirus in a subgroup of retroviruses.
  • HIV, HIV Infection, HIV Virus, HIV Medicine, HIV Cure, HIV Treatment 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC hiv-info.org [Source type: Academic]

^ HIV- Human immunodeficiency virus is called HIV - And this is a lentivirus one of the retrovirus family- that will create AIDS- illness- acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections.
  • HIV, HIV Infection, HIV Virus, HIV Medicine, HIV Cure, HIV Treatment 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC hiv-info.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Prevent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and its related illness and death.

.Infection with HIV occurs by the transfer of blood, semen, vaginal fluid, pre-ejaculate, or breast milk.^ HIV will be infected through many media- Infection with HIV occurs by the transfer of blood, semen- while doing sex, vaginal fluid- when doing sex, pre-ejaculate, or breast milk.
  • HIV, HIV Infection, HIV Virus, HIV Medicine, HIV Cure, HIV Treatment 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC hiv-info.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The main ways of viral transmission ( HIV) are unprotected sexual intercourse, sharing of contaminated needles, patient's breast milk, and transmission from an infected mother to her baby at birth.
  • HIV, HIV Infection, HIV Virus, HIV Medicine, HIV Cure, HIV Treatment 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC hiv-info.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Injecting a substance contaminated with HIV directly into the blood stream is a particularly efficient means of transmission than occurs for example through sexual activity.
  • HIV and Injecting Drug Use: 17 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.undp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Within these bodily fluids, HIV is present as both free virus particles and virus within infected immune cells.^ Within these bodily fluids, HIV is present as both free virus particles and virus within infected immune cells.
  • HIV, HIV Infection, HIV Virus, HIV Medicine, HIV Cure, HIV Treatment 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC hiv-info.org [Source type: Academic]

^ HIV may cause apoptosis in both HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected immune system cells.
  • HIV, HIV Infection, HIV Virus, HIV Medicine, HIV Cure, HIV Treatment 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC hiv-info.org [Source type: Academic]

^ HIV will be infected through many media- Infection with HIV occurs by the transfer of blood, semen- while doing sex, vaginal fluid- when doing sex, pre-ejaculate, or breast milk.
  • HIV, HIV Infection, HIV Virus, HIV Medicine, HIV Cure, HIV Treatment 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC hiv-info.org [Source type: Academic]

.The four major routes of transmission are unsafe sex, contaminated needles, breast milk, and transmission from an infected mother to her baby at birth (vertical transmission).^ A breastfeeding mother can pass THC to her baby through breast milk.

^ The main ways of viral transmission ( HIV) are unprotected sexual intercourse, sharing of contaminated needles, patient's breast milk, and transmission from an infected mother to her baby at birth.
  • HIV, HIV Infection, HIV Virus, HIV Medicine, HIV Cure, HIV Treatment 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC hiv-info.org [Source type: Academic]

^ HIV will be infected through many media- Infection with HIV occurs by the transfer of blood, semen- while doing sex, vaginal fluid- when doing sex, pre-ejaculate, or breast milk.
  • HIV, HIV Infection, HIV Virus, HIV Medicine, HIV Cure, HIV Treatment 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC hiv-info.org [Source type: Academic]

.Screening of blood products for HIV has largely eliminated transmission through blood transfusions or infected blood products in the developed world.^ Screening of blood products for HIV has largely eliminated transmission through blood transfusions or infected blood products in the developed world.
  • HIV, HIV Infection, HIV Virus, HIV Medicine, HIV Cure, HIV Treatment 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC hiv-info.org [Source type: Academic]

^ HIV will be infected through many media- Infection with HIV occurs by the transfer of blood, semen- while doing sex, vaginal fluid- when doing sex, pre-ejaculate, or breast milk.
  • HIV, HIV Infection, HIV Virus, HIV Medicine, HIV Cure, HIV Treatment 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC hiv-info.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The main ways of viral transmission ( HIV) are unprotected sexual intercourse, sharing of contaminated needles, patient's breast milk, and transmission from an infected mother to her baby at birth.
  • HIV, HIV Infection, HIV Virus, HIV Medicine, HIV Cure, HIV Treatment 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC hiv-info.org [Source type: Academic]

.HIV infection in humans is considered pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO).^ Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection dramatically increases the risk of developing active tuberculosis and is driving the TB epidemic in Africa.

^ By 1972, the World Health Organization called on scientists to work on such viruses "to see if viruses can in fact exert selective effects on the immune function."
  • Aids; The Manufactured Virus 10 September 2009 22:16 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ January 27, 2005 - The World Health Organization released its "3 by 5" progress report on January 26, 2005 at the Davos World Economic Forum congratulating itself on progress made in the drive to fight the HIV pandemic.

.From its discovery in 1981 to 2006, AIDS killed more than 25 million people.^ That's more than 128 million people.
  • Drugs 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC www.tuberose.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The United States has 5% of the world's population, but 25% of the world's prisoners, incarcerating more than 2.3 million citizens in its prisons and jails, at a rate of one in every 136 U.S. residents - the highest rate of incarceration in the world .
  • Untitled Document 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC prorev.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More than a million civilians are exposed when army scientists drop lightbulbs filled with the bacteria onto ventilation grates.
  • Aids; The Manufactured Virus 10 September 2009 22:16 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3] .HIV infects about 0.6% of the world's population.^ Prevalence: A proportion of persons in a population who are infected, at a specified point in time or over a specified period of time, with HIV. .

^ With approximately 930,000 infected persons, Malawi has one of the world's highest HIV/AIDS rates.

^ It is estimated that there are about 2 million HIV-infected people in the country.

[3] .In 2005 alone, AIDS claimed an estimated 2.4–3.3 million lives, of which more than 570,000 were children.^ That's more than 128 million people.
  • Drugs 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC www.tuberose.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ People living with HIV/AIDS are up to 50 times more likely to develop active TB in a given year compared with HIV-negative individuals, and roughly a third of the 33 million people living with HIV/AIDS worldwide are infected with latent TB. Yet, in 2006 less than one percent of people living with HIV/AIDS were screened for TB. .

^ Every minute of every day, a child under the age of 15 is infected with HIV. AIDS kills 1,400 children every single day, and claims more than half a million young lives every year.

.A third of these deaths are occurring in Sub-Saharan Africa, retarding economic growth and increasing poverty.^ Efforts to eradicate drug production and trafficking can easily lead to increased poverty in these areas, as it is may prove difficult to generate income from alternative activities.
  • HIV and Injecting Drug Use: 17 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.undp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These are exacerbated by the social, economic and political changes occurring in Asia and Central Eastern Europe.
  • HIV and Injecting Drug Use: 17 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.undp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Shifts to private economic production have occurred in the context of sharp declines in gross domestic product and have led to dramatic unemployment, increased income differentials and poverty, and the rapid expansion of criminal economies.
  • HIV and Injecting Drug Use: 17 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.undp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4] .According to current estimates, HIV is set to infect 90 million people in Africa, resulting in a minimum estimate of 18 million orphans.^ It is estimated that there are about 2 million HIV-infected people in the country.

^ The decline is a result of prevention activities and the impact of potent antiretroviral therapies which are delaying progression to AIDS in many HIV-infected individuals.

^ In conjunction with this year’s International AIDS Conference in Mexico City, this document presents MSF’s current “state of play” in providing quality care to people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in resource-limited settings.

[5] .Antiretroviral treatment reduces both the mortality and the morbidity of HIV infection, but routine access to antiretroviral medication is not available in all countries.^ Reduce deaths from HIV infection.

^ HAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy): Aggressive anti-HIV treatment usually including a combination of drugs called protease inhibitors and reverse transcriptase inhibitors whose purpose is to reduce viral load infection to undetectable levels.

^ All these tests can be very helpful in making treatment decisions about which medications will work against the mutations one has developed in order to try to get the HIV under control and reduce viral load.
  • HIV, HIV Infection, HIV Virus, HIV Medicine, HIV Cure, HIV Treatment 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC hiv-info.org [Source type: Academic]

[6]
.HIV infects primarily vital cells in the human immune system such as helper T cells (to be specific, CD4+ T cells), macrophages, and dendritic cells.^ HIV and binds to the CD4 molecule on helper T cells, which is part of the way HIV attacks the body's immune system.
  • HIV, HIV Infection, HIV Virus, HIV Medicine, HIV Cure, HIV Treatment 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC hiv-info.org [Source type: Academic]

^ HIV may cause apoptosis in both HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected immune system cells.
  • HIV, HIV Infection, HIV Virus, HIV Medicine, HIV Cure, HIV Treatment 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC hiv-info.org [Source type: Academic]

^ CD4+ cell (also known as T helper cell): A type of T cell found in the blood that is involved in protecting the body against infections.

.HIV infection leads to low levels of CD4+ T cells through three main mechanisms: First, direct viral killing of infected cells; second, increased rates of apoptosis in infected cells; and third, killing of infected CD4+ T cells by CD8 cytotoxic lymphocytes that recognize infected cells.^ CD8 T cells may be cytotoxic T lymphocytes or suppressor T cells.
  • HIV, HIV Infection, HIV Virus, HIV Medicine, HIV Cure, HIV Treatment 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC hiv-info.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Because HIV infection kills CD4+ cells, CD4+ cell count is used to track the progress of HIV infection.

^ HIV will be infected through many media- Infection with HIV occurs by the transfer of blood, semen- while doing sex, vaginal fluid- when doing sex, pre-ejaculate, or breast milk.
  • HIV, HIV Infection, HIV Virus, HIV Medicine, HIV Cure, HIV Treatment 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC hiv-info.org [Source type: Academic]

.When CD4+ T cell numbers decline below a critical level, cell-mediated immunity is lost, and the body becomes progressively more susceptible to opportunistic infections.^ More CD4 cells will be pumped in and human body will not face immunity deficiency there after.
  • HIV, HIV Infection, HIV Virus, HIV Medicine, HIV Cure, HIV Treatment 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC hiv-info.org [Source type: Academic]

^ CD4+ cell (also known as T helper cell): A type of T cell found in the blood that is involved in protecting the body against infections.

^ By this time immune system will be seriously damaged by HIV. Main reasons of this stage are- severe damage of lymph nodes and tissues, HIV mutates and becomes more pathogenic-and start to kill more CD4 cells, and body will be tired - fails to keep up with replacing the T helper cells that are lost.
  • HIV, HIV Infection, HIV Virus, HIV Medicine, HIV Cure, HIV Treatment 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC hiv-info.org [Source type: Academic]

.Most people infected with HIV eventually develop AIDS. These individuals mostly die from opportunistic infections or malignancies associated with the progressive failure of the immune system.^ Eventually most HIV -infected individuals develop AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome)- And the patient will die from opportunistic infections or malignant cancers which are associated with the down fall and failure of the immune system.
  • HIV, HIV Infection, HIV Virus, HIV Medicine, HIV Cure, HIV Treatment 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC hiv-info.org [Source type: Academic]

^ An HIV infection is not the same as an AIDS diagnosis.
  • HIV, HIV Infection, HIV Virus, HIV Medicine, HIV Cure, HIV Treatment 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC hiv-info.org [Source type: Academic]

^ HIV will be infected through many media- Infection with HIV occurs by the transfer of blood, semen- while doing sex, vaginal fluid- when doing sex, pre-ejaculate, or breast milk.
  • HIV, HIV Infection, HIV Virus, HIV Medicine, HIV Cure, HIV Treatment 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC hiv-info.org [Source type: Academic]

[7] .HIV progresses to AIDS at a variable rate affected by viral, host, and environmental factors; HIV-specific treatment delays this process.^ The HIV/AIDS subepidemics not only vary by region and community but also may vary by population, risk behavior, and geography.

^ The decline is a result of prevention activities and the impact of potent antiretroviral therapies which are delaying progression to AIDS in many HIV-infected individuals.

^ The rapid rate of progression from infection with TB bacteria to active TB disease among HIV-positive patients with Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been well documented.

.Most will progress to AIDS within 10 years of HIV infection: some will have progressed much sooner, and some will take much longer.^ Many progress much sooner.
  • HIV, HIV Infection, HIV Virus, HIV Medicine, HIV Cure, HIV Treatment 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC hiv-info.org [Source type: Academic]

^ An HIV infection is not the same as an AIDS diagnosis.
  • HIV, HIV Infection, HIV Virus, HIV Medicine, HIV Cure, HIV Treatment 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC hiv-info.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This HIV infection becomes AIDS and ensure the death of the patient in some days.
  • HIV, HIV Infection, HIV Virus, HIV Medicine, HIV Cure, HIV Treatment 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC hiv-info.org [Source type: Academic]

[8][9] .Treatment with anti-retrovirals increases the life expectancy of people infected with HIV. Even after HIV has progressed to diagnosable AIDS, the average survival time with antiretroviral therapy was estimated to be more than 5 years as of 2005.[10] Without antiretroviral therapy, someone who has AIDS typically dies within a year.^ People with virologic failure who do not switch to a more effective treatment regimen usually progress to immunologic failure within about 3 years.
  • HIV, HIV Infection, HIV Virus, HIV Medicine, HIV Cure, HIV Treatment 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC hiv-info.org [Source type: Academic]

^ That's more than 128 million people.
  • Drugs 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC www.tuberose.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is estimated that there are about 2 million HIV-infected people in the country.

[11]

Contents

Classification

HIV is a member of the genus Lentivirus,[12] part of the family of Retroviridae.[13] Lentiviruses have many common morphologies and biological properties. .Many species are infected by lentiviruses, which are characteristically responsible for long-duration illnesses with a long incubation period.^ A long incubation period of relatively constant duration permits the operatives responsible to leave the country before the first case is diagnosed .
  • Aids; The Manufactured Virus 10 September 2009 22:16 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Acute Infection: The time period just after a person is first infected with HIV but before their body mounts an antibody response that is detectable by conventional HIV tests.
  • HIV, HIV Infection, HIV Virus, HIV Medicine, HIV Cure, HIV Treatment 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC hiv-info.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The duration of illness for those who recover is relatively long.
  • Aids; The Manufactured Virus 10 September 2009 22:16 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[14] Lentiviruses are transmitted as single-stranded, positive-sense, enveloped RNA viruses. .Upon entry of the target cell, the viral RNA genome is converted to double-stranded DNA by a virally encoded reverse transcriptase that is present in the virus particle.^ T cell T cell will be a virus factory- HIV will pass its RNA to cell's DNA and make that a factory of virus.
  • HIV, HIV Infection, HIV Virus, HIV Medicine, HIV Cure, HIV Treatment 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC hiv-info.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It is used to identify the genes (pieces of DNA) in specific cells or tissue that are actively used to make RNA, which then may be used to make proteins.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Even when the viral load is undetectable, a small amount of virus is still present and copying itself in an HIV-positive person's body.
  • HIV, HIV Infection, HIV Virus, HIV Medicine, HIV Cure, HIV Treatment 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC hiv-info.org [Source type: Academic]

.This viral DNA is then integrated into the cellular DNA by a virally encoded integrase, along with host cellular co-factors,[15] so that the genome can be transcribed.^ HIV converts its RNA into DNA and inserts into the host cell's DNA, preventing the host cell from carrying out its natural functions and turning it into an HIV factory.
  • HIV, HIV Infection, HIV Virus, HIV Medicine, HIV Cure, HIV Treatment 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC hiv-info.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Recombinant DNA Technology: the technique by which genetic material from one organism is inserted into a foreign cell in order to mass produce the protein encoded by the inserted genes.
  • HIV, HIV Infection, HIV Virus, HIV Medicine, HIV Cure, HIV Treatment 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC hiv-info.org [Source type: Academic]

.After the virus has infected the cell, two pathways are possible: either the virus becomes latent and the infected cell continues to function or the virus becomes active and replicates, and a large number of virus particles that can then infect other cells are liberated.^ Used in photodynamic therapy, a drug that is absorbed by tumor cells; when exposed to light, it becomes active and kills the cancer cells.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ HIV (human immunodeficiency virus): A virus that infects and takes over certain cells of the immune system that are important in fighting disease.

^ Most randomized trials have two "arms," which may be comparing either a new drug with a placebo, or comparing two drugs to each other.
  • HIV, HIV Infection, HIV Virus, HIV Medicine, HIV Cure, HIV Treatment 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC hiv-info.org [Source type: Academic]

.There are two species of HIV known to exist: HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is the virus that was initially discovered and termed LAV. It is more virulent, more infective,[16] and is the cause of the majority of HIV infections globally.^ When drug-using women are also involved in sex work, the risk of acquiring HIV infection through unprotected sex, compounds the existing risk of transmission through the reuse of needles and syringes.
  • HIV and Injecting Drug Use: 17 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.undp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Research results suggest that there is also an effect against the HIV virus .
  • HIV, HIV Infection, HIV Virus, HIV Medicine, HIV Cure, HIV Treatment 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC hiv-info.org [Source type: Academic]

^ There was a special cancer virus program he had limited association with, Gallo has said.
  • Aids; The Manufactured Virus 10 September 2009 22:16 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The lower infectivity of HIV-2 compared to HIV-1 implies that fewer of those exposed to HIV-2 will be infected per exposure. .Because of its relatively poor capacity for transmission, HIV-2 is largely confined to West Africa.^ Proximity to large HIV+ IDU groups, poor DU and IDU data .
  • HIV and Injecting Drug Use: 17 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.undp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Human Immunodeficiency Virus, type 2 (HIV-2): A virus closely related to HIV-1 that has also been found to cause AIDS. It was first isolated in West Africa.
  • HIV, HIV Infection, HIV Virus, HIV Medicine, HIV Cure, HIV Treatment 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC hiv-info.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Cancer is the second safety concern for widely used drugs because drug therapy involves the body absorbing relatively large amounts of a powerful chemical.
  • Drugs 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC www.tuberose.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[17]
Comparison of HIV species
Species Virulence Infectivity Prevalence Inferred origin
HIV-1 High High Global Common Chimpanzee
HIV-2 Lower Low West Africa Sooty Mangabey

Signs and symptoms

.
A generalized graph of the relationship between HIV copies (viral load) and CD4 counts over the average course of untreated HIV infection; any particular individual's disease course may vary considerably.
^ The HIV/AIDS subepidemics not only vary by region and community but also may vary by population, risk behavior, and geography.

^ Interval between HIV infection and AIDS diagnosis .

^ The rapid rate of progression from infection with TB bacteria to active TB disease among HIV-positive patients with Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been well documented.

                     CD4+ T cell count (cells per µL)                      HIV RNA copies per mL of plasma
.Infection with HIV-1 is associated with a progressive decrease of the CD4+ T cell count and an increase in viral load.^ Because HIV infection kills CD4+ cells, CD4+ cell count is used to track the progress of HIV infection.

^ The rapid rate of progression from infection with TB bacteria to active TB disease among HIV-positive patients with Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been well documented.

^ Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection dramatically increases the risk of developing active tuberculosis and is driving the TB epidemic in Africa.

.The stage of infection can be determined by measuring the patient's CD4+ T cell count, and the level of HIV in the blood.^ Trace elements in patients with HIV-1 infection.

^ CD4+ cell count: A measure of the number of CD4+ cells present in the blood.

^ HIV and binds to CD4+ T cells.
  • Causes of HIV/AIDS - WrongDiagnosis.com 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

.HIV infection has basically four stages: incubation period, acute infection, latency stage and AIDS. The initial incubation period upon infection is asymptomatic and usually lasts between two and four weeks.^ Interval between HIV infection and AIDS diagnosis .

^ The cornerstone of the theory is that HIV is a combination of Visna and HTLV-I. Segal claims that any trained laboratory technician could produce AIDS from these components, today, in less than two weeks.
  • Aids; The Manufactured Virus 10 September 2009 22:16 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If declines continue in newly diagnosed AIDS cases in the coming years, an increasing number of persons will be living with HIV infection.

.The second stage, acute infection, lasts an average of 28 days and can include symptoms such as fever, lymphadenopathy (swollen lymph nodes), pharyngitis (sore throat), rash, myalgia (muscle pain), malaise, and mouth and esophageal sores.^ On day five, just prior to smoking the last cigarette, median ratings of current chronic pain intensity were lower in the cannabis group than in the placebo group.
  • Inhaled Cannabis Significantly Reduces HIV-Associated Neuropathy - NORML 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC norml.org [Source type: News]

^ Symptoms include muscle spasms and cramps in the abdomen.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Withdrawal symptoms from cocaine include irritability, depression and muscle aches .

.The latency stage, which occurs third, shows few or no symptoms and can last anywhere from two weeks to twenty years and beyond.^ In the last few years it has been gaining popularity as a "recreational" drug offering an alcohol-like, hangover free "high" with possible pro-sexual effects (dis-inhibition often occurs and inhibitions are extremely suppressed).

^ The human body takes anywhere from a few weeks to several months to mount a humoral immune response to HIV (that's slower than to other pathogens).

^ Last year, the number of random off-season tests was increased from a maximum of two per player to six per player.

.AIDS, the fourth and final stage of HIV infection shows as symptoms of various opportunistic infections.^ Interval between HIV infection and AIDS diagnosis .

^ If declines continue in newly diagnosed AIDS cases in the coming years, an increasing number of persons will be living with HIV infection.

^ Experience in other countries shows that, once HIV does enter the IDU population, infection rates can rise to 40% in 12 months or less.
  • HIV and Injecting Drug Use: 17 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.undp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A study of French hospital patients found that approximately 0.5% of HIV-1 infected individuals retain high levels of CD4 T-cells and a low or clinically undetectable viral load without anti-retroviral treatment.^ The main ways of viral transmission ( HIV) are unprotected sexual intercourse, sharing of contaminated needles, patient's breast milk, and transmission from an infected mother to her baby at birth.
  • HIV, HIV Infection, HIV Virus, HIV Medicine, HIV Cure, HIV Treatment 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC hiv-info.org [Source type: Academic]

^ HAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy): Aggressive anti-HIV treatment usually including a combination of drugs called protease inhibitors and reverse transcriptase inhibitors whose purpose is to reduce viral load infection to undetectable levels.

^ The decline is a result of prevention activities and the impact of potent antiretroviral therapies which are delaying progression to AIDS in many HIV-infected individuals.

.These individuals are classified as HIV controllers or long-term nonprogressors.^ These long-term changes in brain morphology lower mood.
  • The Good Drug Guide : new mood-brighteners and antidepressants 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC biopsychiatry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most of these people are taking medications long-term, so their exposures aren't brief.
  • Drugs 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC www.tuberose.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[18]

Acute HIV infection

Main symptoms of acute HIV infection.
.The initial infection with HIV generally occurs after transfer of body fluids from an infected person to an uninfected one.^ HIV evolves within the body of an infected person.

^ HIV will be infected through many media- Infection with HIV occurs by the transfer of blood, semen- while doing sex, vaginal fluid- when doing sex, pre-ejaculate, or breast milk.
  • HIV, HIV Infection, HIV Virus, HIV Medicine, HIV Cure, HIV Treatment 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC hiv-info.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The "NAT" or "NAAT" test (nucleic acid amplification test) is used to detect the presence of genetic material that is specific to HIV. It is not approved for the use of diagnosis of HIV infection perhaps with the exception of diagnosing infection in newborns of infected mothers who have antibodies to HIV that are transferred from the mother.
  • San Francisco AIDS Foundation: HIV Testing 20 November 2009 7:44 UTC www.sfaf.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The first stage of infection, the primary, or acute infection, is a period of rapid viral replication that immediately follows the individual's exposure to HIV leading to an abundance of virus in the peripheral blood with levels of HIV commonly approaching several million viruses per mL.[19]
.This response is accompanied by a marked drop in the numbers of circulating CD4+ T cells.^ CD4+ cell count: A measure of the number of CD4+ cells present in the blood.

^ In HIV disease, the number of CD4+ T cells per cubic millimeter of blood is often used as a surrogate marker.
  • HIV, HIV Infection, HIV Virus, HIV Medicine, HIV Cure, HIV Treatment 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC hiv-info.org [Source type: Academic]

^ CD4+ cells normally orchestrate the immune response, signaling other cells in the immune system to perform their special disease-fighting functions.

.This acute viremia is associated in virtually all patients with the activation of CD8+ T cells, which kill HIV-infected cells, and subsequently with antibody production, or seroconversion.^ Over time, the HIV can destroy virtually all of an infected person's T cells.
  • HIV, HIV Infection, HIV Virus, HIV Medicine, HIV Cure, HIV Treatment 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC hiv-info.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The main ways of viral transmission ( HIV) are unprotected sexual intercourse, sharing of contaminated needles, patient's breast milk, and transmission from an infected mother to her baby at birth.
  • HIV, HIV Infection, HIV Virus, HIV Medicine, HIV Cure, HIV Treatment 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC hiv-info.org [Source type: Academic]

^ HIV (human immunodeficiency virus): A virus that infects and takes over certain cells of the immune system that are important in fighting disease.

.The CD8+ T cell response is thought to be important in controlling virus levels, which peak and then decline, as the CD4+ T cell counts rebound to around 800 cells per µL (the normal blood value is 1200 cells per µL ).^ CD4+ cell count: A measure of the number of CD4+ cells present in the blood.

^ All symptoms will be subsided and CD4 count will be back to the normal.
  • HIV, HIV Infection, HIV Virus, HIV Medicine, HIV Cure, HIV Treatment 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC hiv-info.org [Source type: Academic]

^ An *accurate* creatinine "clearance" test would require a urine and blood test 24 hours before the drug test to determine the normal creatinine level for that individual.
  • Erowid Drug Testing Vaults : FAQ 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC www.erowid.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A good CD8+ T cell response has been linked to slower disease progression and a better prognosis, though it does not eliminate the virus.^ CCR5 density on CD4+ cells increases so too does disease progression.

^ Vector: in vaccine research, a bacterium or virus that does not cause disease in humans and is used in genetically engineered vaccines to transport genes coding for antigens into the body to induce an immune response.
  • HIV, HIV Infection, HIV Virus, HIV Medicine, HIV Cure, HIV Treatment 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC hiv-info.org [Source type: Academic]

^ An observational study linked high doses of vitamin C with slower progression to AIDS. 70 High intake of vitamin E was also linked to decreased risk of progression to AIDS in a different observational study.

[20]
.During this period (usually 2–4 weeks post-exposure) most individuals (80 to 90%) develop an influenza or mononucleosis-like illness called acute HIV infection, the most common symptoms of which may include fever, lymphadenopathy, pharyngitis, rash, myalgia, malaise, mouth and esophagal sores, and may also include, but less commonly, headache, nausea and vomiting, enlarged liver/spleen, weight loss, thrush, and neurological symptoms.^ People living with HIV/AIDS are up to 50 times more likely to develop active TB in a given year compared with HIV-negative individuals, and roughly a third of the 33 million people living with HIV/AIDS worldwide are infected with latent TB. Yet, in 2006 less than one percent of people living with HIV/AIDS were screened for TB. .

^ Although the evidence still is not entirely clear, persons who are being treated successfully for HIV may be less likely to transmit the virus.

^ Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection dramatically increases the risk of developing active tuberculosis and is driving the TB epidemic in Africa.

.Infected individuals may experience all, some, or none of these symptoms.^ The signs and symptoms of some of these infections may include: .
  • HIV/AIDS 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But I will assert that these ‘symptoms’ are nothing ‘special’, and that most likely they are not ‘symptoms’ of some particular irritation, as we pass through this vale of tears.
  • drugs, smoking and addiction - abelard 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC www.abelard.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Besides AIDS, there are a series of other problems that HIV causes that do not count as AIDS. Some of these problems may be caused directly by HIV. For example, there are subtle and sometimes not so subtle effects of HIV on brain.
  • HIV - a knol by Frederick (Rick) Hecht 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The duration of symptoms varies, averaging 28 days and usually lasting at least a week.^ These symptoms usually subside by 1 week of age.
  • Illicit Drug Use During Pregnancy - March of Dimes 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC www.marchofdimes.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Varicella-zoster virus keratitis VZV infection usually manifests with fever, malaise, and cutaneous rash, which typically lasts 7-10 days.
  • Ocular Manifestations of HIV: eMedicine Ophthalmology 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Symptoms usually appear within the first six weeks of treatment and generally disappear when the drug is discontinued.
  • HIV/AIDS 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[21]
.Because of the nonspecific nature of these symptoms, they are often not recognized as signs of HIV infection.^ HIV infection (4 of these 33 were from the USA).
  • Circumcision and HIV: The AIDS Virus 10 September 2009 22:16 UTC www.circinfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The signs and symptoms of some of these infections may include: .
  • HIV/AIDS 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But I will assert that these ‘symptoms’ are nothing ‘special’, and that most likely they are not ‘symptoms’ of some particular irritation, as we pass through this vale of tears.
  • drugs, smoking and addiction - abelard 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC www.abelard.org [Source type: Original source]

.Even if patients go to their doctors or a hospital, they will often be misdiagnosed as having one of the more common infectious diseases with the same symptoms.^ Doctors are prescribing drugs by the truckload, but for the most part, they are keeping their patients in the dark about adverse reactions.
  • Drugs 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC www.tuberose.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Their training no longer prepares them to explore beyond lab tests or routine signs and symptoms, nor do they often, if ever, consider truly alternative therapies.
  • Drugs 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC www.tuberose.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Doctors cannot routinely monitor, test and report, they are restricted by official limitations not applied to other infectious diseases.
  • Aids; The Manufactured Virus 10 September 2009 22:16 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As a consequence, these primary symptoms are not used to diagnose HIV infection, as they do not develop in all cases and because many are caused by other more common diseases.^ Injecting drug use and HIV infection .
  • HIV and Injecting Drug Use: 17 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.undp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They can be used for all ages and for any occasion.
  • Drug Abuse: Guide & Resources Directory 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC drugsarehorrible.com [Source type: General]

^ Because the time from initial infection with HIV to the development of AIDS is long and variable (often 8 to 10 years or more), many of these young adults likely acquired their infections while in their teens.

.However, recognizing the syndrome can be important because the patient is much more infectious during this period.^ He considers 'casual' drug users 'carriers' who are even more infectious than addicts because they suggest to young people 'that you can do drugs and be O.K.'" (pg.
  • The Duplicity of the War on Drugs 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC www.lycaeum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ [T]ests were limited to narcotic analgesics and to the three classes of stimulants; however, testing was much more comprehensive with 2079 samples being analyzed.

^ Coloring your urine isn't all that important because it's normal for people to have clear urine even when they don't consume much fluid.
  • Erowid Drug Testing Vaults : FAQ 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC www.erowid.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[22]

Latency stage

.A strong immune defense reduces the number of viral particles in the blood stream, marking the start of the infection's clinical latency stage.^ (Developmental) Reduce the number of cases of HIV infection among adolescents and adults.

^ Virologic failure has occurred if HIV can still be detected in your blood 48 weeks after starting treatment, or if it is detected again after treatment had previously lowered your viral load to undetectable.
  • HIV, HIV Infection, HIV Virus, HIV Medicine, HIV Cure, HIV Treatment 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC hiv-info.org [Source type: Academic]

^ During this acute or primary phase of infection, the blood contains many viral particles that spread throughout the body, seeding various organs, particularly the lymphoid organs.
  • Causes of HIV/AIDS - WrongDiagnosis.com 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

.Clinical latency can vary between two weeks and 20 years.^ Now, they can be tested for as little as two weeks, then given the stamp of safety approval by the FDA after which they will be used for years, if not decades, on unsuspecting patients.
  • Drugs 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC www.tuberose.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During this early phase of infection, HIV is active within lymphoid organs, where large amounts of virus become trapped in the follicular dendritic cells (FDC) network.^ Researchers have shown that even early in disease, HIV actively replicates within the lymph nodes and related organs, where large amounts of virus become trapped in networks of specialized cells with long, tentacle-like extensions.
  • Causes of HIV/AIDS - WrongDiagnosis.com 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ See also follicular dendritic cells.
  • Causes of HIV/AIDS - WrongDiagnosis.com 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ (FDCs): cells found in the germinal centers (B cell areas) of lymphoid organs.
  • Causes of HIV/AIDS - WrongDiagnosis.com 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

[23]
.The surrounding tissues that are rich in CD4+ T cells may also become infected, and viral particles accumulate both in infected cells and as free virus.^ These rafts are high in cholesterol and glycolipids and may provide a new target for blocking HIV. Embedded in the viral envelope are proteins from the host cell, as well as 72 copies (on average) of a complex HIV protein (frequently called "spikes") that protrudes through the surface of the virus particle (virion).
  • Causes of HIV/AIDS - WrongDiagnosis.com 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The patient may be apparently healthy for a decade or more but behind the scenes HIV is still replicating and destroying CD4 T-cells.

^ New HIV particles (viruses) are assembled inside the cell from the cut viral proteins and the viral RNA copies.

.Individuals who are in this phase are still infectious.^ Better, faster drugs for TB will stop TB in HIV+ individuals before it becomes infectious and lethal WHO: .
  • OURJEET - SANDOZ | TB and HIV 17 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.ourjeet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During this time, CD4+ CD45RO+ T cells carry most of the proviral load.^ Most notably, crucial immune cells called CD4+ T cells are disabled and killed during the typical course of infection.
  • Causes of HIV/AIDS - WrongDiagnosis.com 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Viral load at enrolment and duration of antiretroviral therapy before delivery were significantly associated with transmission but CD4 cell count at enrolment was not.

^ Immune activation set point during early HIV infection predicts subsequent CD4+ T-cell changes independent of viral load .
  • HIV - a knol by Frederick (Rick) Hecht 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[24]

AIDS

For more details on this topic, see AIDS Diagnosis, AIDS Symptoms and WHO Disease Staging System for HIV Infection and Disease
.When CD4+ T cell numbers decline below a critical level of 200 cells per µL, cell-mediated immunity is lost, and infections with a variety of opportunistic microbes appear.^ CD4+ cell (also known as T helper cell): A type of T cell found in the blood that is involved in protecting the body against infections.

^ If declines continue in newly diagnosed AIDS cases in the coming years, an increasing number of persons will be living with HIV infection.

^ CD4+ cell count: A measure of the number of CD4+ cells present in the blood.

.The first symptoms often include moderate and unexplained weight loss, recurring respiratory tract infections (such as sinusitis, bronchitis, otitis media, pharyngitis), prostatitis, skin rashes, and oral ulcerations.^ Other symptoms include fever, night sweats, and weight loss.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Signs and symptoms vary and may include speech problems, weakness on one side of the body, loss of vision in one eye, or numbness in one arm or leg.
  • HIV/AIDS 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dozens of types of bacteria can cause bacterial pneumonia, which may develop on its own or after you've had an upper respiratory infection such as a cold or the flu.
  • HIV/AIDS 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Common opportunistic infections and tumors, most of which are normally controlled by robust CD4+ T cell-mediated immunity then start to affect the patient.^ Differentiated tumor cells resemble normal cells and tend to grow and spread at a slower rate than undifferentiated or poorly differentiated tumor cells, which lack the structure and function of normal cells and grow uncontrollably.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ CD4+ cell (also known as T helper cell): A type of T cell found in the blood that is involved in protecting the body against infections.

^ Because HIV infection kills CD4+ cells, CD4+ cell count is used to track the progress of HIV infection.

Typically, resistance is lost early on to oral Candida species and to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which leads to an increased susceptibility to oral candidiasis (thrush) and tuberculosis. .Later, reactivation of latent herpes viruses may cause worsening recurrences of herpes simplex eruptions, shingles, Epstein-Barr virus-induced B-cell lymphomas, or Kaposi's sarcoma.^ Deforolimus stops cells from dividing and may cause cancer cells to die.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Dexamethasone is used to treat leukemia and lymphoma and may be used to treat some of the problems caused by other cancers and their treatment.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ In fact, these irreversible cases of blindness are caused by Cytomegalovirus (CMV), a member of the herpes virus family, which leads to blindness in those with compromised immune systems.

.Pneumonia caused by the fungus Pneumocystis jirovecii is common and often fatal.^ Cryptococcal meningitis is a common central nervous system infection associated with HIV, caused by a fungus that is present in soil.
  • HIV/AIDS 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the final stages of AIDS, infection with cytomegalovirus (another herpes virus) or Mycobacterium avium complex is more prominent.^ Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) prophylaxis .

^ Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC): Bacteria that cause disease in individuals who have weakened immune systems and one of the opportunistic infections that define AIDS. .

^ AIDS: Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, the most severe phase of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

.Not all patients with AIDS get all these infections or tumors, and there are other tumors and infections that are less prominent but still significant.^ Other authors reported that they found less circumcised men among patients with GUD than expected, given the frequency of circumcision in the local population [ 42,43 ].
  • Male circumcision: a role in HIV prevention? 17 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.cirp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This HIV infection becomes AIDS and ensure the death of the patient in some days.
  • HIV, HIV Infection, HIV Virus, HIV Medicine, HIV Cure, HIV Treatment 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC hiv-info.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Besides AIDS, there are a series of other problems that HIV causes that do not count as AIDS. Some of these problems may be caused directly by HIV. For example, there are subtle and sometimes not so subtle effects of HIV on brain.
  • HIV - a knol by Frederick (Rick) Hecht 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Pathophysiology

Transmission

Estimated per-act risk for acquisition
of HIV by exposure route[25]
Exposure Route Estimated infections
per 10,000 exposures
to an infected source
Blood Transfusion 9,000[26]
Childbirth 2,500[27]
Needle-sharing injection drug use 67[28]
Percutaneous needle stick 30[29]
Receptive anal intercourse* 50[30][31]
Insertive anal intercourse* 6.5[30][31]
Receptive penile-vaginal intercourse* 10[30][31][32]
Insertive penile-vaginal intercourse* 5[30][31]
Receptive oral intercourse 1[31]
Insertive oral intercourse 0.5[31]
* assuming no condom use
§ source refers to oral intercourse
performed on a man
"best-guess estimate"
.Three main transmission routes for HIV have been identified.^ AIDS is transmitted via three main routes: The most common mode of transmission is the transfer of body secretions through sexual contact.
  • AIDS and HIV Infection - Symptoms, Treatment and Prevention 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.healthscout.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The main ways of viral transmission ( HIV) are unprotected sexual intercourse, sharing of contaminated needles, patient's breast milk, and transmission from an infected mother to her baby at birth.
  • HIV, HIV Infection, HIV Virus, HIV Medicine, HIV Cure, HIV Treatment 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC hiv-info.org [Source type: Academic]

^ There are currently three main classes of medications that are used to treat HIV: Entry Inhibitors, Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (Nucleoside, Non-Nucleoside, Nucleotide), and Protease Inhibitors.
  • AIDS Action Committee of Massachusetts: 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.aac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

HIV-2 is transmitted much less frequently by the mother-to-child and sexual route than HIV-1.

Sexual

.The majority of HIV infections are acquired through unprotected sexual relations.^ Perinatally acquired HIV infection .

^ When drug-using women are also involved in sex work, the risk of acquiring HIV infection through unprotected sex, compounds the existing risk of transmission through the reuse of needles and syringes.
  • HIV and Injecting Drug Use: 17 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.undp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Injecting a substance contaminated with HIV directly into the blood stream is a particularly efficient means of transmission than occurs for example through sexual activity.
  • HIV and Injecting Drug Use: 17 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.undp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Sexual transmission can occur when infected sexual secretions of one partner come into contact with the genital, oral, or rectal mucous membranes of another.^ Injecting a substance contaminated with HIV directly into the blood stream is a particularly efficient means of transmission than occurs for example through sexual activity.
  • HIV and Injecting Drug Use: 17 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.undp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Men who have sex with men, facilitated by frequent changes of sex partners in highly infected sexual networks and by high-risk sexual practices.

^ Behavioral interventions emphasize reducing the number of sex partners, knowing the serostatus of ones partner, using condoms consistently and correctly, and avoiding risky sexual behaviors.

.In high-income countries, the risk of female-to-male transmission is 0.04% per act and male-to-female transmission is 0.08% per act.^ The report recommended supervised drug consumption rooms - which operate in eight European countries - as a way of preventing overdoses and offering treatment to high-risk users.
  • Untitled Document 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC prorev.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For various reasons, these rates are 4 to 10 times higher in low-income countries.^ A recent World Health Organisation study of cities with stable and low HIV prevalence among IDUs concluded that several factors were associated with these low rates: .
  • HIV and Injecting Drug Use: 17 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.undp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These drugs, sold by prescription, have been implicated in higher rates of heart problems and stroke.
  • Drugs 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC www.tuberose.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Experience from many countries has shown that it is exceedingly difficult to contain the epidemic among IDU once a prevalence rate of 10% has been reached.
  • HIV and Injecting Drug Use: 17 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.undp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[33]
.The correct and consistent use of latex condoms reduces the risk of sexual transmission of HIV by about 85%.^ Injecting drug use and HIV transmission .
  • HIV and Injecting Drug Use: 17 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.undp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By improving the health of IDUs and enabling them to participate in community activities including productive work, harm reduction programmes reduce the association between drug use, poverty and HIV risk.
  • HIV and Injecting Drug Use: 17 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.undp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When drug-using women are also involved in sex work, the risk of acquiring HIV infection through unprotected sex, compounds the existing risk of transmission through the reuse of needles and syringes.
  • HIV and Injecting Drug Use: 17 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.undp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[34] .However, spermicide may actually increase the transmission rate.^ If restricting the supply of injectable drugs does not effectively reduce risky injecting behaviour and may actually increase it, what about attempts to reduce demand?
  • HIV and Injecting Drug Use: 17 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.undp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[35][36][37]
.A meta-analysis of 27 observational studies conducted prior to 1999 in sub-Saharan Africa indicated that male circumcision reduces the risk of HIV infection.^ When drug-using women are also involved in sex work, the risk of acquiring HIV infection through unprotected sex, compounds the existing risk of transmission through the reuse of needles and syringes.
  • HIV and Injecting Drug Use: 17 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.undp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The behaviour which places IDUs at risk of HIV infection is the consequence of specific social and political factors.
  • HIV and Injecting Drug Use: 17 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.undp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection dramatically increases the risk of developing active tuberculosis and is driving the TB epidemic in Africa.

[38] .However, a subsequent review indicated that the correlation between circumcision and HIV in these observational studies may have been due to confounding factors.^ A recent World Health Organisation study of cities with stable and low HIV prevalence among IDUs concluded that several factors were associated with these low rates: .
  • HIV and Injecting Drug Use: 17 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.undp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, except in a limited number of countries, these efforts have not as yet focused specifically upon HIV and injecting drug use.
  • HIV and Injecting Drug Use: 17 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.undp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Acknowledgement of these factors can assist the police and other law enforcement officers to assume important roles in HIV prevention.
  • HIV and Injecting Drug Use: 17 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.undp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[39] .In addition, concerns were raised about the potential for spread of HIV by unsterilized blades during ritual circumcision.^ A cartoon, drawn as part of an art competition to raise awareness among Lithuanian youth about HIV and injecting drug use.
  • HIV and Injecting Drug Use: 17 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.undp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The common scenario, wherein concern is raised only after HIV has begun to spread widely among IDUs, means that responses have to be developed within a context which includes the provision of care for many people who have HIV-related disease.
  • HIV and Injecting Drug Use: 17 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.undp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Migrant and border populations are therefore potentially very important to the spread of HIV infection, both among drug-using populations and within the wider community.
  • HIV and Injecting Drug Use: 17 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.undp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[40] .Later trials, in which uncircumcised men were randomly assigned to be medically circumcised in sterile conditions and given counseling and other men were not circumcised, have been conducted in South Africa,[41] Kenya,[42] and Uganda[43] showing reductions in female-to-male sexual HIV transmission of 60%, 53%, and 51% respectively.^ Injecting a substance contaminated with HIV directly into the blood stream is a particularly efficient means of transmission than occurs for example through sexual activity.
  • HIV and Injecting Drug Use: 17 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.undp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Where harm reduction programmes have been introduced among IDUs, there has been an overwhelmingly positive effect in slowing the rate of HIV transmission.
  • HIV and Injecting Drug Use: 17 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.undp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The wider social, economic and policy environment surrounding illicit drug use probably has more impact on HIV transmission and illicit drug use than any other factor.
  • HIV and Injecting Drug Use: 17 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.undp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

As a result, a panel of experts convened by WHO and the UNAIDS Secretariat has "recommended that male circumcision now be recognized as an additional important intervention to reduce the risk of heterosexually acquired HIV infection in men."[44]
.Studies of HIV among women who have undergone female genital cutting (FGC) have reported mixed results; for details see Female genital cutting#HIV.^ An HIV vaccine trial in Thailand involving 16,000 volunteers showed potentially promising results as transmission of the virus was cut by a third.

Blood or blood product

.In general if infected blood comes into contact with any open wound, HIV may be transmitted.^ Injecting a substance contaminated with HIV directly into the blood stream is a particularly efficient means of transmission than occurs for example through sexual activity.
  • HIV and Injecting Drug Use: 17 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.undp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is disturbing evidence that the virus is transmitted by more than sexual contact and blood.
  • Aids; The Manufactured Virus 10 September 2009 22:16 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Certainly, HIV-AIDS can be passed through sexual contact, blood supply and contact, saliva and urine.
  • Aids; The Manufactured Virus 10 September 2009 22:16 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This transmission route can account for infections in intravenous drug users, hemophiliacs, and recipients of blood transfusions (though most transfusions are checked for HIV in the developed world) and blood products.^ HIV among injecting drug users.
  • HIV and Injecting Drug Use: 17 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.undp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Injecting drug use and HIV infection .
  • HIV and Injecting Drug Use: 17 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.undp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Drug users face widespread stigma and discrimination which, coupled with the fact that they may be living under extremely disadvantaged conditions, render them particularly vulnerable to HIV infection.
  • HIV and Injecting Drug Use: 17 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.undp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is also of concern for persons receiving medical care in regions where there is prevalent substandard hygiene in the use of injection equipment, such as the reuse of needles in Third World countries.^ In addition, one may also get infected by using medical equipments used by an infected person such as syringes.
  • HIV/AIDS - HIV and AIDS Facts 17 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.buzzle.com [Source type: News]

^ The risk of medical needle use stems from reusing a needle, or sharing needles with another person.
  • Catching AIDS 17 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.aproposinc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are currently three main classes of medications that are used to treat HIV: Entry Inhibitors, Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (Nucleoside, Non-Nucleoside, Nucleotide), and Protease Inhibitors.
  • AIDS Action Committee of Massachusetts: 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.aac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Health care workers such as nurses, laboratory workers, and doctors have also been infected, although this occurs more rarely.^ Nurse Jane Doe was infected with AIDS while caring for patients at S.F. General on the job occupational injury.
  • Aids; The Manufactured Virus 10 September 2009 22:16 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Since transmission of HIV by blood became known medical personnel are required to protect themselves from contact with blood by the use of universal precautions.^ Injecting drug use and HIV transmission .
  • HIV and Injecting Drug Use: 17 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.undp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This confusion of civil rights with public health is killing people and very few public health officials or medical doctors have the guts to stand up and tell the truth, that HIV-AIDS may possibly use numerous transmission routes.
  • Aids; The Manufactured Virus 10 September 2009 22:16 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When drug-using women are also involved in sex work, the risk of acquiring HIV infection through unprotected sex, compounds the existing risk of transmission through the reuse of needles and syringes.
  • HIV and Injecting Drug Use: 17 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.undp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.People who give and receive tattoos, piercings, and scarification procedures can also be at risk of infection.^ A clinical trial in which the medical staff, the patient, and the people who analyze the results do not know the specific type of treatment the patient receives until after the clinical trial is over.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.HIV has been found at low concentrations in the saliva, tears and urine of infected individuals, but there are no recorded cases of infection by these secretions and the potential risk of transmission is negligible.^ There is no evidence that this has occurred with HIV. .
  • Catching AIDS 17 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.aproposinc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the partner was not HIV positive, there is no risk.
  • San Francisco AIDS Foundation: How HIV Is Spread 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.sfaf.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is then no legal precedent with regard to HIV transmission in sports.

[45] It is not possible for mosquitoes to transmit HIV.[46]

Mother-to-child

The transmission of the virus from the mother to the child can occur in utero (during pregnancy), intrapartum (at childbirth), or via breast feeding. .In the absence of treatment, the transmission rate up to birth between the mother and child is around 25%.^ Either the current birth rates must come down more quickly or the current death rates must go up.
  • Aids; The Manufactured Virus 10 September 2009 22:16 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[27] .However, where combination antiretroviral drug treatment and Cesarian section are available, this risk can be reduced to as low as one percent.^ Left, drug users: high risk but low priority .
  • HIV and Injecting Drug Use: 17 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.undp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Press teleconference on Thailand's compulsory licensing of an HIV/AIDS treatment, Abbott's response, and the coming crisis in availablity of second-line HIV drugs in developing countries.

^ Of the 22 antiretroviral drugs currently available, eight are not approved for pediatric use and seventeen are not available in pediatric formulations.

[27] .Postnatal mother-to-child transmission may be largely prevented by complete avoidance of breast feeding; however, this has significant associated morbidity.^ In the West, infections from mother to child can be effectively prevented, and ARV therapy gives children born with HIV an excellent chance of reaching adulthood.

^ Kerr oversaw the prevention of mother-to-child transmission program for pregnant women and new mothers.

^ Kenya: Preventing Mother-to-Child HIV .

Exclusive breast feeding and the provision of extended antiretroviral prophylaxis to the infant are also efficacious in avoiding transmission.[47]

Multiple infection

.Unlike some other viruses, infection with HIV does not provide immunity against additional infections, particularly in the case of more genetically distant viruses.^ Prevent HIV and other STD infection.
  • HIV/AIDS and Sexuality • thrive • Rhode Island's Coordinated School Health Program 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.thriveri.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But in China, where there are now more than four million young female sex workers, some are resorting to a nasty trick—they’re telling their prostitutes that they’re giving them a shot to protect them from HIV and other STDs.
  • Hiv | The Frisky 17 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.thefrisky.com [Source type: General]

^ The steep increase in transfusion AIDS cases despite the great reduction of HIV-contaminated transfusions argues directly against HIV as the cause of AIDS. 5) In addition to the correlation that "in countries with many persons with HIV antibodies there is much AIDS," it is necessary to demonstrate some HIV-specific biochemical activity at the onset of AIDS to prove that HIV causes AIDS. All other viruses and microbes are very active when they cause fatal, degenerative diseases similar to AIDS. There is also abundant generic evidence that this activity is necessary for pathogenicity.
  • Duesberg on AIDS- HIV is not the cause of AIDS 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.duesberg.com [Source type: Academic]

.Both inter- and intra-clade multiple infections have been reported,[48] and even associated with more rapid disease progression.^ The strains are tougher, mutate more easily and even have a facility to convert antibodies (generated by the body to fight off disease) into the virus itself i.e.
  • Aids; The Manufactured Virus 10 September 2009 22:16 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[49] .Multiple infections are divided into two categories depending on the timing of the acquisition of the second strain.^ Moreover, the severity of the fetal infection depends on time in pregnancy.
  • Ocular Manifestations of HIV: eMedicine Ophthalmology 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Research into the prevalence of HIV infection among health care workers at two Johannesburg hospitals in 2005 (CIC) found that 11.5% of hospital employees were HIV-positive.
  • ::::Aids Foundation South Africa::::HIV/AIDS in South Africa 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.aids.org.za [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is generally known that viruses can be divided into two groups based upon the nature of the virus' genetic material.
  • Method of inhibiting the transmission of AIDS virus - Patent 4952411 10 September 2009 22:16 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

Coinfection refers to two strains that appear to have been acquired at the same time (or too close to distinguish). Reinfection (or superinfection) is infection with a second strain at a measurable time after the first. .Both forms of dual infection have been reported for HIV in both acute and chronic infection around the world.^ U.N. report: New HIV infections decreasing .
  • HIV and AIDS: News & Videos about HIV and AIDS - CNN.com 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC topics.cnn.com [Source type: News]

^ As of the end of 2004, there were an estimated 39.4 million people around the world living with HIV or AIDS, 25.4 million of whom were in sub-Saharan Africa.
  • HIV - AIDS - Drug Companies - Pipeline Drugs -- Clinical Trials 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.pipelinedrugs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With the continued growing numbers of HIV-infected individuals, physicians need to recognize acute HIV infection as well as screen for asymptomatic infections.
  • HIV, Early Recognition and Rapid Testing: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[50][51][52][53]

Structure and genome

Diagram of HIV
.HIV is different in structure from other retroviruses.^ The destruction of the lymphoid tissue structure seen late in HIV disease may preclude a successful immune response against not only HIV but other pathogens as well.
  • Causes of HIV/AIDS - WrongDiagnosis.com 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Reverse Transcriptase: the enzyme produced by HIV and other retroviruses that enables them to direct a cell to synthesize DNA from their viral RNA. .
  • HIV, HIV Infection, HIV Virus, HIV Medicine, HIV Cure, HIV Treatment 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC hiv-info.org [Source type: Academic]

^ HIV looks quite different to the classic retroviruses described in the 1960's.
  • HIV - AIDS - Drug Companies - Pipeline Drugs -- Clinical Trials 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.pipelinedrugs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is roughly spherical[54] with a diameter of about 120 nm, around 60 times smaller than a red blood cell, yet large for a virus.^ There is disturbing evidence that the virus is transmitted by more than sexual contact and blood.
  • Aids; The Manufactured Virus 10 September 2009 22:16 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Ice" is more expensive than crack cocaine, but its effects last about twenty times longer than those of crack cocaine.

^ Here are the number of times more frequently blacks are incarcerated on drug charges than is the case for whites in other places around the country: .
  • Untitled Document 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC prorev.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[55] .It is composed of two copies of positive single-stranded RNA that codes for the virus's nine genes enclosed by a conical capsid composed of 2,000 copies of the viral protein p24.^ MK-NAOMI is the code for the development of AIDS. The “MK” portion stands for the two co-authors of the AIDS virus, Robert Manaker and Paul Kotin.
  • Aids; The Manufactured Virus 10 September 2009 22:16 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[56] .The single-stranded RNA is tightly bound to nucleocapsid proteins, p7 and enzymes needed for the development of the virion such as reverse transcriptase, proteases, ribonuclease and integrase.^ It is needed to develop and maintain male sex characteristics, such as facial hair, deep voice, and muscle growth.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.A matrix composed of the viral protein p17 surrounds the capsid ensuring the integrity of the virion particle.^ New HIV particles (viruses) are assembled inside the cell from the cut viral proteins and the viral RNA copies.

^ The virus protease enzyme cleaves Gag into several smaller proteins (Matrix, Capsid, p2, Nucleocapsid, p1 and P6) and this step can be inhibited by drugs.
  • HIV - AIDS - Drug Companies - Pipeline Drugs -- Clinical Trials 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.pipelinedrugs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Protease inhibitors (PIs) inhibit activity of protease , an enzyme used directly by HIV to cleave nascent viral proteins , and so prevent final assembly of HIV virions .
  • HIV - AIDS - Drug Companies - Pipeline Drugs -- Clinical Trials 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.pipelinedrugs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[56] .This is, in turn, surrounded by the viral envelope that is composed of two layers of fatty molecules called phospholipids taken from the membrane of a human cell when a newly formed virus particle buds from the cell.^ It is later named HTLV (Human T-cell Leukemia Virus).
  • Aids; The Manufactured Virus 10 September 2009 22:16 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Embedded in the viral envelope are proteins from the host cell and about 70 copies of a complex HIV protein that protrudes through the surface of the virus particle.^ New HIV particles (viruses) are assembled inside the cell from the cut viral proteins and the viral RNA copies.

^ These rafts are high in cholesterol and glycolipids and may provide a new target for blocking HIV. Embedded in the viral envelope are proteins from the host cell, as well as 72 copies (on average) of a complex HIV protein (frequently called "spikes") that protrudes through the surface of the virus particle (virion).
  • Causes of HIV/AIDS - WrongDiagnosis.com 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Envelop e(or viral envelope): The outer surface of a virus, also called the coat.
  • HIV, HIV Infection, HIV Virus, HIV Medicine, HIV Cure, HIV Treatment 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC hiv-info.org [Source type: Academic]

[56] .This protein, known as Env, consists of a cap made of three molecules called glycoprotein (gp) 120, and a stem consisting of three gp41 molecules that anchor the structure into the viral envelope.^ An enzyme (a protein that speeds up chemical reactions in the body) that attaches a methyl group to DNA. A methyl group is a chemical group containing one carbon and three hydrogen molecules.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Incorporated into its molecular structure is 40 percent of the HIV protein coat, indicating that it had been man-made.
  • Aids; The Manufactured Virus 10 September 2009 22:16 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[57] .This glycoprotein complex enables the virus to attach to and fuse with target cells to initiate the infectious cycle.^ They are located at the outer part of the virus particle and enable the virus to attach to and to fuse with the target cells to initiate the infectious cycle.
  • HIV - AIDS - Drug Companies - Pipeline Drugs -- Clinical Trials 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.pipelinedrugs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unfortunately, however, CD4 proteins also function as receptors for HIV, allowing the virus to attach itself to the cell and thereby gain access to the cell's biochemical machinery.

^ When the virus leaves the cell it is not infectious and the inner part of the virus particle contains a spherical core (stains dark on electron micrographs).
  • HIV - AIDS - Drug Companies - Pipeline Drugs -- Clinical Trials 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.pipelinedrugs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[57] Both these surface proteins, especially gp120, have been considered as targets of future treatments or vaccines against HIV.[58]
The RNA genome consists of at least seven structural landmarks (LTR, TAR, RRE, PE, SLIP, CRS, and INS) and nine genes (gag, pol, and env, tat, rev, nef, vif, vpr, vpu, and tev) encoding 19 proteins. .Three of these genes, gag, pol, and env, contain information needed to make the structural proteins for new virus particles.^ Three of these, gag, pol and env, contain information needed to make structural proteins for new virus particles.
  • Causes of HIV/AIDS - WrongDiagnosis.com 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This protein, known as Env, consists of a cap made of three molecules called glycoprotein (gp) 120, and a stem consisting of three gp41 molecules that anchor the structure in the viral envelope.
  • Causes of HIV/AIDS - WrongDiagnosis.com 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ All retroviruses contain the genes gag (codes for internal structural proteins and capsid proteins using about 2000 base pairs), pol (codes for the three enzymes necessary for replication using about 2900 bp), and env (codes for the surface proteins gp120 and gp41 that protrude from the lipid envelope and attach to cellular receptors using about 1800 bp).

[56] .For example, env codes for a protein called gp160 that is broken down by a viral enzyme to form gp120 and gp41. The six remaining genes, tat, rev, nef, vif, vpr, and vpu (or vpx in the case of HIV-2), are regulatory genes for proteins that control the ability of HIV to infect cells, produce new copies of virus (replicate), or cause disease.^ New HIV particles (viruses) are assembled inside the cell from the cut viral proteins and the viral RNA copies.

^ The protein encoded by nef, for instance, appears necessary for the virus to replicate efficiently, and the vpu-encoded protein influences the release of new virus particles from infected cells.
  • Causes of HIV/AIDS - WrongDiagnosis.com 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ To reproduce, HIV infects an immune cell called the helper T cell.

[56] The two Tat proteins (p16 and p14) are transcriptional transactivators for the LTR promoter acting by binding the TAR RNA element. The TAR may also be processed into microRNAs that regulate the apoptosis genes ERCC1 and IER3.[59][60] The Rev protein (p19) is involved in shuttling RNAs from the nucleus and the cytoplasm by binding to the RRE RNA element. .The Vif protein (p23) prevents the action of APOBEC3G (a cell protein that deaminates DNA:RNA hybrids and/or interferes with the Pol protein).^ It is used to identify the genes (pieces of DNA) in specific cells or tissue that are actively used to make RNA, which then may be used to make proteins.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

The Vpr protein (p14) arrests cell division at G2/M. The Nef protein (p27) down-regulates CD4 (the major viral receptor), as well as the MHC class I and class II molecules.[61][62][63] Nef also interacts with SH3 domains. .The Vpu protein (p16) influences the release of new virus particles from infected cells.^ The protein encoded by nef, for instance, appears necessary for the virus to replicate efficiently, and the vpu-encoded protein influences the release of new virus particles from infected cells.
  • Causes of HIV/AIDS - WrongDiagnosis.com 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The virus is then able to infect a further cell.
  • HIV - AIDS - Drug Companies - Pipeline Drugs -- Clinical Trials 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.pipelinedrugs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is because killing these cells when present in semen or vaginal fluids may lead to release of virus making it more susceptible to the effects of the drug.
  • Method of inhibiting the transmission of AIDS virus - Patent 4952411 10 September 2009 22:16 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

[56] The ends of each strand of HIV RNA contain an RNA sequence called the long terminal repeat (LTR). .Regions in the LTR act as switches to control production of new viruses and can be triggered by proteins from either HIV or the host cell.^ Regions in the LTR act as switches to control production of new viruses and can be triggered by proteins from either HIV or the host cell.
  • Causes of HIV/AIDS - WrongDiagnosis.com 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These rafts are high in cholesterol and glycolipids and may provide a new target for blocking HIV. Embedded in the viral envelope are proteins from the host cell, as well as 72 copies (on average) of a complex HIV protein (frequently called "spikes") that protrudes through the surface of the virus particle (virion).
  • Causes of HIV/AIDS - WrongDiagnosis.com 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In the vaginal mucosa HIV enters CD4+ T cells almost exclusively by CD4 and CCR5 receptor-mediated direct fusion, leading to overt productive infection [247].
  • Circumcision and HIV: The AIDS Virus 10 September 2009 22:16 UTC www.circinfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Psi element is involved in viral genome packaging and recognized by Gag and Rev proteins. .The SLIP element (TTTTTT) is involved in the frameshift in the Gag-Pol reading frame required to make functional Pol.^ Three of these, gag, pol and env, contain information needed to make structural proteins for new virus particles.
  • Causes of HIV/AIDS - WrongDiagnosis.com 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This enzyme cleaves gag - and gag-pol -derived proteins into functional pieces.
  • HIV - AIDS - Drug Companies - Pipeline Drugs -- Clinical Trials 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.pipelinedrugs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[56]

Tropism

The term viral tropism refers to which cell types HIV infects. .HIV can infect a variety of immune cells such as CD4+ T cells, macrophages, and microglial cells.^ A special type of immune cell that is found in tissues, such as the skin, and boosts immune responses by showing antigens on its surface to other cells of the immune system.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

HIV-1 entry to macrophages and CD4+ T cells is mediated through interaction of the virion envelope glycoproteins (gp120) with the CD4 molecule on the target cells and also with chemokine coreceptors.[57]
Macrophage (M-tropic) strains of HIV-1, or non-syncitia-inducing strains (NSI) use the β-chemokine receptor CCR5 for entry and are thus able to replicate in macrophages and CD4+ T cells.[64] .This CCR5 coreceptor is used by almost all primary HIV-1 isolates regardless of viral genetic subtype.^ In the vaginal mucosa HIV enters CD4+ T cells almost exclusively by CD4 and CCR5 receptor-mediated direct fusion, leading to overt productive infection [247].
  • Circumcision and HIV: The AIDS Virus 10 September 2009 22:16 UTC www.circinfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When the mutation, called D 32 and read "delta-32", occurs in the gene on only one of the two human chromosomes, called a heterozygous mutation , the ability to be infected by the B clade variant of HIV that uses the CCR5 coreceptor is reduced by about 70%.

^ HIV uses one of two molecules as a co-receptor: CCR5 or CXCR4.
  • HIV - a knol by Frederick (Rick) Hecht 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Indeed, macrophages play a key role in several critical aspects of HIV infection.^ Macrophages, which are susceptible to HIV infection, are also present.
  • Catching AIDS 17 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.aproposinc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Though the risk for infection is indeed statistically greater for gay men and injection drug users, HIV can infect anyone.
  • HIV - AIDS - Drug Companies - Pipeline Drugs -- Clinical Trials 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.pipelinedrugs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The country is mentioned several times, mostly to note high HIV prevalence among key populations at higher risk.
  • HIV Information for Myanmar :: Main Page 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC him.civiblog.org [Source type: General]

.They appear to be the first cells infected by HIV and perhaps the source of HIV production when CD4+ cells become depleted in the patient.^ After HIV infects cells .
  • Living with HIV 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.apositivelife.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • HIV Treatment: Antiretroviral Drugs 20 November 2009 7:44 UTC www.apositivelife.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Information on the treatment of HIV 20 November 2009 7:44 UTC www.apositivelife.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ CD4 + cell depletion controversy .
  • HIV - AIDS - Drug Companies - Pipeline Drugs -- Clinical Trials 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.pipelinedrugs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ HIV replication HIV causes disease by infecting the CD4+ T cells .
  • HIV - AIDS - Drug Companies - Pipeline Drugs -- Clinical Trials 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.pipelinedrugs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Macrophages and microglial cells are the cells infected by HIV in the central nervous system.^ Primary central nervous system lymphoma .

^ After HIV infects cells .
  • Living with HIV 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.apositivelife.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • HIV Treatment: Antiretroviral Drugs 20 November 2009 7:44 UTC www.apositivelife.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Information on the treatment of HIV 20 November 2009 7:44 UTC www.apositivelife.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is a type of central nervous system stimulant.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.In tonsils and adenoids of HIV-infected patients, macrophages fuse into multinucleated giant cells that produce huge amounts of virus.^ The next question is, if it is possible to produce HIV from Visna and HTLV-I now, was it also possible in 1977, when Segal claims the AIDS virus was created?
  • Aids; The Manufactured Virus 10 September 2009 22:16 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The beta-3 andrenergic receptor is located on the surface of fat cells, and controls the amount of fat the cell releases into the bloodstream.
  • Erowid Drug Testing Vaults : FAQ 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC www.erowid.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

T-tropic isolates, or syncitia-inducing (SI) strains replicate in primary CD4+ T cells as well as in macrophages and use the α-chemokine receptor, CXCR4, for entry.[64][65][66] .Dual-tropic HIV-1 strains are thought to be transitional strains of the HIV-1 virus and thus are able to use both CCR5 and CXCR4 as co-receptors for viral entry.^ This new strain was reported as infecting epithelia] cells thus raising the possibility that the AIDS virus is now airborne.
  • Aids; The Manufactured Virus 10 September 2009 22:16 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The α-chemokine SDF-1, a ligand for CXCR4, suppresses replication of T-tropic HIV-1 isolates.^ There may be other immune system molecules - yet undiscovered - that can suppress HIV replication to some degree.
  • Causes of HIV/AIDS - WrongDiagnosis.com 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Selenium also suppresses the enhancing effect of cytokines on HIV replication (Hori K et al 1997; Tolando R et al 2000).
  • HIV/AIDS: Online References For Health Concerns 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

^ M-tropic HIV-1 uses CCR5 and CD4 receptors to enter target cells, unlike T-tropic HIV which uses CXCR4 with CD4.
  • HIV - AIDS - Drug Companies - Pipeline Drugs -- Clinical Trials 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.pipelinedrugs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It does this by down-regulating the expression of CXCR4 on the surface of these cells.^ In the same vein, stress causes nerve cells to secrete norepinephrine and this seems to increase CCR5 density, CXCR4 density, and increase the rate of viral gene expression.

^ Following reactivation, HSV is transported down the nerve axon to the epithelial cells on the ocular surface or cornea.
  • Ocular Manifestations of HIV: eMedicine Ophthalmology 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.HIV that use only the CCR5 receptor are termed R5; those that only use CXCR4 are termed X4, and those that use both, X4R5. However, the use of coreceptor alone does not explain viral tropism, as not all R5 viruses are able to use CCR5 on macrophages for a productive infection[64] and HIV can also infect a subtype of myeloid dendritic cells,[67] which probably constitute a reservoir that maintains infection when CD4+ T cell numbers have declined to extremely low levels.^ How many of those they infected died because they were termed “at risk” How sick is that?
  • Aids; The Manufactured Virus 10 September 2009 22:16 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is possible that second hand [marijuana] smoke will raise someone to the 50 ng/mL level; however, *extreme* exposure is required.
  • Erowid Drug Testing Vaults : FAQ 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC www.erowid.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The only guarantees regarding the continued illicit use of steroids are severe side effects and long-term health complications.

.Some people are resistant to certain strains of HIV.[68] For example people with the CCR5-Δ32 mutation are resistant to infection with R5 virus as the mutation stops HIV from binding to this coreceptor, reducing its ability to infect target cells.^ In early 1990 Science reported that AIDS researcher Dr. Robert Gallo had tested an altered AIDS virus, one that could infect' cells previously left uninfected by the early AIDS strain.
  • Aids; The Manufactured Virus 10 September 2009 22:16 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The main active chemical in the marijuana is THC. It effects the membranes of some certain nerve cells.
  • Drug Abuse: Guide & Resources Directory 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC drugsarehorrible.com [Source type: General]

^ This new strain was reported as infecting epithelia] cells thus raising the possibility that the AIDS virus is now airborne.
  • Aids; The Manufactured Virus 10 September 2009 22:16 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Sexual intercourse is the major mode of HIV transmission. .Both X4 and R5 HIV are present in the seminal fluid, which is passed from a male to his sexual partner.^ Certainly, HIV-AIDS can be passed through sexual contact, blood supply and contact, saliva and urine.
  • Aids; The Manufactured Virus 10 September 2009 22:16 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The virions can then infect numerous cellular targets and disseminate into the whole organism. .However, a selection process leads to a predominant transmission of the R5 virus through this pathway.^ Transmission of the virus between HIV-positive people and health care workers through needle sticks is low.
  • HIV/AIDS 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While researchers discovered cell-to-cell transmission through the virological synapse earlier this decade, researchers say the videos highlight the extreme efficiency of this transmission process.

[69][70][71] .How this selective process works is still under investigation, but one model is that spermatozoa may selectively carry R5 HIV as they possess both CCR3 and CCR5 but not CXCR4 on their surface[72] and that genital epithelial cells preferentially sequester X4 virus.^ One of my sons was lagging behind in course work at college and I want to lit a fire under him so he can be the best he can be.
  • Drug Abuse: Guide & Resources Directory 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC drugsarehorrible.com [Source type: General]

^ For instance, a closed car full of pot smokers and a non-smoker may render the non-smoker positive for both urinalysis and the hair test, provided that they are sealed in the car for a while.
  • Erowid Drug Testing Vaults : FAQ 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC www.erowid.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (One who has read this file and is well informed may still fail because of the random nature of drug testing labs.
  • Erowid Drug Testing Vaults : FAQ 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC www.erowid.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[73] .In patients infected with subtype B HIV-1, there is often a co-receptor switch in late-stage disease and T-tropic variants appear that can infect a variety of T cells through CXCR4.[74] These variants then replicate more aggressively with heightened virulence that causes rapid T cell depletion, immune system collapse, and opportunistic infections that mark the advent of AIDS.[75] Thus, during the course of infection, viral adaptation to the use of CXCR4 instead of CCR5 may be a key step in the progression to AIDS. A number of studies with subtype B-infected individuals have determined that between 40 and 50% of AIDS patients can harbour viruses of the SI, and presumably the X4, phenotype.^ A drug used in the treatment of infections caused by viruses.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ New York Times reports Kenyan hospital system overloaded, two AIDS patients to a bed, many just placed in corridors.
  • Aids; The Manufactured Virus 10 September 2009 22:16 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A special type of immune cell that is found in tissues, such as the skin, and boosts immune responses by showing antigens on its surface to other cells of the immune system.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

[76][77]
.HIV-2 is much less pathogenic than HIV-1 and is restricted in its worldwide distribution.^ Many major pharmaceutical companies license the manufacturing of their patent prescription medicines to subsidiary pharmaceutical companies in India, where these prescription medicines are sold for much less than anywhere else in the world.
  • Prescription Medicines - Prescription Drugs & Medicines, Indian online pharmacy for all type of generic drugs 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC www.alldaychemist.com [Source type: Reference]

^ All of the known varieties of SIV (Simian Immunodeficiency Virus) are structurally so dissimilar to HIV (much less similar than HIV and Visna) that a common origin is out of the question.
  • Aids; The Manufactured Virus 10 September 2009 22:16 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But it is much less dangerous than, for instance, tobacco and alcohol."
  • Untitled Document 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC prorev.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The adoption of "accessory genes" by HIV-2 and its more promiscuous pattern of coreceptor usage (including CD4-independence) may assist the virus in its adaptation to avoid innate restriction factors present in host cells. .Adaptation to use normal cellular machinery to enable transmission and productive infection has also aided the establishment of HIV-2 replication in humans.^ Increased risk for AIDS/HIV or Hepatitis where needles are used .

^ This confusion of civil rights with public health is killing people and very few public health officials or medical doctors have the guts to stand up and tell the truth, that HIV-AIDS may possibly use numerous transmission routes.
  • Aids; The Manufactured Virus 10 September 2009 22:16 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Two years later, 1889, we were able to identify “mycoplasmas”, a transmissible agent, that is now found at the heart of human diseases, including (AIDS) HIV. In 1893, we strengthened the Federal Quarantine Act and suddenly there was an explosion of polio.
  • Aids; The Manufactured Virus 10 September 2009 22:16 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A survival strategy for any infectious agent is not to kill its host but ultimately become a commensal organism. Having achieved a low pathogenicity, over time, variants more successful at transmission will be selected.[78]

Replication cycle

The HIV replication cycle

Entry to the cell

.HIV enters macrophages and CD4+ T cells by the adsorption of glycoproteins on its surface to receptors on the target cell followed by fusion of the viral envelope with the cell membrane and the release of the HIV capsid into the cell.^ The beta-3 andrenergic receptor is located on the surface of fat cells, and controls the amount of fat the cell releases into the bloodstream.
  • Erowid Drug Testing Vaults : FAQ 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC www.erowid.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[79][80]
.Entry to the cell begins through interaction of the trimeric envelope complex (gp160 spike) and both CD4 and a chemokine receptor (generally either CCR5 or CXCR4, but others are known to interact) on the cell surface.^ A special type of immune cell that is found in tissues, such as the skin, and boosts immune responses by showing antigens on its surface to other cells of the immune system.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The beta-3 andrenergic receptor is located on the surface of fat cells, and controls the amount of fat the cell releases into the bloodstream.
  • Erowid Drug Testing Vaults : FAQ 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC www.erowid.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[79][80] gp120 binds to integrin α4β7 activating LFA-1 the central integrin involved in the establishment of virological synapses, which facilitate efficient cell-to-cell spreading of HIV-1.[81] The gp160 spike contains binding domains for both CD4 and chemokine receptors.[79][80] The first step in fusion involves the high-affinity attachment of the CD4 binding domains of gp120 to CD4. Once gp120 is bound with the CD4 protein, the envelope complex undergoes a structural change, exposing the chemokine binding domains of gp120 and allowing them to interact with the target chemokine receptor.[79][80] .This allows for a more stable two-pronged attachment, which allows the N-terminal fusion peptide gp41 to penetrate the cell membrane.^ Fusion with the cell membrane.

^ It blocks fusion of HIV with the cell membrane.
  • HIV - a knol by Frederick (Rick) Hecht 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is understood that gp41 binding occurs after gp120 and that a peptide-like molecule which can bind to gp41 prevents HIV entering the cell.
  • Find-a-Drug Projects - HIV 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.find-a-drug.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[79][80] Repeat sequences in gp41, HR1 and HR2 then interact, causing the collapse of the extracellular portion of gp41 into a hairpin. .This loop structure brings the virus and cell membranes close together, allowing fusion of the membranes and subsequent entry of the viral capsid.^ The envelope of the virus and the cell membrane then fuse, leading to entry of the virus into the cell.
  • Causes of HIV/AIDS - WrongDiagnosis.com 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Fusion with the cell membrane.

^ It blocks fusion of HIV with the cell membrane.
  • HIV - a knol by Frederick (Rick) Hecht 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[79][80]
After HIV has bound to the target cell, the HIV RNA and various enzymes, including reverse transcriptase, integrase, ribonuclease, and protease, are injected into the cell.[79] .During the microtubule based transport to the nucleus, the viral single strand RNA genome is transcribed into double strand DNA, which is then integrated into a host chromosome.^ It “reverse transcribes” the HIV RNA genetic material, eventually producing a double stranded DNA version of HIV that is ready to be spliced into the host chromosome.
  • HIV - a knol by Frederick (Rick) Hecht 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Integration into the host nucleus using the enzyme integrase .

^ RNA ssDNA (single strand DNA) dsDNA (double strand DNA) RNA protein synthesis .

HIV can infect dendritic cells (DCs) by this CD4-CCR5 route, but another route using mannose-specific C-type lectin receptors such as DC-SIGN can also be used.[82] .DCs are one of the first cells encountered by the virus during sexual transmission.^ The lymphocyte undergoes a series of cell divisions to produce many cells that are identical to the one that first recognized the antigen.

^ In 1954, Dr. Bjorn Sigurdsson publishes his first paper on Visna virus and establishes himself as the “Grandfather of the AIDS virus.” He will encounter competition from Dr. Carlton Gajdusek.
  • Aids; The Manufactured Virus 10 September 2009 22:16 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some of these are specialized cells at the mucosa that may bind to HIV following sexual exposure and carry the virus from the site of infection to the lymph nodes.
  • Causes of HIV/AIDS - WrongDiagnosis.com 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

.They are currently thought to play an important role by transmitting HIV to T-cells when the virus is captured in the mucosa by DCs.^ Key player: Among the scientists Graves accuses of playing a key role is Dr. Robert Gallo, an internationally acclaimed researcher in the field of AIDS and HIV. He is often credited as a co-discoverer of the AIDS virus in 1984.
  • Aids; The Manufactured Virus 10 September 2009 22:16 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[82] The presence of FEZ-1, which occurs naturally in neurons, is believed to prevent the infection of cells by HIV.[83]

Replication and transcription

Shortly after the viral capsid enters the cell, an enzyme called reverse transcriptase liberates the single-stranded (+)RNA genome from the attached viral proteins and copies it into a complementary DNA (cDNA) molecule.[84] .The process of reverse transcription is extremely error-prone, and the resulting mutations may cause drug resistance or allow the virus to evade the body's immune system.^ The flowchart is the absolute missing link in proving the existence of a coordinated research program to develop a cancer virus that depletes the immune system.
  • Aids; The Manufactured Virus 10 September 2009 22:16 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In fact, these irreversible cases of blindness are caused by Cytomegalovirus (CMV), a member of the herpes virus family, which leads to blindness in those with compromised immune systems.

^ The cells, viruses, or bacteria may be resistant to the drug at the beginning of treatment, or may become resistant after being exposed to the drug.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The reverse transcriptase also has ribonuclease activity that degrades the viral RNA during the synthesis of cDNA, as well as DNA-dependent DNA polymerase activity that creates a sense DNA from the antisense cDNA.[85] Together, the cDNA and its complement form a double-stranded viral DNA that is then transported into the cell nucleus.^ It is used to identify the genes (pieces of DNA) in specific cells or tissue that are actively used to make RNA, which then may be used to make proteins.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ An iron-chelating agent that removes iron from tumors by inhibiting DNA synthesis and causing cancer cell death.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The integration of the viral DNA into the host cell's genome is carried out by another viral enzyme called integrase.^ A protein on the surface of certain cells that binds another protein called TRAIL, which may kill some cancer cells.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Dornase alfa inhalation solution contains an enzyme that breaks the DNA in mucus into small pieces and makes the mucus thinner.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ It blocks a certain enzyme needed for cell division and DNA repair, and it may kill cancer cells.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

[84]
Reverse transcription of the HIV genome into double strand DNA
.This integrated viral DNA may then lie dormant, in the latent stage of HIV infection.^ STAGE3- This is Symptomatic stage of HIV infection .
  • HIV, HIV Infection, HIV Virus, HIV Medicine, HIV Cure, HIV Treatment 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC hiv-info.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In addition to the inhibitors described in the tutorial, current research is focusing on inhibitors that will block the attachment of HIV to helper T cells (step 1 above), the integration of HIV's DNA into the cell's genetic material (step 4 above), and the assembly of new viral particles (step 8 above).

^ The idea of being tested for HIV infection may be frightening.
  • HIV/AIDS 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[84] .To actively produce the virus, certain cellular transcription factors need to be present, the most important of which is NF-κB (NF kappa B), which is upregulated when T-cells become activated.^ Used in photodynamic therapy, a drug that is absorbed by tumor cells; when exposed to light, it becomes active and kills the cancer cells.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The main active chemical in the marijuana is THC. It effects the membranes of some certain nerve cells.
  • Drug Abuse: Guide & Resources Directory 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC drugsarehorrible.com [Source type: General]

[86] .This means that those cells most likely to be killed by HIV are those currently fighting infection.^ Knowing as much as you can about HIV is one of the most powerful weapons in your fight against the virus.
  • Information on the treatment of HIV 20 November 2009 7:44 UTC www.apositivelife.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Related Pages Prevention There is currently no cure for HIV infection, but avoiding high-risk activities such as unprotected sex and sharing needles can prevent most cases.

^ This means that LLO won't form pores in the plasma (outer) membrane of the cell, which would likely kill it, thus ensuring the maintenance of a nice little cell incubator for the bacterium to multiply in.

.During viral replication, the integrated DNA provirus is transcribed into mRNA, which is then spliced into smaller pieces.^ Dornase alfa inhalation solution contains an enzyme that breaks the DNA in mucus into small pieces and makes the mucus thinner.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.These small pieces are exported from the nucleus into the cytoplasm, where they are translated into the regulatory proteins Tat (which encourages new virus production) and Rev.^ Dornase alfa inhalation solution contains an enzyme that breaks the DNA in mucus into small pieces and makes the mucus thinner.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

As the newly produced Rev protein accumulates in the nucleus, it binds to viral mRNAs and allows unspliced RNAs to leave the nucleus, where they are otherwise retained until spliced.[87] .At this stage, the structural proteins Gag and Env are produced from the full-length mRNA. The full-length RNA is actually the virus genome; it binds to the Gag protein and is packaged into new virus particles.^ Three of these, gag, pol and env, contain information needed to make structural proteins for new virus particles.
  • Causes of HIV/AIDS - WrongDiagnosis.com 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This protein, known as Env, consists of a cap made of three molecules called glycoprotein (gp) 120, and a stem consisting of three gp41 molecules that anchor the structure in the viral envelope.
  • Causes of HIV/AIDS - WrongDiagnosis.com 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ New HIV particles (viruses) are assembled inside the cell from the cut viral proteins and the viral RNA copies.

.HIV-1 and HIV-2 appear to package their RNA differently; HIV-1 will bind to any appropriate RNA, whereas HIV-2 will preferentially bind to the mRNA that was used to create the Gag protein itself.^ It is used to identify the genes (pieces of DNA) in specific cells or tissue that are actively used to make RNA, which then may be used to make proteins.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.This may mean that HIV-1 is better able to mutate (HIV-1 infection progresses to AIDS faster than HIV-2 infection and is responsible for the majority of global infections).^ GUD than for HIV infection.
  • Male circumcision: a role in HIV prevention? 17 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.cirp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ HIV/AIDS has been a global epidemic for more than 25 years.
  • HIV/AIDS - HIV and AIDS Facts 17 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.buzzle.com [Source type: News]

^ Time between HIV infection and AIDS .
  • HIV/AIDS testing information, resources, STDs STIs AIDS awareness-Madison, Wisconsin-United States 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.onetoughpirate.com [Source type: General]

Assembly and release

.The final step of the viral cycle, assembly of new HIV-1 virons, begins at the plasma membrane of the host cell.^ Viral proteins push against the cell membrane and begin budding .

^ It blocks fusion of HIV with the cell membrane.
  • HIV - a knol by Frederick (Rick) Hecht 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These rafts are high in cholesterol and glycolipids and may provide a new target for blocking HIV. Embedded in the viral envelope are proteins from the host cell, as well as 72 copies (on average) of a complex HIV protein (frequently called "spikes") that protrudes through the surface of the virus particle (virion).
  • Causes of HIV/AIDS - WrongDiagnosis.com 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

The Env polyprotein (gp160) goes through the endoplasmic reticulum and is transported to the Golgi complex where it is cleaved by protease and processed into the two HIV envelope glycoproteins gp41 and gp120. These are transported to the plasma membrane of the host cell where gp41 anchors the gp120 to the membrane of the infected cell. .The Gag (p55) and Gag-Pol (p160) polyproteins also associate with the inner surface of the plasma membrane along with the HIV genomic RNA as the forming virion begins to bud from the host cell.^ Viral proteins push against the cell membrane and begin budding .

^ It blocks fusion of HIV with the cell membrane.
  • HIV - a knol by Frederick (Rick) Hecht 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ RNA nuclear transport moves the RNA out of the host nucleus toward the inner surface of the cell membrane.

.Maturation either occurs in the forming bud or in the immature virion after it buds from the host cell.^ Each infected cell can produce an average of 250 new virions by budding before it fails and dies.

^ Release of virions by either budding (see the pictures below, which were taken from a September 1998 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine ) or cell lysis.

^ Thousands of new virions (complete viruses) are assembled together in an infected cell and bud off to infect a new cell (step 5).
  • HIV - a knol by Frederick (Rick) Hecht 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During maturation, HIV proteases cleave the polyproteins into individual functional HIV proteins and enzymes.^ HIV precursor protein that is cleaved by the HIV protease enzyme into gp41 and gp120.
  • Causes of HIV/AIDS - WrongDiagnosis.com 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The polyprotein must be cleaved into the individual functional proteins.

^ The mechanism by which protease cleaves the HIV polyprotein will not be discussed in this tutorial.

.The various structural components then assemble to produce a mature HIV virion.^ These drugs stop the action of the protease enzyme, which HIV needs to produce a fully mature virus.
  • HIV - a knol by Frederick (Rick) Hecht 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At this point, the mature new HIV virus (called a virion) is ready to find a new cell to infect, and the viral lifecycle is complete.
  • HIV - a knol by Frederick (Rick) Hecht 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Transmission rates of HIV vary with the number of virions available for infection.

[88] .This cleavage step can be inhibited by protease inhibitors.^ The most successful treatments for HIV have resulted from using inhibitors for the two enzymes reverse transcriptase (step 3 above) and protease (step 7 above).

^ Drugs called protease inhibitors interfere with this step of the viral life cycle.
  • Causes of HIV/AIDS - WrongDiagnosis.com 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The generation of a DNA copy of the viral genome by reverse transcriptase (Step 3) and the cleavage of viral proteins (Step 7) by protease are two important processes catalyzed by enzymes.

.The mature virus is then able to infect another cell.^ The protein encoded by nef, for instance, appears necessary for the virus to replicate efficiently, and the vpu-encoded protein influences the release of new virus particles from infected cells.
  • Causes of HIV/AIDS - WrongDiagnosis.com 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ HIV (human immunodeficiency virus): A virus that infects and takes over certain cells of the immune system that are important in fighting disease.

^ Thus, even non-HIV-infected T cells can feel the negative effects of the virus.

Genetic variability

The phylogenetic tree of the SIV and HIV.
HIV differs from many viruses in that it has very high genetic variability. This diversity is a result of its fast replication cycle, with the generation of 109 to 1010 virions every day, coupled with a high mutation rate of approximately 3 x 10−5 per nucleotide base per cycle of replication and recombinogenic properties of reverse transcriptase.[89][90]
.This complex scenario leads to the generation of many variants of HIV in a single infected patient in the course of one day.^ HIV and TB - one community, one patient .
  • OURJEET - SANDOZ | TB and HIV 17 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.ourjeet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although the percentage of mothers infected with HIV approaches 40 percent in some African communities, it generally is much lower, rarely above 25 percent (one in four).
  • Breastfeeding and HIV/AIDS - Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) - Rehydration Project 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC rehydrate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ HIV will be infected through many media- Infection with HIV occurs by the transfer of blood, semen- while doing sex, vaginal fluid- when doing sex, pre-ejaculate, or breast milk.
  • HIV, HIV Infection, HIV Virus, HIV Medicine, HIV Cure, HIV Treatment 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC hiv-info.org [Source type: Academic]

[89] .This variability is compounded when a single cell is simultaneously infected by two or more different strains of HIV. When simultaneous infection occurs, the genome of progeny virions may be composed of RNA strands from two different strains.^ Transmission rates of HIV vary with the number of virions available for infection.

^ HIV binds to two different receptors in the process of cell entry.
  • HIV - a knol by Frederick (Rick) Hecht 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most HIV virions infect cells in the lymph nodes.

.This hybrid virion then infects a new cell where it undergoes replication.^ During the course of HIV disease, viral strains emerge in an infected individual that differ widely in their ability to infect and kill different cell types, as well as in their rate of replication.
  • Causes of HIV/AIDS - WrongDiagnosis.com 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The protein encoded by nef, for instance, appears necessary for the virus to replicate efficiently, and the vpu-encoded protein influences the release of new virus particles from infected cells.
  • Causes of HIV/AIDS - WrongDiagnosis.com 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Each infected cell can produce an average of 250 new virions by budding before it fails and dies.

As this happens, the reverse transcriptase, by jumping back and forth between the two different RNA templates, will generate a newly synthesized retroviral DNA sequence that is a recombinant between the two parental genomes.[89] This recombination is most obvious when it occurs between subtypes.[89]
The closely related simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) has evolved into many strains, classified by the natural host species. SIV strains of the African green monkey (SIVagm) and sooty mangabey (SIVsmm) are thought to have a long evolutionary history with their hosts. .These hosts have adapted to the presence of the virus,[91] which is present at high levels in the host's blood but evokes only a mild immune response,[92] does not cause the development of simian AIDS,[93] and does not undergo the extensive mutation and recombination typical of HIV infection in humans.^ Graves said these documents will further prove the laboratory birth of the HIV/AIDS enzyme via a secret federal virus development program, the US Special Virus Program.
  • Aids; The Manufactured Virus 10 September 2009 22:16 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Segal argued that the AIDS virus is "the product of an abortive experiment carried out at a laboratory to develop biological warfare means."
  • Aids; The Manufactured Virus 10 September 2009 22:16 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ MK-NAOMI is the code for the development of AIDS. The “MK” portion stands for the two co-authors of the AIDS virus, Robert Manaker and Paul Kotin.
  • Aids; The Manufactured Virus 10 September 2009 22:16 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[94] .In contrast, when these strains infect species that have not adapted to SIV ("heterologous" hosts such as rhesus or cynomologus macaques), the animals develop AIDS and the virus generates genetic diversity similar to what is seen in human HIV infection.^ The next question is, if it is possible to produce HIV from Visna and HTLV-I now, was it also possible in 1977, when Segal claims the AIDS virus was created?
  • Aids; The Manufactured Virus 10 September 2009 22:16 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In early 1990 Science reported that AIDS researcher Dr. Robert Gallo had tested an altered AIDS virus, one that could infect' cells previously left uninfected by the early AIDS strain.
  • Aids; The Manufactured Virus 10 September 2009 22:16 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Obviously the community, seen as the source of HIV-AIDS, will face quarantine.
  • Aids; The Manufactured Virus 10 September 2009 22:16 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[95] Chimpanzee SIV (SIVcpz), the closest genetic relative of HIV-1, is associated with increased mortality and AIDS-like symptoms in its natural host.[96] .Both SIVcpz and HIV-1 appear to have been transmitted relatively recently to chimpanzee and human populations, so their hosts have not yet adapted to the virus.^ The HIV antibody test will show positive if you have a weakened immune system, regardless of whether you have the relatively harmless HIV virus in your system.
  • Aids; The Manufactured Virus 10 September 2009 22:16 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[91] .Both viruses have also lost a function of the Nef gene that is present in most SIVs; without this function, T cell depletion is more likely, leading to immunodeficiency.^ However, even though it doesn't harm like the other drugs do its more addicting than the other drugs that to can also lead to many severe problems.
  • Drug Abuse: Guide & Resources Directory 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC drugsarehorrible.com [Source type: General]

[96]
.Three groups of HIV-1 have been identified on the basis of differences in the envelope (env) region: M, N, and O.[97] Group M is the most prevalent and is subdivided into eight subtypes (or clades), based on the whole genome, which are geographically distinct.^ The portion (about three percent) of the HIV genome which does not correspond structurally to Visna corresponds exactly to part of the HTLV-I genome.
  • Aids; The Manufactured Virus 10 September 2009 22:16 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[98] .The most prevalent are subtypes B (found mainly in North America and Europe), A and D (found mainly in Africa), and C (found mainly in Africa and Asia); these subtypes form branches in the phylogenetic tree representing the lineage of the M group of HIV-1. Coinfection with distinct subtypes gives rise to circulating recombinant forms (CRFs).^ In North America, the prevalence of HIV infection is estimated to be about 0.6% while in Western Europe it is 0.3%.
  • HIV - a knol by Frederick (Rick) Hecht 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ HIV-2 is mostly found in West Africa.
  • HIV - a knol by Frederick (Rick) Hecht 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Both medications contained HIV fragments from subtype B — common in Europe and North America — and subtype E, found in Thailand and Southeast Asia.
  • Discuss HIV Blog 17 January 2010 20:020 UTC discusshiv.com [Source type: Academic]

In 2000, the last year in which an analysis of global subtype prevalence was made, 47.2% of infections worldwide were of subtype C, 26.7% were of subtype A/CRF02_AG, 12.3% were of subtype B, 5.3% were of subtype D, 3.2% were of CRF_AE, and the remaining 5.3% were composed of other subtypes and CRFs.[99] .Most HIV-1 research is focused on subtype B; few laboratories focus on the other subtypes.^ The human body takes anywhere from a few weeks to several months to mount a humoral immune response to HIV (that's slower than to other pathogens).

^ Many biological reactions, such as most normal reactions of the cells, and the reactions employed by HIV to replicate itself, are thermodynamically favorable ( D G <0) or can be made thermodynamically favorable by coupling with other reactions.

^ Because the leukocytes are the most numerous immune cells, and also include the type of cells attacked by HIV, we shall focus on the different types of leukocytes, and how they protect the body from infections.

[100] The existence of a fourth group, "P", has been hypothesised based on a virus isolated in 2009.[101][102][103] The strain is apparently derived from gorilla SIV (SIVgor), first isolated from western lowland gorillas in 2006.[101]
The genetic sequence of HIV-2 is only partially homologous to HIV-1 and more closely resembles that of SIVsmm.

Diagnosis

.Many HIV-positive people are unaware that they are infected with the virus.^ Although rare in people not infected with HIV, it's common in HIV-positive people.
  • HIV/AIDS 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How many people are already infected with HIV? .
  • ::::Aids Foundation South Africa::::HIV/AIDS in South Africa 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.aids.org.za [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How many did they infect?
  • Aids; The Manufactured Virus 10 September 2009 22:16 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[104] .For example, less than 1% of the sexually active urban population in Africa have been tested and this proportion is even lower in rural populations.^ Thus at least half of the sexually-active population of western countries are not using condoms.
  • Circumcision and HIV: The AIDS Virus 10 September 2009 22:16 UTC www.circinfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Malawi to Test All Sexually Active Adults for Hiv The Malawian government launched a campaign yesterday to test all sexually active adults for HIV to try to identify thousands of people infected with the virus.
  • HIV/AIDS - HIV and AIDS Facts 17 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.buzzle.com [Source type: News]

^ Injecting a substance contaminated with HIV directly into the blood stream is a particularly efficient means of transmission than occurs for example through sexual activity.
  • HIV and Injecting Drug Use: 17 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.undp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[104] Furthermore, only 0.5% of pregnant women attending urban health facilities are counselled, tested or receive their test results.[104] Again, this proportion is even lower in rural health facilities.[104] Since donors may therefore be unaware of their infection, donor blood and blood products used in medicine and medical research are routinely screened for HIV.[105]
.HIV-1 testing consists of initial screening with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect antibodies to HIV-1. Specimens with a nonreactive result from the initial ELISA are considered HIV-negative unless new exposure to an infected partner or partner of unknown HIV status has occurred.^ The HIV antibody test will show positive if you have a weakened immune system, regardless of whether you have the relatively harmless HIV virus in your system.
  • Aids; The Manufactured Virus 10 September 2009 22:16 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Specimens with a reactive ELISA result are retested in duplicate.[106] If the result of either duplicate test is reactive, the specimen is reported as repeatedly reactive and undergoes confirmatory testing with a more specific supplemental test (e.g., Western blot or, less commonly, an immunofluorescence assay (IFA)). .Only specimens that are repeatedly reactive by ELISA and positive by IFA or reactive by Western blot are considered HIV-positive and indicative of HIV infection.^ Only 1 sex worker was HIV positive.
  • Circumcision and HIV: The AIDS Virus 10 September 2009 22:16 UTC www.circinfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Only if both the EIA and Western blot are positive is the individual considered HIV infected.
  • HIV - a knol by Frederick (Rick) Hecht 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the Western blot is completely negative, the person is also considered HIV negative.
  • HIV - a knol by Frederick (Rick) Hecht 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Specimens that are repeatedly ELISA-reactive occasionally provide an indeterminate Western blot result, which may be either an incomplete antibody response to HIV in an infected person, or nonspecific reactions in an uninfected person.^ If the Western blot is completely negative, the person is also considered HIV negative.
  • HIV - a knol by Frederick (Rick) Hecht 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Western blot test was important because you may have non-HIV antibodies that cause a false-positive result on the ELISA test.
  • HIV/AIDS 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although the evidence still is not entirely clear, persons who are being treated successfully for HIV may be less likely to transmit the virus.

[107] .Although IFA can be used to confirm infection in these ambiguous cases, this assay is not widely used.^ Although these have been controversial because of concerns that they may encourage drug use, there is now strong evidence that they reduce the risk of HIV infection (and other infections) in drug users, and have little, if any, effect on frequency of drug use.
  • HIV - a knol by Frederick (Rick) Hecht 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Though these appear to work, they are much less widely used than male condoms.
  • HIV - a knol by Frederick (Rick) Hecht 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A peripheral blood mononuclear cells-based neutralization assay was used to test these samples against three primary HIV-1 isolates.

.Generally, a second specimen should be collected more than a month later and retested for persons with indeterminate Western blot results.^ Prijic is pretty good at general dentistry and if you would like to get more information on him then you should take a look at RobinsonPrijic.com.
  • Drug Abuse: Guide & Resources Directory 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC drugsarehorrible.com [Source type: General]

^ More than sixteen months after the multinational pharmaceutical company Merck & Co.

^ By 2005 cocaine use in America was down to 2.3% of the general population, more than 50% lower than the rate two decades ago.
  • Untitled Document 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC prorev.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although much less commonly available, nucleic acid testing (e.g., viral RNA or proviral DNA amplification method) can also help diagnosis in certain situations.^ He says it was, by use of the less precise "shotgun" method of gene manipulation available then, though it would have taken longer--about six months.
  • Aids; The Manufactured Virus 10 September 2009 22:16 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A type of method or test used to help diagnose a disease or condition.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

[106] .In addition, a few tested specimens might provide inconclusive results because of a low quantity specimen.^ Although most false positive viral load tests will produce results with low viral copies (less than 3,000 copies/ml), these quantitative tests have not been approved by the FDA for diagnosis of HIV infection, in part because of the issues with false positive tests.
  • HIV - a knol by Frederick (Rick) Hecht 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Perform a second test or send the specimen to a laboratory to obtain quantitative results.

^ Also the chemical stability of the drug or drug metabolite may be compromised resulting in a false negative or negative test reaction requiring a retest with a fresh specimen.

.In these situations, a second specimen is collected and tested for HIV infection.^ HIV infection (4 of these 33 were from the USA).
  • Circumcision and HIV: The AIDS Virus 10 September 2009 22:16 UTC www.circinfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The idea of being tested for HIV infection may be frightening.
  • HIV/AIDS 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although most false positive viral load tests will produce results with low viral copies (less than 3,000 copies/ml), these quantitative tests have not been approved by the FDA for diagnosis of HIV infection, in part because of the issues with false positive tests.
  • HIV - a knol by Frederick (Rick) Hecht 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Modern HIV testing is extremely accurate. The chance of a false-positive result in the two-step testing protocol is estimated to be 0.0004% to 0.0007% in the general U.S. population.[108][109][110][111]

Treatment

See also Antiretroviral drug
Abacavir - a nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NARTIs or NRTIs)
.There is currently no publicly available vaccine or cure for HIV or AIDS.[112][113] However, a vaccine that is a combination of two previously unsuccessful vaccine candidates was reported in September 2009 to have resulted in a 30% reduction in infections in a trial conducted in Thailand.^ The cornerstone of the theory is that HIV is a combination of Visna and HTLV-I. Segal claims that any trained laboratory technician could produce AIDS from these components, today, in less than two weeks.
  • Aids; The Manufactured Virus 10 September 2009 22:16 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Graves took his charges to the Supreme Court after failing to convince two lower f ederal courts to conduct a trial and call on witnesses to explain the records he has discovered.
  • Aids; The Manufactured Virus 10 September 2009 22:16 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Between February 1995 and September 1997, at least 341 people received experimental anti-AIDS vaccines in Thailand involving squalene as an adjuvant at the same time that 93 people were administered placebos.
  • Aids; The Manufactured Virus 10 September 2009 22:16 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[114] Additionally, a course of antiretroviral treatment administered immediately after exposure, referred to as post-exposure prophylaxis, is believed to reduce the risk of infection if begun as quickly as possible.[115] However, due to the incomplete protection provided by the vaccine and/or post-exposure prophylaxis, the avoidance of exposure to the virus is expected to remain the only reliable way to escape infection for some time yet. Current treatment for HIV infection consists of highly active antiretroviral therapy, or HAART.[116] This has been highly beneficial to many HIV-infected individuals since its introduction in 1996, when the protease inhibitor-based HAART initially became available.[117] .Current HAART options are combinations (or "cocktails") consisting of at least three drugs belonging to at least two types, or "classes," of antiretroviral agents.^ It is a type of cyclooxygenase inhibitor, a type of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), and a type of antiangiogenesis agent.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A drug that belongs to the family of drugs called chemoprotective agents.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

Typically, these classes are two nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NARTIs or NRTIs) plus either a protease inhibitor or a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI). .New classes of drugs such as entry inhibitors provide treatment options for patients who are infected with viruses already resistant to common therapies, although they are not widely available and not typically accessible in resource-limited settings.^ Four hundred prisoners in Chicago are infected with Malaria in order to study the effects of new and experimental drugs to combat the disease.
  • Aids; The Manufactured Virus 10 September 2009 22:16 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Because AIDS progression in children is more rapid and less predictable than in adults, particularly in young infants, more aggressive treatment is recommended for children than adults.^ A Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) Panel on Antiretroviral Guidelines for Adults and Adolescents recommends initiating treatment in a patient with HIV when the person has an AIDS-defining illness or when their CD4 T-cell count is less than 200 cells/mm3.

^ Understanding the lifecycle of HIV is more than just an academic exercise: it is key to truly understanding how current HIV treatments work.
  • HIV - a knol by Frederick (Rick) Hecht 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Evidence suggests that people with HIV who are low in choline may experience more rapid disease progression.

[118] In developed countries where HAART is available, doctors assess their patients thoroughly: measuring the viral load, how fast CD4 declines, and patient readiness. .They then decide when to recommend starting treatment.^ But ultimately, the addict themselves must decide that they are, in fact, addicted, before they can seek any sort of meaningful treatment.

^ This finding contradicts current treatment guidelines, which generally recommend waiting to start treatment until your CD4+ cells (T-cells) drop below 200.

^ Viral load tests are also used to decide when to start and when to change your treatment.
  • HIV/AIDS 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[119]
.HAART neither cures the patient nor does it uniformly remove all symptoms; high levels of HIV-1, often HAART resistant, return if treatment is stopped.^ HIV-associated retinal microvasculopathy: HIV-associated retinal microvasculopathy often is asymptomatic and transient, but it may contribute to the optic nerve atrophy seen in many of the patients.
  • Ocular Manifestations of HIV: eMedicine Ophthalmology 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Patient Story: “This painful treatment is my only way out of drug-resistant TB” .

^ VZV and HSV keratitis tend to reoccur more often, and they may be resistant to treatment in HIV patients.
  • Ocular Manifestations of HIV: eMedicine Ophthalmology 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[120][121] .Moreover, it would take more than a lifetime for HIV infection to be cleared using HAART.[122] Despite this, many HIV-infected individuals have experienced remarkable improvements in their general health and quality of life, which has led to a large reduction in HIV-associated morbidity and mortality in the developed world.^ We have all kinds of top quality basses for sale, if you would like more information, please visit us at www.bsxbass.com.
  • Drug Abuse: Guide & Resources Directory 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC drugsarehorrible.com [Source type: General]

^ Prijic is pretty good at general dentistry and if you would like to get more information on him then you should take a look at RobinsonPrijic.com.
  • Drug Abuse: Guide & Resources Directory 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC drugsarehorrible.com [Source type: General]

^ However, even though it doesn't harm like the other drugs do its more addicting than the other drugs that to can also lead to many severe problems.
  • Drug Abuse: Guide & Resources Directory 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC drugsarehorrible.com [Source type: General]

[117][123][124] .One study suggests the average life expectancy of an HIV infected individual is 32 years from the time of infection if treatment is started when the CD4 count is 350/µL.[125] In the absence of HAART, progression from HIV infection to AIDS has been observed to occur at a median of between nine to ten years and the median survival time after developing AIDS is only 9.2 months.^ The length of time after treatment for a specific disease during which a patient survives with no sign of the disease.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ This synthetic anent is AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency syndrome virus or HIV-1) ARPA requested $10 million to develop AIDS, 10 years before the virus was identified in the field.
  • Aids; The Manufactured Virus 10 September 2009 22:16 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A research program to explore the feasibility of this could be completed in approximately 5 years at a total cost of $10 million.” This was major funding for the development of what would later be called AIDS/HIV. Yes Virginia, AIDS is a man-made virus.
  • Aids; The Manufactured Virus 10 September 2009 22:16 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[11] .However, HAART sometimes achieves far less than optimal results, in some circumstances being effective in less than fifty percent of patients.^ Experts put the risk at far less than 1 percent.
  • HIV/AIDS 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After 48 weeks, 84% of the patients taking Viread/Emtriva had a viral load of less than 400, compared to 73% of those taking Combivir.

^ Increased uptake of circumcision might result in stigmatisation of uncircumcised men as being less ‘safe’ [288].
  • Circumcision and HIV: The AIDS Virus 10 September 2009 22:16 UTC www.circinfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This is due to a variety of reasons such as medication intolerance/side effects, prior ineffective antiretroviral therapy and infection with a drug-resistant strain of HIV. However, non-adherence and non-persistence with antiretroviral therapy is the major reason most individuals fail to benefit from HAART.[126] The reasons for non-adherence and non-persistence with HAART are varied and overlapping.^ Describes side effects of a drug or other treatment that are serious enough to prevent an increase in dose or level of that treatment.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A drug that is used to treat Alzheimer disease and is being studied in the treatment of side effects caused by radiation therapy to the brain.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The active ingredient in a drug used to treat severe side effects caused by certain anticancer drugs.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Major psychosocial issues, such as poor access to medical care, inadequate social supports, psychiatric disease and drug abuse contribute to non-adherence.^ Drug abuse may lead to social, physical, emotional, and job-related problems.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The complexity of these HAART regimens, whether due to pill number, dosing frequency, meal restrictions or other issues along with side effects that create intentional non-adherence also contribute to this problem.^ Describes side effects of a drug or other treatment that are serious enough to prevent an increase in dose or level of that treatment.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

[127][128][129] .The side effects include lipodystrophy, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, an increase in cardiovascular risks, and birth defects.^ Describes side effects of a drug or other treatment that are serious enough to prevent an increase in dose or level of that treatment.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ It also has been linked to an increased risk of clear cell carcinoma of the vagina or cervix in daughters exposed to DES before birth.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ It also has been linked to an increased risk of clear cell carcinoma of the vagina or cervix in daughters exposed to diethylstilbestrol before birth.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

[130][131]
.The timing for starting HIV treatment is still debated.^ The study is seeking participants who have not yet started treatment for their HIV. .

^ The time period usually begins at the time of diagnosis or at the start of treatment and ends at the time of death.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The sooner the better when it comes to starting HIV treatment .

.There is no question that treatment should be started before the patient's CD4 count falls below 200, and most national guidelines say to start treatment once the CD4 count falls below 350; but there is some evidence from cohort studies that treatment should be started before the CD4 count falls below 350.[123][132] In those countries where CD4 counts are not available, patients with WHO stage III or IV disease[133] should be offered treatment.^ The "Africa Legend," as it is called in a 1988 West German (Westdeutscher Rundfunk) television documentary, is further debunked by the epidemiological history of AIDS. There is no solid evidence of AIDS in Africa before 1983.
  • Aids; The Manufactured Virus 10 September 2009 22:16 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The other day when I started to look for some nice buses which are for sale, I also decided to call one of my friends and ask him for advice about where I should look.
  • Drug Abuse: Guide & Resources Directory 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC drugsarehorrible.com [Source type: General]

^ Soon there will be no more Black people and a confused military, older White people will start suddenly dying and you still won’t get it.
  • Aids; The Manufactured Virus 10 September 2009 22:16 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Anti-retroviral drugs are expensive, and the majority of the world's infected individuals do not have access to medications and treatments for HIV and AIDS.[134] Research to improve current treatments includes decreasing side effects of current drugs, further simplifying drug regimens to improve adherence, and determining the best sequence of regimens to manage drug resistance.^ Refers to the effects of treatment with a drug.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ G. Johnson of Stanford Medical Center, in 1988, determined that HIV could be transmitted through the air.
  • Aids; The Manufactured Virus 10 September 2009 22:16 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Four hundred prisoners in Chicago are infected with Malaria in order to study the effects of new and experimental drugs to combat the disease.
  • Aids; The Manufactured Virus 10 September 2009 22:16 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Unfortunately, only a vaccine is thought to be able to halt the pandemic. This is because a vaccine would cost less, thus being affordable for developing countries, and would not require daily treatment.[134] .However, after over 20 years of research, HIV-1 remains a difficult target for a vaccine.^ Why has it been so difficult to develop an HIV vaccine?
  • HIV - a knol by Frederick (Rick) Hecht 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, researchers could only identify 20 cases of serious symptoms among ephedra users where there was an attempt to rule out alternative explanations.
  • Drugs 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC www.tuberose.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is a difficult question to answer because there have been a series of dead ends in HIV vaccine research so far, despite a lot of research.
  • HIV - a knol by Frederick (Rick) Hecht 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[134]

Treatments in development

.Media reports in 2008 and a publication in the New England Journal of Medicine in 2009 described the anecdotal case of an HIV-positive patient of a Berlin doctor, Gero Hütter.^ New York Times reports Kenyan hospital system overloaded, two AIDS patients to a bed, many just placed in corridors.
  • Aids; The Manufactured Virus 10 September 2009 22:16 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The patient, who had both acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and HIV infection, was said by some to be "functionally cured" of his HIV following a bone marrow transplant for AML. The bone marrow donor had been selected as homozygous for a CCR5-Δ32 mutation (which confers resistance to "almost all strains of HIV").^ The active ingredient in a drug used to treat acute leukemias and some other types of cancer.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A substance being studied in the treatment of myeloid leukemia (a disease in which too many immature non-lymphocyte white blood cells are found in the blood and bone marrow).
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ She said that she would recommend this pranic facelift for women who have a stressful life and who need some peace and relaxation.
  • Drug Abuse: Guide & Resources Directory 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC drugsarehorrible.com [Source type: General]

[135][136] .After 600 days without antiretroviral drug treatment, HIV levels in the patient's blood, bone marrow and bowel were below the limit of detection, although the authors note that the virus is likely present in other tissues.^ However, even though it doesn't harm like the other drugs do its more addicting than the other drugs that to can also lead to many severe problems.
  • Drug Abuse: Guide & Resources Directory 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC drugsarehorrible.com [Source type: General]

^ Marijuana is a drug that can lead into other drugs, but it can also have you adiccted to it like a piece of sunflower seed you can't put down.
  • Drug Abuse: Guide & Resources Directory 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC drugsarehorrible.com [Source type: General]

^ Other drugs as well as marijuana can get you addicted, but the only ones that should have the same level which is opiates.
  • Drug Abuse: Guide & Resources Directory 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC drugsarehorrible.com [Source type: General]

.Researchers cautioned that it would be premature to consider this treatment a possible cure because of its anecdotal nature, the mortality risk associated with bone marrow transplants and other concerns.^ I did some research and I found out that this pulp drainage equipment is one of the best and I would recommend it to others.
  • Drug Abuse: Guide & Resources Directory 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC drugsarehorrible.com [Source type: General]

^ A substance being studied in the treatment of myeloid leukemia (a disease in which too many immature non-lymphocyte white blood cells are found in the blood and bone marrow).
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The treatment plan for a disease or disorder that has been chosen as the best one for a patient after all other choices have been considered.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

[137][138]

HIV latent reservoir

.Despite the success of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in controlling HIV infection and reducing HIV-associated mortality, current drug regimens are unable to completely eradicate HIV infection.^ Used in photodynamic therapy, a drug that is absorbed by tumor cells; when exposed to light, it becomes active and kills the cancer cells.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

Many people on HAART achieve suppression of HIV to levels below the limit of detection of standard clinical assays for many years. However, upon withdrawal of HAART, HIV viral loads rebound quickly with a concomitant decline in CD4+ T-Cells, which, in most cases, absent a resumption of treatment, leads to AIDS.
.To successfully reproduce itself, HIV must convert its RNA genome to DNA, which is then imported into the host cell's nucleus and inserted into the host genome through the action of HIV integrase.^ It is used to identify the genes (pieces of DNA) in specific cells or tissue that are actively used to make RNA, which then may be used to make proteins.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The strains are tougher, mutate more easily and even have a facility to convert antibodies (generated by the body to fight off disease) into the virus itself i.e.
  • Aids; The Manufactured Virus 10 September 2009 22:16 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Because HIV's primary cellular target, CD4+ T-Cells, function as the memory cells of the immune system, integrated HIV can remain dormant for the duration of these cell's lifetime.^ D-1MT blocks the breakdown of the amino acid tryptophan, which is needed for T cells (a type of immune system cell) to kill tumor cells.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The HIV antibody test will show positive if you have a weakened immune system, regardless of whether you have the relatively harmless HIV virus in your system.
  • Aids; The Manufactured Virus 10 September 2009 22:16 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A type of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (cancer of the immune system) that is usually aggressive (fast-growing).
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

Memory T-Cells may survive for many years and possibly for decades. The latent HIV reservoir can be measured by co-culturing CD4+ T-Cells from infected patients with CD4+ T-Cells from uninfected donors and measuring HIV protein or RNA.[139]
The failure of vaccine candidates to protect against HIV infection and progression to AIDS has led to a renewed focus on the biological mechanisms responsible for HIV latency. .A limited period of therapy combining anti-retrovirals with drugs targeting the latent reservoir may one day allow for total eradication of HIV infection.^ The placenta and fetal tissues may deal with drugs differently from adult target tissues.

[140]

Prognosis

Without treatment, the net median survival time after infection with HIV is estimated to be 9 to 11 years, depending on the HIV subtype,[141] and the median survival rate after diagnosis of AIDS in resource-limited settings where treatment is not available ranges between 6 and 19 months, depending on the study.[142] .In areas where it is widely available, the development of HAART as effective therapy for HIV infection and AIDS reduced the death rate from this disease by 80%, and raised the life expectancy for a newly diagnosed HIV-infected person to 20–50 years.^ Our conclusion is that Robert McNamara knowingly encouraged development of AIDS as a means to reduce the worlds' Population.
  • Aids; The Manufactured Virus 10 September 2009 22:16 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This synthetic anent is AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency syndrome virus or HIV-1) ARPA requested $10 million to develop AIDS, 10 years before the virus was identified in the field.
  • Aids; The Manufactured Virus 10 September 2009 22:16 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A research program to explore the feasibility of this could be completed in approximately 5 years at a total cost of $10 million.” This was major funding for the development of what would later be called AIDS/HIV. Yes Virginia, AIDS is a man-made virus.
  • Aids; The Manufactured Virus 10 September 2009 22:16 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[143][144]
.As new treatments continue to be developed and because HIV continues to evolve resistance to treatments, estimates of survival time are likely to continue to change.^ People like weathering steel because over time it develops a pleasing rusty patina when exposed to natural weather conditions.
  • Drug Abuse: Guide & Resources Directory 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC drugsarehorrible.com [Source type: General]

.Without antiretroviral therapy, death normally occurs within a year after the individual progresses to AIDS.[11] Most patients die from opportunistic infections or malignancies associated with the progressive failure of the immune system.^ AIDS patients who do not die of the consequences of immune deficiency show the same damage to the brain, lungs, intestines, and kidneys that occurs in sheep affected with Visna.
  • Aids; The Manufactured Virus 10 September 2009 22:16 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This synthetic anent is AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency syndrome virus or HIV-1) ARPA requested $10 million to develop AIDS, 10 years before the virus was identified in the field.
  • Aids; The Manufactured Virus 10 September 2009 22:16 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We are looking at 100 million infections within six years so the urgency is obvious, AT LEAST TO PHOENIX LETTER, THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT IS STALLING ON RESEARCH. .
  • Aids; The Manufactured Virus 10 September 2009 22:16 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[7] The rate of clinical disease progression varies widely between individuals and has been shown to be affected by many factors such as host susceptibility and immune function[68][145][146] health care and co-infections,[7][11] as well as which particular strain of the virus is involved.[147][148][149]

Epidemiology

Estimated prevalence of HIV among young adults (15-49) per country at the end of 2005.
Disability-adjusted life year for HIV and AIDS per 100,000 inhabitants.
     no data      ≤ 10      10-25      25-50      50-100      100-500      500-1000      1000-2500      2500-5000      5000-7500      7500-10000      10000-50000      ≥ 50000
.UNAIDS and the WHO estimate that AIDS has killed more than 25 million people since it was first recognized in 1981, making it one of the most destructive pandemics in recorded history.^ That's more than 128 million people.
  • Drugs 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC www.tuberose.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Over 25 million people have died from AIDS. So far approx.
  • Circumcision and HIV: The AIDS Virus 10 September 2009 22:16 UTC www.circinfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The CDC estimates that more than one million people in America may be infected with HIV and that as many as 250,000 of these may not know that they are infected and can pass on the virus to others.

.Despite recent improved access to antiretroviral treatment and care in many regions of the world, the AIDS pandemic claimed an estimated 2.8 million (between 2.4 and 3.3 million) lives in 2005 of which more than half a million (570,000) were children.^ That's more than 128 million people.
  • Drugs 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC www.tuberose.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ WORLD AIDS DAY 2005 .

^ People living with HIV/AIDS are up to 50 times more likely to develop active TB in a given year compared with HIV-negative individuals, and roughly a third of the 33 million people living with HIV/AIDS worldwide are infected with latent TB. Yet, in 2006 less than one percent of people living with HIV/AIDS were screened for TB. .

[3]
.In 2007, between 30.6 and 36.1 million people were believed to live with HIV, and it killed an estimated 2.1 million people that year, including 330,000 children; there were 2.5 million new infections.^ Among people living with HIV, TB is the commonest cause of death and over 1.4 million people living with HIV develop TB each year.

^ There were an estimated 2.5 million new infections in 2007, and 2.1 million deaths.
  • HIV - a knol by Frederick (Rick) Hecht 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An estimated 39.5 million people have HIV worldwide.
  • HIV/AIDS 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[141]
.Sub-Saharan Africa remains by far the worst-affected region, with an estimated 21.6 to 27.4 million people currently living with HIV. Two million (1.5–3.0 million) of them are children younger than 15 years of age.^ The largest impact of which so far has been the over 93 MILLION vaccinated with AIDS tainted “smallpox vaccine” in Africa by the World Health Organization.
  • Aids; The Manufactured Virus 10 September 2009 22:16 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This synthetic anent is AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency syndrome virus or HIV-1) ARPA requested $10 million to develop AIDS, 10 years before the virus was identified in the field.
  • Aids; The Manufactured Virus 10 September 2009 22:16 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ McNamara extended the extraordinary thesis that "the children who were dying were fortunate, for the millions of those who lived languidly on were stunted in their bodies and cripples in their minds."
  • Aids; The Manufactured Virus 10 September 2009 22:16 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

More than 64% of all people living with HIV are in sub-Saharan Africa, as are more than three quarters of all women living with HIV. In 2005, there were 12.0 million (10.6–13.6 million) AIDS orphans living in sub-Saharan Africa 2005.[3]
South & South East Asia are second-worst affected with 15% of the total. .AIDS accounts for the deaths of 500,000 children in this region.^ AIDS is the leading cause of death in this region.
  • HIV - a knol by Frederick (Rick) Hecht 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, it is estimated that Zimbabwe has 1 000 000 children orphaned due to AIDS among a total population of fewer than 13 million.
  • ::::Aids Foundation South Africa::::HIV/AIDS in South Africa 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.aids.org.za [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (However, it is estimated that Zimbabwe has 1 000 000 children orphaned due to AIDS, among a total population of fewer than 13 million).
  • ::::Aids Foundation South Africa::::HIV/AIDS in South Africa 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.aids.org.za [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.South Africa has the largest number of HIV patients in the world followed by Nigeria.^ South Africa is regarded as having the most severe HIV epidemic in the world .
  • ::::Aids Foundation South Africa::::HIV/AIDS in South Africa 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.aids.org.za [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ South Africa with 5.5 million people infected has more than any country in the world.
  • Circumcision and HIV: The AIDS Virus 10 September 2009 22:16 UTC www.circinfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dr Eric Goemaere, medical co-ordinator for MSF in South Africa, discusses diagnosing and managing HIV-TB co-infection.

[150] .India has an estimated 2.5  million infections (0.23% of population), making India the country with the third largest population of HIV patients.^ Trace elements in patients with HIV-1 infection.

^ It is estimated that there are about 2 million HIV-infected people in the country.

^ Approximately one-quarter to one-third of all untreated pregnant women infected with HIV will pass the infection to their babies.

.In the 35 African nations with the highest prevalence, average life expectancy is 48.3 years—6.5 years less than it would be without the disease.^ After 48 weeks, 84% of the patients taking Viread/Emtriva had a viral load of less than 400, compared to 73% of those taking Combivir.

^ Other areas with rates higher than the national average are Philadelphia, Detroit, Boston, San Francisco and Phoenix.
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^ Monteith was one of the very first to recognize the significance of AIDS and has devoted over 20 years of his life to investigation and warning about the dangerous nature of the disease to everyone .
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[151]
.The latest evaluation report of the World Bank's Operations Evaluation Department assesses the development effectiveness of the World Bank's country-level HIV/AIDS assistance defined as policy dialogue, analytic work, and lending with the explicit objective of reducing the scope or impact of the AIDS epidemic.^ The largest impact of which so far has been the over 93 MILLION vaccinated with AIDS tainted “smallpox vaccine” in Africa by the World Health Organization.
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^ Our conclusion is that Robert McNamara knowingly encouraged development of AIDS as a means to reduce the worlds' Population.
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^ This synthetic anent is AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency syndrome virus or HIV-1) ARPA requested $10 million to develop AIDS, 10 years before the virus was identified in the field.
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[152] .This is the first comprehensive evaluation of the World Bank's HIV/AIDS support to countries, from the beginning of the epidemic through mid-2004. Because the Bank aims to assist in implementation of national government programmes, their experience provides important insights on how national AIDS programmes can be made more effective.^ HIV and AIDS Indicators at mid-2006 .
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^ WORLD AIDS DAY 2004 .

^ World AIDS Day 2004 .

.The development of HAART as effective therapy for HIV infection has substantially reduced the death rate from this disease in those areas where these drugs are widely available.^ In brief, Robert McNamara was in the final decision making role for development of AIDS at the very time he was contemplating the idea that "world death rates must got up."
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^ Graves contends the Special Virus Program was started with the intention of designing a ³wasting² disease to help reduce world population, especially among developing countries in Africa.
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[117] As the life expectancy of persons with HIV has increased in countries where HAART is widely used, the continuing spread of the disease has caused the number of persons living with HIV to increase substantially.
In Africa, the number of MTCT and the prevalence of AIDS is beginning to reverse decades of steady progress in child survival. .Countries such as Uganda are attempting to curb the MTCT epidemic by offering VCT (voluntary counselling and testing), PMTCT (prevention of mother-to-child transmission) and ANC (ante-natal care) services, which include the distribution of antiretroviral therapy.^ Transmission from mother to child.
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^ The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) encourages voluntary HIV testing as a routine part of medical care for all adolescents and adults ages 13 to 64.
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^ Breastfeeding with maternal antiretroviral therapy or formula feeding to prevent HIV postnatal mother-to-child transmission in Rwanda.

History

Origins

See History of known cases and spread for early cases of HIV / AIDS
.HIV is thought to have originated in non-human primates in sub-Saharan Africa and was transferred to humans late in the 19th or early in the 20th century.^ The true history of the origin of AIDS can be traced throughout the 20th Century and back to 1878.
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[153] The first paper recognizing a pattern of opportunistic infections characteristic of AIDS was published in 1981.[154]
Both HIV-1 and HIV-2 are believed to have originated in West-Central Africa and to have jumped species (a process known as zoonosis) from non-human primates to humans. .HIV-1 appears to have originated in southern Cameroon through the evolution of SIV(cpz), a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) that infects wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes).^ All of the known varieties of SIV (Simian Immunodeficiency Virus) are structurally so dissimilar to HIV (much less similar than HIV and Visna) that a common origin is out of the question.
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^ The world already knows (now), HIV was originally called 'leukemia/lymphoma' virus.
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[155][156] .The closest relative of HIV-2 is SIV(agm), a virus of the sooty mangabey (Cercocebus atys), an Old World monkey of Guinea-Bissau, Gabon, and Cameroon.^ The HIV antibody test will show positive if you have a weakened immune system, regardless of whether you have the relatively harmless HIV virus in your system.
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^ The world already knows (now), HIV was originally called 'leukemia/lymphoma' virus.
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[17] .New World monkeys such as the owl monkey are resistant to HIV-1 infection, possibly because of a genomic fusion of two viral resistance genes.^ Government has no really accurate number of HIV-AIDS infections because gay lobbies vehemently oppose any form of monitoring or reporting.
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[157]

Discovery

.AIDS was first clinically observed between late 1980 and early 1981. A group of five men showed symptoms of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP), a rare opportunistic infection that was known to present itself in people with very compromised immune systems.^ The HIV antibody test will show positive if you have a weakened immune system, regardless of whether you have the relatively harmless HIV virus in your system.
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^ We are not dealing with the same HIV-AIDS strains today that were encountered in the early 1980's.
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^ Monteith was one of the very first to recognize the significance of AIDS and has devoted over 20 years of his life to investigation and warning about the dangerous nature of the disease to everyone .
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.Soon thereafter, another set of men developed a rare skin cancer called Kaposi’s sarcoma (KP).^ The men are later studied for development of cancer, which indicates that Agent Orange had been a suspected carcinogen all along.
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.Many more cases of PCP and KP quickly emerged, alerting U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).^ How American Medical Association, Centers for Disease Control, and the Surgeon General attack any doctor who dare propose monitoring or controlling the disease.
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^ AIDS entered the United States through the New York Blood Center/Centers for Disease Control in the late 1970's.
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A CDC task force was formed to monitor the outbreak. .After recognizing a pattern of anomalous symptoms presenting themselves in patients, the task force named the condition acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).^ AIDS patients who do not die of the consequences of immune deficiency show the same damage to the brain, lungs, intestines, and kidneys that occurs in sheep affected with Visna.
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^ This synthetic anent is AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency syndrome virus or HIV-1) ARPA requested $10 million to develop AIDS, 10 years before the virus was identified in the field.
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^ In 1978, the federal government produced 60,000 liters of a biological agent that would subsequently be known as acquired immune deficiency syndrome, Graves says.
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[158]
.In 1983, two separate research groups led by Robert Gallo and Luc Montagnier independently declared that a novel retrovirus may have been infecting AIDS patients, and published their findings in the same issue of the journal Science.^ In early 1990 Science reported that AIDS researcher Dr. Robert Gallo had tested an altered AIDS virus, one that could infect' cells previously left uninfected by the early AIDS strain.
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^ It is strongly held that because of Dr. Nicolson, Dr. Robert Gallo and Dr. Luc Montagnier would secretly meet in Southern California to coordinate what they would and would not say about the special virus development program.
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^ AIDS patients who do not die of the consequences of immune deficiency show the same damage to the brain, lungs, intestines, and kidneys that occurs in sheep affected with Visna.
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[159][160] .Gallo claimed that a virus his group had isolated from an AIDS patient was strikingly similar in shape to other human T-lymphotropic viruses (HTLVs) his group had been the first to isolate.^ The next question is, if it is possible to produce HIV from Visna and HTLV-I now, was it also possible in 1977, when Segal claims the AIDS virus was created?
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^ In 1954, Dr. Bjorn Sigurdsson publishes his first paper on Visna virus and establishes himself as the “Grandfather of the AIDS virus.” He will encounter competition from Dr. Carlton Gajdusek.
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^ Scrutiny of the technical literature, Segal says, reveals that Dr. Robert Gallo isolated such a virus, HTLV-I, by 1975, though it was not given this name until later.
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Gallo's group called their newly isolated virus HTLV-III. At the same time, Montagnier's group isolated a virus from a patient presenting lymphadenopathy (swelling of the lymph nodes) of the neck and physical weakness, two classic symptoms of AIDS. Contradicting the report from Gallo's group, Montagnier and his colleagues showed that core proteins of this virus were immunologically different from those of HTLV-I. Montagnier's group named their isolated virus lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV).[158]
.Whether Gallo or Montagnier deserve more credit for the discovery of the virus that causes AIDS has been a matter of considerable controversy.^ Phoenix Letter has reported a new string of AIDS virus, much tougher, much more dangerous and p ossibly airborne .
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^ It is ludicrous and preposterous to fail to review the U.S. virus program in which to elucidate the etiology of AIDS. More of the history of the secret virus program can be found in the archives of Dr. John B. Moloney.
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^ The book is controversial because it documents a growing scientific debate over whether the Federal government has blamed the AIDS epidemic on the wrong cause; no charges of indecency, libel, or violation of national security have been made against the book.
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Together with his colleague Françoise Barré-Sinoussi, Montagnier was awarded one half of the 2008 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his "discovery of human immunodeficiency virus".[161] Harald zur Hausen also shared the Prize for his discovery that human papilloma virus leads to cervical cancer, but Gallo was left out.[162] Gallo said that it was "a disappointment" that he was not named a co-recipient.[163] .Montagnier said he was "surprised" Gallo was not recognized by the Nobel Committee: "It was important to prove that HIV was the cause of AIDS, and Gallo had a very important role in that.^ Graves said these documents will further prove the laboratory birth of the HIV/AIDS enzyme via a secret federal virus development program, the US Special Virus Program.
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^ Monteith was one of the very first to recognize the significance of AIDS and has devoted over 20 years of his life to investigation and warning about the dangerous nature of the disease to everyone .
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^ There are hundreds of well known doctors, microbiologists, professors, laymen who have proved that AIDS is not caused by HIV but by drugs end/or other immuno suppresive factors.
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I'm very sorry for Robert Gallo."[162]

AIDS denialism

.Some individuals, including some scientists who are not recognized experts on HIV,[164] question the connection between HIV and AIDS,[165] the existence of HIV itself, or the validity of HIV testing and treatment methods.^ The next question is, if it is possible to produce HIV from Visna and HTLV-I now, was it also possible in 1977, when Segal claims the AIDS virus was created?
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^ Some government officials and scientists have verified the document¹s existence, but none agree with his assertion it was a secret program responsible for the creation of the AIDS virus.
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^ We have found a curtain of AIDS. We can identify some of the people who work in the shadows of the curtain.
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[164][166] .These claims, known as AIDS denialism, have been examined and rejected by the worldwide scientific community,[167] although they have had a political impact, particularly in South Africa, where the government's official promotion of AIDS denialism was responsible for its ineffective response to that country's AIDS epidemic.^ Not surprisingly, some Federal officials have openly stated they do not want the general public to learn about the AIDS information contained in the book.
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^ Some government officials and scientists have verified the document¹s existence, but none agree with his assertion it was a secret program responsible for the creation of the AIDS virus.
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^ Government officials dominated by gays refuse to follow up with research on these initial findings, because the gay lobby fm monitoring and quarantine .
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[168][169][170]

See also

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  139. ^ Archin NM, Eron JJ, Palmer S, Hartmann-Duff A, Martinson JA, Wiegand A, Bandarenko N, Schmitz JL, Bosch RJ, Landay AL, Coffin JM, Margolis DM. (2008). "Valproic acid without intensified antiviral therapy has limited impact on persistent HIV infection of resting CD4+ T cells.". AIDS 22 (10): 1131–1135. doi:10.1097/QAD.0b013e3282fd6df4. PMID 18525258. 
  140. ^ Bowman MC, Archin NM, Margolis DM. (2009). "Pharmaceutical approaches to eradication of persistent HIV infection.". Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine 11 (e6). 
  141. ^ a b UNAIDS, WHO (December 2007). "2007 AIDS epidemic update" (PDF). http://data.unaids.org/pub/EPISlides/2007/2007_epiupdate_en.pdf. Retrieved 2008-03-12. 
  142. ^ Zwahlen M, Egger M (2006) (PDF). Progression and mortality of untreated HIV-positive individuals living in resource-limited settings: update of literature review and evidence synthesis. UNAIDS Obligation HQ/05/422204. http://data.unaids.org/pub/Periodical/2006/zwahlen_unaids_hq_05_422204_2007_en.pdf. Retrieved 2008-03-19. 
  143. ^ Knoll B, Lassmann B, Temesgen Z (2007). "Current status of HIV infection: a review for non-HIV-treating physicians". Int J Dermatol 46 (12): 1219–28. doi:10.1111/j.1365-4632.2007.03520.x (inactive 2009-08-10). PMID 18173512. 
  144. ^ Antiretroviral Therapy Cohort Collaboration (2008). "Life expectancy of individuals on combination antiretroviral therapy in high-income countries: a collaborative analysis of 14 cohort studies". Lancet 372 (9635): 293–9. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(08)61113-7. PMID 18657708. 
  145. ^ Clerici M, Balotta C, Meroni L, et al. (1996). "Type 1 cytokine production and low prevalence of viral isolation correlate with long-term non progression in HIV infection". AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses. 12 (11): 1053–1061. PMID 8827221. 
  146. ^ Morgan D, Mahe C, Mayanja B, Whitworth JA (2002). "Progression to symptomatic disease in people infected with HIV-1 in rural Uganda: prospective cohort study". BMJ 324 (7331): 193–196. doi:10.1136/bmj.324.7331.193. PMID 11809639. 
  147. ^ Campbell GR, Pasquier E, Watkins J, et al. (2004). "The glutamine-rich region of the HIV-1 Tat protein is involved in T-cell apoptosis". J. Biol. Chem. 279 (46): 48197–48204. doi:10.1074/jbc.M406195200. PMID 15331610. 
  148. ^ Campbell GR, Watkins JD, Esquieu D, Pasquier E, Loret EP, Spector SA (2005). "The C terminus of HIV-1 Tat modulates the extent of CD178-mediated apoptosis of T cells". J. Biol. Chem. 280 (46): 38376–39382. PMID 16155003. 
  149. ^ Senkaali D, Muwonge R, Morgan D, Yirrell D, Whitworth J, Kaleebu P (2005). "The relationship between HIV type 1 disease progression and V3 serotype in a rural Ugandan cohort". AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses. 20 (9): 932–937. PMID 15585080. 
  150. ^ McNeil, Jr., Donald (November 20, 2007). "U.N. Agency to Say It Overstated Extent of H.I.V. Cases by Millions". The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C01EEDF103BF933A15752C1A9619C8B63&n. Retrieved 2008-01-16. 
  151. ^ UNAIDS (2001). "Special Session of the General Assembly on HIV/AIDS Round table 3 Socio-economic impact of the epidemic and the strengthening of national capacities to combat HIV/AIDS" (PDF). http://data.unaids.org/Publications/External-Documents/GAS26-rt3_en.pdf. Retrieved 2006-06-15. 
  152. ^ World Bank (2005). "Evaluating the World Bank's Assistance for Fighting the HIV/AIDS Epidemic". http://www.worldbank.org/oed/aids/main_report.html. Retrieved 2006-01-17. 
  153. ^ Worobey M, Gemmel M, Teuwen DE, et al. (October 2008). "Direct evidence of extensive diversity of HIV-1 in Kinshasa by 1960". Nature 455 (7213): 661–4. doi:10.1038/nature07390. PMID 18833279. 
  154. ^ "Pneumocystis Pneumonia -- Los Angeles". http://www.cdc.gov/MMWR/preview/mmwrhtml/00043494.htm. Retrieved 2008-05-05. 
  155. ^ Gao F, Bailes E, Robertson DL, et al. (February 1999). "Origin of HIV-1 in the chimpanzee Pan troglodytes troglodytes". Nature 397 (6718): 436–41. doi:10.1038/17130. PMID 9989410. 
  156. ^ Keele, B. F., van Heuverswyn, F., Li, Y. Y., Bailes, E., Takehisa, J., Santiago, M. L., Bibollet-Ruche, F., Chen, Y., Wain, L. V., Liegois, F., Loul, S., Mpoudi Ngole, E., Bienvenue, Y., Delaporte, E., Brookfield, J. F. Y., Sharp, P. M., Shaw, G. M., Peeters, M., and Hahn, B. H. (28 July 2006). "Chimpanzee Reservoirs of Pandemic and Nonpandemic HIV-1". Science 313 (5786 pages=523–526). doi:10.1126/science.1126531. PMID 16728595. 
  157. ^ Goodier, J., and Kazazian, H. (2008). "Retrotransposons Revisited: The Restraint and Rehabilitation of Parasites". Cell 135 (1): 23–35. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2008.09.022. PMID 18854152. 
  158. ^ a b Basavapathruni, A; Anderson, KS (December 2007). "Reverse transcription of the HIV-1 pandemic". The FASEB Journal 21 (14): 3795–3808. doi:10.1096/fj.07-8697rev. PMID 17639073. 
  159. ^ RC Gallo, PS Sarin, EP Gelmann, M Robert-Guroff, E Richardson, VS Kalyanaraman, D Mann, GD Sidhu, RE Stahl, S Zolla-Pazner, J Leibowitch, and M Popovic (1983). "Isolation of human T-cell leukemia virus in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)". Science 220: 865–867. doi:10.1126/science.6189183. 
  160. ^ F Barre-Sinoussi, JC Chermann, F Rey, MT Nugeyre, S Chamaret, J Gruest, C Dauguet, C Axler-Blin, F Vezinet-Brun, C Rouzioux, W Rozenbaum, and L Montagnier (1983). "Isolation of a T-lymphotropic retrovirus from a patient at risk for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)". Science 220: 868–870. doi:10.1126/science.6601823. 
  161. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2008". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/2008/index.html. Retrieved October 28, 2009. 
  162. ^ a b Cohen, J; Enserink, Martin (10 October 2008). "Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine: HIV, HPV researchers honored, but one scientist is left out". Science 322 (5899): 149–175. doi:10.1126/science.322.5899.174. PMID 18845715. 
  163. ^ Altman, Lawrence (2008-10-06). "Three Europeans Win the 2008 Nobel for Medicine". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/10/07/health/07nobel.html. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  164. ^ a b Kalichman, Seth (2009). Denying AIDS: Conspiracy Theories, Pseudoscience, and Human Tragedy. New York: Copernicus Books (Springer Science+Business Media). ISBN 978-0-387-79475-4. http://books.google.ca/books?id=_mtDBCDwxugC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_navlinks_s#v=onepage&q=&f=false. 
  165. ^ Duesberg, P. H. (1988). "HIV is not the cause of AIDS". Science 241 (4865): 514, 517. doi:10.1126/science.3399880. PMID 3399880. 
  166. ^ Smith TC, Novella SP (August 2007). "HIV denial in the Internet era". PLoS Med. 4 (8): e256. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0040256. PMID 17713982. http://medicine.plosjournals.org/perlserv/?request=get-document&doi=10.1371/journal.pmed.0040256&ct=1&SESSID=3d4baa1a64e57d8ff33e9d41eb2335a1. Retrieved 2009-11-07. 
  167. ^ For evidence that HIV is the cause of AIDS, see (for example):
  168. ^ Watson J (2006). "Scientists, activists sue South Africa's AIDS 'denialists'". Nat. Med. 12 (1): 6. doi:10.1038/nm0106-6a. PMID 16397537. 
  169. ^ Baleta A (2003). "S Africa's AIDS activists accuse government of murder". Lancet 361 (9363): 1105. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(03)12909-1. PMID 12672319. 
  170. ^ Cohen J (2000). "South Africa's new enemy". Science 288 (5474): 2168–70. doi:10.1126/science.288.5474.2168. PMID 10896606. 

External links

.
  • HIV/AIDS at the Open Directory Project
  • "AIDSinfo - HIV/AIDS Treatment Information".^ Just click "search" for more information on HIV Aids: .
    • Aids; The Manufactured Virus 10 September 2009 22:16 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    US Department of Health and Human Services. http://aidsinfo.nih.gov/. Retrieved 2008-03-21. 
  • "UNAIDS: The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS". UNAIDS. .http://www.unaids.org/en/.^ Proof: Department of Defense Appropriations for 1970 H.B. 15090 http://www.apfn.org/apfn/aids.pdf .
    • Aids; The Manufactured Virus 10 September 2009 22:16 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ American Masses Hoodwinked http://www.apfn.org/apfn/aids2.pdf .
    • Aids; The Manufactured Virus 10 September 2009 22:16 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ LAB RATS - SHAD Project 112 http://www.apfn.org/apfn/SHAD.htm .
    • Aids; The Manufactured Virus 10 September 2009 22:16 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Retrieved 2008-03-21
    .
     
  • "AIDS.gov: Portal to all Federal HIV/AIDS information". AIDS.gov. .http://www.AIDS.gov.^ Thousands of other official government document archives may be previewed online at http://www.boydgraves.com and http://www.archives.gov ### =============================================== AIDS [HIV] AIDS: 'The Manufactured Virus' http://www.apfn.org/apfn/aids.htm From the Official U.S. Govt.
    • Aids; The Manufactured Virus 10 September 2009 22:16 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Proof: Department of Defense Appropriations for 1970 H.B. 15090 http://www.apfn.org/apfn/aids.pdf .
    • Aids; The Manufactured Virus 10 September 2009 22:16 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Smoking Gun of AIDS: a 1971 Flowchart See, http://www.boydgraves.com/flowchart/ .
    • Aids; The Manufactured Virus 10 September 2009 22:16 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Retrieved 2008-05-20
    .
     
  • "HIV News and Resources". The Body. http://www.thebody.com/. Retrieved 2008-07-18. 

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Stay safe article)

From Wikitravel

This article is a travel topic.
.There are many things that you can do to ensure that you stay safe while traveling.^ You loose many brain cells every time you smoke and that is what makes it difficult to remember things.
  • Drug Abuse: Guide & Resources Directory 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC drugsarehorrible.com [Source type: General]

^ You could find many steiff's there.
  • Drug Abuse: Guide & Resources Directory 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC drugsarehorrible.com [Source type: General]

^ When there is herb that you can smoke so many times a day and get addicted to it when nothing really happening.
  • Drug Abuse: Guide & Resources Directory 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC drugsarehorrible.com [Source type: General]

Wikitravel articles have a "Stay safe" section with location specific advice. This article covers general advice that applies to many destinations.
Disaster can strike even on a walk in the park
Disaster can strike even on a walk in the park
No place on the planet is completely free from safety risks. .However, gaining understanding about the nature of risk in general, specific threats at your destination, and what you can do to minimize both general and specific risks can go a long way towards a safe trip.^ Smoking marijuana increases the risks of getting heart attacks in your life every time you smoke.
  • Drug Abuse: Guide & Resources Directory 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC drugsarehorrible.com [Source type: General]

^ You can even develope cancer in your head or neck and the more you smoke the more risks you have of getting it.
  • Drug Abuse: Guide & Resources Directory 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC drugsarehorrible.com [Source type: General]

^ I would recommend these cabins ruidoso nm because you can do horseback riding and go on long hikes.
  • Drug Abuse: Guide & Resources Directory 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC drugsarehorrible.com [Source type: General]

  • When traveling, don't take risks you wouldn't be comfortable taking at home. .Be wary of possible threats wherever you are; relaxing on a warm beach can provide a false sense of security.
  • You can't completely eliminate all risks to your safety, so focus your energy on taking preventative steps proportional to the actual risks.^ These heated towel rails provide efficiencies throughout the year with the Dual Energy option which can operate on electric during the summer months or as part of your heating system in the cold winter months providing the best of both at all times.
    • Drug Abuse: Guide & Resources Directory 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC drugsarehorrible.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Smoking marijuana increases the risks of getting heart attacks in your life every time you smoke.
    • Drug Abuse: Guide & Resources Directory 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC drugsarehorrible.com [Source type: General]

    ^ You can even develope cancer in your head or neck and the more you smoke the more risks you have of getting it.
    • Drug Abuse: Guide & Resources Directory 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC drugsarehorrible.com [Source type: General]

    For example, car accidents claim the lives of more travelers than random acts of terrorism around the world do, so focusing on traffic safety is more practical than avoiding random terrorist attacks.
  • Gain knowledge about your destination. .Learn about local customs, including those around appropriate dress, as well as some key phrases in the local language so that you can communicate.^ Who goes to heaven is something that I can learn from the bible, so I decided to read the bible and learn more about who goes to heaven and how you should be to others to go to heaven.
    • Drug Abuse: Guide & Resources Directory 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC drugsarehorrible.com [Source type: General]

    ^ I would also recommend some professional timber home builders as well as some custom timber homes.
    • Drug Abuse: Guide & Resources Directory 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC drugsarehorrible.com [Source type: General]

    ^ I did some research and I found out that this peachtree accounting class is a great way to learn more about our peachtree accounting system.
    • Drug Abuse: Guide & Resources Directory 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC drugsarehorrible.com [Source type: General]

    .Learning about your destination will make you more aware of risks, help you to be better prepared to deal with emergencies that may occur, and will make your trip a lot easier in general.
  • Although you may want to make local friends, always be extremely cautious with anyone who tries to assertively befriend you.
  • Trust your instincts.^ Who goes to heaven is something that I can learn from the bible, so I decided to read the bible and learn more about who goes to heaven and how you should be to others to go to heaven.
    • Drug Abuse: Guide & Resources Directory 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC drugsarehorrible.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Prijic is pretty good at general dentistry and if you would like to get more information on him then you should take a look at RobinsonPrijic.com.
    • Drug Abuse: Guide & Resources Directory 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC drugsarehorrible.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Smoking marijuana increases the risks of getting heart attacks in your life every time you smoke.
    • Drug Abuse: Guide & Resources Directory 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC drugsarehorrible.com [Source type: General]

    .If a situation just doesn't seem right to you, it probably isn't.
  • In order to avoid crime, it can help to think like a criminal; understand whom a criminal might target.^ When you compare marijuana to those drug you think of yourself a better person eventhough that still isn't a wise idea to do.
    • Drug Abuse: Guide & Resources Directory 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC drugsarehorrible.com [Source type: General]

    ^ If you find yourself living in New York and have gotten into some serious crimes, then a New York criminal lawyer will help you out.
    • Drug Abuse: Guide & Resources Directory 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC drugsarehorrible.com [Source type: General]

    ^ So, if you're looking for a home in Scarsdale then let them know, they might be able to help you find the right home for you.
    • Drug Abuse: Guide & Resources Directory 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC drugsarehorrible.com [Source type: General]

    Criminals tend to target people from whom they believe they will most easily be able to get what they want, whether because the person appears submissive, physically vulnerable, distracted, or because they stick out for other reasons.

Get in

Before you get in to your destination, you should consider the following:
  • It's always a good idea to check your foreign ministry's travel advisory for your destination, before setting off. .The FCO [1] in the UK, The Department of Foreign Affairs & Trade[2] in Australia and The Bureau of Consular Affairs[3] in the US, are excellent sources even if you are not a citizen of those countries.
  • Consider whether you're going to arrive during a good season weather-wise.^ When you compare marijuana to those drug you think of yourself a better person eventhough that still isn't a wise idea to do.
    • Drug Abuse: Guide & Resources Directory 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC drugsarehorrible.com [Source type: General]

    ^ If you live in Miami and want to go to school for motorcycle training, to become a great motorcyclist I have good news for you.
    • Drug Abuse: Guide & Resources Directory 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC drugsarehorrible.com [Source type: General]

    .For example, tropical storms can be a danger in various areas (hurricanes in the Caribbean area and southern United States, typhoons in Asia, especially along the coast from Vietnam to Japan) especially in hot weather, and tornadoes, sometimes called "twisters" can pose a danger to travelers in some parts of the world (especially in the United States), most often in spring and summer.
  • War zones or former war zones, often called hostile environments, are not the most obvious places for non-essential travel, but with the right preparation and experience they can provide the intrepid traveller with a unique experience.^ She read an article in a travel magazine that said that these puerto vallarta mexico family vacation villas can accommodate large groups and they are right on the beach.
    • Drug Abuse: Guide & Resources Directory 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC drugsarehorrible.com [Source type: General]

    ^ When I was looking for some full time nannies in Surrey , one of my cousins told me that I should look at this web site because they have really good full time and part time nannies in Surrey.
    • Drug Abuse: Guide & Resources Directory 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC drugsarehorrible.com [Source type: General]

    ^ They also provide some dental web site marketing as well.
    • Drug Abuse: Guide & Resources Directory 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC drugsarehorrible.com [Source type: General]

    .However, no one should visit a country in this category without seriously considering the risks and how to mitigate them.^ So if you are looking for a lawyer for your patent infringement needs, then you should visit this web site to learn more on how they can assist you.
    • Drug Abuse: Guide & Resources Directory 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC drugsarehorrible.com [Source type: General]

    Tourists can be just a much a target of hostility as any military force. Indeed, tourists could be regarded as a soft target since they do not have the backup of a large organisation. .In recent times, tourists have been targeted in Afghanistan, Egypt and Kenya.
  • When traveling, never let your bags out of your sight, especially when you are crossing international borders.^ Smoking marijuana increases the risks of getting heart attacks in your life every time you smoke.
    • Drug Abuse: Guide & Resources Directory 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC drugsarehorrible.com [Source type: General]

    ^ If you want a great job done to your car then I suggest you check us out.
    • Drug Abuse: Guide & Resources Directory 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC drugsarehorrible.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Are you looking for a Cabling company Sacramento that can help you out with your all your cabling needs?
    • Drug Abuse: Guide & Resources Directory 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC drugsarehorrible.com [Source type: General]

    Do not offer to carry anything for another person unless you trust them absolutely. You could find yourself being used as a drug carrier without your knowledge, which will land you in a great deal of trouble.
  • When arriving at an unfamiliar destination, try to arrive during the day, if possible, rather than trying to find your way around at night.
  • Consider local laws on homosexuality or age of consent that may have legal repercussions for you.

Get around

When on a bus or train:
  • Stay near the driver/conductor/guard.
When riding in a taxi:
  • Use licensed cabs, rather than private cars (gypsy cabs), even though they might be slightly more expensive.
  • Always make sure the driver has turned on the meter if there is one, or negotiate the fare before the trip starts if there isn't.
  • When riding alone, sit behind the driver where it is more difficult for him to threaten or harm you.
When using a car:
.
  • Don't drink and drive.
  • Be aware of local traffic laws and regulations and follow them.
  • Keep the car locked, including the trunk/boot—thieves can snatch bags at the traffic lights.
  • Keep mobile phones, valuables out of sight—travel insurance may not cover items left in cars.
  • Park in well lit places with no cover around the car—if there are bushes etc.^ Given that I want to keep my sports car looking good, I would endorse this car polish as well as some ice liquid car polish.
    • Drug Abuse: Guide & Resources Directory 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC drugsarehorrible.com [Source type: General]

    thieves can work on the locks out of sight.
  • Before getting into your car, check the back seat to ensure no-one's hiding there.
  • Consider extending your insurance to cover all costs of window/windscreen replacement; it's not uncommon for thieves to just smash the glass to get in.
When walking:
  • Orient yourself with a map before setting out, and take local advice on undesirable areas to walk in.

See

.Seeing the sights of the area will require you to get out of your hotel room and onto the streets, which in some areas carries a risk of violent crime.^ Smoking marijuana increases the risks of getting heart attacks in your life every time you smoke.
  • Drug Abuse: Guide & Resources Directory 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC drugsarehorrible.com [Source type: General]

^ If you want a great job done to your car then I suggest you check us out.
  • Drug Abuse: Guide & Resources Directory 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC drugsarehorrible.com [Source type: General]

^ You can even develope cancer in your head or neck and the more you smoke the more risks you have of getting it.
  • Drug Abuse: Guide & Resources Directory 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC drugsarehorrible.com [Source type: General]

  • Keep your eyes open. .If the area feels unsafe, is quiet, or if the area is heavily vandalized and there are groups of young people hanging around, avoid unnecessary risks and move on.
  • Travel in a group, and look out for each other.
  • If you are a victim of a fraud or scam, consider your circumstances carefully before aggressively confronting the scammer.^ If you have been looking for affordable computer stands , then the search is over because at CompuCaddy, we manufacture affordable computer stands for hospitals as well as home office and for any other manufacturing needs.
    • Drug Abuse: Guide & Resources Directory 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC drugsarehorrible.com [Source type: General]

    ^ If you want a great job done to your car then I suggest you check us out.
    • Drug Abuse: Guide & Resources Directory 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC drugsarehorrible.com [Source type: General]

    ^ If you are looking for a brand of hat that will look nice on you then you should check out the Borsalino hats .
    • Drug Abuse: Guide & Resources Directory 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC drugsarehorrible.com [Source type: General]

    .A small monetary loss could escalate to something worse.
  • Don't attempt to fight off a thief.
  • Back alleys and quiet areas are interesting to explore, but there will be less people around to help you, and less people watching to deter violent crime.
  • Natural hazards are not always indicated by signs and fences in some regions.^ I did some research and I found out that by doing this cord blood banking you can help to save the lives of others.
    • Drug Abuse: Guide & Resources Directory 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC drugsarehorrible.com [Source type: General]

    ^ If you find yourself living in New York and have gotten into some serious crimes, then a New York criminal lawyer will help you out.
    • Drug Abuse: Guide & Resources Directory 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC drugsarehorrible.com [Source type: General]

    Assess the risks of cliffs, rivers, before venturing too close.

Buy

In order to buy anything, you'll need money, which may make you a target for theft. To reduce your risks:
.
  • As much as possible, try to avoid looking like someone that a thief would target (remember, think like a criminal).^ Prijic is pretty good at general dentistry and if you would like to get more information on him then you should take a look at RobinsonPrijic.com.
    • Drug Abuse: Guide & Resources Directory 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC drugsarehorrible.com [Source type: General]

    ^ If you would like to get more information on this then you should take a look at FiveStarBuilders.com Are you looking for a company that does camcorder repair?
    • Drug Abuse: Guide & Resources Directory 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC drugsarehorrible.com [Source type: General]

    To that end, don't flash wads of cash, or wear or carry expensive jewelery or valuables (keep those in the hotel safe).
  • Follow local advice as to safe areas.
  • Have copies of the information/photo page of your passport. Leave your passport in the hotel safe if that is available and permitted.
  • Have an additional credit card and some cash separate from your wallet. Split everything up in such a way that if one wallet gets stolen you can still enjoy the trip.
  • Be aware of common scams. .These are designed to get your money or business from you under false pretenses.^ If for any reason whatsoever you are not satisfied, we will refund your money totally.
    • Prescription Medicines - Prescription Drugs & Medicines, Indian online pharmacy for all type of generic drugs 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC www.alldaychemist.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ If you are unable to find your required medicine under 'Medicines Search,' Click here .
    • Prescription Medicines - Prescription Drugs & Medicines, Indian online pharmacy for all type of generic drugs 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC www.alldaychemist.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ So check out this web site to find out how you can get the help you need from these machinery movers for your needs.
    • Drug Abuse: Guide & Resources Directory 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC drugsarehorrible.com [Source type: General]

    .They fall into three categories: overcharging you, deceiving you or coercing you into paying for a service you don't want, and outright theft.
  • Take steps to protect yourself against pickpockets, which are a hazard in many tourist destinations.
  • Find out about the water quality, and if there is doubt either use bottled water (ensuring the seal hasn't been broken) or boil water vigorously for 2 minutes before using.^ They might be able to help you out.
    • Drug Abuse: Guide & Resources Directory 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC drugsarehorrible.com [Source type: General]

    ^ You could find many steiff's there.
    • Drug Abuse: Guide & Resources Directory 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC drugsarehorrible.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Even though methamphetamine and cocaine are as highly of chances to get addicted, they don't get you to lead yourself into as deep as weed can lead you to.
    • Drug Abuse: Guide & Resources Directory 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC drugsarehorrible.com [Source type: General]

    Also make sure to avoid ice cubes in drinks. Check in advance, and don't rely on local advice.
  • Use your best judgement about restaurants. .If the place looks dodgy, eat somewhere else.
  • Make sure food is fully cooked.
  • Avoid dairy products, unless you know they have been pasteurized.
  • Wash your hands with soap and water before eating.^ If you are looking for services for deep case hardening then you have come to the right place.
    • Drug Abuse: Guide & Resources Directory 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC drugsarehorrible.com [Source type: General]

    ^ If you are looking to find a beautiful pashmina wrap for yourself or as a gift, then you have come to the right place.
    • Drug Abuse: Guide & Resources Directory 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC drugsarehorrible.com [Source type: General]

    ^ If you'd like to check out our other products, including other bike items then you've came to a great place.
    • Drug Abuse: Guide & Resources Directory 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC drugsarehorrible.com [Source type: General]

    If soap and water are not available, use an alcohol-based hand gel (with at least 60% alcohol).
  • Don't eat plants or fungi that you find in the wild. Some poisonous species in some parts of the world closely resemble edible species in other parts of the world. There is also a risk they have been sprayed with pesticide or herbicide that can make you sick.

Drink

Taking part in a city's nightlife can be the highlight of a trip; however, nighttime is when the shady people of the city come out, so extra vigilance is necessary. .If the nightlife isn't your thing back home, don't feel obligated to go out when travelling; the safest place to be at night is in your hotel room.^ When people go on vacations, they tend to stay in places like hotels and resorts but not guest ranchs.
  • Drug Abuse: Guide & Resources Directory 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC drugsarehorrible.com [Source type: General]

If you do decide to go out, here are some tips:
  • Try to avoid walking the streets alone after dark, or minimally stay in well-lit areas.
  • Dress down, and don't flaunt your wealth.
  • Try not to get too drunk. .The risk of being a victim of violent crime and sexual assault increases if you are intoxicated.
  • Avoid accepting drinks, meals or gifts purchased for you.^ Smoking marijuana increases the risks of getting heart attacks in your life every time you smoke.
    • Drug Abuse: Guide & Resources Directory 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC drugsarehorrible.com [Source type: General]

    It can create an expectation in the giver, and can also expose you to drink spiking etc.
  • Avoid going back to a stranger's house, hotel, or any other location. If you wish to socialize in this way, ensure you have a familiar, public, and safe location that you can nominate.
  • Avoid purchasing illegal drugs. The transaction is often a pretext for robbery, scams or worse.
  • Hotels can be dangerous places in case of fire. Check that there are two ways of escape from your room.
Main article: Travel health
.
  • See your doctor before you travel.^ Before you sell your used equipment, why not ask us for a valuation?
    • Drug Abuse: Guide & Resources Directory 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC drugsarehorrible.com [Source type: General]

    .Ensure that you are healthy enough to do what you have planned, and check regarding disease exposure in the areas you will be visiting, and take appropriate precautions, such as getting vaccinated.
  • If you decide to have new sexual relationships, always follow safe sex practices, and use a condom.^ If you'd like more information regarding how to adopt baby Virginia , check this out.
    • Drug Abuse: Guide & Resources Directory 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC drugsarehorrible.com [Source type: General]

    ^ If you want to check it out, please visit our site.
    • Drug Abuse: Guide & Resources Directory 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC drugsarehorrible.com [Source type: General]

    ^ They take you over to the prime fishing areas.
    • Drug Abuse: Guide & Resources Directory 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC drugsarehorrible.com [Source type: General]

    .The prevalence of AIDS varies between countries, but it exists everywhere, and unsafe sex will always be a lottery.
  • Let someone back home know where you are, and when you will next be in touch.
  • Leave copies of your passport and travel insurance details with someone at home, it's also a good idea to carry a copy of your passport and any visas on you, ideally separate from your passport.^ I really like the idea of personalized door mats because it is a way to greet people to your home.
    • Drug Abuse: Guide & Resources Directory 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC drugsarehorrible.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Given that I was thinking of selling my property, I decided that it might be a good idea for me to look into some Denver home inspectors so that they could inspect the house and let me know of the problems that it may have.
    • Drug Abuse: Guide & Resources Directory 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC drugsarehorrible.com [Source type: General]

    ^ I know many people who wear the Borsalino hats and no matter what style you put on your head it will most likely look nice on you.
    • Drug Abuse: Guide & Resources Directory 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC drugsarehorrible.com [Source type: General]

    .This will ease your troubles with authorities if you lose it, and handing over a photocopy to potentially corrupt officials is a good way to deal with a potential blackmail situation.
  • Consider carrying a mobile communication method that will work in your destination.^ We also recommend doing some peachtree inventory so you can keep your accounting software in good working order.
    • Drug Abuse: Guide & Resources Directory 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC drugsarehorrible.com [Source type: General]

    Check if your mobile phone will roam, and if there is coverage at your destination. Even a non-roaming phone can be used for emergency calls on a compatible network. Consider renting a satellite phone in remote areas.
  • Register with your embassy or relevant government department - some countries provide an online facility for doing this.

Local Laws

Every country has its own different set of laws, and in some cases such as Australia and the United States, the laws can vary between different parts of the country. .As a result, something that might be perfectly acceptable back home might land you in prison in the place you are going to.^ Who goes to heaven is something that I can learn from the bible, so I decided to read the bible and learn more about who goes to heaven and how you should be to others to go to heaven.
  • Drug Abuse: Guide & Resources Directory 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC drugsarehorrible.com [Source type: General]

^ One of my friends bought some land a while back and now that he is married he wants to have a home built on that land.
  • Drug Abuse: Guide & Resources Directory 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC drugsarehorrible.com [Source type: General]

^ So, if you're looking for a home in Scarsdale then let them know, they might be able to help you find the right home for you.
  • Drug Abuse: Guide & Resources Directory 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC drugsarehorrible.com [Source type: General]

Always be aware of the local laws before you travel, as most countries will not entertain requests from another country's government to exempt their citizens from the local laws (eg. An American teenager was caned for vandalism in Singapore as per the local laws despite official protests by the American government). Ignorance is never an acceptable excuse, and can sometimes even be seen as grounds to impose a harder sentence.
.Remember, just as foreigners visiting your home country are expected to follow the local laws in your home country, you will also be expected to do the same when visiting other countries.^ If you have been looking for affordable computer stands , then the search is over because at CompuCaddy, we manufacture affordable computer stands for hospitals as well as home office and for any other manufacturing needs.
  • Drug Abuse: Guide & Resources Directory 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC drugsarehorrible.com [Source type: General]

^ Other drugs as well as marijuana can get you addicted, but the only ones that should have the same level which is opiates.
  • Drug Abuse: Guide & Resources Directory 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC drugsarehorrible.com [Source type: General]

^ I'm pretty sure you'll find a beautiful home for sale that is around your primary budget.
  • Drug Abuse: Guide & Resources Directory 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC drugsarehorrible.com [Source type: General]

.In particular, stay away from drugs, as many Asian countries impose the death penalty for trafficking even minute amounts of illicit drugs, despite it being legal in many Western countries.^ However, even though it doesn't harm like the other drugs do its more addicting than the other drugs that to can also lead to many severe problems.
  • Drug Abuse: Guide & Resources Directory 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC drugsarehorrible.com [Source type: General]

Risk evaluation box

A destination article can contain a risk evaluation box, which gives a rough evaluation of risks to travellers.
  • Crime/violence: includes theft, pickpocketing, robbery, fraud, terrorism and other hostile acts by individuals or non-government groups. Provided that the traveller obeys local laws and customs, and does not affiliate with criminals. See also war zone safety.
  • Authorities/corruption: includes arbitrary confrontation by police, customs and other government officers, including detention, torture or requesting bribes. .As above, provided that the traveller obeys local laws and customs.
  • Transportation: includes delay, disruption or accidents in transportation, due to strikes, severe weather, congestion and other reasons.
  • Health: includes infectious diseases, pollution and other health hazards, provided that the traveller keeps good hygiene.
  • Nature: includes severe weather, fires, natural disasters and wild animals.^ The reason being is because kids play agaisnt other kids their own age to keep things fair.
    • Drug Abuse: Guide & Resources Directory 1 February 2010 2:49 UTC drugsarehorrible.com [Source type: General]

    Provided that the traveller stays in populated areas or areas suitable for tourists, and follows local safety prescriptions.

Risk levels

These are the main risk levels, and their interpretation. A destination can have multiple risk levels, depending on exact location, time or situation.
  • Low: Common sense, and the same awareness as in your hometown, should be enough.
Example: Crime/violence in Tokyo
  • Medium: Make some preparations for this risk, and keep a general awareness.
Example: Authorities/corruption in Beijing
  • Elevated: Plan your trip carefully to minimize this risk.
  • High: Consult an expert on this risk before you even consider going.
Example: Nature on Mount Everest
  • Extreme: This risk alone is reason enough to evacuate tourists from the destination.
Example: Crime/violence in Somalia
This is a usable article. It touches on all the major areas of the topic. An adventurous person could use this article, but please plunge forward and help it grow!

Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also hiv

Contents

English

Pronunciation

  • (US) IPA: /ˌeɪtʃ.aɪˈvi/

Initialism

HIV
  1. (virology) human immunodeficiency virus

Synonyms

Translations

See also


Simple English

Human immunodeficiency virus
Virus classification
Group: Group VI (ssRNA-RT)
Family: Retroviridae
Genus: Lentivirus
Species
  • Human immunodeficiency virus 1
  • Human immunodeficiency virus 2
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that infects the human immune system. It may cause AIDS by eventually killing the white blood cells that a healthy body uses to fight off disease.

Contents

How people get HIV

A person can get HIV if a body liquid with the virus goes into their body. The body liquids with HIV are blood, semen, liquid from the vagina, and breast milk. The liquids can go into the body through injured skin. Also, the liquids can enter through the mouth, eyes, nose, vagina, anus, or penis.

There are some common ways to get HIV. Sex with a person with HIV can give the other person HIV if they do not use a condom. All types of sex without a condom can pass on HIV. A person using the same needle as a person with HIV to inject drugs can get HIV. Babies can get it from their mothers when they are born or when they are breastfeeding.

A person cannot get HIV from non-sexual touching, for example a hug or handshake, or touching someone else's saliva. A person cannot get HIV from an insect bite, a cough, or a sneeze[1].

How common HIV is

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Other websites

References


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 14, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on HIV, which are similar to those in the above article.








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