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This article refers to the Military HMMWV, not the civilian Hummer sold by General Motors
High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (Humvee)
Humv in difficult terrain.jpg
United States Marine Corps HMMWV in difficult terrain in Afghanistan
Type Unarmored: Light Utility Vehicle,
Armored: Light Armored Car
Place of origin  United States
Service history
In service 1984 – present
Production history
Manufacturer AM General
Unit cost $65,000 (unarmored)-$140,000 (armored)[2]
Produced 1984 – present
Specifications
Weight 5,200 lb (2,340kg)—5,900 lb (2,680 kg) curb weight[1]
Length 15 ft (4.6 m)[2]
Width 7.08 ft (2.1 m)[2]
Height 6 ft (1.8 m), reducible to 4.5 ft (1.4 m)[2]

Primary
armament
see text
Engine 8 Cyl. Diesel 6.2 L (~378 cu in)
or 6.5 L (~397 cu in)[1]
Suspension Independent
Fuel capacity 25 U.S. gal (95 L)[2]
Speed 90 mph(144 km/h)(unarmored)-65 mph (105 km/h)(armored) maximum [3]
A HMMWV firing a TOW missile.

The High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV or Humvee) is a military 4WD motor vehicle created by AM General. It has largely supplanted the roles formerly served by smaller Jeeps such as the M151 1/4 ton MUTT, the M561 "Gama Goat", their M718A1 and M792 ambulance versions, the CUCV, and other light trucks. Primarily used by the United States military, it is also used by a number of other countries and organizations and in civilian adaptations.

Contents

Features

The High Mobility Multi-Purpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV) uses independent suspensions and portal geared hubs similar to portal axles to make for a full 16 inches of ground clearance. The vehicle also has disk brakes on all 4 wheels, and 4-wheel double-wishbone suspension. The brake disks are not mounted at the wheels as on conventional automobiles, but inboard mounted disk brakes, which are attached to the outside of each differential. The front and rear differentials are Torsen type, and the center differential is regular, lockable type.

There are at least 17 variants of the HMMWV in service with the United States armed forces. HMMWVs serve as cargo/troop carriers, automatic weapons platforms, ambulances (four litter patients or eight ambulatory patients), M220 TOW missile carriers, M119 howitzer prime movers, M1097 Avenger Pedestal Mounted Stinger platforms, MRQ-12 direct air support vehicles, S250 shelter carriers, and other roles. The HMMWV is capable of fording 2.5 ft (76 cm) normally, or 5 ft (1.5 m) with the deep-water fording kits installed.

Optional equipment includes a winch (maximum load capacity 6000 lb (2700 kg)) and supplemental armor. The M1025/M1026 and M1043/M1044 armament carriers provide mounting and firing capabilities for the MK19 grenade launcher, the M2 heavy machine gun, the M240G/B machine gun and M249 SAW. The newly introduced M1114 "up-armored" HMMWV also features a similar weapons mount. In addition, some M1114 and M1116 up-armored and M1117 Armored Security Vehicle models feature a Common Remotely Operated Weapon System (CROWS), which allows the gunner to operate from inside the vehicle, and/or the Boomerang anti-sniper detection system. Recent improvements have also led to the development of the M1151 model, which is quickly rendering the previous models obsolete. By replacing the M1114, M1116, and earlier armored HMMWV types with a single model, the U.S. Army hopes to lower maintenance costs.

History

In the 1970s, the United States Army concluded that the militarized civilian trucks in use no longer satisfied their requirements. In 1977, Lamborghini developed the Cheetah model in attempt to meet the Army contract specifications. In 1979, the Army drafted final specifications for a High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle, or HMMWV. In July of that year, AM General (a subsidiary of American Motors Corporation) began preliminary design work, and less than a year later, the first prototype, the M998, was in testing.

In June 1981, the Army awarded AM General a contract for development of several more prototype vehicles to be delivered to the U.S. government for another series of tests, and the company was later awarded the initial production contract for 55,000 HMMWVs to be delivered in 1985. HMMWVs first saw combat in Operation Just Cause, the US invasion of Panama in 1989.

The HMMWV has become the vehicular backbone of U.S. forces around the world. Over 10,000 were employed by coalition forces during Operation Iraqi Freedom, the 2003 invasion of Iraq.

Usage in combat

United States Army HMMWV attacked by a car bomb, Baghdad, Iraq.

The HMMWV was designed primarily for personnel and light cargo transport behind front lines, not as a front line fighting vehicle. Like the previous Jeep, the basic HMMWV has no armor or protection against nuclear, biological, and chemical threats. Nevertheless, losses were relatively low in conventional operations, such as Desert Storm. Vehicles and crews suffered considerable damage and losses during the Battle of Mogadishu due to the nature of the urban engagement; however, the chassis survivability allowed the majority of those crews to return to safety, though the HMMWV was never designed to offer protection against intense small arms fire, much less machine guns and rocket propelled grenades. However, with the rise of asymmetric warfare and low intensity conflicts, the HMMWV has been pressed into service in urban combat roles for which it was not originally intended.

After Somalia, the military recognized a need for a more protected HMMWV and AM General developed the M1114, an armored HMMWV to withstand small arms fire. The M1114 has been in limited production since 1996, seeing limited use in the Balkans before deployment to the Middle East. This design is superior to the M998 with a larger, more powerful turbocharged engine, air conditioning, and a strengthened suspension system. More importantly, it boasts a fully armored passenger area protected by hardened steel and bullet-resistant glass. With the increase in direct attacks and guerrilla warfare in Iraq, AM General has diverted the majority of its manufacturing power to producing these vehicles.

Marines pushing an M1114 in a competition.
HMMWV with bolt-on MAK armor kit
A HMMWV with Mattrack snow treads
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Modifications

Humvee maintenance with engine exposed by Czech Army in Afganistan

In response to the vulnerability of HMMWVs operating in Iraq, "Up-Armor" kits were designed and installed on M998 HMMWVs. These kits, of which there are several types and iterations, include armored doors with bullet-resistant glass, side and rear armor plates, and a ballistic windshield which offer greater protection from ballistic threats and simple IEDs.

Although some of these kits were available prior to the 2003 invasion of Iraq, they were not provided in great numbers to American forces in Iraq prior to the invasion. As a result of this, American soldiers and Marines often improvised extra armor with scrap materials, known as "hillbilly armor" or "farmer armor" to improve the safety of the HMMWV. While this may have made the vehicle somewhat safer from a ballistic attack, it also increased the weight and raised the center of gravity of the vehicle, reducing its acceleration, handling, braking, reliability, and service life due to its overstressed suspension and drivetrain.[3][4] In addition to this, the majority of Humvees and other coalition vehicles used in the invasion of Iraq were fitted with Combat Identification Panels to reduce the possibility of friendly fire during combat. These were fitted to the driver and front passenger doors with cutouts to allow access to the door handles through the panels, and also on the hood between the windshield and top grille.

In December 2004, Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld came under criticism from U.S. soldiers and their families for not providing better-equipped HMMWVs.[5] Rumsfeld pointed out that, prior to the war, armor kits were produced only in small numbers per year. As the role of American forces in Iraq changed from fighting the Iraqi Army to suppressing the guerrilla insurgency, more armor kits were being manufactured, though perhaps not as fast as production facilities were capable of bringing them online. Even more advanced kits were also being developed. However, while these kits are much more effective against all types of attacks, they weigh between 1,500 to 2,200 lb (680 to 1,000 kg) and have some of the same drawbacks as the improvised armor.[6] Unlike similar-size civilian cargo and tow trucks, which typically have dual rear wheels to reduce sway, the HMMWV has single rear wheels due to its independent rear suspension coupled with the body design.

The armor on most up-armored HMMWVs holds up well against lateral attacks, when the blast is distributed in all different directions, but offers little protection from a mine blast below the truck, such as buried IEDs and land mines. Explosively formed penetrators (EFPs) can also defeat the armor kits, causing casualties.

The armor kits fielded include the Armor Survivability Kit (ASK), the FRAG 5, FRAG 6, as well as upgrade kits to the M1151.[7][8] The ASK was the first fielded, in October 2003, adding about 1,000 pounds (450 kg) to the weight of the vehicle.[9] Armor Holdings fielded an even lighter kit, adding only 750 pounds (340 kg) to the vehicle's weight.[10] The Marine Armor Kit (MAK), fielded in January 2005, offers more protection than the M1114, but also increases weight.[11] The FRAG 5, the latest fielded armor kit, offers the greatest protection but may still be inadequate to stop EFP attacks.[12] The FRAG 6 kit, designed to do just that, is still in development, however its increased protection comes at a hefty price. Over 1,000 lb is added to the vehicle over the FRAG 5 kit, and the width of the vehicle is increased by 2 feet (61 cm). In addition, the doors may require a mechanical assist device to open and close.[13]

Another drawback of the up-armored HMMWVs occurs during an accident or attack, when the heavily armored doors tend to jam shut, trapping the troops inside.[14] As a result, HMMWVs are being fitted with hooks on their doors, so that another vehicle can rip the door off, freeing the troops inside.[15] In addition, Vehicle Emergency Escape (VEE) windows, developed by BAE Systems are currently being fielded for use on the M1114 uparmored HMMWV, with 1,000 kits ordered.[16]

The soldier manning the exposed crew-served weapon on top of the vehicle is extremely vulnerable. In response, many HMMWVs have been fitted with basic gun shields or turrets, as was the case with M113 APCs after they were first deployed in Vietnam. The U.S. military is currently evaluating a new form of protection, developed by BAE Systems as well as systems designed by the Army, which are already in theater.[17] The new gunner's seat is protected by 1.5 to 2 feet (46 to 61 cm) high steel plates with bullet-proof glass windows. Additionally, some HMMWVs have been fitted with a remotely operated CROWS weapon station, which slaves the machine gun to controls in the back seat so it can be fired without exposing the crew. The Boomerang anti-sniper system is also being fielded by some HMMWVs in Iraq to immediately give troops the location of insurgents firing on them.

HMMWV equipped with Raytheon surface-to-air missiles in display at Paris Air Show 2007
A U.S. M997 ambulance emblazoned with the Red Cross

Another weakness for the HMMWV has proven to be its size, which has limited its deployment in Afghanistan because it is too large for many forms of air transport. This size also limits the ability for the vehicle to be manhandled out of situations. Additionally, troops in Bosnia found the vehicle's wide track to be a liability, since two HMMWVs could not pass each other on narrow mountain roads. One vehicle had to drive with two wheels on the unpaved berm, exposing it to land mine danger.[citation needed]

A HMMWV performing a roadblock in Iraq

Alternatives

Other countries in Europe and South Africa employ a number of different light armored vehicles, both tracked and wheeled, and some even built in the U.S. by Cadillac Gage, that are designed more specifically for low intensity combat situations, and are more resistant to small arms; some trucks even have high v-hull bottoms to deflect mine blasts.

The Army has purchased a purpose-built armored car, the M1117 Armored Security Vehicle in limited numbers for use by the United States Army Military Police Corps. In 2007, the Marine Corps announced an intention to replace all HMMWVs in Iraq with MRAP (Mine Resistant Ambush Protected) armored trucks because of high loss rates, and has issued contracts for the purchase of several thousand of these vehicles, which include the International MaxxPro, the BAE OMC RG-31, the BAE RG-33 and Caiman, and the Force Protection Cougar,[18][19][20][21][22] which have been deployed with the Army and Marines primarily for mine clearing duties. Heavier models of Infantry Mobility Vehicles (IMV) can also be used for patrol vehicles.[23] Unfortunately, some MRAP vehicles have been known to become stuck or roll over much more readily due to their high center of gravity and overall larger size compared to the HMMWV.

Replacement

The HMMWV replacement process, now being undertaken by the U.S. military, is an effort to replace the current AM General HMMWV. The HMMWV has evolved several times since its introduction, and is now used in tactical roles for which it was never originally intended. The U.S. military is currently pursuing several initiatives to replace it, both in the short and long terms. The short term replacement efforts utilize commercial off-the-shelf vehicles as part of the Mine Resistant Ambush Protected (MRAP) program. Long term efforts include the Joint Light Tactical Vehicle and Future Tactical Truck Systems programs, which are currently focused on building requirements for the HMMWV replacement and technology research and evaluation. Various prototype vehicles such as the MillenWorks Light Utility Vehicle, International FTTS and the ULTRA AP have been constructed as part of these efforts.

Versions

HMMWV upgrade process
HMMWV with a communications dish
M1114 up-armored HMMWV with flare/smoke launchers, modified turret shield, and marked location points for emergency egress bolts.

Major HMMWV versions

  • M56 Coyote Smoke Generator Carrier
  • M707 HMMWV
  • M966 HMMWV TOW Armored
  • M996 Mini-Ambulance, Armored
  • M997 Maxi-Ambulance, Armored
  • M998 Cargo/Troop
  • M998 HMMWV Avenger
  • M1025 Armament Carrier, Armored
  • M1026 Armament Carrier, Armored W/W
  • M1035 Soft-Top Ambulance
  • M1036 TOW Armored W/W
  • M1037 S-250 Shelter Carrier
  • M1038 Cargo/Troop Carrier W/W
  • M1042 S-250 Shelter Carrier W/W
  • M1043 Armament Carrier, Up-Armored
  • M1044 Armament Carrier, Up-Armored W/W
  • M1045 TOW Up-Armored Armor
  • M1046 TOW Up-Armored Armor W/W
  • M1069 Tractor for M119 105-mm Gun
  • M1097 Heavy
  • M1097 Heavy HMMWV Avenger
  • M1109 Up-Armored Armament Carrier
  • ZEUS-HLONS
  • Ground Mobility Vehicle

Expanded capacity

  • M1113 The M1113 has been selected by the Army as its A2 chassis for HMMWV purchases. Currently, the ECV is used for special operations vehicles and communications shelter carriers.

During 1995, production of the M1114 based on the improved ECV chassis began. The M1114 meets Army requirements for a scout, military police, and explosive ordnance disposal vehicle with improved ballistic protection levels. The M1114 provides protection against 7.62 mm armor-piercing projectiles, 155 mm artillery air bursts and 12 lb. anti-tank mine blasts. The U.S. Air Force has a number of vehicles under the designation M1116, specifically designed to meet the requirements of the Air Force. The M1116 features an expanded cargo area, armored housing for the turret gunner and increased interior heating and air conditioning system. The M1114 and M1116 receive armor at O'Gara-Hess & Eisenhardt Armoring Company of Fairfield, Ohio.

  • Packhorse - Attachment to convert an M1097 to tractor version for semi-trailers.
  • Scorpion - Version fitted with 2B9 Vasilek 82 mm automatic mortar. This is a heavy chassis HMMWV equipped with a 2B9 Vasilyek 82 mm automatic mortar and intended to provide more protection for US troops in combat zones. This was developed in 2004 by engineers at the US Army's Picatinny Arsenal. The mortar itself can fire on single shots or on automatic using 4 round clips. Range for direct fire is 1,000m and indirect fire is 4,000m. It is also intended to provide another means of destroying roadside bombs but at a safer standoff range.
  • Composite HMMWV - A prototype developed by TPI Composites of Rhode Island and AM General.[24] The purpose of the concept vehicle is to reduce the vehicle's weight so that it may more easily carry an up armor kit.[25] TPI's all-composite HMMWV saves approximately 900 pounds when compared to a current steel and aluminum HMMWV.[26][27]

International versions

An Eastwind EQ2050 at the China People's Revolution Military Museum during the "Our troops towards the sky" exhibition.
Greek Army M1114GR HMMWV have the ability to mount the 9M133 Kornet on top.

There are at least two Chinese automobile manufacturers building HMMWV copies. Both HMMWV copies rely heavily on imported U.S.-made parts including chassis, gear box, and diesel engine. It appears that at least one company, Dongfeng Motor Corporation (DFM), has the full consent and cooperation of the General Motors Corporation. Both manufacturers claimed that they will be able to gradually increase the percentage of indigenously made content on the vehicles in the future, since the PLA is unlikely willing to accept any equipment that relies largely on foreign made parts.

  • Bulgaria - Bulgarian HMMWVs have been fitted with PKS heavy machine guns. Bulgaria usually replaces western machine guns on its vehicles to simplify maintenance, since the country is an active producer of Soviet/Russian-type ammunitions.
  • Greece - Greek unarmored M1114, built entirely by ELBO in Greece, equipped to fire the Russian 9M133 Kornet ATGM. It has storage room for 10 missiles. Israel's Plasan has developed armored versions of the HMMWV, assembled by ELBO in Greece as the M1114GR and M1118GR.[28]
  • Plasan has also designed and supplied an HMMWV Armored Protection Kit for the Portuguese Army[29] and a different version assembled by Automotive Industries in Nazareth for the Israel Defense Forces.
  • Poland - Polish Land Forces currently operate 222 different variants of HMMWVes (5 unknown variants are operated by special forces). Over 200 are used by the 18th Airborne Battalion which is a part of the 6th Air Assault Brigade. The used variants are designated as follows: Tumak-2 - M1043A2, Tumak-3 - M1025A2, Tumak-4 - M1097A2, Tumak-5 - M1045A2, Tumak-6 - M1097A2 (variant used for transport of special containers), Tumak-7 - M1035A2. All vehicles are modified to meet Polish rules of the road and are equipped with Polish communication devices. 140 HMMWVes are equipped with Fonet digital internal communication device. 120 M1025A2s and M1043A2s have a rotatable mount which can be fitted with either the UKM-2000P 7.62 mm general purpose machine gun or the NSW-B 12.7 mm heavy machine gun. M1045A2s are used by anti-tank subunits and are armed with Spike-LR which can be dismounted in field conditions.[30]
    Additionally Polish forces of ISAF operate 120 HMMWVes on loan from the US forces.
  • The Swiss MOWAG Eagle light armored vehicle, designed for reconnaissance surveillance, liaison, escort, border patrol and police missions. Early versions of the Eagle utilize the HMMWV chassis, although the latest uses a Duro III chassis. It is an NBC-tight, air conditioned and armor protected vehicle. Eagle is in service and available in several configurations with varying levels of armor protection. The Eagle can be fitted with a wide assortment of armaments which can be manually or remotely operated turrets.
  • The Turkish Otokar Cobra light armored vehicle is the base of a family of vehicles. It provides full armor protection for a crew of 4 to 11 depending on configuration. Cobra is available in seven different configurations from Personnel to Weapons Carrier. In addition, Cobra is available with either a manually or remotely operated turret and can be fitted with a wide assortment of armaments. An optional swim kit is available.
  • Egypt - AOI has a project of fitting HMMWVs with anti armor weaponry, options include: TOW, Milan, or HOT missiles.

Electric vehicle

XM1124 Hybrid-Electric Humvee on an M1113 Humvee chassis powered by a diesel-series hybrid

There is a 6 miles (9.7 km) all-electric range plug-in hybrid Humvee.[31]

HMMWV replicas

Due to the popularity of the HMMWV, kits have been produced for the general market to build a HMMWV-lookalike at home. While the kits do not allow you to build a HMMWV from scratch (kitcar), they do allow you to turn a sedan into a HMMWV lookalike. An alternative is to buy a preconstructed (or "turnkey") wombat. Various kits exist, but one of the most famous names is the "Wombat" (previously called a HummBug). The former vehicle can be purchased for $18,000.00; this puts it considerably cheaper than the actual HMMWV ($56,400.00), or Hummer. In Australia, a Gold Coast-based company called Rhino Buggies produces replicas of the Hummer H1 based on the Nissan Patrol 4WD vehicle for around $30,000 AUD.

Some local vehicle assemblers in the Philippines even make small and full-sized replicas of the HMMWV. They are usually mounted on chassis intended for jeeps, jeepneys, or (in case of the full-sized replica) small trucks, and is powered by surplus gasoline or diesel engines. It looks like a real HMMWV, but it is smaller in size, and is priced the same as an ordinary "owner-type" jeep (Php80,000 upwards).

Similar vehicles

GAZ-2975 "Tigr" on rehearsal of Moscow Victory Parade
The Mahindra Axe is developed along the lines of the Humvee for the Indian Army

Operators

HMMWV operator map - dark blue shows original HMMWV operators, light blue shows PRC HMMWV operators
Humvees of the United States Armed Forces deliver family food packs donated by local businesses and private organizations to aid communities affected by Tropical Storm Ketsana.
Slovenian HMMWV M1114.
Iraqi HMMWVs at Camp Echo in Iraq, 2008.
The Mars Institute Moon-1 HMMWV Rover in Cambridge Bay waiting for the 109th Airlift Squadron's C-130 to airlift it to Resolute Bay Airport.
A Saudi Arabian (HMMWV) with a QCB machine gun mounted on top depart for the seaport of Mogadishu in Somalia. The Saudis are providing support for UNOSOM II.

The HMMWV is used by the following countries:

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b HMMWV Features & Design. AM General.
  2. ^ a b c d HMMWV Fact File. U.S. Army.
  3. ^ RESET of the U.S. Army's Vehicle Fleet Continues - Defense Industry Daily
  4. ^ $67M for HMMWV Recap Program - Defense Industry Daily
  5. ^ NBC: Boost for armored Humvee output - Conflict in Iraq - MSNBC.com
  6. ^ Up-Armored Humvee M1114
  7. ^ Up-Armored HUVMEE (UAH)
  8. ^ $595.8M Contract for M1151 Hummers & Up-Armor Price Limits - Defense Industry Daily
  9. ^ Armor Survivability Kit (ASK) for soft vehicles
  10. ^ HMMWV Armor Kit - Battelle
  11. ^ Marine Armor Kit [MAK ]
  12. ^ Thousands of Army Humvees Lack Armor Upgrade - washingtonpost.com
  13. ^ Humvee May Get Armor, Performance Boost
  14. ^ Field Life-saver: 10th Mountain Division Invents “The Rat Claw” - Defense Industry Daily
  15. ^ Humvee Doors Trap Troops
  16. ^ BAE Invents VEE Quick-Escape Bulletproof Windows - Defense Industry Daily
  17. ^ Now That's a Gunshield: The Chavis Turret - Defense Industry Daily
  18. ^ MRAP Advance Purchase #2: Oshkosh, PVI & GD
  19. ^ MRAP: Survivable Rides, Start Rolling
  20. ^ Cougar Armored Trucks to Stalk Mines on the Battlefield
  21. ^ "Marine Corps Announces Mine Resistant Ambush Protected Vehicle Contracts". Archived from the original on 2007-12-29. http://web.archive.org/web/20071229040452/http://www.marcorsyscom.usmc.mil/sites/story/fullstory.asp. 
  22. ^ "Dingo - All Protected Vehicle (APV)". http://www.defense-update.com/products/d/dingo-kmw.htm. Retrieved 2008-08-05. 
  23. ^ "Dutch Spend EUR 25M on Bushmaster IMVs for Afghan Mission (updated)". Defense Industry Daily. 2006-08-07. http://www.defenseindustrydaily.com/2006/08/dutch-spend-eur-25m-on-bushmaster-imvs-for-afghan-mission-updated/index.php. Retrieved 2007-01-12. 
  24. ^ TPI Composites and Armor Holdings Unveil Army's First All-Composite Military Vehicle
  25. ^ TPI Composites engineers, fabricates and builds large scale composite structures and composite components for the wind energy, military, and transportation markets
  26. ^ TPI Composites and Armor Holdings Unveil Army's First All-Composite Military Vehicle
  27. ^ Defense Update Newscast - 200707
  28. ^ 25th March Independence Day parade
  29. ^ ASDNews - Aerospace & Defence News - Plasan Sasa Completes Delivery of Unique HMMWV Armor Suites to Portuguese Army
  30. ^ MILITARIUM - Samochód terenowy HMMWV
  31. ^ http://dodenergy.blogspot.com/2008/09/hybrid-humvee.html
  32. ^ חדשות nrg - ה"חיה הרעה" של היחידות המיוחדות
  33. ^ Dnevnik.bg Купуваме 50 Хамъра за Сухопътни войски (in Bulgarian)
  34. ^ [1]
  35. ^ http://prosites-kazakhembus.homestead.com/041107.html
  36. ^ http://emergingminds.org/US-gives-Kenya-s-Security-Forces-14-Hummer-Military-Vehicles.html
  37. ^ a b "U.S. Assistance improves Lebanese Armed Forces’ Transportation Capability". Press Releases (Embassy of the United States - Lebanon). June 22, 2009. http://lebanon.usembassy.gov/latest_embassy_news/09pressreleases/pr062209.html. Retrieved 2009-06-24. 
  38. ^ "U.S. Government Provides Tactical Vehicles to the Lebanese Armed Forces". Press releases 2009 (Embassy of the United States - Lebanon). March 25, 2009. http://lebanon.usembassy.gov/latest_embassy_news/09pressreleases/pr032509.html. Retrieved 2009-03-26. 
  39. ^ Partner, page 21. 2008.
  40. ^ http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,1887969,00.html
  41. ^ "Pakistan militants seize Humvees". BBC News. 2008-11-11. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/7721310.stm. Retrieved 2010-03-12. 

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