HMS Cornwallis (1901): Wikis

  

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HMS Cornwallis

HMS Cornwallis
Career (United Kingdom) Royal Navy Ensign
Name: HMS Cornwallis
Namesake: Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquess Cornwallis
Builder: Thames Ironworks and Shipbuilding Company, Blackwall
Cost: £1,096,052[1]
Laid down: 19 July 1899
Launched: 13 July 1901
Completed: February 1904
Commissioned: 9 February 1904
Nickname: The Duncan-class battleships were unofficially known as "The Admirals"[1]
Fate: Torpedoed and sunk by German submarine UB-32 9 January 1917
General characteristics
Class and type: Duncan class
Type: Predreadnought battleship
Displacement: 14000 tons normal
Length: 432 ft (132 m)[2]
Beam: 75 ft 6 in (23.01 m)[2]
Draught: 25 ft 9 in (7.85 m) [2]
Installed power: 18,000 ihp
Propulsion: 13,270 to 13,745 tons load
14,900 to 15,200 tons deep[2]
Speed: 19 kt (35.2 km/h)
Range: 7,000 nautical miles (12,964 km) at 10 knots (18.5 km/h)
Complement: 720
Armament:

4 × BL 12-inch (304.8 mm) Mk IX guns[3]
12 × BL 6-inch (152-mm) 45-caliber Mk VII guns[4]
10 × 12-pounder guns
6 x 3-pounder guns
2 x machine guns

4 × 18-inch (450-mm) torpedo tubes (submerged)[2]
Armour: Belt: 7 in (178 mm)
Bulkheads: 11 in-7 in (279 mm-178 mm)
Decks: 2 in- 1 in (51 mm-25.4mm)
Gun houses: 10 in-8 in (254 mm-203 mm)
Barbettes: 11 in-4 in (279 mm-102 mm)
Casemates: 6 in (152 mm)
Conning tower: 12 in (356 mm)[2]

HMS Cornwallis was a Duncan-class predreadnought battleship of the Royal Navy.

Contents

Technical Description

HMS Cornwallis was laid down by Thames Ironworks and Shipbuilding Company at Blackwall on 19 July 1899 and launched on 13 July 1901. After delays due to labor troubles, she was completed in February 1904.

Cornwallis and her five sisters of the Duncan-class were ordered in response to large French and Russian building programs,[2] including an emphasis on fast battleships in the Russian program;[5] they were designed as smaller, more lightly armored, and faster versions of the preceding Formidable class.[2] As it turned out, the Russian ships were not as heavily armed as initially feared, and the Duncans proved to be quite superior in their balance of speed, firepower, and protection.[6]

Armor layout was similar to that of London, with reduced thickness in the barbettes and belt.[2]

Cornwallis and her sisters had machinery of 3,000 more indicated horsepower than the Formidables and Londons and were the first British battleships with 4-cylinder triple-expansion engines. They also had a modified hull form to improve speed. The ships had a reputation as good steamers, with a designed speed of 19 knots (35 km/h) and an operational speed of 18 knots (33 km/h),[2] good steering at all speeds, and an easy roll. They were the fastest battleships in the Royal Navy when completed, and the fastest predreadnoughts ever built other than the Swiftsure-class HMS Swiftsure and HMS Triumph.[7] Cornwallis herself was the fastest of the Duncan class on trials, achieving 19.56 knots (36.23 km/h), although her sister Albemarle was viewed as the best steamer of the class in everyday operations.[2]

Cornwallis and her sisters had the same armament as and a smaller displacement than the Formidables and Londons.[2]

Like all predreadnoughts, Cornwallis was outclassed by the dreadnought battleships that began to appear in 1906, but she nonetheless continued to perform front-line duties up through the early part of World War I.

Operational History

HMS Cornwallis commissioned on 9 February 1904 to relieve battleship Renown in the Mediterranean Fleet.[8] In the Mediterranean Sea she collided with the Greek brigantine Angelica on 17 September 1904, but suffered no serious damage. She transferred to the Channel Fleet in February 1905, then to the Atlantic Fleet on 14 January 1907. During her Atlantic Fleet service, she underwent a refit at Gibraltar from January to May 1908, and became Second Flagship, Rear Admiral, on 25 August 1909.[9]

In August 1909, Cornwallis transferred back to the Mediterranean Fleet and was based at Malta. Under a fleet reorganization on 1 May 1912, the Mediterranean Fleet battle squadron became the 4th Battle Squadron, Home Fleet, based at Gibraltar rather than Malta, and Cornwallis thus became a Home Fleet unit at Gibraltar. She was reduced to a nucleus crew in the 6th Battle Squadron, Second Fleet, in March 1914.[9]

When World War I began in August 1914, plans originally called for Cornwallis and battleships Agamemnon, Albemarle, Duncan, Exmouth, Russell, and Vengeance to combine in the 6th Battle Squadron and serve in the Channel Fleet, where the squadron was to patrol the English Channel and cover the movement of the British Expeditionary Force to France. However, plans also existed for the 6th Battle Squadron to be assigned to the Grand Fleet, and, when the war began, the Commander-in-Chief, Grand Fleet, Admiral Sir John Jellicoe, requested that Cornwallis and her four surviving sister ships of the Duncan class (Albemarle, Duncan, Exmouth, and Russell) be assigned to the 3rd Battle Squadron in the Grand Fleet for patrol duties to make up for the Grand Fleet's shortage of cruisers. Accordingly, the 6th Battle Squadron was abolished temporarily, and Cornwallis joined the 3rd Battle Squadron at Scapa Flow on 8 August 1914.[10]

Cornwallis and her four Duncan-class sisters, as well as the battleships of the King Edward VII class, temporarily were transferred to the Channel Fleet on 2 November 1914 to reinforce that fleet in the face of German Navy activity in the Channel Fleet's area. On 13 November 1914, the King Edward VII class ships returned to the Grand Fleet, but Cornwallis and the other Duncans stayed in the Channel Fleet, where they reconstituted the 6th Battle Squadron on 14 November 1914. This squadron was given a mission of bombarding German submarine bases on the coast of Belgium, and was based at Portland, although it transferred to Dover immediately on 14 November 1914. However, due a lack of antisubmarine defenses at Dover, the squadron returned to Portland on 19 November 1914. The 6th Battle Squadron returned to Dover in December 1914.[11]

Cornwallis was detached from the squadron in late December 1914 and assigned to West Ireland, where she was based at Clew Bay and Killarney Bay. She remained there until January 1915.[9]

In January 1915, Cornwallis was ordered to the Dardanelles to participate in the Dardanelles Campaign. She departed Portland on 24 January 1915 and arrived at Tenedos to join the British Dardanelles Squadron on 13 February 1915.[9]

Cornwallis fires a broadside during the withdrawal from Suvla Bay in December 1915.

Cornwallis participated in all the operations of the Dardanelles campaign.[12] She took part in the opening bombardment of the Ottoman Turkish entrance forts on 18 February 1915 and 19 February 1915 (firing the first shell of the bombardment),[13] combined with battleships Albion, Triumph, and Vengeance in using her secondary battery to silence forts Sedd el Bahr and Kum Kale on 25 February 1915, and took part in the main bombardment of the Narrows forts on 18 March 1915. She also supported the landings at Morto Bay on 25 April 1915. From 18 December 1915 through 20 December 1915, she covered the evacuation of Allied troops from Suvla Bay,[9] firing 500 12-inch (305-mm) and 6,000 6-inch (152-mm) rounds, and was the last large ship to leave the Suvla Bay area.[9]

After the Suvla Bay evacuation was complete, Cornwallis was transferred to the Suez Canal Patrol, which she joined on 4 January 1916. She operated as part of this patrol and on the East Indies Station until March 1916, including convoy duty in the Indian Ocean. She returned to the eastern Mediterranean in March 1916, and underwent a refit at Malta in May and June 1916.[14]

Cornwallis sinking in the Mediterranean Sea on 9 January 1917 after being torpedoed by the German submarine UB-32.

On 9 January 1917, Cornwallis was hit on her starboard side by a torpedo from German submarine U-32, commanded by Kurt Hartwig, in the eastern Mediterranean, 60 nautical miles (110 km)[15] east[2] of Malta. Some of her stokeholds flooded, causing to list about ten degrees to starboard, but counterflooding corrected the list. About 75 minutes after the first torpedo hit, another did, also on the starboard side, and Cornwallis rolled quickly to starboard.[16] Fifteen men were killed in the torpedo explosions, but she stayed afloat long enough to get the rest of the crew off. She sank about 30 minutes after the second torpedo hit.[17]

Notes

  1. ^ a b Burt, p. 198
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships, 1860-1905, p. 37.
  3. ^ Tony DiGiulian, British 12"/40 (30.5 cm) Mark IX
  4. ^ Tony DiGiulian, British 6"/45 (15.2 cm) BL Mark VII
  5. ^ Gibbons, p. 159
  6. ^ Gibbons, p. 159
  7. ^ Burt, p. 202
  8. ^ Burt, pp. 198, 208
  9. ^ a b c d e f Burt, p. 208
  10. ^ Burt, pp. 208, 211-212
  11. ^ Burt, pp. 208, 212
  12. ^ Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships, 1906-1921, p. 9
  13. ^ Burt, p.212; Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships, 1906-1921, p. 9
  14. ^ Burt, p. 208-209
  15. ^ Burt, p. 214
  16. ^ Burt, p. 209, mentions only two torpedo hits; Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships, 1906-1921, p. 9, says Cornwallis was hit by three torpedoes.
  17. ^ Burt, p. 209

References

  • Burt, R. A. British Battleships 1889-1904. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1988. ISBN 0870210610.
  • Chesneau, Roger, and Eugene M. Kolesnik, eds. Conway's All The World's Fighting Ships, 1860-1905. New York: Mayflower Books, Inc., 1979. ISBN 0831703024.
  • Dittmar, F. J. and J. J. Colledge. British Warships 1914-1919. London: Ian Allen, 1972. ISBN 0-7110-0380-7
  • Gibbons, Tony. The Complete Encyclopedia of Battleships and Battlecruisers: A Technical Directory of All the World's Capital Ships From 1860 to the Present Day. London: Salamander Books Ltd., 1983.
  • Gray, Randal, Ed. Conway's All The World's Fighting Ships 1906-1921. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1985. ISBN 0870219073.
  • Pears, Randolph. British Battleships 1892-1957: The Great Days of the Fleets. G. Cave Associates, 1979. ISBN 978-0906223147







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