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Heat shock transcription factor 1
Symbols HSF1; HSTF1
External IDs OMIM140580 MGI96238 HomoloGene74556 GeneCards: HSF1 Gene
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 3297 15499
Ensembl n/a ENSMUSG00000022556
UniProt n/a Q61695
RefSeq (mRNA) XM_001126718 NM_008296
RefSeq (protein) XP_001126718 NP_032322
Location (UCSC) n/a Chr 15:
76.3 - 76.33 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Heat shock factor protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HSF1 gene.[1][1]



The product of this gene is a heat-shock transcription factor. Transcription of heat-shock genes is rapidly induced after temperature stress. Hsp90, by itself and/or associated with multichaperone complexes, is a major repressor of this gene.[2]

Mechanism of Action

HSF1 exists as an inactive monomer in a complex with Hsp40/Hsp70 and Hsp90. Upon stress, such has elevated temperature, HSF1 is released from the chaperone complex and trimerizes. HSF1 is then transported into the nucleus where it is hyperphosphorylated and binds to DNA containing heat shock elements (NGAAN). HSF1's target genes include major inducible heat shock proteins such as Hsp72, and interestingly, noncoding RNA within Satellite III repeat regions. Its attenuation phase is initiated as a negative feedback loop with its gene product Hsp70 binding to its transactivation domain.[3]


HSF1 has been shown to interact with NCOA6,[4] SYMPK,[5] RALBP1,[6] HSF2,[7] CEBPB,[8] HSPA1A,[9][10] Heat shock protein 90kDa alpha (cytosolic), member A1[6][11] and HSPA4.[11][12]

See also


  1. ^ a b Rabindran SK, Giorgi G, Clos J, Wu C (Sep 1991). "Molecular cloning and expression of a human heat shock factor, HSF1". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 88 (16): 6906–10. PMID 1871105.  
  2. ^ "Entrez Gene: HSF1 heat shock transcription factor 1".  
  3. ^ Shamovsky I, Nudler E (March 2008). "New insights into the mechanism of heat shock response activation". Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 65 (6): 855–61. doi:10.1007/s00018-008-7458-y. PMID 18239856.  
  4. ^ Hong, SunHwa; Kim Sun Hee, Heo Mi Ae, Choi Yoon Ha, Park Min Jung, Yoo Mi Ae, Kim Han Do, Kang Ho Sung, Cheong JaeHun (Feb. 2004). "Coactivator ASC-2 mediates heat shock factor 1-mediated transactivation dependent on heat shock". FEBS Lett. (Netherlands) 559 (1-3): 165–70. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(04)00028-6. ISSN 0014-5793. PMID 14960326.  
  5. ^ Xing, Hongyan; Mayhew Christopher N, Cullen Katherine E, Park-Sarge Ok-Kyong, Sarge Kevin D (Mar. 2004). "HSF1 modulation of Hsp70 mRNA polyadenylation via interaction with symplekin". J. Biol. Chem. (United States) 279 (11): 10551–5. doi:10.1074/jbc.M311719200. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 14707147.  
  6. ^ a b Hu, Yanzhong; Mivechi Nahid F (May. 2003). "HSF-1 interacts with Ral-binding protein 1 in a stress-responsive, multiprotein complex with HSP90 in vivo". J. Biol. Chem. (United States) 278 (19): 17299–306. doi:10.1074/jbc.M300788200. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 12621024.  
  7. ^ He, Haiying; Soncin Fabrice, Grammatikakis Nicholas, Li Youlin, Siganou Aliki, Gong Jianlin, Brown Steven A, Kingston Robert E, Calderwood Stuart K (Sep. 2003). "Elevated expression of heat shock factor (HSF) 2A stimulates HSF1-induced transcription during stress". J. Biol. Chem. (United States) 278 (37): 35465–75. doi:10.1074/jbc.M304663200. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 12813038.  
  8. ^ Xie, Yue; Chen Changmin, Stevenson Mary Ann, Auron Philip E, Calderwood Stuart K (Apr. 2002). "Heat shock factor 1 represses transcription of the IL-1beta gene through physical interaction with the nuclear factor of interleukin 6". J. Biol. Chem. (United States) 277 (14): 11802–10. doi:10.1074/jbc.M109296200. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 11801594.  
  9. ^ Shi, Y; Mosser D D, Morimoto R I (Mar. 1998). "Molecular chaperones as HSF1-specific transcriptional repressors". Genes Dev. (UNITED STATES) 12 (5): 654–66. ISSN 0890-9369. PMID 9499401.  
  10. ^ Zhou, X; Tron V A, Li G, Trotter M J (Aug. 1998). "Heat shock transcription factor-1 regulates heat shock protein-72 expression in human keratinocytes exposed to ultraviolet B light". J. Invest. Dermatol. (UNITED STATES) 111 (2): 194–8. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1747.1998.00266.x. ISSN 0022-202X. PMID 9699716.  
  11. ^ a b Nair, S C; Toran E J, Rimerman R A, Hjermstad S, Smithgall T E, Smith D F (Dec. 1996). "A pathway of multi-chaperone interactions common to diverse regulatory proteins: estrogen receptor, Fes tyrosine kinase, heat shock transcription factor Hsf1, and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor". Cell Stress Chaperones (UNITED STATES) 1 (4): 237–50. ISSN 1355-8145. PMID 9222609.  
  12. ^ Abravaya, K; Myers M P, Murphy S P, Morimoto R I (Jul. 1992). "The human heat shock protein hsp70 interacts with HSF, the transcription factor that regulates heat shock gene expression". Genes Dev. (UNITED STATES) 6 (7): 1153–64. ISSN 0890-9369. PMID 1628823.  

Further reading

  • Voellmy R (1996). "Sensing stress and responding to stress.". EXS 77: 121–37. PMID 8856972.  
  • Abravaya K, Myers MP, Murphy SP, Morimoto RI (1992). "The human heat shock protein hsp70 interacts with HSF, the transcription factor that regulates heat shock gene expression.". Genes Dev. 6 (7): 1153–64. doi:10.1101/gad.6.7.1153. PMID 1628823.  
  • Schuetz TJ, Gallo GJ, Sheldon L, et al. (1991). "Isolation of a cDNA for HSF2: evidence for two heat shock factor genes in humans.". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 88 (16): 6911–5. doi:10.1073/pnas.88.16.6911. PMID 1871106.  
  • Nunes SL, Calderwood SK (1995). "Heat shock factor-1 and the heat shock cognate 70 protein associate in high molecular weight complexes in the cytoplasm of NIH-3T3 cells.". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 213 (1): 1–6. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1995.2090. PMID 7639722.  
  • Maruyama K, Sugano S (1994). "Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides.". Gene 138 (1-2): 171–4. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(94)90802-8. PMID 8125298.  
  • Chu B, Soncin F, Price BD, et al. (1997). "Sequential phosphorylation by mitogen-activated protein kinase and glycogen synthase kinase 3 represses transcriptional activation by heat shock factor-1.". J. Biol. Chem. 271 (48): 30847–57. doi:10.1074/jbc.271.48.30847. PMID 8940068.  
  • Fukunaga R, Hunter T (1997). "MNK1, a new MAP kinase-activated protein kinase, isolated by a novel expression screening method for identifying protein kinase substrates.". Embo J. 16 (8): 1921–33. doi:10.1093/emboj/16.8.1921. PMID 9155018.  
  • Nair SC, Toran EJ, Rimerman RA, et al. (1997). "A pathway of multi-chaperone interactions common to diverse regulatory proteins: estrogen receptor, Fes tyrosine kinase, heat shock transcription factor Hsf1, and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor.". Cell Stress Chaperones 1 (4): 237–50. doi:10.1379/1466-1268(1996)001<0237:APOMCI>2.3.CO;2. PMID 9222609.  
  • Huang J, Nueda A, Yoo S, Dynan WS (1997). "Heat shock transcription factor 1 binds selectively in vitro to Ku protein and the catalytic subunit of the DNA-dependent protein kinase.". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (41): 26009–16. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.41.26009. PMID 9325337.  
  • Cotto J, Fox S, Morimoto R (1998). "HSF1 granules: a novel stress-induced nuclear compartment of human cells.". J. Cell. Sci. 110 ( Pt 23): 2925–34. PMID 9359875.  
  • Suzuki Y, Yoshitomo-Nakagawa K, Maruyama K, et al. (1997). "Construction and characterization of a full length-enriched and a 5'-end-enriched cDNA library.". Gene 200 (1-2): 149–56. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(97)00411-3. PMID 9373149.  
  • Shi Y, Mosser DD, Morimoto RI (1998). "Molecular chaperones as HSF1-specific transcriptional repressors.". Genes Dev. 12 (5): 654–66. PMID 9499401.  
  • Satyal SH, Chen D, Fox SG, et al. (1998). "Negative regulation of the heat shock transcriptional response by HSBP1.". Genes Dev. 12 (13): 1962–74. doi:10.1101/gad.12.13.1962. PMID 9649501.  
  • Zhou X, Tron VA, Li G, Trotter MJ (1998). "Heat shock transcription factor-1 regulates heat shock protein-72 expression in human keratinocytes exposed to ultraviolet B light.". J. Invest. Dermatol. 111 (2): 194–8. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1747.1998.00266.x. PMID 9699716.  
  • Zou J, Guo Y, Guettouche T, et al. (1998). "Repression of heat shock transcription factor HSF1 activation by HSP90 (HSP90 complex) that forms a stress-sensitive complex with HSF1.". Cell 94 (4): 471–80. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)81588-3. PMID 9727490.  
  • Stephanou A, Isenberg DA, Nakajima K, Latchman DS (1999). "Signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 and heat shock factor-1 interact and activate the transcription of the Hsp-70 and Hsp-90beta gene promoters.". J. Biol. Chem. 274 (3): 1723–8. doi:10.1074/jbc.274.3.1723. PMID 9880553.  
  • Dai R, Frejtag W, He B, et al. (2000). "c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase targeting and phosphorylation of heat shock factor-1 suppress its transcriptional activity.". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (24): 18210–8. doi:10.1074/jbc.M000958200. PMID 10747973.  
  • Choi Y, Asada S, Uesugi M (2000). "Divergent hTAFII31-binding motifs hidden in activation domains.". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (21): 15912–6. doi:10.1074/jbc.275.21.15912. PMID 10821850.  

External links

This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain.



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