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The Haavara Agreement was signed on 25 August 1933 after three months of talks by the Zionist Federation of Germany, the Anglo-Palestine Bank (under the orders of the Jewish Agency, an official executive agency in then Palestine) and the economic authorities of the Nazi regime of Germany. The agreement was designed to help facilitate the emigration of German Jews to Palestine. While it helped Jews emigrate, it forced them to give up most of their possessions to Germany before departing. Those assets could later be obtained by transferring them to Palestine as German export goods.[1] Approximately 50,000 Jews emigrated to Palestine under this agreement. The main proponent of the Ha'avara Agreement was Haim Arlosoroff.

Contents

The Company

The Haavara (Transfer) company was established in 1935 as the result of the agreement.

Controversy

The Haavara Agreement was highly controversial. While it helped persecuted Jews emigrate from Germany, it provided a major market for German goods in Palestine. This helped Germany's weak economy at a time when many Jews were boycotting the country's goods. The following is a passage from an anti-Haavara circulated pamphlet in Palestine.

Until When Will the Yishuv Support Hitler? BOYCOTT Hitler's Products! BOYCOTT German Movies! Ivri! Remember What the German Did to Your Brother[2]


From the German point of view the German economy was being weakened not because the 1914-1918 war had done major damage to the nations's production capacity but rather simply because the economic restitution provisions of the Treaty of Versailles were deliberately fashioned with a punitive intent to keep the German people in perpetual debt slavery and insure that they would never be able to throw off the yoke which was being imposed on them. Almost all natural resources were being expropriated out of the country being paid for exclusively with the severely debauched Reichsbank Marks but foreign debtors would invariably demanded payment for the few things Germany was actually allowed to buy in "Goldrecknung Marks" at full, fair actual internationally honored exchange rates. The Haavara agreement was simply a workaround which allowed Germany to get fair value for at least some if it's production and ameliorate some of the most onerous consequences of the Versailles Reparations.

Certificate

An example of the certificate issued by Haavara to Jews emigrating to Palestine:

CERTIFICATE The Trust and Transfer Office "Haavara" Ltd. places at the disposal of the Banks in Palestine amounts in Reichmarks which have been put at its disposal by the Jewish immigrants from Germany. The Banks avail themselves of these amounts in Reichmarks in order to make payments on behalf of Palestinian merchants for goods imported by them from Germany. The merchants pay in the value of the goods to the Banks and the "Haavara" Ltd. pays the countervalue to the Jewish immigrants from Germany. To the same extent that local merchants will make use of this arrangement, the import of German goods will serve to withdraw Jewish capital from Germany. The Trust and Transfer Office, HAAVARA, LTD. [2]

Book on subject

The subject is also the treatment of a book by Edwin Black (author of "IBM and the Holocaust") entitled "The Transfer Agreement".

See also

References and notes

  1. ^ August 25: Ha'avara Agreement, Chronology of the Holocaust
  2. ^ a b Heritage

External links

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The Ha'avara Agreement was signed on 25 August 1933 after three months of talks by the Zionist Federation of Germany, the Anglo-Palestine Bank, and the German economic authorities. It allowed German Jews emigrating to Palestine to put their money in special bank accounts which could then be used to buy German goods. This allowed the emigrants to keep most of their property and Germany to partially overcome the anti-Nazi boycott.[1] The main proponent of the Ha'avara Agreement was Haim Arlosoroff.

References

  1. August 25: Ha'avara Agreement, Chronology of the Holocaust


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