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Hae Mo-su of Buyeo
Hangul 해모수
Hanja 解慕漱
Revised Romanization Hae Mosu
McCune–Reischauer Hae Mosu

Hae Mosu was the founder and 1st Dangun of Buyeo. He is mentioned in the Hwandan Gogi, and Korean records of the 11th and 13th centuries that describe the founding of Goguryeo, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. Goguryeo considered itself a successor to Buyeo and annexed Buyeo remnants in 494.

Contents

Background

Hae Mosu was a member of the Gojoseon Imperial family of Jinjoseon under the dynasty that was founded by the 44th ruler of Gojoseon, Emperor Gumul of Gojoseon. He rose up as a general at the young age of 23 under the rule of Emperor Goyeolga of Gojoseon, and served the empire faithfully during its period of decay.

Rise to Power

Gojoseon, which had been divided into three separate kingdoms, was falling. Jinjoseon, the central state and former seat of power, was decaying to the point that the military no longer followed the orders of the Emperor and acted on its own. Seeing that he was no longer in control of the empire, Emperor Goyeolga of Gojoseon abdicated and left the empire in the hands of the Ohga, who were the Five Central Nobles. Under the Ohga, the generals and leaders of the military began to leave and rise in rebellion. The last to leave the empire was Hae Mosu, who had become general at the young age of 23. Hae Mosu left the Empire in order to rebuild it and not for his own personal gain. Hae Mosu and his battalion went to Jangdanggyeong fortress, where they built a palace. From there, Hae Mosu took the title of Cheonhwang-Rang, which was a title equivalent to emperor. Hae Mosu destroyed most of the rebellions of his fellow Gojoseon generals, and regained most of Jinjoseon's territories. With this, Cheonhwang-Rang Hae Mosu offered the Five Central Nobles a chance to rebuild Gojoseon under the name of Bukbuyeo. After establishing the state of Bukbuyeo, Hae Mosu waited six years just in case the former emperor Goyeolga would return. When it became clear that the former emperor would not return to politics, Hae Mosu was given the title of Dangun.[1]

Misinterpretations

Hae Mosu is stated in Samguk Sagi to have been the father of Hae Buru and King Dongmyeong. These records and the legends involving the three figures conflicted and lacked common sense. Recent studies by historians have solved the puzzle to the Buyeo royal line.

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Connection with Hae Buru

Hae Buru was the younger brother of Go Uru, who was the 4th Dangun of Buyeo. When Go Uru died in 86 BCE, his brother Hae Buru took the throne and became Dangun of Bukbuyeo. However, during that same year, Go Dumak, a descendant of Goyeolga of Gojoseon, arose and rebelled against Hae Buru, taking the throne and pushing Hae Buru to the east. Hae Buru led his followers and some of Bukbuyeo's people to the city of Gaseopwon, a city near the present-day Sea of Japan (East Sea). In that same year, Hae Buru founded another Buyeo, which he named Dongbuyeo, due to its position east of Bukbuyeo. In order to avoid conflict with Dongmyeong Dangun, who had come to rule over Bukbuyeo, Hae Buru submitted himself to Dongmyeong Dangun as a vassal of Bukbuyeo, and therefore used the title of "Wang," which means "King."

Connection with Go Jumong

Go Jumong was the son of Go Mosu, also known as Buliji, who was the ruler of Okjeo. Buliji was the grandson of King Go Jin, who was the second son of Hae Mosu. Go Mosu met Yuhwa, the daughter of Habaek, who was the chieftain of a tribe that lived by the water. Go Mosu married Yuhwa, but died in battle before he could see their child, Jumong, born. Go Jumong eventually grew up in Dongbuyeo, and escaped Dongbuyeo to escape the princes of Dongbuyeo and their jealous rage. After crossing the border and entering Bukbuyeo, Go Jumong was greeted by Go Museo Dangun, who was the sixth ruler of Buyeo. Go Museo dangun decided to marry Jumong to his second daughter Soseuno. When Go Museo died with no sons, Jumong rose to the throne to become the seventh dangun of Bukbuyeo. He eventually conquered many neighboring kingdoms and tribes and established Goguryeo in 37 BCE.

Legends

According to the Samguk Sagi, Hae Mosu was the father of Goguryeo's founder, Jumong. According to the Samguk Yusa, Hae Mosu was the son of heaven, riding in a chariot of five dragons, arriving at Holsenggolseong in 58 BC to establish Bukbuyeo (North Buyeo). His son is the founder of Goguryeo, Dongmyeongseong. It is also said that Haemosu was an excellent archer and skilled fighter who conquered many foes of his kingdom, Bukbuyeo.

However, Haemosu does not appear in older Chinese records or on the Gwanggaeto Stele that describe Goguryeo's founding. It is thought that Goguryeo integrated the founding legend of Buyeo after the former conquered the latter.

Death

Hae Mosu Dangun died of age in the year 195 BCE, and was succeeded by his eldest son, who became Mosuri of Buyeo, the 2nd ruler of Bukbuyeo

See also

Notes

  1. ^ 三國遺事 卷一 高句麗 … 壇君記云君與西河河伯之女要親有產子名曰夫婁

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