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The Hag by Tsukioka Yoshitoshi (August 1890)

A hag is a wizened old woman, or a kind of fairy or goddess having the appearance of such a woman, often found in folklore and children's tales such as Hansel and Gretel.[1] Hags are often seen as malevolent, but may also be one of the chosen forms of shapeshifting deities, such as the Morrígan or Badb, who are seen as neither wholly beneficent nor malevolent.[2][3] The term appears in Middle English, and might be short for hægtesse, an Old English term for witch.[4] As a stock character in fairy or folk tale, the hag shares characteristics with the crone, and the two words are sometimes used as if interchangeable.[5]

Using the word "hag" to translate terms found in non-English (or non-modern English) is contentious, since use of the word is often associated with a misogynistic attitude.[6][7]


Hag in folklore

A hag, or "the Old Hag", was a nightmare spirit in British and Anglophone North American folklore. This variety of hag is essentially identical to the Anglo-Saxon mæra — a being with roots in ancient Germanic superstition, and closely related to the Scandinavian mara. According to folklore, the Old Hag sat on a sleeper's chest and sent nightmares to him or her. When the subject awoke, he or she would be unable to breathe or even move for a short period of time. Currently this state is called sleep paralysis, but in the old belief the subject had been "hagridden".[8] It is still frequently discussed as if it were a paranormal state.[9]

In Irish and Scottish mythology, the Cailleach is a hag goddess concerned with creation, harvest, the weather and sovereignty.[3][10] In partnership with the goddess Brìde, she is a seasonal goddess, seen as ruling the winter months while Brìde rules the summer.[10] In Scotland, a group of hags, known as The Cailleachan (The Storm Hags) are seen as personifications of the elemental powers of nature, especially in a destructive aspect. They are said to be particularly active in raising the windstorms of spring, during the period known as A Chailleach.[10][11]

Hags as sovereignty figures abound in Irish mythology. The most common pattern is that the hag represents the barren land, who the hero of the tale must approach without fear, and come to love on her own terms. When the hero displays this courage, love, and acceptance of her hideous side, the sovereignty hag then reveals that she is also a young and beautiful goddess.[3]

The Three Fates (particularly Atropos) are often depicted as hags.

In Persian folklore, the Bakhtak has the same role as that of "the Old Hag" in British folklore. The Bakhtak sits on a sleeper's chest, awakening them and causing them to feel they are unable to breathe or even to move. Bakhtak also is used metaphorically to refer to "nightmare" in the modern Persian language.

Many stories about hags seem to have been used to frighten children into being good. Peg Powler, for example, was a river hag who lived in river trees and had skin the color of green pond scum. Parents who wanted to keep their children away from the river's edge told them that if they got too close to the water she would pull them in with her long arms, drown them, and sometimes eat them. Peg Powler has other regional names, such as Jenny Greenteeth from Yorkshire and Nellie Longarms from several English counties.[12]

Many tales about hags do not describe them well enough to distinguish between an old woman who knows magic or a supernatural being.[13]

Hag in Western literature

In medieval and later literature, the term "hag," and its relatives in European languages, came to stand for an unattractive, older woman. Building on the medieval tradition of such women as portrayed in comic and burlesque literature, specifically in the Italian Renaissance the hag represented the opposite of the lovely lady familiar from the poetry of Petrarch.[14]

In English literature, one of the best-known hags

In neurobiology

The expression Old Hag Attack refers to a hypnagogic state in which paralysis is present and, quite often, it is accompanied by terrifying hallucinations. When excessively recurrent, some consider them to be a disorder; however many populations treat them as simply part of their culture and mythological world-view, rather than any form of disease or pathology.

See also


  1. ^ Briggs, Katharine (1976) An Encyclopedia of Fairies, Hobgoblins, Brownies, Boogies, and Other Supernatural Creatures, "Hags", p.216. ISBN 0-394-73467-X
  2. ^ Lysaght, Patricia (1986) The Banshee: The Irish Death Messenger. Roberts Rinehart Publishers. ISBN 1-57098-138-8. p.54
  3. ^ a b c Clark, Rosalind (1991) The Great Queens: Irish Goddesses from the Morrígan to Cathleen Ní Houlihan (Irish Literary Studies, Book 34) Savage, Maryland, Barnes and Noble (reprint) pp.5, 8, 17, 25
  4. ^ hag1 The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition (2000)
  5. ^ Based on a Google Book search of the exact phrase "hag or crone" and "crone or hag". Retrieved 29 March 2009.
  6. ^ Rich, Adrienne (1979-02-04). "That Women Be Themselves; Women". The New York Times: pp. BR.3.  
  7. ^ "Feminist storyteller reprises 'These Are My Sisters'". Star Tribune. 1996-07-07.  
  8. ^ Ernsting, Michele (2004) "Hags and nightmares: sleep paralysis and the midnight terrors" Radio Netherlands
  9. ^ The "Old Hag" Syndrome from About: Paranormal Phenomena
  10. ^ a b c McNeill, F. Marian (1959). The Silver Bough, Vol.2: A Calendar of Scottish National Festivals, Candlemas to Harvest Home. Glasgow: William MacLellan. pp. 20–1. ISBN 0-85335-162-7.  
  11. ^ McNeill, F. Marian (1959). The Silver Bough, Vol.1: Scottish Folklore and Folk-Belief. Glasgow: William MacLellan. pp. 119. ISBN 0-85335-161-9.  
  12. ^ Froud, Brian and Lee, Alan (1978) Faeries. New York, Peacock Press ISBN 0-553-01159-6
  13. ^ K. M. Briggs, The Fairies in English Tradition and Literature, p 66-7 University of Chicago Press, London, 1967
  14. ^ Bettella, Patrizia (2005). The ugly woman: transgressive aesthetic models in Italian poetry from the Middle Ages to the Baroque. U of Toronto P. pp. 117–20. ISBN 9780802039262.  

Further reading

  • Sagan, Carl (1997) The Demon-Haunted World: Science as a Candle in the Dark.
  • Kettlewell, N; Lipscomb, S; Evans, E. (1993) Differences in neuropsychological correlates between normals and those experiencing "Old Hag Attacks". Percept Mot Skills 1993 Jun;76 (3 Pt 1):839-45; discussion 846. PMID 8321596

External links


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

HAG. (1) (Probably a shortened form of the O. Eng. hcegtesse, hegtes, cognate with Ger. Hexe, witch, Dutch hecse), a word common during the 16th and 17th centuries for a female demon or evil spirit, and so particularly applied to such supernatural beings as the harpies and fairies of classical mythology, and also to witches. In modern usage the word is generally used of a hideous old woman whose repulsive exterior is accompanied by malice or wickedness. The name is also used of an eel-like parasitic fish, Myxine glutinosa, allied to the lamprey.

(2) A word common in Scottish and northern English dialects for an enclosed piece of wood, a copse. This is the same word as "hedge" (see HEDGES) and "haw." "Hag" also means "to cut," and is used in Scotland of an extent of woodland marked out for felling, and of a quantity of felled wood. This word is also used of a cutting in the peat of a "moss" or "bog," and hence applied to the small plots of firm ground or heather in a bog; it is common in the form "moss-hags."

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Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary



Proper noun

Hag m.

  1. The Hague


Proper noun

Hag m.

  1. The Hague

See also


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