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Hagia Sophia
Ἁγία Σοφία
Hagia Sophia
View of the Hagia Sophia from Sultanahmet square
Location Istanbul (historically Constantinople) Turkey
Designer Isidore of Miletus
Anthemius of Tralles
Type Museum(Current Use)/Eastern Orthodox Church(Former)/ Imperial Mosque (Former)
Material Ashlar, brick
Length 82 m (269 ft)
Width 73 m (240 ft)
Height 55 m (180 ft)
Beginning date 532 A.D.
Completion date 537 A.D.
Another interior view of the Hagia Sophia, showing Islamic elements in the ceiling.
Interior view of the Hagia Sophia
.Hagia Sophia (Turkish: Ayasofya, from the Greek: Ἁγία Σοφία, "Holy Wisdom"; Latin: Sancta Sophia or Sancta Sapientia) is a former Orthodox patriarchal basilica, later a mosque, now a museum in Istanbul, Turkey.^ Hagia Sophia was converted into a mosque.
  • Hagia Sophia | Hagia Sophia Tour | Visit to Hagia Sophia | Hagia Sophia Information 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.istanbultourguides.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ HAGIA SOPHIA is a Greek phrase that means 'Holy Wisdom'.
  • Visit ST.SOPHIA ( HAGHIA SOPHIA ) - Istanbul/Turkey 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.helloturkey.net [Source type: General]

^ Sophia is the biblical name (in Greek) for wisdom.
  • Hagia Sophia: A Rich and Holy History - January 2008 Issue of St. Anthony MessengerMagazine Online 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.americancatholic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.From the date of its dedication in 360 until 1453, it served as the cathedral of Constantinople except between 1204 and 1261, when it was the cathedral of the Latin empire.^ The Sack of Constantinople (1204) with a description of the desecration of Hagia Sophia Return: The Middle Ages: 476-1453 .
  • Procopius: The description of the Hagia Sophia, 537 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC gbgm-umc.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As the Cathedral of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople for over a thousand years, with the brief exception of the Latin occupation, the Hagia Sophia was the center of Eastern Christianity from 360 to the Ottoman conversion.
  • Hagia Sophia 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC archnet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the Latin Occupation (1204-1261) the church became a Roman Catholic cathedral, and its many treasures and relics were dispersed.
  • Hagia Sophia, Tourist Attractions of Istanbul, Turkey 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.magicaljourneys.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hagia Sophia 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The building was a mosque from 23 May 1453 until 1934, when it was secularized; it was opened as a museum on 1 February 1935.[1]
Famous in particular for its massive dome, it is considered the epitome of Byzantine architecture and to have "changed the history of architecture."[2] It was the largest cathedral in the world for nearly a thousand years, until the completion of the Seville Cathedral in 1520. The current building was originally constructed as a church between 532 and 537 A.D. on the orders of the Byzantine Emperor Justinian, and was in fact the third Church of the Holy Wisdom to occupy the site. .(The previous two had both been destroyed by riots.^ The building was constructed between 532 and 537 AD on the orders of the Byzantine Emperor Justinian, and was in fact the third Church of the Holy Wisdom to occupy the site since the previous two had both been destroyed by riots.
  • Sabiha Gokcen airport to Hagia Sophia transfer.Sabiha Gokcen Istanbul airport transfer service. Turkey Airport transfer service 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC bookyourtransfer.com [Source type: News]

^ It replaced two previous versions of the church that had been destroyed.
  • Istanbul: From Constantine to Ataturk - Istanbul, Turkey - VirtualTourist.com 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC members.virtualtourist.com [Source type: General]

^ The current building was originally constructed as a church between 532 and 537 on the orders of the Byzantine Emperor Justinian I, and was in fact the third Church of the Holy Wisdom to occupy the site (the previous two had both been destroyed by riots).
  • Hagia Sophia - Terra Anatolia - Trekking in Turkey 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.terra-anatolia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

) .It was designed by Isidore of Miletus, a physicist, and Anthemius of Tralles, a mathematician.^ It was designed by two architects, Isidore of Miletus and Anthemius of Tralles.
  • Hagia Sophia - Ayasofya 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC istanbulvisions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ Isidore of Miletus and Anthemius of Tralles were the designers of the monument.
  • Hagia Sophia Facts - Interesting And Fun Facts About Hagia Sophia Istanbul Turkey 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC lifestyle.iloveindia.com [Source type: General]

^ Selected as architects for this grand endeavor were Anthemius of Tralles and Isidore of Miletus, a mathematician and a physicist.
  • Raggedy Android » Hagia Sophia 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC raggedyandroid.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3]
.The church contained a large collection of holy relics and featured, among other things, a 15 metre (49 foot) silver iconostasis.^ The Church contained a large collection of holy relics and featured, among other things, a 50-foot (15 m) silver iconostasis.
  • Hagia Sophia - Ayasofya 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC istanbulvisions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hagia Sophia - Terra Anatolia - Trekking in Turkey 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.terra-anatolia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Church used to contain a large collection of holy relics and featured, among other things, a 50 ft (15 m) silver iconostasis.
  • Sabiha Gokcen airport to Hagia Sophia transfer.Sabiha Gokcen Istanbul airport transfer service. Turkey Airport transfer service 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC bookyourtransfer.com [Source type: News]

^ The Church contained a large collection of holy relics and featured, among other things, a 15m (49 foot) silver iconostasis.

.It was the seat of the Patriarch of Constantinople and the religious focal point of the Eastern Orthodox Church for nearly one thousand years.^ It was the seat of the Patriarch of Constantinople and the religious focal point of the Eastern Orthodox Church for nearly one thousand years.

^ It was the patriarchal church of the Patriarch of Constantinople and the religious focus point of the Orthodox Byzantine Empire for nearly 1000 years.
  • Hagia Sophia - Ayasofya 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC istanbulvisions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ It was the seat of the Patriarch of Constantinople and the religious home of the Orthodox Byzantine Empire.
  • Istanbul — Travels in Turkey 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.cromwell-intl.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It was the church in which Cardinal Humbert in 1054 marched up to the altar and excommunicated Michael I Cerularius, which is commonly considered the start of the Great Schism.^ It was the church in which Cardinal Humbert marched up to the altar and excommunicated Cerularius, marking the official start of the Great Schism.

^ Patriarch Ceralarius and Cardinal Humbert met here in April 1054.
  • HAGIA SOPHIA (AYASOFYA) MUSEUM - SkyscraperCity 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.skyscrapercity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At 3 o' clock afternoon on sunday 16 July 1054, Cardinal HUmbert and his 2 men get up, went out of the Hagia Sophia .
  • HAGIA SOPHIA (AYASOFYA) MUSEUM - SkyscraperCity 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.skyscrapercity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1453, Constantinople was conquered by the Ottoman Turks and Sultan Mehmed II ordered the building to be converted into a mosque.^ In 1453, Istanbul was conquered by the Ottoman Turks, and the Hagia Sophia was ordered to be converted into a mosque.

^ Mehmed II ( in Mehmed II (Ottoman sultan): Second accession in 1451.
  • Hagia Sophia (church, Istanbul, Turkey) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When the Turks conquer Constantinople in 1453, the building is turned into a mosque.
  • 11.1 - Byzantium Becomes The New Rome 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4] .The bells, altar, iconostasis, and sacrificial vessels were removed, and many of the mosaics were eventually plastered over.^ Eventually, all of the figurative mosaics were plastered over.
  • A Monumental Struggle to Preserve Hagia Sophia | Travel | Smithsonian Magazine 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The bells, altar, iconostasis, and other overtly Christian furnishings were removed.
  • Istanbul — Travels in Turkey 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.cromwell-intl.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The bells, altar, iconostasis, and sacrificial vessels were removed, and many of the mosaics were eventually plastered over.
  • Hagia Sophia - Ayasofya 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC istanbulvisions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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  • Sabiha Gokcen airport to Hagia Sophia transfer.Sabiha Gokcen Istanbul airport transfer service. Turkey Airport transfer service 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC bookyourtransfer.com [Source type: News]
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.The Islamic features — such as the mihrab, the minbar, and the four minarets outside — were added over the course of its history under the Ottomans.^ The Islamic features - such as the mihrab, the minbar, and the four minarets outside - were added over the course of its history under the Ottomans.
  • Hagia Sophia - Terra Anatolia - Trekking in Turkey 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.terra-anatolia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Islamic features - such as the four minarets outside, the mihrab and minbar - were added over the course of its history under the Ottomans.
  • Hagia Sophia - Ayasofya 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC istanbulvisions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Islamic features like the mihrab, the minbar, and the four minarets outside, were added over the course of its history under the Ottomans.
  • Sabiha Gokcen airport to Hagia Sophia transfer.Sabiha Gokcen Istanbul airport transfer service. Turkey Airport transfer service 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC bookyourtransfer.com [Source type: News]

.It remained as a mosque until 1935, when it was converted into a museum by the Republic of Turkey.^ Hagia Sophia was converted into a mosque.
  • Hagia Sophia | Hagia Sophia Tour | Visit to Hagia Sophia | Hagia Sophia Information 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.istanbultourguides.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It remained as a mosque until 1935, when it was converted into a museum by the Republic of Turkey.
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^ The church of Christ was possessed and converted into a mosque, until it was decreed a museum.
  • Hagia Sophia 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.teslasociety.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Petition to restore the Hagia Sophia as a church - Jihad Watch 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.jihadwatch.org [Source type: Original source]

.For almost 500 years the principal mosque of Istanbul, Hagia Sophia served as a model for many of the Ottoman mosques such as the Sultan Ahmed Mosque (Blue Mosque of Istanbul), the Şehzade Mosque, the Süleymaniye Mosque, the Rüstem Pasha Mosque, and the Kılıç Ali Paşa Mosque.^ For almost 500 years the principal mosque of Istanbul, Hagia Sophia served as a model for many of the Ottoman mosques such as the Sultan Ahmed Mosque (Blue Mosque of Istanbul), the Şehzade Mosque, the Süleymaniye Mosque, and the Rüstem Pasha Mosque.
  • Everything About The Blue Mosque 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC thebluemosque.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ Hagia Sophia was converted into a mosque.
  • Hagia Sophia | Hagia Sophia Tour | Visit to Hagia Sophia | Hagia Sophia Information 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.istanbultourguides.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Later, Hagia Sophia served as the principal mosque of Istanbul for almost 500 years.
  • Hagia Sophia, Istanbul, Turkey 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC info.newkerala.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although it is sometimes referred to as Sancta Sophia, as though it were named after a saint named Sophia (sophia being the phonetic spelling in Latin of the Greek word for wisdom), the full name in Greek is Ναός τῆς Ἁγίας τοῦ Θεοῦ Σοφίας, Church of the Holy Wisdom of God, the church being dedicated to Jesus Christ, in Eastern Orthodox theology, the Holy Wisdom of God.^ Although it is sometimes called "Saint Sophia" in English, it is not named after a saint named Sophia — the Greek word sophia means "wisdom."
  • Hagia Sophia on Flickr - Photo Sharing! 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.flickr.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The basilica was not dedicated to a saint named Sophia, but to Divine Wisdom.
  • Governorship of Istanbul - Hagia Sophia Museum 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC english.istanbul.gov.tr [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hagia Sophia is Greek for Holy Wisdom, so it's not named after a "Saint Sophia" — it's named for "Holy Wisdom".
  • Istanbul — Travels in Turkey 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.cromwell-intl.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[5][6]

Contents

History

First church

.The first church was known as the Μεγάλη Ἐκκλησία (Megálē Ekklēsíā, "Great Church"), or in Latin "Magna Ecclesia".[7] Inaugurated by Constantius II on 15 February 360, it was built next to the area where the imperial palace was being developed.^ Nothing remains of the first church that was built on this location, known as the Megalè Ekklèsia (Great Church), or in Latin "Magna Ecclesia".
  • Hagia Sophia - Ayasofya 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC istanbulvisions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Stone remains of the basilica ordered by Theodosius II, showing the Lamb of God.Nothing remains of the first church that was built on this location, known as the Μεγάλη Ἐκκλησία (Megálē Ekklēsíā, "Great Church"), or in Latin "Magna Ecclesia".
  • Everything About The Blue Mosque 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC thebluemosque.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The church was built next to the area where the imperial palace was being developed and next to the smaller church Hagia Eirene, finished first and acting as cathedral until the Hagia Sophia was completed.
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.The nearby Hagia Eirene ("Holy Peace") church was completed earlier and served as cathedral until the Hagia Sophia was completed.^ The Hagia Sophia church is completed, the most magnificent building of its time.
  • Istanbul - LookLex Encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC i-cias.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I Love this Church, the hagia sophia is so wonderful .

^ The church of Hagia Eirene shared the fate of the famous church of Hagia Sophia.
  • MONASTERIES/MONUMENTS IN BYZANTIUM 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.agiasofia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Both churches acted together as the principal churches of the Byzantine Empire.^ Both churches acted together as the principal churches of the Byzantine Empire.
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^ Justinian intended the cathedral to stand as the ultimate symbol of his empire’s Byzantine Christian faith, and its design, both in concept and scale, was unprecedented.
  • May 7, 558: The Roof Caves In on the Hagia Sophia 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: General]

^ Hagia Sophia or Holy Wisdom is the mother church of all Eastern Christians of the Byzantine liturgical tradition both Orthodox and Greek Catholic.
  • Hagia Sophia, Istanbul, Turkey 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC info.newkerala.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The first church was chronicled by Socrates of Constantinople (380–440), who claimed that it was built by Constantine the Great.^ This church was chronicled by Socrates of Constantinople (380-440), who claimed that it was built by Constantine the Great.
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^ This church was chronicled by Socrates of Constantinople (380–440), who claimed that it was built by Constantine the Great.
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^ The city was renamed Constantinople, after Constantine the Great.
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.It was built as a traditional Latin colonnaded basilica with galleries and a wooden roof.^ It was built as a traditional Latin colonnaded basilica with galleries and a wooden roof.
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^ The basilica with a wooden roof was built by architect Rufinos.
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^ Actually, the first small basilica with a wooden roof was constructed in the second half of the 4th century by Constantinius, the son of Constantine the Great.
  • Governorship of Istanbul - Hagia Sophia Museum 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC english.istanbul.gov.tr [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It was preceded by an atrium. .It was claimed to be one of the world's most outstanding monuments at the time.^ This first church was then already claimed to be one of the world's most outstanding monuments.
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^ This first church was then already claimed to be one of the world’s most outstanding monuments.

^ The Hagia Sophia was included in the annual list of 100 most endangered monuments published by the World Monuments Fund in 1996 and in 1998, to secure funds for continued work.
  • Hagia Sophia 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC archnet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Patriarch of Constantinople John Chrysostom came into a conflict with Empress Aelia Eudoxia, wife of the emperor Arcadius, and was sent into exile on 20 June 404. During the subsequent riots, this first church was largely burned down.^ This second church was also burned down during the Nika riots of 532.
  • Hagia Sophia, Istanbul, Turkey 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC info.newkerala.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Patriarch of Constantinople, John Chrysostom, came into a conflict with Empress Aelia Eudoxia, wife of the Emperor Arcadius and was sent into exile on 20 June 404.

^ The patriarch of Constantinople, John Chrysostom, came into a conflict with Empress Aelia Eudoxia, wife of the Emperor Arcadius and was sent into exile on 20 June 404.
  • Everything About The Blue Mosque 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC thebluemosque.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Nothing remains of the first church today.^ Stone remains of the basilica ordered by Theodosius II, showing the Lamb of God.Nothing remains of the first church that was built on this location, known as the Μεγάλη Ἐκκλησία (Megálē Ekklēsíā, "Great Church"), or in Latin "Magna Ecclesia".
  • Everything About The Blue Mosque 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC thebluemosque.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nothing remains of the first church that was built on this location, known as the Μεγάλη Ἐκκλησία (Megálē Ekklēsíā, “Great Church”), or in Latin “Magna Ecclesia”.

^ Nothing remains of the first church that was built on this location, known as the Megalè Ekklèsia (Great Church), or in Latin "Magna Ecclesia".
  • Hagia Sophia - Ayasofya 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC istanbulvisions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Second church

Stone remains of the basilica ordered by Theodosius II, showing the Lamb of God
Marble blocks from the second church
.A second church was ordered by Theodosius II, who inaugurated it on 10 October 415. The basilica with a wooden roof was built by architect Rufinus.^ A second church was ordered by Theodosius II, who inaugurated it on 10 October 405.
  • Hagia Sophia - Ayasofya 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC istanbulvisions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ It was built as a traditional Latin colonnaded basilica with galleries and a wooden roof.
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^ The basilica with a wooden roof was built by architect Rufinos.
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A fire started during the tumult of the Nika Revolt burned the second Hagia Sophia to the ground on 13–14 January 532.
.Several marble blocks from the second church survive to the present day.^ Several marble blocks from this second church have survived to the present day, and they are displayed in the garden of the current (third) church.
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^ Several marble blocks of this second church have survived to our date, and are displayed in the garden of the current (third) church.
  • Hagia Sophia - Ayasofya 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC istanbulvisions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ The second day of a Byzantine architectural tour should start with Hagia Sophia, the Church of Holy Wisdom.
  • Istanbul: From Constantine to Ataturk - Istanbul, Turkey - VirtualTourist.com 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC members.virtualtourist.com [Source type: General]

.The blocks feature reliefs depicting 12 lambs — 12 apostles — among other remains.^ The relief depicting 12 lambs — 12 apostles as well as other remains of this church were discovered during excavation works in 1935.
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^ Of particular interest is image 3, which is part of a relief depicting 12 lambs believed to represent the 12 apostles.
  • Hagia Sophia (Ayasofya)- Istanbul, Turkey - VirtualTourist.com 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.virtualtourist.com [Source type: General]

.They were originally part of a monumental front entrance, and are now displayed in the garden of the current church.^ The blocks were originally part of a monumental front entrance; they were excavated in the western courtyard by A.M. Schneider in 1935.
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^ They were part of a monumental front entrance.
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^ They sent relics in valuable casings to churches in the West, where they are now displayed in European museums.
  • Hagia Sophia: A Rich and Holy History - January 2008 Issue of St. Anthony MessengerMagazine Online 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.americancatholic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The were discovered in 1935 during an excavation of the western courtyard by A. M. Schneider.^ These marble slabs were excavated in the western courtyard by A.M. Schneider in 1935.
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^ The relief depicting 12 lambs — 12 apostles as well as other remains of this church were discovered during excavation works in 1935.
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^ The blocks were originally part of a monumental front entrance; they were excavated in the western courtyard by A.M. Schneider in 1935.
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.No further excavation works were undertaken for fear of harming the present Hagia Sophia building.^ In order not to harm the present Hagia Sophia building, further excavation works were not carried out.
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^ In 1935, Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, the founder of modern Turkey, declared Hagia Sophia a museum and work started to restore its mosaics.
  • Hagia Sophia (Ayasofya)- Istanbul, Turkey - VirtualTourist.com 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.virtualtourist.com [Source type: General]
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^ The number of treasures, relics and miracle-working, painted icons of the Hagia Sophia grew progressively richer into an amazing collection.
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Third church (current structure)

Construction of church depicted in codex Manasses Chronicle
.On 23 February 532, only a few days after the destruction of the second basilica, Emperor Justinian I took the decision to build a third and entirely different basilica, larger and more majestic than its predecessors.^ On 23 February 532, only a few days after the destruction of the second basilica, Emperor Justinian I took the decision the build a third and entirely different basilica, larger and more majestic than its predecessors.
  • Hagia Sophia - Ayasofya 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC istanbulvisions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Depiction of the Hagia Sophia's appearance during Byzantine times.On February 23, 532, only a few days after the destruction of the second basilica, Emperor Justinian I took the decision to build a third and entirely different basilica, larger and more majestic than its predecessors.
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^ On February 23, 532, only a few days after the destruction of the second basilica, Emperor Justinian I took the decision to build a third and entirely different basilica, larger and more majestic than its predecessors.

.Justinian chose the physicist Isidore of Miletus and the mathematician Anthemius of Tralles as architects; Anthemius, however, died within the first year.^ Justinian chose the physicist Isidore of Miletus and the mathematician Anthemius of Tralles as architects; Anthemius, however, died within the first year.
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^ Justinian chose the physicist, Isidore of Miletus and the mathematician, Anthemius of Tralles as architects; Anthemius, however, died within the first year.
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^ It was designed by two architects, Isidore of Miletus and Anthemius of Tralles.
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.The construction is described by the Byzantine historian Procopius' On Buildings (Peri ktismatōn, Latin: De aedificiis).^ The construction is described by the Byzantine historian Procopius’ On Buildings (Peri ktismatōn, Latin: De aedificiis).

^ The construction is described by the Byzantine historian Procopius' On Buildings (Peri ktismatōn, Latin: De aedificiis).
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^ The anchor casting workshop was built in the era of Ahmet II (1703-1730) and the building’s foundations go back to a 12th century Byzantine construction.
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.The emperor had material brought from all over the empire, such as Hellenistic columns from the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus.^ The emperor had material brought over from all over the empire, such as Hellenistic columns from the temple of Artemis at Ephesus.
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^ The four green granite columns on both sides of the nave were brought from the Harbor Gymnasium in Ephesus, the pairs of porphyry columns at the corners were brought from the Apollon Temple in Baalbek (in Lebanon today).
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^ Marbles and columns taken from the remains of earlier eras from almost all parts of the empire were used for building material.
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.Large stones were brought from far-away quarries: porphyry from Egypt, green marble from Thessaly, black stone from the Bosporus region, and yellow stone from Syria.^ Large stones were brought from far-away quarries: porphyry from Egypt, green marble from Thessaly, black stone from the Bosporus region and yellow stone from Syria.
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^ Large stones were brought from far-away quarries : porphyry from Egypt, green marble from Thessaly, black stone from the Bosphorus region and yellow stone from Syria.
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^ Plaques of red, yellow and green marble blend with the mosaics, and these are further embellished by the capitals, imposts, architraves and friezes."
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.More than ten thousand people were employed during this construction.^ More than ten thousand people were employed during this construction.
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^ The creation of massive walls surrounding Constantinople allowed the city to prosper under Byzantine rule for more than a thousands years.
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^ What I mean is: it seems people who comment often are wiliing to recreate conflicts that were fought over more than 500 years ago.
  • Istanbul pictures - Aya Sofya pictures Photo Gallery by Dick Osseman at pbase.com 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.pbase.com [Source type: General]

.This new church was immediately recognized as a major work of architecture, demonstrating the creative insights of the architects.^ This new church was immediately recognized as a major work of architecture, demonstrating the creative insights of the architects.
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^ "If there is one work that realizes the 'ideal' Byzantine model, it is the astonishing church of Hagia Sophia built as the new Cathedral of Constantinople by the Emperor Justinian...He intended it as the keystone of his vast architectural campaign...
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^ In Towards a New Architecture, Le Corbusier used an illustration by Choisy of a sectional axonometric of the church in a chapter entitled "Three Reminders to Architects."
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.They may have used the theories of Heron of Alexandria to be able to construct a huge dome over such a large open space.^ They may have used the theories of Heron of Alexandria to be able to construct a huge dome over such a large open space.
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^ Translation: this is the first domed structure constructed in such a manner as to permit the insertion of windows at the base of the dome, thereby allowing natural light to enter the structure.
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.The emperor, together with the patriarch Eutychius, inaugurated the new basilica on 27 December 537 with much pomp.^ The emperor, together with the patriarch Eutychius, inaugurated the new basilica on December 27, 537 with much pomp and circumstance.
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^ The Byzantine poet Paul the Silentiary composed an extant, long epic poem, known as Ekphrasis, for the rededication of the basilica, presided over by Patriarch Eutychius, on 23 December 562.
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^ It was inaugurated on 29 March 867 by Patriarch Photius and the emperors Michael III and Basil I. This mosaic is situated in a high location on the half dome of the apse.
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.The mosaics inside the church were, however, only completed under the reign of Emperor Justin II (565–578).^ The mosaics inside the church were, however, only completed under the reign of Emperor Justin II (565–578).
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^ The mosaics inside the church were, however, only completed under the reign of Emperor Justin II (565-578).
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^ Built by the decree of Eastern Roman Emperor Justinian, the Hagia Sophia was completed in 537, only five years after construction began.
  • May 7, 558: The Roof Caves In on the Hagia Sophia 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: General]

Depiction of the Hagia Sophia's appearance during Byzantine times
.Earthquakes in August 553 and on 14 December 557 caused cracks in the main dome and the eastern half-dome to appear.^ Earthquakes in August 553 and on 14 December 557 caused cracks in the main dome and the eastern half-dome to appear.
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^ Earthquakes in August 553 and on December 14, 557 caused cracks in the main dome and the eastern half-dome to appear.
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^ The most dramatic feature is the central dome, one hundred feet in diameter, supported far above the main piers of the building by two windowed arches and two half domes, so that it appears to hover over the nave.
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.The main dome collapsed completely during an earthquake on 7 May 558, destroying the ambon, the altar, and the ciborium over it.^ The main dome collapsed completely during an earthquake on May 7, 558, destroying the ambon, the altar and the ciborium over it.
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^ The main dome collapsed completely during an earthquake on 7 May 558, destroying the ambon, the altar and the ciborium over it.
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^ The Fossati records are the primary sources about a number of mosaic images now believed to have been completely or partially destroyed in an earthquake in 1894.
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.The emperor ordered an immediate restoration.^ The emperor ordered an immediate restoration.
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.He entrusted it to Isidorus the Younger, nephew of Isidore of Miletus.^ He entrusted it to Isodorus the Younger, nephew of Isidore of Miletus.
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^ An earthquake made central parts of the dome collapse, and a nephew of Isidore of Miletus, called Isidorus the Younger, made changes.
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.This time he used lighter materials and elevated the dome by 6.25 metres (20.5 ft), thus giving the building its current interior height of 55.6 metres (182 ft).^ This time he used lighter materials and elevated the dome by 6.25 metres (20.5 ft), thus giving the building its current interior height of 55.6 metres (182 ft).
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^ This time he used lighter materials and elevated the dome by 6.25 meters, thus giving the building its current interior height of 55.60 meters.
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^ Thus a hierarchy of dome-headed elements builds up to create a vast oblong interior crowned by the main dome, a sequence unexampled in antiquity.
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[8] This reconstruction, giving the church its present sixth-century form, was completed in 562. The Byzantine poet Paul the Silentiary composed a long epic poem, still extant, known as Ekphrasis for the rededication of the basilica, presided over by Patriarch Eutychius, on 23 December 562.
.Hagia Sophia was the seat of the Orthodox patriarch of Constantinople and a principal setting for Byzantine imperial ceremonies such as coronations.^ Hagia Sophia was the seat of the Orthodox patriarch of Constantinople and a principal setting for Byzantine imperial ceremonies, such as crowning ceremonies.
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^ Hagia Sophia was the seat of the Orthodox patriarch of Constantinople and a principal setting for Byzantine imperial ceremonies, such as coronations.
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^ For over 900 years the Hagia Sophia was the seat of the Orthodox Patriarch of Constantinople and a principal setting for church councils and imperial ceremonies.

.The basilica also offered asylum to wrongdoers.^ The basilica also offered asylum to wrongdoers.
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.Foreign visitors were deeply impressed.^ Foreign visitors were deeply impressed.
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.In 726 the emperor Leo the Isaurian issued a series of edicts against the veneration of images, ordering the army to destroy all icons, ushering in the period of Byzantine iconoclasm.^ In 726 the Emperor Leo the Isaurian issued a series of edicts against the veneration of images, ordering the army to destroy all icons, ushering in the period of Byzantine iconoclasm.

^ In 726 the Emperor Leo the Isaurian issued a series of edicts against the veneration of images, ordering the army to destroy all icons (iconoclasm).
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^ In 726 the Emperor Leo the Isaurian issued a series of edicts against the worship of images (iconoclasm), ordering the army to destroy all icons.
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.At that time, all religious pictures and statues were removed from Hagia Sophia.^ At that time, all religious pictures and statues were removed from the Hagia Sophia .
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^ At that time, all religious pictures and statues were removed from the Hagia Sophia.
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^ In the Iconoclastic Era that started in 726, the mosaics concerning the religious scenes and holy personalities of all churches together with Hagia Sophia's were destroyed and simple cross shapes were decorated instead.
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.After a brief reprieve under Empress Irene (797–802), the iconoclasts made a comeback.^ After a brief reprieve under Empress Irene (797–802), the iconoclasts made a comeback.
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^ After a brief reprieve under Empress Irene (797-802), the iconoclasts made a comeback.
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.Emperor Theophilus (829–842) was strongly influenced by Islamic art,[citation needed] which forbids graven images.^ Emperor Theophilus (829-842) was strongly influenced by the Islamic art, forbidding graven images.
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^ Emperor Theophilus (829–842) was strongly influenced by Islamic art,[citation needed] which forbids graven images.
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.He had a two-winged bronze door with his monograms installed at the southern entrance of the church.^ He had a two-winged bronze door with his monograms installed at the southern entrance of the church.
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^ He had a two-winged bronze door with his monograms installed at the southern entrance of the church.The basilica suffered damage, first by a great fire in 859, and again by an earthquake on January 8, 869 that made a half-dome collapse.
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.The basilica suffered damage, first in a great fire in 859, and again in an earthquake on 8 January 869 that made a half-dome collapse.^ He had a two-winged bronze door with his monograms installed at the southern entrance of the church.The basilica suffered damage, first by a great fire in 859, and again by an earthquake on January 8, 869 that made a half-dome collapse.
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^ The basilica suffered damage, first by a great fire in 859, and again by an earthquake on 8 January 869 that made a half-dome collapse.
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^ The basilica suffered damage, first by a great fire in 859, and again by an earthquake on January 8, 869 that made a half-dome collapse.

.Emperor Basil I ordered the church to be repaired.^ Emperor Basil I ordered the church to be repaired.
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^ After the great earthquake of 25 October 989, which ruined the great dome of Hagia Sophia , the Byzantine emperor Basil II asked for the Armenian architect Trdat, creator of the great churches of Ani and Agine, to repair the dome.
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^ After the great earthquake of 25 October 989, which ruined the great dome of Hagia Sophia, the Byzantine emperor Basil II asked for the Armenian architect Trdat, creator of the great churches of Ani and Agine, to repair the dome.

.After the great earthquake of 25 October 989, which ruined the great dome of Hagia Sophia, the Byzantine emperor Basil II asked for the Armenian architect Trdat, creator of the great churches of Ani and Agine, to repair the dome.^ After the great earthquake of 25 October 989, which ruined the great dome of Hagia Sophia, the Byzantine emperor Basil II asked for the Armenian architect Trdat, creator of the great churches of Ani and Agine, to repair the dome.

^ After the great earthquake of 25 October 989, which ruined the great dome of Hagia Sophia, the Byzantine emperor Basil II asked for the Armenian architect Trdat, creator of the great churches of Ani and Agine, to repair the dome..
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^ After the great earthquake of 25 October 989, which ruined the great dome of Hagia Sophia, the Byzantine emperor Basil II asked for the Armenian architect Trdat, creator of the great churches of Ani and Agine, to repair the dome.His main repairs were to the western arch and a portion of the dome.
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[9] .His main repairs were to the western arch and a portion of the dome.^ His main repairs were to the western arch and a portion of the dome.
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^ At the western (entrance) and eastern (liturgical) ends, the arched openings are extended by half domes carried on smaller semidomed exedras.
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^ At the western and eastern ends, the arched openings are extended by semi-domes .

.The extent of the church's destruction meant that reconstruction lasted six years.^ The extent of the church's destruction meant that reconstruction lasted six years.
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^ The extent of the church’s destruction meant that reconstruction lasted six years.

^ The Italian government returned the Orthodox church to the Russians last year.
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The church was re-opened on 13 May 994.
.In his book De caerimoniis aulae Byzantinae ("Book of Ceremonies"), Emperor Constantine VII (913–919) wrote about all the details of the ceremonies held in Hagia Sophia by the emperor and the patriarch.^ In his book De caerimoniis aulae Byzantinae (Book of Ceremonies), emperor Constantine VII (913–919) wrote about all the details of the ceremonies held in the Hagia Sophia by the emperor and the patriarch.

^ In his book De Ceremoniis aulae Byzantinae (Book of Ceremonies), emperor Constantine VII (913-919) wrote about all the details of the ceremonies held in the Hagia Sophia by the emperor and the patriarch.
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^ But Sophia adherents remained active in the "underground stream" for centuries even while patriarchal Christianity held total sway in the Western World.
  • Sophia: Goddess of Wisdom & God's Bride 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC northernway.org [Source type: Original source]

19th Century marker of the tomb of Enrico Dandolo, the Doge of Venice who commanded the Sack of Constantinople in 1204, inside the Hagia Sophia
.Upon the capture of Constantinople during the Fourth Crusade, the church was ransacked and desecrated by the Latin Christians.^ At the capture of Constantinople during the Fourth Crusade, the church was ransacked and desecrated by the Latin Christians.

^ At the capture of Constantinople during the Fourth Crusade, the church was ransacked and desecrated.
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^ The church was re-opened on 13 May 994.In his book De caerimoniis aulae Byzantinae (Book of Ceremonies), emperor Constantine VII (913–919) wrote about all the details of the ceremonies held in the Hagia Sophia by the emperor and the patriarch.19th Century marker of the tomb of Enrico Dandolo, the Doge of Venice who commanded the Sack of Constantinople in 1204, inside the Hagia SophiaAt the capture of Constantinople during the Fourth Crusade, the church was ransacked and desecrated by the Latin Christians.
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.The Byzantine historian Niketas Choniates described the capture of Constantinople.^ The Byzantine historian Niketas Choniates described the capture of Constantinople.

^ Niketas Choniates describing the Crusaders.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A455230 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Byzantine Greek historian Nicetas Choniates described the capture of Constantinople.
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.Many reputed relics from the church, such as a stone from the tomb of Jesus, the Virgin Mary's milk, the shroud of Jesus, and bones of several saints, were sent to churches in the West and can be seen now in various museums in the West.^ Remains of that church can be seen at the West of the current church.
  • Istanbul pictures - Aya Sofya pictures Photo Gallery by Dick Osseman at pbase.com 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.pbase.com [Source type: General]

^ Many reputed relics from the church, such as a stone from the tomb of Jesus, the Virgin Mary’s milk, the shroud of Jesus, and bones of several saints, were sent to churches in the West and can be seen now in various museums in the West.

^ Many relics from the church, such as a stone from the tomb of Jesus, the Virgin Mary's milk, the shroud of Jesus, and bones of several saints, were sent to churches in the West and can be seen now in various museums in the West.
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.During the Latin occupation of Constantinople (1204–1261) the church became a Roman Catholic cathedral.^ During the Latin occupation of Constantinople (1204–1261) the church became a Roman Catholic cathedral.
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^ At the capture of Constantinople during the Fourth Crusade, the church was ransacked and desecrated by the Latin Christians.

^ During the Sack of Constantinople in 1204, the Latin Crusaders vandalized the valuable items in every important Byzantine structure of the city, including the golden mosaics of the Hagia Sophia.
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.Baldwin I of Constantinople was crowned emperor on 16 May 1204 in Hagia Sophia, at a ceremony which closely followed Byzantine practices.^ Baldwin I of Constantinople was crowned emperor on 16 May 1204 in the Hagia Sophia, at a ceremony which closely followed Byzantine practices.
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^ After the great earthquake of 25 October 989, which ruined the great dome of Hagia Sophia, the Byzantine emperor Basil II asked for the Armenian architect Trdat, creator of the great churches of Ani and Agine, to repair the dome.

^ In his book De caerimoniis aulae Byzantinae (Book of Ceremonies), emperor Constantine VII (913–919) wrote about all the details of the ceremonies held in the Hagia Sophia by the emperor and the patriarch.

.Enrico Dandolo, the Doge of Venice who commanded the sack and invasion of the city by the Latin Crusaders in 1204, is buried inside the church.^ Enrico Dandolo, the Doge of Venice who commanded the sack and invasion of the city by the Latin Crusaders in 1204, is buried inside the church.
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^ Century marker of the tomb of Enrico Dandolo, the Doge of Venice who commanded the Sack of Constantinople in 1204, inside the Hagia Sophia .

^ The church was re-opened on 13 May 994.In his book De caerimoniis aulae Byzantinae (Book of Ceremonies), emperor Constantine VII (913–919) wrote about all the details of the ceremonies held in the Hagia Sophia by the emperor and the patriarch.19th Century marker of the tomb of Enrico Dandolo, the Doge of Venice who commanded the Sack of Constantinople in 1204, inside the Hagia SophiaAt the capture of Constantinople during the Fourth Crusade, the church was ransacked and desecrated by the Latin Christians.
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.The tomb inscription carrying his name, which has become a part of the floor decoration, was spat upon by many of the angry Byzantines who recaptured Constantinople in 1261. However, restoration carried out during the period 1847–1849 cast doubt upon the authenticity of the doge's grave.^ However, restoration carried out during the period 1847–1849 cast doubt upon the authenticity of the doge’s grave.

^ However, restoration carried out during the period 1847-1849 cast doubt upon the authenticity of the doge's grave.
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^ The tomb inscription carrying his name, which has become a part of the floor decoration, was spat upon by many of the angry Byzantine s who recaptured Constantinople in 1261.
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.It is more likely a symbolic burial site to keep alive his memory.^ It is more likely a symbolic burial site to keep alive his memory.
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.After the recapture in 1261 by the Byzantines, the church was in a dilapidated state.^ After the recapture in 1261 by the Byzantine s, the church was in a dilapidated state.
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^ After the recapture in 1261 by the Byzantines, the church was in a dilapidated state.
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^ The tomb inscription carrying his name, which has become a part of the floor decoration, was spat upon by many of the angry Byzantine s who recaptured Constantinople in 1261.
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.The four buttresses in the west were probably built during this time.^ The four buttresses in the west were probably built during this time.
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^ In 1317, emperor Andronicus II ordered four new buttresses to be built in the eastern and northern parts of the church.
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^ These were reinforced with buttresses during Ottoman times, under the guidance of the architect Sinan.
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.In 1317, emperor Andronicus II ordered four new buttresses to be built in the eastern and northern parts of the church.^ In 1317, emperor Andronicus II ordered four new buttresses to be built in the eastern and northern parts of the church.
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^ Emperor Basil I ordered the church to be repaired.
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^ Stone remains of the basilica ordered by Theodosius II, showing the Lamb of God.Nothing remains of the first church that was built on this location, known as the Μεγάλη Ἐκκλησία (Megálē Ekklēsíā, "Great Church"), or in Latin "Magna Ecclesia".
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.After new cracks had developed in the dome after the earthquake of October 1344, several parts of the building collapsed on 19 May 1346. After that, the church remained closed until 1354, when repairs were undertaken by the architects Astras and Peralta.^ After new cracks had developed in the dome after the earthquake of October 1344, several parts of the building collapsed on 19 May 1346.
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^ After that, the church remained closed until 1354, when repairs were undertaken by the architects Astras and Peralta.
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^ He had a two-winged bronze door with his monograms installed at the southern entrance of the church.The basilica suffered damage, first by a great fire in 859, and again by an earthquake on January 8, 869 that made a half-dome collapse.
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Mosque

Fountain (Şadırvan) for ritual ablutions
The mihrab located in the apse where the altar used to stand, pointing towards Mecca
.Immediately after the Ottoman Turks conquered Constantinople in 1453, the Hagia Sophia was converted into the Ayasofya Mosque.^ The mihrab located in the apse where the altar used to stand, pointing towards Mecca.Immediately after the Ottoman Turks conquered Constantinople (Istanbul) in 1453, the Hagia Sophia was converted to the Ayasofya Mosque as the symbol of the conquest.
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^ Hagia Sophia The Hagia Sophia was originally a church, but was converted into a mosque in 1453, and in 1932 into a museum.
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^ He was amazed at the beauty of the Hagia Sophia and immediately converted it into his imperial mosque.

[4] .At that time, the church was very dilapidated.^ At that time, the church was very dilapidated.
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^ On a side note, this church/mosque turned into a museum in 1935 - so people have been conflicted over Hagia Sophia for a very long time (not 500 years ago).
  • Istanbul pictures - Aya Sofya pictures Photo Gallery by Dick Osseman at pbase.com 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.pbase.com [Source type: General]

.Several of its doors had fallen off.^ Several of its doors had fallen off.
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.This condition was described by several Western visitors, such as the Córdoban nobleman Pero Tafur[10] and the Florentine Cristoforo Buondelmonti.^ This condition was described by several Western visitors, such as the Córdoban nobleman Pero Tafur and the Florentine Cristoforo Buondelmonti.
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^ This condition was described by several Western visitors, such as the Cordoban nobleman Pero Tafur and the Florentine Cristoforo Buondelmonti.
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^ This condition was described by several Western visitors, such as the Córdoban nobleman Pero Tafur[6] and the Florentine Cristoforo Buondelmonti.

[11] .The sultan Mehmed II ordered the immediate cleanup of the church and its conversion to a mosque.^ The sultan Mehmed the Conqueror ordered the immediate cleanup of the church and its conversion to a mosque.
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^ The sultan Mehmed II ordered the immediate cleanup of the church and its conversion to a mosque.
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^ The architect Atik Sinan got the order, but when he had finished the Fatith Mosque the sultan was annoyed with the result, and Sinan had to live the rest of his life without his head...
  • Hagia Sophia (Ayasofya)- Istanbul, Turkey - VirtualTourist.com 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.virtualtourist.com [Source type: General]

.The next sultan Bayezid II built a new minaret, replacing the one built by his father.^ The next sultan Bayezid II built a new minaret, replacing the one built by his father.
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^ The next sultan Beyazid II built a new minaret, replacing the one built by his father.
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^ The original church was destroyed in 404 AD. Emperor Theodosius II built a new church in 415 AD. During the rebellion of Monophysites in 532, Hagia Sophia was destroyed.
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.In the 16th century the sultan Suleiman the Magnificent (1520–1566) brought back two colossal candles from his conquest of Hungary.^ In the 16th century the sultan Suleiman the Magnificent (1520–1566) brought back two colossal candles from his conquest of Hungary.
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^ In the 16th century the sultan Suleiman the Magnificent (1520-1566) brought back two colossal candles from his conquest of Hungary.
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.They were placed on both sides of the mihrab.^ They were placed on both sides of the mihrab.
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.During the reign of Selim II (1566–1577), the building started showing signs of fatigue and was extensively strengthened with the addition of structural supports to its exterior by the great Ottoman architect Mimar Sinan, who is also considered one of the world's first earthquake engineers.^ During the reign of Selim II (1566-1577), the building started showing signs of fatigue and was extensively strengthened with the addition of structural supports to its exterior by the great Ottoman architect Sinan, who is also considered one of the world's first earthquake engineers.
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^ During the reign of Selim II (1566–1577), the building started showing signs of fatigue and was extensively strengthened with the addition of structural supports to its exterior by the great Ottoman architect Sinan, who is also considered one of the world’s first earthquake engineers.

^ During the reign of Selim II (1566–1577), the building started showing signs of fatigue and was extensively strengthened with the addition of structural supports to its exterior by the great Ottoman architect Sinan, who is also considered one of the world's first earthquake engineers.
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[12] .In addition to strengthening the historic Byzantine structure, Sinan built the two additional large minarets at the western end of the building, the original sultan's loge, and the mausoleum of Selim II to the southeast of the building (then a mosque) in 1577. The mausoleums of Murad III and Mehmed III were built next to it in the 1600s.^ The mausoleums of Murad III and Mehmed III were built next to it in the 1600s.
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^ In addition to strengthening the historic Byzantine structure, Sinan built the two additional large minarets at the western end of the building, the original sultan's loge, and the mausoleum of Selim II to the southeast of the building (then a mosque) in 1577.
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^ The next sultan Bayezid II built a new minaret, replacing the one built by his father.
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.Later additions were the sultan's gallery, a minbar decorated with marble, a dais for a sermon and a loggia for a muezzin.^ Later additions were the sultan’s gallery, a minbar decorated with marble, a dais for a sermon and a loggia for a muezzin.

^ Later additions were the sultan's gallery, a minbar decorated with marble, a dais for a sermon and a loggia for a muezzin.
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.The sultan Murad III (1574–1595) had two large alabaster Hellenistic urns transported from Pergamon and placed on two sides of the nave.^ The sultan Murad III (1574-1595) had two large alabaster Hellenistic urns transported from Pergamon and placed on two sides of the nave.
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^ The sultan Murad III (1574–1595) had two large alabaster Hellenistic urns transported from Pergamon and placed on two sides of the nave.
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Sultan Mahmud I ordered the restoration of the building in 1739 and added a medrese (a Koranic school, now the library of the museum), a soup kitchen (for distribution to the poor) and a library, and in 1740 a fountain for ritual ablutions (Şadirvan), thus transforming it into a külliye, i.e. a social complex. At the same time a new sultan's gallery and a new mihrab were built inside.
.The most famous restoration of the Hagia Sophia was ordered by Sultan Abdülmecid and completed by eight hundred workers between 1847 and 1849, under the supervision of the Swiss-Italian architect brothers Gaspare and Giuseppe Fossati.^ The Hagia Sophia church is completed, the most magnificent building of its time.
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^ The most famous restoration of the Hagia Sophia was ordered by Sultan Abdülmecid and completed by eight hundred workers between 1847 and 1849, under the supervision of the Swiss-Italian architect brothers Gaspare and Giuseppe Fossati.
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^ Hagia Sophia ("Divine Wisdom"), 537 AD, built by Emperor Justinian The two original architects of this really magnificent structure were the most famous of their time, mathematician Anthemius of Tralles (Aydin today) and Isidorus from Miletus.
  • Istanbul - Sultanahmet photos Photo Gallery by Andrys Basten at pbase.com 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.pbase.com [Source type: General]

.The brothers consolidated the dome and vaults, straightened the columns, and revised the decoration of the exterior and the interior of the building.^ The brothers consolidated the dome and vaults, straightened the columns, and revised the decoration of the exterior and the interior of the building.
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^ Thus a hierarchy of dome-headed elements builds up to create a vast oblong interior crowned by the main dome, a sequence unexampled in antiquity.
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^ This sheathing camouflaged the large pillars, giving them, at the same time, a brighter aspect.On the exterior, simple stuccoed walls reveal the clarity of massed vaults and domes.
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.The mosaics in the upper gallery were cleaned.^ The mosaics in the upper gallery were cleaned.
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^ Several mosaics are preserved in the upper gallery, an area traditionally reserved for the empress and her court.
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.The old chandeliers were replaced by new pendant ones.^ The old chandeliers were replaced by new pendant ones.
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^ On this one day sightseeing tour you will see how old meets new when you visit Istanbul's four "must-see" historic sites.
  • 360TravelGuide.com | Istanbul in One Day Sightseeing Tour: Topkapi Palace, Hagia Sophia, Blue Mosque, Grand Bazaar 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.partner.viator.com [Source type: General]

^ The next sultan Bayezid II built a new minaret, replacing the one built by his father.
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.New gigantic circular-framed disks or medallions were hung on columns.^ New gigantic circular-framed disks were hung on columns.
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^ New gigantic circular-framed disks or medallions were hung on columns.

.They were inscribed with the names of Allah, the Prophet Muhammad, the first four caliphs Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman and Ali, and the two grandchildren of Mohammed: Hassan and Hussain, by the calligrapher Kazasker İzzed Effendi (1801–1877).^ They were inscribed with the names of Allah, the prophet Mohammed, the first four caliphs Abu Bakr, Omar, Osman and Ali and the two grandchildren of Mohammed : Hassan and Hussain, by the calligrapher Kazasker İzzed Effendi (1801-1877).
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^ They were inscribed with the names of Allah, the prophet Muhammad, the first four caliphs Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman and Ali, and the two grandchildren of Mohammed: Hassan and Hussain, by the calligrapher Kazasker İzzed Effendi (1801–1877).
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^ They were inscribed with the names of Allah, the prophet Muhammad, the first four caliphs Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman and Ali, and the two grandchildren of Mohammed : Hassan and Hussain, by the calligrapher Kazasker İzzed Effendi (1801-1877).
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.In 1850 the architect Fossati built a new sultan's gallery in a Neo-Byzantine style connected to the royal pavilion behind the mosque.^ In 1850 the architect Fossati built a new sultan’s gallery in a Neo-Byzantine style connected to the royal pavilion behind the mosque.

^ In 1850 the architect Fossati built a new sultan's gallery in a Neo-Byzantine style connected to the royal pavilion behind the mosque.
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^ At the same time a new sultan's gallery and a new mihrab were built inside.
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.Outside the Hagia Sophia, a timekeeper's building and a new medrese were built.^ Outside the Hagia Sophia, a timekeeper's building and a new medrese were built.
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^ Outside the Hagia Sophia, a timekeeper’s building and a new medrese were built.

^ The Hagia Sophia church is completed, the most magnificent building of its time.
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.The minarets were altered so that they were of equal height.^ The minarets were altered so that they were of equal height.
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When the restoration was finished, the mosque was re-opened with ceremonial pomp on 13 July 1849.

Museum (current use)

.In 1935, the first Turkish President and founder of the Republic of Turkey, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, transformed the building into a museum.^ Inönü was the second president of the Turkish Republic.
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^ It remained as a mosque until 1935, when it was converted into a museum by the Republic of Turkey.
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^ It remained as a mosque until 1935, when it was converted into a museum by the secular Republic of Turkey.
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.The carpets were removed and the marble floor decorations appeared for the first time in centuries, while the white plaster covering many of the mosaics was painstakingly removed by expert restorers.^ The carpets were removed and the marble floor decorations appeared for the first time in centuries, while the white plaster covering the mosaics was painstakingly removed by expert restorers.
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^ The bells, altar, iconostasis, and sacrificial vessels were removed, and many of the mosaics were eventually plastered over.
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^ Since the building was converted into a museum, work has been done to remove the plaster from many of the mosaics and to restore them, revealing some of the best examples of Byzantine art in the world - the ' Deesis Panel ' showing Christ the King dates from the 12th - 13th Century has been called 'the finest representation of Christ'.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A455230 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[13]

Architecture

A section of the original architecture of Hagia Sophia
Groundplan of the Hagia Sophia
One of the mighty stone columns with metal clasps
.Hagia Sophia is one of the greatest surviving examples of Byzantine architecture.^ PHOTO:2:RIGHT]Hagia Sophia is one of the greatest surviving examples of Byzantine architecture.
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^ Hagia Sophia is one of the greatest surviving examples of Byzantine architecture.
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^ Hagia Sophia is known as one of the greatest surviving examples of Byzantine architecture.
  • Istanbul pictures - Aya Sofya pictures Photo Gallery by Dick Osseman at pbase.com 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.pbase.com [Source type: General]

.Of great artistic value was its decorated interior with mosaics and marble pillars and coverings.^ Of great artistic value was its decorated interior with mosaics and marble pillars and coverings.
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^ All interior surfaces are sheathed with polychrome marbles, green and white with purple porphyry and gold mosaics, encrusted upon the brick.
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^ Originally, under Justinian's reign, the interior decorations consisted of abstract designs of the marble slabs on the walls and mosaics on the curving vaults.
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The temple itself was so richly and artistically decorated that Justinian proclaimed, "Solomon, I have outdone thee!" (Νενίκηκά σε Σολομών). .Justinian himself had overseen the completion of the greatest cathedral ever built up to that time, and it was to remain the largest cathedral for 1,000 years up until the completion of the cathedral in Seville in Spain.^ It was the largest cathedral in the world for nearly a thousand years, until the completion of the Medieval Seville Cathedral in 1520.
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^ Justinian himself had overseen the completion of the greatest cathedral ever built up to that time, and it was to remain the largest cathedral for 1,000 years up until the completion of the cathedral in Seville.
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^ It was the largest cathedral ever built in the world for nearly a thousand years, until the completion of the Seville Cathedral in 1520.
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.Justinian's basilica was at once the culminating architectural achievement of late antiquity and the first masterpiece of Byzantine architecture.^ Justinian's basilica was at once the culminating architectural achievement of late antiquity and the first masterpiece of Byzantine architecture.
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^ Justinian’s basilica was at once the culminating architectural achievement of late antiquity and the first masterpiece of Byzantine architecture.

.Its influence, both architecturally and liturgically, was widespread and enduring in the Eastern Orthodox, Roman Catholic, and Muslim worlds alike.^ Its influence, both architecturally and liturgically, was widespread and enduring in the Eastern Orthodox, Roman Catholic, and Muslim worlds alike.
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^ It is time that both the Orthodox and Catholic Churches take a stand and shed light on the hypocrisy of the Islamic world.
  • Why the Pope should call for the return of the Hagia Sophia - Jihad Watch 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.jihadwatch.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It was commissioned to mark the end of 57 years of Roman Catholic use and the return to the Orthodox faith.
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.The largest columns are about 19 or 20 metres tall.^ The largest columns are about 19 or 20 meters tall.
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.They are at least 1.5 metres diameter.^ They are at least 1.5 meters diameter.
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.They are made out of granite, the largest weighing well over 70 tons.^ They are made out of granite, the largest weighing well over 70 tons.
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.Under Justinian's orders, eight Corinthian columns were disassembled from Baalbek, Lebanon and shipped to Constantinople for the construction of Hagia Sophia.^ Under Justinian's orders, eight Corinthian columns were disassembled from Baalbek, Lebanon and shipped to Constantinople for the construction of Hagia Sophia .
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^ Under Justinian's orders, eight Corinthian columns were disassembled from Baalbek, Lebanon and shipped to Constantinople for the construction of Hagia Sophia.
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^ Under Justinian’s orders, eight Corinthian columns were disassembled from Baalbek, Lebanon and shipped to Constantinople for the construction of Hagia Sophia.

[14]
.The vast interior has a complex structure.^ The vast interior has a complex structure.
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.The nave is covered by a central dome which has a maximum diameter of 31.24 metres (102 ft 6 in) and a height from floor level of 55.6 metres (182 ft 5 in), about one fourth smaller and greater, respectively, than the dome of the Pantheon.^ The vast nave is covered by a central dome which has a maximum diameter of 31.24 meters and a height from floor level of 55.60 meters, about one fourth smaller than the dome of the Pantheon.
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^ The vast nave is covered by a central dome which has a maximum diameter of 31.24 metres (102 ft 6 in) and a height from floor level of 55.6 metres (182 ft 5 in), about one fourth smaller and greater, respectively, than the dome of the Pantheon.
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^ The nave is covered by a central dome which has a maximum diameter of 31.24 metres (102 ft 6 in) and a height from floor level of 55.6 metres (182 ft 5 in), about one fourth smaller and greater, respectively, than the dome of the Pantheon.

.The dome seems rendered weightless by the unbroken arcade of 40 arched windows under it, which help flood the colourful interior with light.^ The dome seems rendered weightless by the unbroken arcade of 40 arched windows under it, which help flood the colourful interior with light.
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^ Surrounded by a background of golden paint, the mosiacs appear to glow in the natural light let in by the many arched windows.
  • Hagia Sophia (Ayasofya)- Istanbul, Turkey - VirtualTourist.com 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.virtualtourist.com [Source type: General]

^ Under the great dome, filtered amber light revealed vaulted arches, galleries and semi-domes, refracted from exquisite mosaics depicting the Virgin Mary and infant Jesus as well as long-vanished patriarchs, emperors and saints.
  • A Monumental Struggle to Preserve Hagia Sophia | Travel | Smithsonian Magazine 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Due to consecutive repairs in the course of its history, the dome has lost its perfect circular base and has become somewhat elliptical with a diameter varying between 31.24 m (102 ft 6 in) and 30.86 m (101 ft 3 in).^ Due to consecutive repairs in the course of its history, the dome has lost its perfect circular base and has become somewhat elleptical with a diameter varying between 31.24 and 30.86 m.
  • Hagia Sophia - Ayasofya 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC istanbulvisions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Due to consecutive repairs in the course of its history, the dome has lost its perfect circular base and has become somewhat elliptical with a diameter varying between 31.24 m (102 ft 6 in) and 30.86 m (101 ft 3 in).

^ Due to consecutive repairs in the course of its history, the dome has lost its perfect circular base and has become somewhat elliptical with a diameter varying between 31.24 and 30.86 m.
  • Hagia Sophia - Terra Anatolia - Trekking in Turkey 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.terra-anatolia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The dome is carried on pendentives — four concave triangular sections of masonry which solve the problem of setting the circular base of a dome on a rectangular base.^ The dome is carried on pendentives — four concave triangular sections of masonry which solve the problem of setting the circular base of a dome on a rectangular base.
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^ The drum is joined to the arches at the four corners of the square by 'pendentives', which are sections of a sphere taking the weight of the dome and transferring it to the arches.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A455230 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Despite all these measures, the weight of the dome remained a problem, that was solved by adding buttresses from the outside.
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[15] .At Hagia Sophia the weight of the dome passes through the pendentives to four massive piers at the corners.^ At Hagia Sophia the weight of the dome passes through the pendentives to four massive piers at the corners.
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^ The pendentives not only achieve a pleasing aesthetic quality, but they also restrain the lateral forces of the dome and allow the weight of the dome to flow downward.
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^ These ribs allow the weight of the dome to flow between the windows, down the pendentives, and ultimately to the foundation.The unique character of the design of Hagia Sophia shows how this structure is one of the most advanced and ambitious monuments of late antiquity.
  • Everything About The Blue Mosque 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC thebluemosque.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Between them the dome seems to float upon four great arches.^ Between them the dome seems to float upon four great arches.
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^ The dome seems rendered weightless by the unbroken arcade of 40 arched windows under it, which help flood the colourful interior with light.
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.These were reinforced with buttresses during Ottoman times, under the guidance of the architect Mimar Sinan.^ These were reinforced with butresses during Ottoman times, under the guidance of the architect Sinan.
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^ These were reinforced with buttresses during Ottoman times, under the guidance of the architect Sinan.
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^ The four buttresses in the west were probably built during this time.
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.At the western (entrance) and eastern (liturgical) ends, the arched openings are extended by half domes carried on smaller semi-domed exedras.^ At the western (entrance) and eastern (liturgical) ends, the arched openings are extended by half domes carried on smaller semi-domed exedras.
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^ At the western (entrance) and eastern (liturgical) ends, the arched openings are extended by half domes carried on smaller semidomed exedras.
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^ These giant apses are then further extended with smaller apses, to make a confusing collection of circles and arches whichever way you look.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A455230 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Thus a hierarchy of dome-headed elements builds up to create a vast oblong interior crowned by the main dome, a sequence unexampled in antiquity.^ Thus a hierarchy of dome-headed elements builds up to create a vast oblong interior crowned by the main dome, a sequence unexampled in antiquity.
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^ This time he used lighter materials and elevated the dome by 6.25 metres (20.5 ft), thus giving the building its current interior height of 55.6 metres (182 ft).
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^ When Isidorus the Younger rebuilt the original dome, he had to first build up the interior of the walls so that they were vertical in order to support the weight of the new dome.
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.Despite all these measures, the weight of the dome remained a problem, which was solved by adding buttresses from the outside.^ Despite all these measures, the weight of the dome remained a problem, that was solved by adding buttresses from the outside.
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^ Buttresses were added on the outside to support the walls.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A455230 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Despite all these measures, the weight of the dome remained a problem, which was solved by adding buttresses from the outside.
  • Everything About The Blue Mosque 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC thebluemosque.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.All interior surfaces are sheathed with polychrome marbles, green and white with purple porphyry and gold mosaics, encrusted upon the brick.^ All interior surfaces are sheathed with polychrome marbles, green and white with purple porphyry and gold mosaics, encrusted upon the brick.
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^ Large stones were brought from far-away quarries: porphyry from Egypt, green marble from Thessaly, black stone from the Bosporus region and yellow stone from Syria.
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^ Large stones were brought from far-away quarries : porphyry from Egypt, green marble from Thessaly, black stone from the Bosphorus region and yellow stone from Syria.
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.This sheathing camouflaged the large pillars, giving them, at the same time, a brighter aspect.^ This sheathing camouflaged the large pillars, giving them, at the same time, a brighter aspect.On the exterior, simple stuccoed walls reveal the clarity of massed vaults and domes.
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^ This sheathing camouflaged the large pillars, giving them, at the same time, a brighter aspect.
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.On the exterior, simple stuccoed walls reveal the clarity of massed vaults and domes.^ This sheathing camouflaged the large pillars, giving them, at the same time, a brighter aspect.On the exterior, simple stuccoed walls reveal the clarity of massed vaults and domes.
  • Everything About The Blue Mosque 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC thebluemosque.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the exterior, simple stuccoed walls reveal the clarity of massed vaults and domes.

^ The brothers consolidated the dome and vaults, straightened the columns, and revised the decoration of the exterior and the interior of the building.
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.The yellow and red colour of the exterior was added by the architect Fossati during the restorations in the 19th century.^ The yellow and red colour of the exterior was added by the architect Fossati during the restorations in the 19th century.
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^ The entrance mosaic - image 5 - was among the first discovered by the Fossati brothers in the 19th C restorations and again features Mother Mary on a jewelled backless throne with a pedestal for her feet.
  • Hagia Sophia (Ayasofya)- Istanbul, Turkey - VirtualTourist.com 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.virtualtourist.com [Source type: General]

^ They were rediscovered during the restorations of 1849 by Fossati.
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Dome

Interior of the Hagia Sophia by John Singer Sargent, 1891
.The dome of Hagia Sophia has spurred particular interest for many art historians, architects and engineers because of the innovative way the original architects envisioned the dome.^ The dome of Hagia Sophia has spurred particular interest for many art historians, architects and engineers because of the innovative way the original architects envisioned the dome.
  • Everything About The Blue Mosque 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC thebluemosque.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The dome of Hagia Sophia has spurred particular interest for many art historians and architects because of the innovative way the original architects envisioned the dome.
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^ After the great earthquake of 25 October 989, which ruined the great dome of Hagia Sophia, the Byzantine emperor Basil II asked for the Armenian architect Trdat, creator of the great churches of Ani and Agine, to repair the dome.

.The dome is supported by pendentives which had never been used before the building of this structure.^ The dome is supported by pendentives which had never been used before the building of this structure.
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^ This time he used lighter materials and elevated the dome by 6.25 metres (20.5 ft), thus giving the building its current interior height of 55.6 metres (182 ft).
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^ When Isidorus the Younger rebuilt the original dome, he had to first build up the interior of the walls so that they were vertical in order to support the weight of the new dome.
  • Hagia Sophia - Ayasofya 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC istanbulvisions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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.The pendentive enables the dome to transition gracefully into the square shape of the piers below.^ The pendentive enables the dome to transition gracefully into the square shape of the piers below.
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^ The pendentive enables the round dome to transition gracefully into the square shape of the piers below.
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^ At Hagia Sophia the weight of the dome passes through the pendentives to four massive piers at the corners.
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.The pendentives not only achieve a pleasing aesthetic quality, but they also restrain the lateral forces of the dome and allow the weight of the dome to flow downward.^ The pendentives not only achieve a pleasing aesthetic quality, but they also restrain the lateral forces of the dome and allow the weight of the dome to flow downward.
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^ Isidore the Younger raised the height of the dome by approximately twenty feet so that the lateral forces would not be as strong and the weight of the dome would flow more easily down the walls.
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^ These ribs allow the weight of the dome to flow between the windows, down the pendentives, and ultimately to the foundation.
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.Although this design stabilizes the dome and the surrounding walls and arches, the actual construction of the walls of Hagia Sophia weakened the overall structure.^ Although this design stabilizes the dome and the surrounding walls and arches, the actual construction of the walls of Hagia Sophia weakened the overall structure.
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^ These ribs allow the weight of the dome to flow between the windows, down the pendentives, and ultimately to the foundation.The unique character of the design of Hagia Sophia shows how this structure is one of the most advanced and ambitious monuments of late antiquity.
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^ Although Erdogan has not publicly repudiated his stance on reopening Hagia Sophia to Muslim prayer, he has scrupulously enforced existing law against it.
  • A Monumental Struggle to Preserve Hagia Sophia | Travel | Smithsonian Magazine 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The bricklayers used more mortar than brick, which weakened the walls.^ The bricklayers used more mortar than brick, which weakened the walls.
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.The structure would have been more stable if the builders at least let the mortar cure before they began the next layer; however, they did not do this.^ The structure would have been more stable if the builders at least let the mortar cure before they began the next layer; however, they did not do this.
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^ Under subsequent regimes, however, more orthodox sultans would be less tolerant.
  • A Monumental Struggle to Preserve Hagia Sophia | Travel | Smithsonian Magazine 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If they did that, they would have earned the respect of the entire Moslem world.
  • Why the Pope should call for the return of the Hagia Sophia - Jihad Watch 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.jihadwatch.org [Source type: Original source]

.When the dome was placed atop the building, the weight of the dome caused the walls to lean outward because of the wet mortar underneath.^ When the dome was placed atop the building, the weight of the dome caused the walls to lean outward because of the wet mortar underneath.
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^ When Isidorus the Younger rebuilt the original dome, he had to first build up the interior of the walls so that they were vertical in order to support the weight of the new dome.
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^ Isidore the Younger raised the height of the dome by approximately twenty feet so that the lateral forces would not be as strong and the weight of the dome would flow more easily down the walls.
  • Hagia Sophia - Ayasofya 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC istanbulvisions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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.When Isidorus the Younger rebuilt the original dome, he had to first build up the interior of the walls so that they were vertical in order to support the weight of the new dome.^ When Isidorus the Younger rebuilt the original dome, he had to first build up the interior of the walls so that they were vertical in order to support the weight of the new dome.
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^ The pendentives not only achieve a pleasing aesthetic quality, but they also restrain the lateral forces of the dome and allow the weight of the dome to flow downward.
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^ Thus a hierarchy of dome-headed elements builds up to create a vast oblong interior crowned by the main dome, a sequence unexampled in antiquity.
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.Another probable change in the design of the dome when it was rebuilt was the actual height of the dome.^ Another probable change in the design of the dome when it was rebuilt was the actual height of the dome.
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^ Although this design stabilizes the dome and the surrounding walls and arches, the actual construction of the walls of Hagia Sophia weakened the overall structure.
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.Isidore the Younger raised the height of the dome by approximately six metres so that the lateral forces would not be as strong and the weight of the dome would flow more easily down the walls.^ Isidore the Younger raised the height of the dome by approximately twenty feet so that the lateral forces would not be as strong and the weight of the dome would flow more easily down the walls.
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^ The pendentives not only achieve a pleasing aesthetic quality, but they also restrain the lateral forces of the dome and allow the weight of the dome to flow downward.
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^ When the dome was placed atop the building, the weight of the dome caused the walls to lean outward because of the wet mortar underneath.
  • Hagia Sophia - Terra Anatolia - Trekking in Turkey 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.terra-anatolia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A second interesting fact about the original structure of the dome was how the architects were able to place forty windows around the base of the dome.^ A second interesting fact about the original structure of the dome was how the architects were able to place forty windows around the base of the dome.
  • Hagia Sophia - Ayasofya 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC istanbulvisions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But it's amazing archtecture, most noted by the huge dome atop it, and it's many arched windows around the base, make it one of the most intriguing structures to view in the city.
  • Hagia Sophia (Ayasofya)- Istanbul, Turkey - VirtualTourist.com 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.virtualtourist.com [Source type: General]

^ The dome of Hagia Sophia has spurred particular interest for many art historians and architects because of the innovative way the original architects envisioned the dome.
  • Hagia Sophia - Ayasofya 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC istanbulvisions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Hagia Sophia is famous for the mystical quality of light that reflects everywhere in the interior of the nave, which gives the dome the appearance of hovering above the nave.^ Hagia Sophia is famous for the mystical quality of light that reflects everywhere in the interior of the nave, which gives the dome the appearance of hovering above the nave.
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^ The dome seems rendered weightless by the unbroken arcade of 40 arched windows under it, which help flood the colourful interior with light.
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^ This time he used lighter materials and elevated the dome by 6.25 metres (20.5 ft), thus giving the building its current interior height of 55.6 metres (182 ft).

.This design is possible because the dome is shaped like a scalloped shell or the inside of an umbrella with ribs that extend from the top of the dome down to the base.^ This design is possible because the dome is shaped like a scalloped shell or the inside of an umbrella with ribs that extend from the top of the dome down to the base.
  • Hagia Sophia - Ayasofya 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC istanbulvisions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ These ribs allow the weight of the dome to flow between the windows, down the pendentives, and ultimately to the foundation.
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.These ribs allow the weight of the dome to flow between the windows, down the pendentives, and ultimately to the foundation.^ These ribs allow the weight of the dome to flow between the windows, down the pendentives, and ultimately to the foundation.
  • Hagia Sophia - Ayasofya 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC istanbulvisions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ This design is possible because the dome is shaped like a scalloped shell or the inside of an umbrella with ribs that extend from the top of the dome down to the base.
  • Hagia Sophia - Ayasofya 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC istanbulvisions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ The pendentives not only achieve a pleasing aesthetic quality, but they also restrain the lateral forces of the dome and allow the weight of the dome to flow downward.
  • Hagia Sophia - Ayasofya 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC istanbulvisions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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.The unique character of the design of Hagia Sophia shows how this structure is one of the most advanced and ambitious monuments of late antiquity.^ The anomalies in the design of Hagia Sophia show how this structure is one of the most advanced and ambitious monuments of late antiquity.
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^ Blue Mosque: One of the most famous monuments in both the Turkish and Islamic worlds, the Sultan Ahmet Mosque (also known as the Blue Mosque) is a superb creation in the classical Ottoman style.
  • Istanbul in One Day Sightseeing Tour: Topkapi Palace, Hagia Sophia, Blue Mosque, Grand Bazaar, Istanbul Bus & Minivan Tours | Viator.com 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.viator.com [Source type: General]

^ Hagia Sophia: Now a museum, Hagia Sophia was built in the 6th century by the Emperor Justinian, and was one of the largest basilicas in the Christian world.
  • Istanbul in One Day Sightseeing Tour: Topkapi Palace, Hagia Sophia, Blue Mosque, Grand Bazaar, Istanbul Bus & Minivan Tours | Viator.com 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.viator.com [Source type: General]

Lustration urns

Lustration urn from Pergamon
.Two huge marble lustration urns were brought from Pergamon during the reign of Sultan Murad III.^ The sultan Murad III (1574-1595) had two large alabaster Hellenistic urns transported from Pergamon and placed on two sides of the nave.
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^ The sultan Murad III (1574–1595) had two large alabaster Hellenistic urns transported from Pergamon and placed on two sides of the nave.

.Originally from the Hellenistic period, they are carved from single blocks of marble.^ Columns of purple porphyry and green marble were crowned by capitals so intricately carved that they seemed as fragile as lace.
  • A Monumental Struggle to Preserve Hagia Sophia | Travel | Smithsonian Magazine 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Several marble blocks from this second church have survived to the present day, and they are displayed in the garden of the current (third) church.

^ The blocks were originally part of a monumental front entrance; they were excavated in the western courtyard by A.M. Schneider in 1935.

Narthex and portals

Imperial Gate
The Imperial Gate was the main entrance between the exo- and esonarthex. It was reserved only for the emperor. .The Byzantine mosaic above the portal depicts Christ and Emperor Leo VI the Wise.^ Medieval pilgrims were awed by the mosaics, ranging from depictions of stylized angels to emperors and empresses, as well as a representation of an all-seeing Christ looming from the dome.
  • A Monumental Struggle to Preserve Hagia Sophia | Travel | Smithsonian Magazine 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It represents the emperor Leo VI bowing down before Christ Pantocrator, giving His blessing and holding in His left hand an open book.
  • Hagia Sophia - Terra Anatolia - Trekking in Turkey 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.terra-anatolia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These mosaics express the timeless power bestowed by Christ on the Byzantine emperors.
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A long ramp from the northern part of the outer narthex leads up to the upper gallery.

Upper Gallery

The upper gallery is laid out in a horseshoe shape that encloses the nave until the apse. .Several mosaics are preserved in the upper gallery, an area traditionally reserved for the empress and her court.^ The mosaics in the upper gallery were cleaned.
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^ Several mosaics are preserved in the upper gallery, an area traditionally reserved for the empress and her court.
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^ The Empress Zoe mosaics on the eastern wall of the southern gallery date from the 11th century.
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.The best-preserved mosaics are located in the southern part of the gallery.^ The best-preserved mosaics are located in the southern part of the gallery.
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^ The Empress Zoe mosaics on the eastern wall of the southern gallery date from the 11th century.
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^ Several mosaics are preserved in the upper gallery, an area traditionally reserved for the empress and her court.
  • Hagia Sophia - Terra Anatolia - Trekking in Turkey 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.terra-anatolia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Loge of the Empress

The Loge of the Empress
.The Loge of the Empress is located in the centre of the upper enclosure, or gallery, of the Hagia Sophia.^ The Loge of the Empress is located in the centre of the upper enclosure, or gallery, of the Hagia Sophia.
  • Hagia Sophia - Terra Anatolia - Trekking in Turkey 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.terra-anatolia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Marble Door inside the Hagia Sophia is located in the southern upper enclosure, or gallery.
  • Hagia Sophia - Terra Anatolia - Trekking in Turkey 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.terra-anatolia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reconstructed as a 19th Century Ottoman Mansion located in the center of Istanbul, just 200 meters from Sultanahmet Square, Topkapi Palace, and Hagia Sophia ..
  • Best Western Acropol Hotel Istanbul Nr Hagia Sofia Turkey 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.asiarooms.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.From there the empress and the court-ladies would watch the proceedings down below.^ From there the empress and the court-ladies would watch the proceedings down below.
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.A round, green stone marks the spot where the throne of the empress stood.^ A round, green stone marks the spot where the throne of the empress stood.
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Marble Door

Marble Door
.The Marble Door inside the Hagia Sophia is located in the southern upper enclosure, or gallery.^ The Loge of the Empress is located in the centre of the upper enclosure, or gallery, of the Hagia Sophia.
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^ The Marble Door inside the Hagia Sophia is located in the southern upper enclosure, or gallery.
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^ Reconstructed as a 19th Century Ottoman Mansion located in the center of Istanbul, just 200 meters from Sultanahmet Square, Topkapi Palace, and Hagia Sophia ..
  • Best Western Acropol Hotel Istanbul Nr Hagia Sofia Turkey 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.asiarooms.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It was used by the participants in synods, they entered and left the meeting chamber through this door.^ It was used by the participants in synods, they entered and left the meeting chamber through this door.
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Decorations

.Originally, under Justinian's reign, the interior decorations consisted of abstract designs of the marble slabs on the walls and mosaics on the curving vaults.^ Originally, under Justinian's reign, the interior decorations consisted of abstract designs of the marble slabs on the walls and mosaics on the curving vaults.
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^ All interior surfaces are sheathed with polychrome marbles, green and white with purple porphyry and gold mosaics, encrusted upon the brick.
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^ Blocks of marble, imported from as far away as Egypt and Italy, were cut into decorative panels that covered the walls, making the church's entire vast interior appear to swirl and dissolve before one's eyes.
  • A Monumental Struggle to Preserve Hagia Sophia | Travel | Smithsonian Magazine 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Of these, one can still see the two archangels Gabriel and Michael in the spandrels of the bema.^ Of these, one can still see the two archangels Gabriel and Michael in the spandrels of the bema.
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^ The portraits of the archangels Gabriel and Michael (largely destroyed) in the bema of the arch also date from the ninth century.
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.There were already a few figurative decorations, as attested by the eulogy of Paul the Silentiary.^ There were already a few figurative decorations, as attested by the eulogy of Paul the Silentiary.
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The spandrels of the gallery are revetted in opus sectile, showing patterns and figures of flowers and birds in precisely cut pieces of white marble set against a background of black marble. .In later stages figurative mosaics were added, which were destroyed during the iconoclastic controversy (726–843).^ In later stages figurative mosaics were added, which were destroyed during the iconoclastic controversy (726-843).
  • Hagia Sophia - Terra Anatolia - Trekking in Turkey 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.terra-anatolia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Present mosaics are from the post-iconoclastic period. .The number of treasures, relics and miracle-working, painted icons of the Hagia Sophia grew progressively richer into an amazing collection.^ On a side note, this church/mosque turned into a museum in 1935 - so people have been conflicted over Hagia Sophia for a very long time (not 500 years ago).
  • Istanbul pictures - Aya Sofya pictures Photo Gallery by Dick Osseman at pbase.com 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.pbase.com [Source type: General]

^ In order not to harm the present Hagia Sophia building, further excavation works were not carried out.

^ The Church of Hagia Sophia was built in 537 years, a collection of Roman wisdom, which is a symbol of the Byzantine period, until the Muslim army conquered Istanbul.
  • A Monumental Struggle to Preserve Hagia Sophia | Travel | Smithsonian Magazine 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Apart from the mosaics, a large number of figurative decorations were added during the second half of the ninth century: an image of Christ in the central dome; Orthodox saints, prophets and Church Fathers in the tympana below; historical figures connected with this church, such as Patriarch Ignatius; some scenes from the gospel in the galleries.^ The church father Papias of Hierapolis was here in the second century bishop.

^ Hagia Sophia was the seat of the Orthodox patriarch of Constantinople and a principal setting for Byzantine imperial ceremonies, such as coronations.

^ Under the great dome, filtered amber light revealed vaulted arches, galleries and semi-domes, refracted from exquisite mosaics depicting the Virgin Mary and infant Jesus as well as long-vanished patriarchs, emperors and saints.
  • A Monumental Struggle to Preserve Hagia Sophia | Travel | Smithsonian Magazine 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Mosaics

Mosaics with geometric pattern decorate the upper imperial gallery
The church was richly decorated with mosaics throughout the centuries. .They either depicted the Virgin Mother, Jesus, Saints, or emperors and empresses.^ Medieval pilgrims were awed by the mosaics, ranging from depictions of stylized angels to emperors and empresses, as well as a representation of an all-seeing Christ looming from the dome.
  • A Monumental Struggle to Preserve Hagia Sophia | Travel | Smithsonian Magazine 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Under the great dome, filtered amber light revealed vaulted arches, galleries and semi-domes, refracted from exquisite mosaics depicting the Virgin Mary and infant Jesus as well as long-vanished patriarchs, emperors and saints.
  • A Monumental Struggle to Preserve Hagia Sophia | Travel | Smithsonian Magazine 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Other parts were decorated in a purely decorative style with geometric patterns.
.During the Sack of Constantinople in 1204, the Latin Crusaders vandalized valuable items in every important Byzantine structure of the city, including the golden mosaics of the Hagia Sophia.^ The fire that started during the tumult of the Nika Revolt resulted in the destruction of the (second) Hagia Sophia, which burned down to the ground on 13–14 January 532.

^ The realm was further weakened in 1204 when western European crusaders en route to the Holy Land, overtaken by greed, captured and looted Constantinople.
  • A Monumental Struggle to Preserve Hagia Sophia | Travel | Smithsonian Magazine 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The city of Constantinople was being put to the sack by the triumphant Ottoman army.
  • Istanbul pictures - Aya Sofya pictures Photo Gallery by Dick Osseman at pbase.com 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.pbase.com [Source type: General]

.Many of these items were shipped to Venice, whose Doge, Enrico Dandolo, had organized the invasion and sack of Constantinople.^ Century marker of the tomb of Enrico Dandolo, the Doge of Venice who commanded the Sack of Constantinople in 1204, inside the Hagia Sophia .

^ Enrico Dandolo, the Doge of Venice who commanded the sack and invasion of the city by the Latin Crusaders in 1204, is buried inside the church.

.Following the building's conversion into a mosque in 1453, many of its mosaics were covered with plaster, due to Islam's ban on representational imagery.^ Following the building's conversion into a mosque in 1453, many of its mosaics were destroyed or covered with plaster, due to Islam's ban on representational imagery.
  • Hagia Sophia - Terra Anatolia - Trekking in Turkey 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.terra-anatolia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The bells, altar, iconostasis, and sacrificial vessels were removed, and many of the mosaics were eventually plastered over.
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^ This work included covering the previously uncovered faces of two seraphim mosaics located in the centre of the building.
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.This process was not completed at once, and reports exist from the 17th century in which travellers note that they could still see Christian images in the former church.^ Once known as Constantinople, this was one of the great cities of Classical and Christian culture, home to one of Christendom’s most magnificent churches, Hagia Sophia, the church of the Holy Wisdom.
  • Why the Pope should call for the return of the Hagia Sophia - Jihad Watch 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.jihadwatch.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Many Mosques taken by Christians, including the Mosques in Kordoba, Sevilla, and Granada were converted to and are still being used as churches.
  • A Monumental Struggle to Preserve Hagia Sophia | Travel | Smithsonian Magazine 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It could be done in a semi-secular light: the church as not just a Christian edifice, but a historical and high-profile symbol of the freedom to worship, and indeed freedom itself.
  • Why the Pope should call for the return of the Hagia Sophia - Jihad Watch 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.jihadwatch.org [Source type: Original source]

.In 1847–49, the building was restored by two Swiss brothers, Gaspare and Giuseppe Fossati, and Sultan Abdülmecid allowed them to also document any mosaics they might discover during this process.^ In the process, they have discovered 800-year old submerged graves containing the remains of "canonized children."
  • BLDGBLOG: Scuba Diving Beneath Hagia Sophia 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC bldgblog.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ Remarkably, the sultan allowed several of the finest Christian mosaics to remain, including the Virgin Mary and images of the seraphs, which he considered to be guardian spirits of the city.
  • A Monumental Struggle to Preserve Hagia Sophia | Travel | Smithsonian Magazine 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I think that Israel should destroy that abominable building and restore the temple to they way Solomon built it.
  • Why the Pope should call for the return of the Hagia Sophia - Jihad Watch 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.jihadwatch.org [Source type: Original source]

.This work did not include repairing the mosaics and after recording the details about an image, the Fossatis painted it over again.^ This work did not include repairing the mosaics and after recording the details about an image, the Fossatis painted it over again.
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^ The Fossati records are the primary sources about a number of mosaic images now believed to have been completely or partially destroyed in an earthquake in 1894.
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^ In other cases, the Fossatis recreated damaged decorative mosaic patterns in paint, sometimes redesigning them in the process.
  • Hagia Sophia - Terra Anatolia - Trekking in Turkey 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.terra-anatolia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This work included covering the previously uncovered faces of two seraphim mosaics located in the centre of the building.^ This work included covering the previously uncovered faces of two seraphim mosaics located in the centre of the building.
  • Hagia Sophia - Terra Anatolia - Trekking in Turkey 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.terra-anatolia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most of the missing images were located in the building's two tympana.
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^ Following the building's conversion into a mosque in 1453, many of its mosaics were destroyed or covered with plaster, due to Islam's ban on representational imagery.
  • Hagia Sophia - Terra Anatolia - Trekking in Turkey 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.terra-anatolia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The building currently features a total of four of these images and two of them are restorations in paint created by the Fossatis to replace two images of which they could find no surviving remains.^ The building currently features a total of four of these images and two of them are restorations in paint created by the Fossatis to replace two images of which they could find no surviving remains.
  • Hagia Sophia - Terra Anatolia - Trekking in Turkey 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.terra-anatolia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most of the missing images were located in the building's two tympana.
  • Hagia Sophia - Terra Anatolia - Trekking in Turkey 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.terra-anatolia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This work did not include repairing the mosaics and after recording the details about an image, the Fossatis painted it over again.
  • Hagia Sophia - Terra Anatolia - Trekking in Turkey 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.terra-anatolia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In other cases, the Fossatis recreated damaged decorative mosaic patterns in paint, sometimes redesigning them in the process. .The Fossati records are the primary sources about a number of mosaic images now believed to have been completely or partially destroyed in an earthquake in 1894. These include a great mosaic of Christ Pantocrator in the dome, a mosaic over a now-unidentified Door of the Poor, a large image of a jewel-encrusted cross, and a large number of images of angels, saints, patriarchs, and church fathers.^ Thanks for rendering to all believers of the only God Jesus Christ such a GREAT gift.
  • Istanbul pictures - Aya Sofya pictures Photo Gallery by Dick Osseman at pbase.com 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.pbase.com [Source type: General]

^ All the buildings survived the war between the Turks and Byzantines until they 1334 by an earthquake completely destroyed.

^ These remains consists of mosaics, columns and other architectural pieces which had once been part of the Great Palace.
  • Museums in Istanbul - Turkey 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.greatistanbul.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Most of the missing images were located in the building's two tympana. .The Fossatis also added a pulpit (minbar) and the four large medallions on the walls of the nave bearing the names of Muhammad and Islam's first caliphs.^ They were inscribed with the names of Allah, the prophet Muhammad, the first four caliphs Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman and Ali, and the two grandchildren of Mohammed: Hassan and Hussain, by the calligrapher Kazasker İzzed Effendi (1801–1877).

^ The Islamic features — such as the mihrab, the minbar, and the four minarets outside — were added over the course of its history under the Ottomans.

Imperial gate mosaics

Imperial Gate mosaic

.
  • Imperial Gate mosaics: located in the tympanum above the gate, used only by the emperors when entering the church.^ The mosaics inside the church were, however, only completed under the reign of Emperor Justin II (565–578).

    .Based on style analysis, it has been dated to the late 9th or early 10th century.^ The present wooden structure on the site dates from the late 18th century.
    • Museums in Istanbul - Turkey 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.greatistanbul.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The emperor with a nimbus or halo could possibly represent emperor Leo VI the Wise or his son Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus bowing down before Christ Pantocrator, seated on a jeweled throne, giving His blessing and holding in His left hand an open book.^ In his book De caerimoniis aulae Byzantinae (Book of Ceremonies), emperor Constantine VII (913–919) wrote about all the details of the ceremonies held in the Hagia Sophia by the emperor and the patriarch.

    [16] .The text on the book reads as follows : "Peace be with you.^ At the present time I am reading The Historian so your pictures make the book more real to me- I found your website on Answers.com- thank you!
    • Istanbul pictures - Aya Sofya pictures Photo Gallery by Dick Osseman at pbase.com 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.pbase.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Read a book, and don't worry about my knowledge: I manage pretty well, thank you.
    • Istanbul pictures - Aya Sofya pictures Photo Gallery by Dick Osseman at pbase.com 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.pbase.com [Source type: General]

    I am the light of the world". (John 20:19; 20:26; 8:12) On each side of Christ's shoulders is a circular medallion : on His left the Archangel Gabriel , holding a staff, on His right His Mother Mary. These mosaics express the timeless power bestowed by Christ on the Byzantine emperors.

Southwestern entrance mosaic

.
Virgin and Child flanked by Justinian I and Constantine I
  • Southwestern entrance mosaics, situated in the tympanum of the southwestern entrance, date from 944. They were rediscovered during the restorations of 1849 by Fossati.^ The yellow and red colour of the exterior was added by the architect Fossati during the restorations in the 19th century.

    ^ However, restoration carried out during the period 1847–1849 cast doubt upon the authenticity of the doge’s grave.

    The Virgin sits on a throne without a back, her feet resting on a pedestal, embellished with precious stones. The Child Christ sits on her lap, giving His blessing and holding a scroll in His left hand. .On her left side stands emperor Constantine in ceremonial attire, presenting a model of the city to Mary.^ The city was named Constantinopolis after the Roman Emperor Constantine made it the Roma Capital in 313CE and built the first Saint Sophia Church.
    • A Monumental Struggle to Preserve Hagia Sophia | Travel | Smithsonian Magazine 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The inscription next to him says : "Great emperor Constantine of the Saints". On her right side stands emperor Justinian I, offering a model of the Hagia Sophia.^ In his book De caerimoniis aulae Byzantinae (Book of Ceremonies), emperor Constantine VII (913–919) wrote about all the details of the ceremonies held in the Hagia Sophia by the emperor and the patriarch.

    ^ After the great earthquake of 25 October 989, which ruined the great dome of Hagia Sophia, the Byzantine emperor Basil II asked for the Armenian architect Trdat, creator of the great churches of Ani and Agine, to repair the dome.

    ^ On a side note, this church/mosque turned into a museum in 1935 - so people have been conflicted over Hagia Sophia for a very long time (not 500 years ago).
    • Istanbul pictures - Aya Sofya pictures Photo Gallery by Dick Osseman at pbase.com 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.pbase.com [Source type: General]

    The medallions on both sides of the Virgin's head carry the monograms MP and ΘY, an abbreviation of "Mētēr" and "Theou", meaning "Mother of God".

Apse mosaics

Apse mosaic of the Theotokos (Virgin Mother and Child)
  • Virgin and Child: this was the first of the post-iconoclastic mosaics. .It was inaugurated on 29 March 867 by Patriarch Photius and the emperors Michael III and Basil I.^ The emperor, together with the patriarch Eutychius, inaugurated the new basilica on December 27, 537 with much pomp and circumstance.

    This mosaic is situated in a high location on the half dome of the apse. Mary is sitting on a throne without a back, holding the Child Jesus on her lap. Her feet rest on a pedestal. Both the pedestal and the throne are adorned with precious stones. These mosaics are believed to be a reconstruction of the mosaics of the sixth century that were previously destroyed during the iconoclastic era. The mosaics are set against the original golden background of the 6th century. The portraits of the archangels Gabriel and Michael (largely destroyed) in the bema of the arch also date from the 9th century.

Emperor Alexander mosaic

  • The Emperor Alexander mosaic is not easy to find for the first-time visitor, located in the second floor in a dark corner of the ceiling. It depicts Emperor Alexander in full regalia, holding a scroll in his right hand and a globus cruciger in his left. .A drawing by Fossati showed that the mosaic survived until 1849, and that Thomas Whittemore, founder of the Byzantine Institute of America who was granted permission to preserve the mosaics, assumed that it had been destroyed in the earthquake of 1894. Eight years after his death, the mosaic was discovered in 1958 largely through the researches of Robert Van Nice.^ All the buildings survived the war between the Turks and Byzantines until they 1334 by an earthquake completely destroyed.

    ^ Through earthquakes, the city was destroyed 17 AD, but then in extended form rebuilt.

    .Unlike most of the other mosaics in Hagia Sophia, which had been covered over by ordinary plaster, the Alexander mosaic was simply painted over and reflected the surrounding mosaic patterns and thus was well hidden.^ Magnificent as it was, Hagia Sophia contained none of its splendid figurative mosaics at first.
    • A Monumental Struggle to Preserve Hagia Sophia | Travel | Smithsonian Magazine 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Once known as Constantinople, this was one of the great cities of Classical and Christian culture, home to one of Christendom’s most magnificent churches, Hagia Sophia, the church of the Holy Wisdom.
    • Why the Pope should call for the return of the Hagia Sophia - Jihad Watch 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.jihadwatch.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ "There most definitely are seismic threats to Hagia Sophia, and the potential ganger are great.
    • A Monumental Struggle to Preserve Hagia Sophia | Travel | Smithsonian Magazine 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    It was duly cleaned by the Byzantine Institute's successor to Whittemore, Paul A. Underwood.[17]

Empress Zoe mosaics

Empress Zoe mosaics
  • The Empress Zoe mosaics on the eastern wall of the southern gallery date from the 11th century. Christ Pantocrator, clad in the dark blue robe (as always the custom in Byzantine art), is seated in the middle against a golden background, giving His blessing with the right hand and holding the Bible in His left hand. On either side of His head are the monograms IC and XC, meaning Iēsous Khristos. He is flanked by Constantine IX Monomachus and Empress Zoe, both in ceremonial costumes. He is offering a purse, as symbol of the donation he made to the church, while she is holding a scroll, symbol of the donations she made. .The inscription over the head of the emperor says : "Constantine, pious emperor in Christ the God, king of the Romans, Monomachus". The inscription over the head of the empress reads as follows : "Zoë, the very pious Augusta". The previous heads have been scraped off and replaced by the three present ones.^ The city was named Constantinopolis after the Roman Emperor Constantine made it the Roma Capital in 313CE and built the first Saint Sophia Church.
    • A Monumental Struggle to Preserve Hagia Sophia | Travel | Smithsonian Magazine 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Medieval pilgrims were awed by the mosaics, ranging from depictions of stylized angels to emperors and empresses, as well as a representation of an all-seeing Christ looming from the dome.
    • A Monumental Struggle to Preserve Hagia Sophia | Travel | Smithsonian Magazine 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Constantinople, as Istanbul was known for centuries, owed its importance to the Emperor Constantine, who made it the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire in A.D. 330.
    • A Monumental Struggle to Preserve Hagia Sophia | Travel | Smithsonian Magazine 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Perhaps the earlier mosaic showed her first husband Romanus III Argyrus or her adopted son Michael IV. Another theory is that these mosaics were made for an earlier emperor and empress, with their heads changed into the present ones.

Comnenus mosaics

.
Comnenus mosaic
  • The Comnenus mosaics, equally located on the eastern wall of the southern gallery, date from 1122. The Virgin Mary is standing in the middle, depicted, as usual in Byzantine art, in a dark blue gown.^ Under the great dome, filtered amber light revealed vaulted arches, galleries and semi-domes, refracted from exquisite mosaics depicting the Virgin Mary and infant Jesus as well as long-vanished patriarchs, emperors and saints.
    • A Monumental Struggle to Preserve Hagia Sophia | Travel | Smithsonian Magazine 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Remarkably, the sultan allowed several of the finest Christian mosaics to remain, including the Virgin Mary and images of the seraphs, which he considered to be guardian spirits of the city.
    • A Monumental Struggle to Preserve Hagia Sophia | Travel | Smithsonian Magazine 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    She holds the Child Christ on her lap. He gives His blessing with His right hand while holding a scroll in His left hand. On her right side stands emperor John II Comnenus, represented in a garb embellished with precious stones. He holds a purse, symbol of an imperial donation to the church. Empress Irene stands on the left side of the Virgin, wearing ceremonial garments and offering a document. Their eldest son Alexius Comnenus is represented on an adjacent pilaster. His mournful features reflect his death from tuberculosis in the same year. .In this panel one can already see a difference with the Empress Zoe mosaics that is one century older.^ Medieval pilgrims were awed by the mosaics, ranging from depictions of stylized angels to emperors and empresses, as well as a representation of an all-seeing Christ looming from the dome.
    • A Monumental Struggle to Preserve Hagia Sophia | Travel | Smithsonian Magazine 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    There is a more realistic expression in the portraits instead of an idealized representation. The empress is shown with plaited blond hair, rosy cheeks and grey eyes, revealing her Hungarian descent. The emperor is depicted in a dignified manner.

Deësis mosaic

Mosaic-1041.jpg
The Deësis mosaic with Christ as ruler
.
Detail of Deësis mosaic
  • The Deësis ('Δέησις' in Greek, meaning Entreaty) mosaic probably dates from 1261. It was commissioned to mark the end of 57 years of Roman Catholic use and the return to the Orthodox faith.^ During the Latin occupation of Constantinople (1204–1261) the church became a Roman Catholic cathedral.

    ^ Its influence, both architecturally and liturgically, was widespread and enduring in the Eastern Orthodox, Roman Catholic, and Muslim worlds alike.

    It is the third panel situated in the imperial enclosure of the upper galleries. .It is widely considered the finest in Hagia Sophia, because of the softness of the features, the humane expressions and the tones of the mosaic.^ December 8, 2006 9:07 AM Of course the Pope should call for the return of the Hagia Sophia because it belongs to Christendom.
    • Why the Pope should call for the return of the Hagia Sophia - Jihad Watch 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.jihadwatch.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Remarkably, the sultan allowed several of the finest Christian mosaics to remain, including the Virgin Mary and images of the seraphs, which he considered to be guardian spirits of the city.
    • A Monumental Struggle to Preserve Hagia Sophia | Travel | Smithsonian Magazine 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ I would be pleased if you could consider Hagia Sophia as the monument of the tolerance and peace dominated by the Turkish Ottoman civilization in our region for centuries.
    • A Monumental Struggle to Preserve Hagia Sophia | Travel | Smithsonian Magazine 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    The style is close to that of the Italian painters of the late 13th or early 14th century, such as Duccio. In this panel the Virgin Mary and John the Baptist (Ioannes Prodromos), both shown in three-quarters profile, are imploring the intercession of Christ Pantocrator for humanity on Judgment Day. The bottom part of this mosaic is badly deteriorated, probably due to rain since the mosaic is next to the windows. This mosaic is considered as the beginning of the Renaissance in Byzantine pictorial art.

Northern tympanon mosaics

Mosaic in the northern tympanon depicting Saint John Chrysostom
  • The northern tympanon mosaics feature various saints. They have been able to survive due to the very high and unreachable location. They depict Saints John Chrysostom and Ignatius the Younger standing, clothed in white robes with crosses, and holding richly jewelled Holy Bibles. The names of each saint is given around the statues in Greek, in order to enable an identification for the visitor. The other mosaics in the other tympani have not survived probably due to the frequent earthquakes as opposed to any deliberate destruction by the Ottoman conquerors.

20th-century restoration

The interior of the dome undergoing restoration
A large number of mosaics were uncovered in the 1930s by a team from the Byzantine Institute of America led by Thomas Whittemore. .The team chose to let a number of simple cross images remain covered by plaster, but uncovered all major mosaics found.^ Eventually, all of the figurative mosaics were plastered over.
  • A Monumental Struggle to Preserve Hagia Sophia | Travel | Smithsonian Magazine 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Remarkably, the sultan allowed several of the finest Christian mosaics to remain, including the Virgin Mary and images of the seraphs, which he considered to be guardian spirits of the city.
  • A Monumental Struggle to Preserve Hagia Sophia | Travel | Smithsonian Magazine 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And if he can't be found, or prefers (for obvious reasons) not to, then let Ibn Warraq and Ayaan Hirsi Ali and any number of articulate apostates stand in for Mohammed Rasoel.
  • Why the Pope should call for the return of the Hagia Sophia - Jihad Watch 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.jihadwatch.org [Source type: Original source]

.Because of its long history as both a church and a mosque, a particular challenge arises in the restoration process.^ On a side note, this church/mosque turned into a museum in 1935 - so people have been conflicted over Hagia Sophia for a very long time (not 500 years ago).
  • Istanbul pictures - Aya Sofya pictures Photo Gallery by Dick Osseman at pbase.com 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.pbase.com [Source type: General]

The Christian iconographic mosaics are being gradually uncovered. However, in order to do so, important, historic Islamic art would have to be destroyed. Restorers have attempted to maintain a balance between both Christian and Islamic cultures. .In particular, much controversy rests upon whether the Islamic calligraphy on the dome of the cathedral should be removed, in order to permit the underlying Pantocrator mosaic of Christ as Master of the World, to be exhibited (assuming the mosaic still exists).^ Medieval pilgrims were awed by the mosaics, ranging from depictions of stylized angels to emperors and empresses, as well as a representation of an all-seeing Christ looming from the dome.
  • A Monumental Struggle to Preserve Hagia Sophia | Travel | Smithsonian Magazine 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]

Minarets

.One of the minarets (at southwest) was built from red brick while the other three were built from white limestone and sand stone; of which the slender one at northeast was erected by Sultan Bayezid II while the two larger minarets at west were erected by Sultan Selim II and designed by the famous Ottoman architect Mimar Sinan.^ The next sultan Bayezid II built a new minaret, replacing the one built by his father.

^ During the reign of Selim II (1566–1577), the building started showing signs of fatigue and was extensively strengthened with the addition of structural supports to its exterior by the great Ottoman architect Sinan, who is also considered one of the world’s first earthquake engineers.

^ It was designed by two architects, Isidore of Miletus and Anthemius of Tralles.

[citation needed]

Debate about the status

Current use

.Under a presidential order of Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, the President of the Republic of Turkey, Hagia Sophia was classified as a Museum and hence the use of the complex as a place of worship (mosque or church) is strictly prohibited to this day.^ The Agia Sophia is a place of worship.
  • A Monumental Struggle to Preserve Hagia Sophia | Travel | Smithsonian Magazine 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Christians (which the people in Constantinople and the church of Hagia Sophia were).
  • Why the Pope should call for the return of the Hagia Sophia - Jihad Watch 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.jihadwatch.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As stated, the Hagia Sophia belongs rightfully to the Turkish Government and therefore they are under no moral obligations.
  • A Monumental Struggle to Preserve Hagia Sophia | Travel | Smithsonian Magazine 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[18] .However, in 2006, it was reported that the Turkish Government allowed the allocation of a small room in the Hagia Sophia Museum complex to be used as a small prayer room for museum staff open to Christians and Muslims.^ Under Turkish laws dating from the 1930s, public prayer is prohibited in the museum.
  • A Monumental Struggle to Preserve Hagia Sophia | Travel | Smithsonian Magazine 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ December 8, 2006 9:07 AM Of course the Pope should call for the return of the Hagia Sophia because it belongs to Christendom.
  • Why the Pope should call for the return of the Hagia Sophia - Jihad Watch 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.jihadwatch.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Hagia Sophia Church Museum Istanbul Filed Under ( Travel Turkey , Turkey , istanbul ) by admin on 16-10-2009 .

[19]

Campaign to restore to use as a church

.In 2007 the US businessman and politician Chris Spirou started the movement "Free Hagia Sophia Council" championing the cause of restoring the building to its original function.^ The restoration of the Hagia Sophia would serve us all.
  • A Monumental Struggle to Preserve Hagia Sophia | Travel | Smithsonian Magazine 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In June 2007, Chris Spirou, president of the Free Agia Sophia Council of America, a U.S.-based advocacy group whose Web site features photographs depicting the building with its minarets erased, testified in Washington, D. C. at hearings sponsored by the Congressional Human Rights Caucus that the one-time cathedral had been "taken prisoner" by the Turks; he called for it to be restored as the "Holy House of Prayer for all Christians of the world and the Basilica of Orthodoxy that it was before the conquest of Constantinople by the Ottoman Turks."
  • A Monumental Struggle to Preserve Hagia Sophia | Travel | Smithsonian Magazine 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The fire that started during the tumult of the Nika Revolt resulted in the destruction of the (second) Hagia Sophia, which burned down to the ground on 13–14 January 532.

[20] .On 20 June 2007 Spirou testified before the Congressional Human Rights Caucus of the United States Congress; at the end of the Public Hearing, Chairman Tom Lantos, (D-CA), Chairman of the Congressional Human Rights Caucus and Chairman of the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the United States Congress, stated among other things: "Of all the Human Rights violations around the world that the Congressional Human Rights Caucus has examined in the 25 years of its existence, the most important have been violations relating to Religious Freedom.^ Trouble with the west is that of all beautifull Bible verses, we forgot even the most important ones, like: Man doesnt live only by his bread.
  • Why the Pope should call for the return of the Hagia Sophia - Jihad Watch 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.jihadwatch.org [Source type: Original source]

^ When shopping you should carefully examine all things.

^ It deserves a gigantic publicity campaign, and distribution all over Washington and the other capitals of the West.
  • Why the Pope should call for the return of the Hagia Sophia - Jihad Watch 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.jihadwatch.org [Source type: Original source]

The Caucus has paid particular attention and concern to human rights violations which deal with forced conversions of Holy Places and Holy Sites. The situation with Agia Sophia ranks amongst the most important issues to have come before our Caucus."[21] Chris Spirou gave a series of interviews to Russian mass media outlets highlighting the issue.[22][23]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Magdalino, Paul, et. al. "Istanbul: Buildings, Hagia Sophia" in Grove Art Online. Oxford Art Online. http://www.oxfordartonline.com. accessed 28 Feb. 2010.
  2. ^ Simons, Marlise. "Center of Ottoman Power". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/1993/08/22/travel/center-of-ottoman-power.html. Retrieved 2009-06-04. 
  3. ^ Kleiner, Fred, Fred S.; Christin J. Mamiya (2008). Gardner's Art Through the Ages: Volume I, Chapters 1-18 (12th ed.). Mason, OH: Wadsworth. p. 329. ISBN 0495467405. 
  4. ^ a b http://archnet.org/library/sites/one-site.jsp?site_id=2966
  5. ^ McKenzie, Steven L. (1998). The Hebrew Bible Today: An Introduction to Critical Issues. M. Patrick Graham. Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press. p. 149. ISBN 0-6642-5652-X. 
  6. ^ Binns, John (2002). An Introduction to the Christian Orthodox Churches. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 57. ISBN 0-5216-6738-0. 
  7. ^ Alessandro E. FONI, George PAPAGIANNAKIS, Nadia MAGNENAT-THALMANN. "Virtual Hagia Sophia: Restitution, Visualization and Virtual Life Simulation" (PDF). http://www.virtualworldheritage.org/papers/3181_976-Virtual_Hagia_Sophia.pdf. Retrieved 2007-07-03. 
  8. ^ Emporis: Haghia Sophia
  9. ^ Jones, Lynn (2007). Between Islam and Byzantium, Agh'tamar and the Visual Construction of Medieval Armenian Rulership. Burlington, VT.: Ashgate. p. 98. ISBN 0-7546-3852-9. 
  10. ^ Tafur, Pero (1926). Travels and Adventures, 1435-1439. Trans. M. Letts. London: G. Routledge. pp. 138-148. 
  11. ^ G. Gerola, “Le vedute di Costantinopoli di Cristoforo Buondemonti,” SBN 3 (1931): 247–79.
  12. ^ Mungan, I. (2004). Hagia Sophia and Mimar Sinan. Mungan & Wittek (eds); Taylor & Francis Group, London. pp. 383–384. ISBN 90 5809 642 4. http://books.google.be/books?hl=nl&lr=&id=6j5nuvAd44QC&oi=fnd&pg=PA383&dq=Sinan+earthquake+%22Hagia+Sophia%22&ots=HFASNZ8r-P&sig=zS-hO7E6RtwfhN55LGn6ulpRIE0#PPA383,M1. 
  13. ^ http://www.islamonline.net/servlet/Satellite?c=Article_C&cid=1182170385033&pagename=Zone-English-ArtCulture%2FACELayout Hagia Sophia
  14. ^ Baalbek keeps its secrets
  15. ^ Kleiner and Mamiya. Gardner's Art Through the Ages, p. 331.
  16. ^ The Hagia Sophia Church
  17. ^ Lord Kinross. "Hagia Sophia: A History of Constantinople." Newsweek, 1972, pp. 132-133.
  18. ^ http://www.istanbul.gov.tr/Default.aspx?pid=343
  19. ^ İbadete açık Ayasofya (Turkish)
  20. ^ Free Agia Sophia Council of America
  21. ^ Press Release 27 June 2007.
  22. ^ Константинопольская София — мать всех церквей pravoslavie.ru, 29 October 2007.
  23. ^ Крис Спиру. Возвращение Святой Софии Zavtra 22 April 2009, № 17, page. 5.

References

  • Mainstone, Rowland J. (1997). .Hagia Sophia: Architecture, Structure, and Liturgy of Justinian's Great Church (reprint edition).^ He recognized Hagia Sophia's greatness and he saved it."
    • A Monumental Struggle to Preserve Hagia Sophia | Travel | Smithsonian Magazine 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Sophia or the Great Church, as it was called throughout the East, was constructed by the orders of Justinian on the site of the small basilica of St. Sophia (divine wisdom) which was set on fire during the Nika revolt (532).
    • St Sophia - by Al. Vasilief - Page 1 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.ellopos.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ After the great earthquake of 25 October 989, which ruined the great dome of Hagia Sophia, the Byzantine emperor Basil II asked for the Armenian architect Trdat, creator of the great churches of Ani and Agine, to repair the dome.

    W W Norton & Co Inc.. .ISBN 0-500-27945-4. .
  • Hagia Sophia Church, also known as Church of Holy Wisdom.
  • Akṣit, Ilhan.^ It is now known as the “Church of holy wisdom.” .

    ^ Although it is sometimes referred to as Santa Sophia, the Greek name in full is Ναός τῆς Ἁγίας τοῦ Θεοῦ Σοφίας, Church of the Holy Wisdom of God.

    ^ Hagia Sophia Church Museum Istanbul Filed Under ( Travel Turkey , Turkey , istanbul ) by admin on 16-10-2009 .

    Hagia Sophia. Akṣit Kültür ve Turizm Yayincilik. ISBN 975-7039-07-1. 
  • Turner, J., Grove Dictionary of Art, Oxford University Press, USA; New Ed edition (January 2, 1996); ISBN 0-19-517068-7

Literature

  • Joseph D. Alchermes: Art and Architecture in the Age of Justinian, in: Michael Maas (Ed.): The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Justinian. Cambridge 2005, pg. 343–375.
  • Balfour, John Patrick Douglas (1972). Hagia Sophia. W.W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0882250144. 
  • Cimok, Fatih (2004). Hagia Sophia. Milet Publishing Ltd. ISBN 978-9757199618. 
  • Doumato, Lamia (1980). .The Byzantine church of Hagia Sophia: Selected references.^ "Hagia Sophia," says Crowley, "was the mother church—it symbolized the everlastingness of Constantinople and the Empire."
    • A Monumental Struggle to Preserve Hagia Sophia | Travel | Smithsonian Magazine 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ I think it goes without saying that I think that the Hagia Sophia should be restored to a church once more.
    • A Monumental Struggle to Preserve Hagia Sophia | Travel | Smithsonian Magazine 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ "There most definitely are seismic threats to Hagia Sophia, and they are great," says Stephen J. Kelley, a Chicago-based architect and engineer who consults on Byzantine churches in Turkey, the former Soviet Union and the Balkans.
    • A Monumental Struggle to Preserve Hagia Sophia | Travel | Smithsonian Magazine 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Vance Bibliographies. ASIN B0006E2O2M.
     
  • Goriansky, Lev Vladimir (1933). .Haghia Sophia: analysis of the architecture, art and spirit behind the shrine in Constantinople dedicated to Hagia Sophia.^ Hagia Sophia, completed in 537, was his crowning architectural achievement.
    • A Monumental Struggle to Preserve Hagia Sophia | Travel | Smithsonian Magazine 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ "Hagia Sophia summed up everything that was the Orthodox religion," says Roger Crowley, author of 1453: The Holy War for Constantinople and the Clash of Islam and the West .
    • A Monumental Struggle to Preserve Hagia Sophia | Travel | Smithsonian Magazine 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Thank for the issue that highlighted the significance of Hagia Sophia, not only as a structure and architectural masterpiece but also, and more importantly, as a symbol of preserving cultural heritage in all over the world.
    • A Monumental Struggle to Preserve Hagia Sophia | Travel | Smithsonian Magazine 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    American School of Philosophy. ASIN B0008C47EA.
     
  • Harris, Jonathan, Constantinople: Capital of Byzantium. Hambledon/Continuum (2007). ISBN 978 1847251794
  • Howland Swift, Emerson (1937). .The bronze doors of the gate of the horologium at Hagia Sophia.^ That same afternoon, Constantinople's new overlord, Sultan Mehmet II, rode triumphantly to the shattered doors of Hagia Sophia.
    • A Monumental Struggle to Preserve Hagia Sophia | Travel | Smithsonian Magazine 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    University of Chicago. ASIN B000889GIG.
     
  • Kahler, Heinz (1967). Haghia Sophia. Praeger. ASIN B0008C47EA. 
  • Kinross, Lord (1972). .Hagia Sophia, Wonders of Man.^ We spent an entire day wondering around the Hagia Sophia....the 360 degree tour blows my mind away!!!!!
    • A Monumental Struggle to Preserve Hagia Sophia | Travel | Smithsonian Magazine 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Newsweek. ASIN B000K5QN9W.
     
  • Kleinbauer, W. Eugene; Anthony White (2007). Hagia Sophia. London: Scala Publishers. ISBN 978-1857593082. 
  • Kleinbauer, W. Eugene (2000). Saint Sophia at Constantinople: Singulariter in Mundo (Monograph (Frederic Lindley Morgan Chair of Architectural Design), No. 5.). William L. Bauhan. ISBN 978-0872331235. 
  • Krautheimer, Richard (1984). Early Christian and Byzantine Architecture. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0300052947. 
  • Mainstone, R. J. (1997). .Hagia Sophia: Architecture, Structure, and Liturgy of Justinian's Great Church.^ Hagia Sophia, completed in 537, was his crowning architectural achievement.
    • A Monumental Struggle to Preserve Hagia Sophia | Travel | Smithsonian Magazine 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Hagia Sophia Church Museum Istanbul Filed Under ( Travel Turkey , Turkey , istanbul ) by admin on 16-10-2009 .

    ^ That structure was characteristic of the emperor's building where he held court and many Christrian churches are constructed in that pattern and architecturally are designated as basilicas.
    • A Monumental Struggle to Preserve Hagia Sophia | Travel | Smithsonian Magazine 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    London: Thames & Hudson. .ISBN 978-0500279458. 
  • Mainstone, Rowland J. (1988).^ Rowland J. Mainstone Thames and Hudson, 1988 .
    • A Monumental Struggle to Preserve Hagia Sophia | Travel | Smithsonian Magazine 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Hagia Sophia. .Architecture, structure and liturgy of Justinian's great church.^ That structure was characteristic of the emperor's building where he held court and many Christrian churches are constructed in that pattern and architecturally are designated as basilicas.
    • A Monumental Struggle to Preserve Hagia Sophia | Travel | Smithsonian Magazine 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Hagia Sophia: Architecture, Structure and Liturgy of Justinian's Great Church .
    • A Monumental Struggle to Preserve Hagia Sophia | Travel | Smithsonian Magazine 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    London: Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-500-34098-6. 
  • Mango, Cyril; Ahmed Ertuğ (1997). Hagia Sophia. A vision for empires. Istanbul. 
  • Nelson, Robert S. (2004). .Hagia Sophia, 1850–1950: Holy Wisdom Modern Monument.^ "Hagia Sophia summed up everything that was the Orthodox religion," says Roger Crowley, author of 1453: The Holy War for Constantinople and the Clash of Islam and the West .
    • A Monumental Struggle to Preserve Hagia Sophia | Travel | Smithsonian Magazine 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ I would be pleased if you could consider Hagia Sophia as the monument of the tolerance and peace dominated by the Turkish Ottoman civilization in our region for centuries.
    • A Monumental Struggle to Preserve Hagia Sophia | Travel | Smithsonian Magazine 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Church of Hagia Sophia was built in 537 years, a collection of Roman wisdom, which is a symbol of the Byzantine period, until the Muslim army conquered Istanbul.
    • A Monumental Struggle to Preserve Hagia Sophia | Travel | Smithsonian Magazine 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Chicago: University Of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0226571713.
     
  • Özkul, T. A. (2007). .Structural characteristics of Hagia Sophia: I-A finite element formulation for static analysis.^ Thank for the issue that highlighted the significance of Hagia Sophia, not only as a structure and architectural masterpiece but also, and more importantly, as a symbol of preserving cultural heritage in all over the world.
    • A Monumental Struggle to Preserve Hagia Sophia | Travel | Smithsonian Magazine 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Please keep in mind that if the Turks had not saved, upgraded, and preserved the structure, today you would not see a piece of Hagia Sophia.
    • A Monumental Struggle to Preserve Hagia Sophia | Travel | Smithsonian Magazine 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Hagia Sophia: Architecture, Structure and Liturgy of Justinian's Great Church .
    • A Monumental Struggle to Preserve Hagia Sophia | Travel | Smithsonian Magazine 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Elsevier.
     
  • Swainson, Harold (2005). .The Church of Sancta Sophia Constantinople: A Study of Byzantine Building.^ "Hagia Sophia," says Crowley, "was the mother church—it symbolized the everlastingness of Constantinople and the Empire."
    • A Monumental Struggle to Preserve Hagia Sophia | Travel | Smithsonian Magazine 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Hagia Sophia was the seat of the Orthodox patriarch of Constantinople and a principal setting for Byzantine imperial ceremonies, such as coronations.

    ^ Baldwin I of Constantinople was crowned emperor on 16 May 1204 in the Hagia Sophia, at a ceremony which closely followed Byzantine practices.

    Boston, MA: Adamant Media Corporation. ISBN 978-1402183454.
     
  • Yucel, Erdem (2005). Hagia Sophia. Scala Publishers. .ISBN 978-1857592504. 
  • Hagia Sophia from the Age of Justinian to the Present.^ In order not to harm the present Hagia Sophia building, further excavation works were not carried out.

    ^ Nobel Prize- winning author Orhan Pamuk says that by the 1960s, Hagia Sophia had become a remnant of an unimaginably distant age.
    • A Monumental Struggle to Preserve Hagia Sophia | Travel | Smithsonian Magazine 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Under Justinian’s orders, eight Corinthian columns were disassembled from Baalbek, Lebanon and shipped to Constantinople for the construction of Hagia Sophia.

    Princeton Architectural. 1992. ISBN 978-1878271112. 

Articles

Mosaics

  • MacDonald, William Lloyd (1951). .The uncovering of Byzantine mosaics in Hagia Sophia.^ Magnificent as it was, Hagia Sophia contained none of its splendid figurative mosaics at first.
    • A Monumental Struggle to Preserve Hagia Sophia | Travel | Smithsonian Magazine 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Church of Hagia Sophia was built in 537 years, a collection of Roman wisdom, which is a symbol of the Byzantine period, until the Muslim army conquered Istanbul.
    • A Monumental Struggle to Preserve Hagia Sophia | Travel | Smithsonian Magazine 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Archaeological Institute of America. ASIN B0007GZTKS.
     
  • Mango, Cyril (1972). The mosaics of St. Sophia at Istanbul: The church fathers in the north Tympanum. .Dumbarton Oaks Center for Byzantine Studies.^ Many of these images are lost; those few that remain are unique, says art historian Natalia Teteriatnikov, former curator at Dumbarton Oaks, in Washington, D.C., where a center for Byzantine studies is housed.
    • A Monumental Struggle to Preserve Hagia Sophia | Travel | Smithsonian Magazine 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ASIN B0007CAVA0.
     
  • Mango, Cyril (1968). The Apse mosaics of St. Sophia at Istanbul: Report on work carried out in 1964. Johnson Reprints. ASIN B0007G5RBY. 
  • Mango, Cyril; Heinz Kahler (1967). .Hagia Sophia: With a Chapter on the Mosaics.^ Magnificent as it was, Hagia Sophia contained none of its splendid figurative mosaics at first.
    • A Monumental Struggle to Preserve Hagia Sophia | Travel | Smithsonian Magazine 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Praeger. ASIN B0000CO5IL.
     
  • Teteriatnikov, Natalia B. (1998). .Mosaics of Hagia Sophia, Istanbul: The Fossati Restoration and the Work of the Byzantine Institute.^ Istanbul (Hagia Sophia: 0.4 mi) - Voir carte .
    • H�tels proches Hagia Sophia, Istanbul | H�tels de charme et de luxe | SPLENDIA 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.splendia.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Htels proches Hagia Sophia, Istanbul .
    • H�tels proches Hagia Sophia, Istanbul | H�tels de charme et de luxe | SPLENDIA 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.splendia.com [Source type: General]

    ^ No: 31 - 34400, Istanbul (Hagia Sophia: 0.3 mi) - Voir carte .
    • H�tels proches Hagia Sophia, Istanbul | H�tels de charme et de luxe | SPLENDIA 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.splendia.com [Source type: General]

    Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection. ISBN 978-0884022640.
     
  • Yücel, Erdem (1988). .The mosaics of Hagia Sophia.^ Magnificent as it was, Hagia Sophia contained none of its splendid figurative mosaics at first.
    • A Monumental Struggle to Preserve Hagia Sophia | Travel | Smithsonian Magazine 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Efe Turizm. ASIN B0007CBGYA.
     

External links

Mosaics


Source material

Up to date as of January 22, 2010

From Wikisource

Hagia Sophia
by Osip Mandelstam, translated by Dmitri Smirnov
From "Stone".
.Hagia Sophia, the Lord commanded
That nations and kings should stop here!
^ You are here: Home > Hagia Sophia .
  • Hagia Sophia | Hagia Sophia Tour | Visit to Hagia Sophia | Hagia Sophia Information 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.istanbultourguides.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Whether you're religious or not, it would be sinful not to make a stop at the Hagia Sophia during a trip to Turkey's capital.
  • Wonders of the World series: Hagia Sophia 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.femalefirst.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ A visit to Istanbul would be incomplete without a stop to its most famous landmark, Emperor Justinian's great cathedral, the Hagia Sophia.
  • Hagia Sophia Cathedral pictures :: Tallest buildings :: Highest Buildings 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC buildings.bayaw.com [Source type: General]


.For your cupola, in the words of eye-witness,
As on a chain, is suspended from the heaven.
^ Visitors were astonished and said it was "seemingly suspended as if by a golden chain from heaven" (Wood, 1997).

^ He achieved his goal from the outside, with a plethora of domes leading your eye to the heavens as you ascend the stais to the main square in front of the mosque.
  • Belly Button Window: Travels in Turkey 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC bellybuttonwindow.com [Source type: General]


.
Justinian set an example for all ages,
When Diana of Ephesus permitted
To steal for alien Gods
One hundred and seven green marble columns.
^ Justinian set an example for all ages, When Diana of Ephesus permitted To steal for alien Gods One hundred and seven green marble columns.
  • Hagia Sophia - Wikisource 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Columns for the interior were brought from temples at Baalbek, Heliopolis, Ephesus and Delphi, while other pillars' and capitals were made of white Proconessos, green Tesselian, golden Lybian, pink Phrygian and ivory Cappadocian marbles.
  • Hagia Sophia 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.andhotel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Eight columns of red porphyry were brought from the Diana Temple at Ephesus .
  • Explore Turkey: Istanbul - Hagia Sophia 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC sheff.caeds.eng.uml.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • St.Sophia Museum Istanbul, Turkey 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.enjoyturkey.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]


.
But what was in the mind of your generous builder,
Dignified in his soul and thought,
When he located the apses and the exedras,
Pointing them to West and East?
^ The arches at the east and west are extended and buttressed by great half domes, while the half domes in turn are carried on smaller semidomed exedrae.
  • Hagia Sophia - Facts from the Encyclopedia - Yahoo! Education 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC education.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Saved in 0 shortlists 191.65 – 294.84 USD Sultanahmet Palace Hotel is located at the point where east meets west.
  • Find Istanbul bed and breakfasts near Ayasofya (Hagia Sophia / St. Sophia) -Whiich.com 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.whiich.com [Source type: General]

^ On the east and west sides of the dome are two semidomes, which serve as the apse and entrance bay respectively, elongating the nave as in a rectangular basilica.
  • Raggedy Android » Hagia Sophia 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC raggedyandroid.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]


.
The temple bathed in the world is beautiful,
And the forty windows are the triumph of light;
And the four archangels in the pendentives
Beneath the cupola are the most striking.
^ This is a most beautiful temple, again.

^ For me Istanbul is the most beautiful city in the world.
  • Istanbul pictures - Aya Sofya pictures Photo Gallery by Dick Osseman at pbase.com 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.pbase.com [Source type: General]

^ The temple bathed in the world is beautiful, And the forty windows are the triumph of light; And the four archangels in the pendentives Beneath the cupola are the most striking.
  • Hagia Sophia - Wikisource 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]


.
And the wise spherical construction
Will survive nations and centuries,
And the seraphim’s resonant sobbing
Will not distort the dark gilded surfaces.
^ In the ornamentation, mosaics with geometric figures were used over a gilded surface and these have survived up to the present the grandeur of Saint Sophia of its original construction.
  • Explore Turkey :: St. Sophia :: Touring 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.exploreturkey.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]



1912
.This translation is hosted with different licensing information than from the original text.^ This translation is hosted with different licensing information than from the original text.
  • Hagia Sophia - Wikisource 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

The translation status applies to this edition.
Original:
PD-icon.svg This work is in the public domain in the United States because it was published before January 1, 1923.
.The author died in 1938, so this work is also in the public domain in countries and areas where the copyright term is the author's life plus 70 years or less.^ The best construction material and the best masons were brought to the city from all over the country, and for the 5 years, over 100 masters and 10.000 laborers worked in the construction.
  • Hagia Sophia | Hagia Sophia Tour | Visit to Hagia Sophia | Hagia Sophia Information 15 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.istanbultourguides.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This work may also be in the public domain in countries and areas with longer native copyright terms that apply the rule of the shorter term to foreign works.
Translation:
Heckert GNU white.svg This work is licensed under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License.

Other translations:


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

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Wikipedia has an article on:
Hagia Sophia today

English

Proper noun

Hagia Sophia
  1. a former patriarchal basilica, later a mosque, now a museum in Istanbul, Turkey.

Translations


Simple English

File:Aya
Hagia Sophia

Hagia Sophia, was an early Christian church [1][2] and later an Eastern Orthodox church. It was made into a mosque in 1453 by the Turks [1] and changed into a museum in 1935. It is located in Istanbul, Turkey. It is often said to be one of the greatest, and most beautiful buildings in history. Hagia Sophia was later rebuilt by Trdat the Architect, an Armenian who was sent by Byzantine officials, after a big earthquake hit the area.

References

Other websites

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Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 30, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Hagia Sophia, which are similar to those in the above article.








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