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Haitian Creole
Kreyòl ayisyen
Spoken in  Haiti (Official),
Total speakers 14,000,000[1]
Ranking 62
Language family Creole language
Official status
Official language in Haiti
Regulated by No official regulation
Language codes
ISO 639-1 ht
ISO 639-2 hat
ISO 639-3 hat

Haitian Creole language (Kreyòl ayisyen; pronounced: [kɣejɔl ajisjɛ̃]), often called simply Creole or Kreyòl, is a language spoken in Haiti by about eight million people, which is about 80% of the entire population of some ten million, and via emigration, by about one million speakers residing in the Bahamas, Cuba, Canada, Cayman Islands, Dominican Republic, French Guiana, Martinique, Guadeloupe, Belize, Puerto Rico, and United States. The language is notable for being the most widely spoken creole language in the world.[2]

Haitian Creole is one of Haiti's two official languages, along with French. It is a creole based largely on 18th-century French with various other influences, most notably African languages (including some Arabic), as well as Spanish and Taíno - and increasingly English.

Partly due to efforts of Félix Morisseau-Leroy, since 1961 Haitian Creole has been recognized as an official language along with French, which had been the sole literary language of the country since its independence in 1804. The official status was maintained under the country's 1987 constitution. The use of Creole in literature has been small but is increasing. Morisseau was one of the first and most influential authors to write in Creole. Since the 1980s, many educators, writers and activists have written literature in Creole. Today numerous newspapers, as well as radio and television programs, are produced in Creole.

Contents

Phonology

This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters.

Where consonants appear in pairs, the one on the left is voiceless.

Consonant phonemes of Haitian Creole[3]
Bilabial Labio-
dental
Dental/
Alveolar
Post-
Alveolar
Palatal Velar
Nasal m n ŋ1
Plosive p   b t   d k   ɡ
Affricate  
Fricative f   v s   z ʃ   ʒ ɣ2
Approximant l j w2
  1. /ŋ/ is not originally a Haitian Creole phoneme, but appears in English loanwords (eg. bèl feeling "good feeling").
  2. The contrast between /ɣ/ and /w/ is lost before rounded vowels; the two phonemes merge as /w/ in that environment. Some orthographies of Haitian Creole follow the etymology of the word, using ‹r› for /w/ before a rounded vowel where this comes from an original /ɣ/, e.g. /ɡwo/ ('big', cf. French gros /ɡʁo/) is spelled ‹gros›. Other orthographies follow the modern pronunciation of the word and use ‹w› for /w/ in all cases, so that /ɡwo/ is spelled ‹gwos›.

Haitian Creole has ten vowels: seven oral vowels and three (or five) nasal variants.

Vowel Phonemes of Haitian Creole[4]
Front Central Back
Close i (ĩ) u (ũ)
Close-Mid e o
Open-mid ɛ   ɛ̃ ɔ   ɔ̃
Open a   ã

Orthographically, open-mid vowels carry a grave accent ‹`› to distinguish them from close-mid vowels (eg. ‹e› for /e/ and ‹è› for /ɛ/). ‹n› indicates nasalization when following ‹a›, ‹e›, or ‹o›. However, if a vowel before ‹n› carries a grave accent, the vowel is oral (eg. ‹on› = /ɔ̃/, but ‹òn› = /ɔn/).

The status of the nasal closed vowels in Haitian Creole has been disputed. Marcel D'Ans claims that these vowels cannot be phonemically nasal, while Robert A. Hall, Jr. and others argue that they are in fact phonemes.[5]

The high nasal vowels are quite rare, appearing in a few words such as vodoun ("voodoo") and houngan ("voodoo priest"). In most words spelled with ‹in› or ‹oun›, such as moun ("person"), the final ‹n› is pronounced as a consonant.

Lexicon

Most of the lexicon is derived from French, with significant changes in pronunciation and morphology. Often, the French definite article was retained as part of the noun. For example, the French definite article la in la lune ("the moon") was incorporated into the Creole noun for moon: la-line.

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Sample

Creole IPA Origin English
annanna /ãnãna/ Taino (not Arawak there’s a difference). anana "pineapple"
bagay /baɡaj/ Fr. bagage, "baggage" "thing"
bannann /bãnãn/ Fr. banane, "banana" "Plantains"
bekàn /bekan/ Fr. bécane /bekan/ "bicycle"
Bondye /bõdje/ Fr. Bon Dieu /bõdjø/ "God! Good Lord!"
dèyè /dɛjɛ/ Fr. derrière /dɛʁjɛʁ/ "behind"
diri /diɣi/ Fr. du riz /dy ʁi/ "rice"
fig /fiɡ/ Fr. figue /fiɡ/ "banana"
kiyèz, tchòk, poban /kijɛz, tʃɔk, pobã/   "hog banana" [nb 1]
kle /kle/ Fr. clé /kle/, "key" "wrench" or "key"
klekola /kle kola/ Fr. clé /kle/, "key" + Eng. "cola" "bottle opener"
konnfleks /kõnfleks/ En. "corn flakes" "breakfast cereal"
kawoutchou /kawutʃu/ Fr. caoutchouc, "rubber" "tire"
lakay /lakaj/ (?) Fr. la cahutte /la kayt/ "the hut" "house"
lalin /lalin/ Fr. la lune /la lyn/ "moon"
makak /makak/ Fr. macaque /makak/ "monkey"
matant /matãt/ Fr. ma tante, "my aunt" "aunt", "aged woman"
moun /mun/ Fr. monde "people/person"
mwen /mwɛ̃/ Fr. moi /mwa/ "me","I","myself"
nimewo /nimewo/ Fr. numéro /nymeʁo/ "number"
Etazini /etazini/ Fr. États-Unis /etazyni/ "United States"
piman /pimã/ Fr. piment /pimã/ a very hot pepper
pann /pãn/ Fr. pendre /pãdʁ/, "to hang" "clothesline"
pwa /pwa/ Fr. pois /pwa/, "pea" "bean"
seyfin /seifiŋ/ En. surfing "sea-surfing"
senèt /ʃenɛt/ Fr. (Antilles) la quénette "mamoncillo", "chenette", "guinip", "gap" [nb 2]
totò /tõtõ/ fr. tonton "uncle", "aged man"
vwazen /vwazɛ̃/ Fr. voisin /vwazɛ̃/ "neighbor"
zye / je /je/ Fr. yeux /jø/ (plural of "oeil") "eye"
zwazo /zwazo/ Fr. les oiseaux /wazo/ (frontal "z" kept with liaison) "bird"
  1. ^ A banana that is short and fat, not a plantain and not a conventional banana; regionally called "hog banana" or "sugar banana" in English.
  2. ^ The gap between a person's two front teeth.

Nouns derived from trade marks

Many trademarks have become common nouns in Haitian Creole (as happened in English with "aspirin" and "kleenex", for example).

New words from English

Haitian Creole speakers have adopted some English words. "Fè bak" means 'to move backwards' (the original word derived from French is "rekile" from reculer). Another example is "napkin", replacing "tòchon" from torchon.

The word nèg and the word blan

Despite similar words in French (nègre = a black man; blanc = white person), the meanings they carry do not apply in Haiti. The term nèg is generally used for any man, regardless of skin color (i.e., like "guy" or "dude" in American English). Blan is generally used for foreigner. It is not used to refer just to white foreigners, but foreigners of other skin colors as well.

Etymologically, the word nèg is derived from the French "nègre" and is cognate with the Spanish negro ("black", both the color and the people)

There are many other Haitian Creole terms for specific tones of skin, such as grimo, bren, wòz, mawon, etc. However, such labels are considered offensive by some Haitians, because of their association with color discrimination and the Haitian class system.

Grammar

Haitian Creole grammar differs greatly from French and inflects much more simply: for example, verbs are not inflected for tense or person, and there is no grammatical gender — meaning that adjectives and articles are not inflected according to the noun. The primary word order (SVO) is the same as French, but the variations on the verbs and adjectives are minuscule compared to the complex rules employed by French.

Many grammatical features, particularly pluralization of nouns and indication of possession, are indicated by appending certain suffixes, like yo, to the main word. There has been a debate going on for some years as what should be used to connect the suffixes to the word: the most popular alternatives are a dash, an apostrophe or a space. It makes matters more complicated when the "suffix" itself is shortened, perhaps making only one letter (such as m or w).

  • Note that in Haitian creole although the lexicon is mostly French, the sentence structure is of that of the West African Fongbe language as most of the slaves brought to Haiti came from the former kingdom of Dahomey (present day Benin)
French Fongbe Haitian Creole
Ma bécane (my bike) Keke che (keke = bike / che = my) Bekàn mwen (bekàn = bike mwen = my)
French Fongbe Haitian Creole
Mes bécanes (my bikes) Keke che le (my bikes) Bekàn mwen yo (my bikes)
  • note that le in Fongbe is a pluralization marker and in Haitian Creole, the pronoun yo is also used as a pluralization marker

Pronouns

There are six pronouns, one pronoun for each person/number combination. There is no difference between direct and indirect. Some are of French origin, others are not.

person/number Creole Short form French English
1/singular mwen m je, me, moi "I", "me"
2/singular ou (*) w tu, te, vous "thou", "you" (sing.)
3/singular li l il, elle, on "he", "she"
1/plural nou n nous "we", "us"
2/plural nou or ou (**)   vous "you" (pl.)
3/plural yo y ils, elles "they", "them"

(*) sometimes ou is written as w - in the sample phrases, w indicates ou.
(**) depending on the situation.

Plural of nouns

If a noun is definite, it is pluralized by adding yo at the end. If it is indefinite, it has no plural marker, and its plurality is determined by context.

Haitian Creole English
liv yo the books
machin yo the cars
Fi yo mete wòb The girls put on dresses.

Possession

Possession is indicated by placing the possessor after the item possessed. This is similar to the French construction of chez moi or chez lui which are "my place" and "his place", respectively. Unlike in English, possession does not indicate definiteness ("my friend" as opposed to "a friend of mine"), and possessive constructions are often followed be a definite article.

Haitian Creole English
lajan li "his/her money"
"fanmi mwen" or "fanmi m" my family
kay yo "their house" or "their houses"
"papa ou" or "papa w" your father
chat Pyè a Pierre's cat
chèz Mari a Marie's chair
zanmi papa Jan Jean's father's friend
papa vwazen zanmi nou our friend's neighbor's father

Indefinite article

The language has two indefinite articles on (õ) and yon (yõ), roughly corresponding to English "a/an" and French un/une. Yon is derived from the French il y a un, (lit. "there is a/an/one"). It is used only with singular nouns, and it is placed before the noun:

Haitian Creole English
On kouto a knife
On kravat a necktie

Definite article

There is also a definite article, roughly corresponding to English "the" and French le/la. It is placed after the noun, and the sound varies by the last sound of the noun itself. If the last sound is an (ã) oral consonant and is preceded by an oral vowel, it becomes la:

Haitian Creole English
kravat la the tie
liv la the book
kay la the house

If the last sound is an oral consonant and is preceded by a nasal vowel, it becomes lan:

Haitian Creole English
lanp lan the lamp
bank lan the bank

If the last sound is an oral vowel and is preceded by an oral consonant, it becomes a:

Haitian Creole English
kouto a the knife
peyi a the country

If the last sound is an oral vowel and is preceded by a nasal consonant, it becomes an:

Haitian Creole English
fanmi an the family
mi an the wall

If the last sound is a nasal vowel, it becomes an:

Haitian Creole English
chyen an the dog
pon an the bridge

If the last sound is a nasal consonant, it becomes nan:

Haitian Creole English
machin nan the car
telefòn nan the telephone
madanm nan the woman

"This" and "that"

There is a single word sa that corresponds to French ce/ceci or ça, and English "this" and "that". As in English, it may be used as a demonstrative, except that it is placed after the noun it qualifies. It is often followed by a or yo (in order to mark number):

Haitian Creole English
jaden sa (a) bèl This garden is beautiful.

As in English, it may also be used as a pronoun, replacing a noun:

Haitian Creole English
sa se zanmi mwen this is my friend
sa se chyen frè mwen this is my brother's dog

Verbs

Many verbs in Haitian Creole are the same spoken words as the French infinitive, but there is no conjugation in the language; the verbs have one form only, and changes in tense are indicated by the use of tense markers.

Haitian Creole English
Li ale travay le maten He goes to work in the morning.
Li dòmi leswa He sleeps in the evening.
Li li Bib la She reads the Bible.
Mwen fè manje I make food.
Nou toujou etidye We always study.

Copulas

The concept expressed in English by the verb "to be" is expressed in Haitian Creole by two words, se and ye

The verb se (pronounced "say") is used to link a subject with a predicate nominative:

Haitian Creole English
Li se frè mwen he is my brother
Mwen se yon doktè I am a doctor
Sa se yon pye mango That is a mango tree
Nou se zanmi we are friends

The subject sa or li can sometimes be omitted with se:

Haitian Creole English
Se yon bon ide That is a good idea
Se nouvo chemiz mwen This is my new shirt

For the future tense, such as "I want to be", usually vin "to become" is used instead of se.

Haitian Creole English
L ap vin bòfrè m He will be my brother-in-law
Mwen vle vin yon doktè I want to become a doctor
Sa ap vin yon pye-mango That will become a mango tree
N ap vin zanmi We will be friends

"Ye" also means "to be", but is placed exclusively at the end of the sentence, after the predicate and the subject (in that order):

Haitian Creole English
"Ayisyen mwen ye" = "Mwen se ayisyen" I am Haitian
Ki moun sa ye? Who is that?
Kouman ou ye? How are you?

The verb "to be" is not overt when followed by an adjective, that is, Haitian Creole has stative verbs. So, malade means "sick" and "to be sick":

Haitian Creole English
Mwen gen yon zanmi malad I have a sick friend.
Zanmi mwen malad. My friend is sick.

"to have"

The verb "to have" is genyen, often shortened to gen.

Haitian Creole English
Mwen gen lajan nan bank lan. I have money in the bank.

"there is"

The verb guigner (or guin) also means "there is/are"

Haitian Creole English
Gen anpil Ayisyen nan Florid. There are many Haitians in Florida.
Gen yon moun la. There is someone here or there.
Pa gen moun la. There is nobody here or there.
Mwen genyen match la. I won the game.

"to know"

There are three verbs which are often translated as "to know", but they mean different things.

Konn or konnen means "to know" + a noun (cf. French connaître).

Haitian Creole English
Èske ou konnen non li? Do you know his name?

Konn or konnen also means "to know" + a fact (cf. French connaitre).

Haitian Creole English
M pa konnen kote li ye. I don't know where he is."

(note pas = negative)

The third word is always spelled konn. It means "to know how to" or "to have experience". This is similar to the "know" as used in the English phrase "know how to ride a bike": it denotes not only a knowledge of the actions, but also some experience with it.

Haitian Creole English
Mwen konn fè manje. I know how to cook (lit. "I know how to make food")
Èske ou konn ale Ayiti? Have you been to Haïti? (lit. "Do you know to go to Haiti?")
Li pa konn li fransè. He can't read French (lit. "He doesn't know how to read French.")

Another verb worth mentioning is . It comes from the French faire and is often translated as "do" or "make". It has a broad range of meanings, as it is one of the most common verbs used in idiomatic phrases.

Haitian Creole English
Kouman ou fè pale kreyòl? How did you learn to speak Haitian Creole?
Mari konn fè mayi moulen. Marie knows how to make cornmeal.

"to be able to"

The verb kapab (or shortened to ka, kap or kab) means "to be able to (do something)". It refers to both "capability" and "availability", very similar to the French "capable".

Haitian Creole English
Mwen ka ale demen. I can go tomorrow.
Petèt m ka fè sa demen. Maybe I can do that tomorrow.

Tense markers

There is no conjugation in Haitian Creole. In the present non-progressive tense, one just uses the basic verb form for stative verbs:

Haitian Creole English
Mwen pale kreyòl. I speak Haitian Creole

Note that when the basic form of action verbs is used without any verb markers, it is generally understood as referring to the past:

Haitian Creole English
mwen manje I ate
ou manje you ate
li manje he/she ate
nou manje we ate
yo manje they ate

(Note that manje means both "food" and "to eat" -- m ap manje bon manje means "I am eating good food".).

For other tenses, special "tense marker" words are placed before the verb. The basic ones are:

Tense marker Tense Annotations
te simple past
tap / t ap past progressive a combination of te and ap, "was doing"
ap present progressive With ap and a, the pronouns nearly always take the short form (m ap, l ap, n ap, y ap, etc.)
a future some limitations on use
pral near or definite future translates to "going to"
ta conditional future a combination of and à, "will do"

Simple past or past perfect:

mwen te manje - "I ate" or "I had eaten"
ou te manje- "you ate" or "you had eaten"
li te manje - "he/she ate" or "he/she had eaten"
nou te manje - "we ate" or "we had eaten"
yo te manje - "they ate" or "they had eaten"

Past progressive:

mwen t ap manje - "I was eating"
ou t ap manje - "you were eating"
li t ap manje - "he/she was eating"
nou t ap manje - "we were eating"
yo t ap manje - "they were eating"

Present progressive:

m ap manje - "I am eating"
w ap manje - "you are eating"
l ap manje - "he/she is eating"
n ap manje - "we are eating"
y ap manje - "they are eating"

Note: For the present progressive ("I am eating now") it is customary, though not necessary, to add "right now":

M ap manje kounye a - "I am eating right now"

Also, those examples can mean "will eat" depending on the context of the sentence.

M ap manje apres m priye - "i will eat after i pray" / Mwen p'ap di sa - "I will not say that"

Near or definite future:

mwen pral manje - "I am going to eat"
ou pral manje - "you are going to eat"
li pral manje - "he/she is going to eat"
nou pral manje - "we are going to eat"
yo pral manje - "they are going to eat"

Future:

N a wè pita - "See you later" (lit. "We will see (each other) later)

Other examples:

Mwen te wè zanmi ou yè - "I saw your friend yesterday"
Nou te pale lontan - "We spoke for a long time"
Lè li te gen uit an... - "When he was eight years old..."
M a travay - "I will work"
M pral travay - "I'm going to work"
N a li l demen - "We'll read it tomorrow"
Nou pral li l demen - "We are going to read it tomorrow"
Mwen t ap mache e m wè yon chyen - "I was walking and I saw a dog"

Additional time-related markers:

fèk - recent past ("just")
sòt - similar to fèk

They are often used together:

Mwen fèk sòt antre kay la - "I just entered the house"

A verb mood marker is ta, corresponding to English "would" and equivalent to the French conditional tense:

Yo ta renmen jwe - "They would like to play"
Mwen ta vini si mwen te gen yon machin - "I would come if I had a car"
Li ta bliye w si ou pa t la - "He/she would forget you if you weren't here"

Negating the verb

The word pa comes before a verb (and all tense markers) to negate it:

Woz pa vle ale - "Rose doesn't want to go"
Woz pa t vle ale - "Rose didn't want to go"

Examples

Proverbs

Sak vid pa kanpe - You can't work without food. (Literally: An empty sack does not stand)

Pitit tig se tig - Like father like son. (Literally: a young tiger is still a tiger).

ak pasyans wa wè tete foumi - Anything is possible. (Literally: If you look hard enough you'll see the head of an ant)

Bay kou bliye, pòte mak sonje – The giver of the blow forgets, the carrier of the scar remembers

Bèl dan pa di zanmi – Just because one smiles at you doesn’t mean they’re your friend

Bèl entèman pa di paradi – A beautiful funeral doesn’t guarentee heaven

Sa k rive koukouloulou a ka rive kakalanga tou – What happens to the turkey can happen to the rooster too.

Kretòl pale, kreyòl konprann – Speak plainly, do not deceive / Creole spoken is Creole understood

Fanm pou yon tan, maman pou tout tan – Wife for one time, mother for all time

Li pale fransè – He cannot be trusted, he’s a trickster

Nèg di san fè, Bondye fè san di – People say without doing, God does without saying

Nèg rich se milat, milat pòv se nèg – A rich negro is a mulatto, a poor mulatto is a negro

Pale fransè pa di lespri ou – Speaking French doesn’t mean you’re smart.

Wòch nan dlo pa konnen doulè wòch nan solèy – The rock in the water doesn’t know the pain of the rock in the sun

Si ous bwè dlo nan vè, respekte vè a – If you drink water from a glass, respect the glass

Si travay te bon bagay, moun rich ta prann l lontan – If work were a good thing, the rich would’ve grabbed it a long time ago

Usage outside of Haiti

Haitian Creole is used widely among Haitians who have relocated to other countries, particularly the United States and Canada. Some of the larger Creole-speaking populations are found in Montreal, Quebec (where French is the official language), New York City, Boston, and Central and South Florida (Miami, Fort Lauderdale, and Palm Beach). To reach out to the large Haitian population, government agencies have produced various public service announcements, school-parent communications, and other materials in Haitian Creole. For instance, Miami-Dade County in Florida sends out paper communications in Haitian Creole in addition to English and Spanish. In the Boston area, the Boston subway system and area hospitals and medical offices post announcements in Haitian Creole as well as English. North America's only Creole-language television network is HTN, based in Miami. The area also has more than half a dozen Creole-language AM radio stations.

There is controversy over whether to teach Creole in Miami-Dade County Public Schools.[citation needed] Some people argue Creole is a peasant language that is not fully developed for literary purposes; others argue it is important for children to learn a written form of their parents' native tongue.

Haitian language and culture is taught in many colleges in the United States as well as in the Bahamas. Indiana University has a Creole Institute [1] founded by Dr. Albert Valdman where Haitian Creole, among other facets of Haiti, are studied and researched; the University of Kansas, Lawrence has an Institute of Haitian studies, founded by Dr. Bryant Freeman. Additionally, the University of Massachusetts Boston, Florida International University, and University of Florida offer seminars and courses annually at their Haitian Creole Summer Institute. Tulane University, Brown University, Columbia University, and University of Miami are also offering classes in Haitian Creole. The University of Oregon and Duke University will soon be offering classes as well.

Haitian Creole is the second most spoken language in Cuba, where over 300,000 Haitian immigrants speak it. It is recognized as a language in Cuba and a considerable number of Cubans speak it fluently. Most of these speakers have never been to Haiti and do not possess Haitian ancestry, but merely learned it in their communities. In addition, there is a Haitian Creole radio station operating in Havana.[6] The language is also spoken by over 150,000 Haitians (although estimates believe that there are over a million speakers due to a huge population of illegal aliens from Haiti[7]) who reside in the neighboring Dominican Republic [8], although the locals do not speak it.

Translation efforts after the 2010 Haiti earthquake

After the devastating earthquake that hit Haiti in 2010, international help badly needed translation tools for communicating in Haitian Creole. Public and private institutions that made them available[9] include Carnegie Mellon University, Microsoft Research and Translators Without Borders, among others. See the "External links" section for some of the tools available.

References

Bibliography

  • Degraff, Michel (2001), "Morphology in Creole genesis: Linguistics and ideology", in Kenstowicz, Michael, Ken Hale: A life in language, Cambridge: MIT Press, pp. 52–121 
  • Degraff, Michel (2005), "Linguists' Most Dangerous Myth: The Fallacy of Creole Exceptionalism", Language in Society 34 (4): 533–591 
  • Fattier, Dominique (1998), "Contribution à l'étude de la genèse d'un créole: L'Atlas linguistique d'Haïti, cartes et commentaires (Dissertation)", Language in Society (Université de Provence) 

External links

Haitian Creole language edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

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Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia

Proper noun

Singular
Haitian Creole

Plural
-

Haitian Creole

  1. A language spoken in Haiti; developed first as a creole based on French and several West African languages.

Translations

External links


Wikibooks

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikibooks, the open-content textbooks collection

Aprann Kreyòl Ayisyen
Flag of Haiti.svg

Haitian Creole (kreyòl ayisyen), often called simply Creole or Kreyòl (pronounced [kɰejɔl]), is a language spoken in Haiti by about eight million people, which is nearly the entire population, and via emigration, by about one million speakers residing in the Bahamas, Cuba, Canada, Cayman Islands, Dominican Republic, French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Belize, Puerto Rico, and United States. The language is notable for being the most widely spoken creole language in the world.

Haitian Creole is one of Haiti's two official languages, along with French. It is a creole based largely on 18th-century French with various other influences, most notably African languages (including some Arabic), as well as Spanish and Taíno (language native to Haiti) — and increasingly English. If you are already familiar with French, this language should be easy for you.

Partly due to efforts of Félix Morisseau-Leroy, since 1961 Haitian Creole has been recognized as an official language along with French, which had been the sole literary language of the country since its independence in 1804. The official status was maintained under the country's 1987 constitution. The use of Creole in literature has been small but is increasing. Morisseau was one of the first and most influential authors to write in Creole. Since the 1980s, many educators, writers and activists have emphasized pride and written literacy in Creole. Today numerous newspapers, as well as radio and television programs, are produced in Creole.

Lessons

  1. Alphabet and pronunciation
  2. Basic vocabulary
  3. Basic grammar
  4. Articles
  5. Question words
  6. The verb se
  7. Verb tenses
  8. Negative words
  9. Development of HC words from French

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