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—  city  —
Monument to the victims of the 1988 gas attack
Nickname(s): Shehîdî Kurdistan
Country  Iraq

Halabja (Kurdish:هه‌ڵه‌بجه or Helepçe), is a Kurdish town in Iraqi Kurdistan, located about 150 miles (240 km) northeast of Baghdad and 8–10 miles from the Iranian border.

The town lies at the base of what is often referred to as the greater Hewraman region stretching across the Iran-Iraq border. The Kurds in the city of Halabja generally speak only the Sorani dialect of Kurdish, but some residents of the surrounding villages speak the Hewrami dialect.




Early history

Halabja has a long history. The cemetery includes the tombs of several historical figures, such as Ahmed Mukhtar Jaf, Tayar Bag Jaf and Adila Khanim. In August 2009, three 17th century tombs were discovered in the Ababile district of the town.[1]

This suggests that the town is somewhat older than indicated by some sources, which claim that it was built by the Ottoman Empire circa 1850. However, modern developments date from the early 20th century. The post office opened in 1924 and the first school opened the following year. The Qaysari Pasha and Hamid Bag bazaars were built in 1932. Electricity did not reach the city until 1940.[2]

At the beginning of the 20th century, there were many British soldiers stationed in Halabja. During World War I, Adela Khanum saved the lives of several British soldiers, resulting in the British honouring her with the title Khan Bahadur, Princess of the Brave. She was also responsible for the building of a new prison, setting up a court of justice, of which she was the first president) and building a new bazaar.[3]

Chemical attack

The Kurdish peshmerga guerrillas, supported by Iran, liberated Halabja in the final phase of the Iran-Iraq War. On March 16, 1988, after two days of conventional artillery attacks, Iraqi planes dropped gas canisters on the town.[4] The town and surrounding district were attacked with bombs, artillery fire, and chemical weapons, the latter of which proved most devastating. At least 5,000 people died as an immediate result of the chemical attack and it is estimated that a further 7,000 people were injured or suffered long term illness.[5] Most of the victims of the attack on the town of Halabja were Kurdish civilians.[6]

The attack is believed to have included the nerve agents Tabun, Sarin, and VX, as well as mustard gas. It is occasionally suggested that cyanide was also included among these chemical weapons, though this assertion has been cast into doubt, as cyanide is a natural byproduct of impure Tabun.[7][8][9] The attack on Halabja took place amidst the infamous Anfal campaign, in which Saddam Hussein violently suppressed Kurdish revolts during the Iran-Iraq war. Saddam Hussein ordered the use of chemical weapons in attacking up to 24 villages in Kurdish areas in April 1987.

Before the war ended the Iraqis moved in on the ground and completely destroyed the town.[10] In March of 2010, the Iraqi High Criminal Court recognized the Halabja massacre as genocide; the decision was welcomed by the Kurdistan Regional Government. [11]

Kurdish autonomy

In the mountains to the west of Halabja, a militant Islamist group, Ansar al-Islam, occupied a small enclave in the period of 2000-2003. The area was overrun by Peshmerga forces from the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (PUK), with U.S. air support, at the beginning of the 2003 invasion of Iraq.

Just before Kurds gained some autonomy over the Iraqi Kurdistan region in 1991, which included Halabja, a new town was set up where some former Kurdish refugees later relocated. The new town called Halabja Taza (or New Halabja) today has an estimated 9,000 homes.[12]

The Kurdistan Regional Government made some concentrated reconstruction efforts after 2003 in the old town and began rebuilding some of the bombed-out homes in Halabja, and paving new roads. A memorial was also constructed for the victims of the chemical attacks. However, residents of Halabja have complained about the continued lack of basic services and necessities.[13] On the 2006 anniversary of the gas attack, violent demonstrations erupted in Halabja. An estimated 7,000 demonstrators protested against priorities in reconstruction, claiming that officials were not sincerely addressing the problems of the gas attack victims. Road blocks were set up and the gas attack memorial museum was set afire. Police fired at protesters killing one 14-year old boy and wounding many others.[14]

Halabja today

In 2008, plans were announced to construct an international airport for the town.[15]

See also


  1. ^ "Ancient tombs found in Halabja". AK News. 2009-08-09. Retrieved 2009-09-07. 
  2. ^ "History of Halabja". PUK media. 2009-03-16. Retrieved 2009-09-07. 
  3. ^ "Adela Khanum - Princess of the Brave". Kurdistan's Women. 2008-04-04. Retrieved 2009-09-07. 
  4. ^ BBC ON THIS DAY | 16 | 1988: Thousands die in Halabja gas attack
  5. ^ Osman, Hiwa (March 17, 2002). "Iraqi Kurds recall chemical attack". BBC News. Retrieved 2006-08-05. 
  6. ^ [1], Human Rights Watch, 11 March 1991
  7. ^ The 1988 Chemical Weapons Attack on Halabja, Iraq - Promotion
  8. ^ Welcome to Noblis
  9. ^ BBC News | Saddam's Iraq: Key events
  10. ^ Hirst, David (March 22, 1988). "The Kurdish victims caught unaware by cyanide". The Guardian.,2763,1251881,00.html. Retrieved 2006-06-09. 
  11. ^ [2], AK News, 01 March 2010
  12. ^ [3]Dagher, Sam. Uprooted for Decades, Iraqi Kurds Long for Home. Halabja Taza Journal. NY Times, 03 September 2009
  13. ^ [4], Mohammad, Susan. Revisiting the horror of Halabja. The Ottawa Citizen, 22 October 07
  14. ^ [5], Kurdish clash at Halabja memorial. BBC News, 16 March 2006.
  15. ^ "International Airport to be built in Halabja town ( K Sat)". Independent Kurdistan Journalism. 2008-07-16. Retrieved 2009-09-07. 

External links

Coordinates: 35°11′N 45°59′E / 35.183°N 45.983°E / 35.183; 45.983


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