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Half-proof (semiplena probatio), was a concept of medieval Roman law, describing a level of evidence between mere suspicion and the full proof needed to convict someone of a crime. The concept was introduced by the Glossators of the 1190s such as Azo, who gives such examples as a single witness or private documents.

In cases where there was half-proof against a defendant, he might be allowed to take an oath as to his innocence, or he might be sent for torture to extract further evidence that could complete the burden of proof.


J. Franklin, The Science of Conjecture: Evidence and Probability Before Pascal, Baltimore, 2001, ch. 2.

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