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The title of this article is an Icelandic name
; this person is properly referred to by the given name Halldór
Halldór Kiljan Laxness ( ˈhaltour ˈcʰɪljan ˈlaxsnɛs (help·info)) (born Halldór Guðjónsson) (April 23, 1902—February 8, 1998) was a twentieth-century Icelandic novelist and author of Independent People, The Atom Station, and Iceland's Bell. He won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1955.
Laxness was born under the name Halldór Guðjónsson (following the tradition of Icelandic patronymics) in Reykjavik in 1902, the son of Guðjón Helgason and Sigríður Halldórsdóttir. After spending his early years in Reykjavik, he moved with his family in 1905 to Laxnes near Mosfellsbær, a more rural area just north of the capital. He soon started to read books and write stories. At the age of 14 his first article was published in Morgunblaðið under the name "H.G."
In 1922, Laxness joined the Abbaye St. Maurice et St. Maur in Clervaux, Luxembourg. The monks followed the rules of Saint Benedict of Nursia. Laxness was baptized and confirmed in the Catholic Church early in 1923. Following his confirmation, he adopted the surname Laxness (in honor of the homestead where he had been raised) and added the name Kiljan (an Icelandic spelling of the Irish martyr Saint Killian).
Inside the walls of the abbey, he practiced self-study, read books, and studied French, Latin, theology and philosophy. While there, he also composed the story Undir Helgahnjúk, published in 1924. Soon after his baptism, he became a member of a group which prayed for reversion of the Nordic countries back to Catholicism.
Laxness wrote of his Catholicism in the book Vefarinn mikli frá Kasmír, published in 1927.
He would later leave the Catholic faith, becoming an atheist and a committed communist. He also would leave communism, after knowing better the political situation in the USSR.
During his career Laxness wrote poetry, newspaper articles, plays, travelogues, short stories, and fifteen novels.
Laxness moved to the United States and attempted to make films in the mid-20th century. He returned to Iceland in 1945 and settled in Gljúfrasteinn, Mosfellsdalur, until his death. His house in Gljúfrasteinn is now a museum operated by the Icelandic government.
He was married twice, including his second marriage to Auður Sveinsdóttir. He had four children.
Laxness died in Iceland in 1998 at the age of 95.
The single-volume biography by Halldór Guðmundsson won the Icelandic literary prize for best work of non-fiction in 2004. In 2005 the Icelandic National Theatre premiered a play by Ólafur Haukur Símonarson, called Halldór í Hollywood (Halldór in Hollywood) about the years that Laxness spent in the United States.
The following is a partial list of publications written by or connected with Laxness:
- 1919: Barn náttúrunnar
- 1924: Undir Helgahnúk
- 1927: Vefarinn mikli frá Kasmír (The Great Weaver from Kashmir) Translated by Philip Roughton (Archipelago Books) 2008.
- 1931: Salka Valka (Part I) - Þú vínviður hreini
- 1932: Salka Valka (Part II) - Fuglinn í fjörunni
- 1934: Sjálfstætt fólk (Part I, Independent People) - Landnámsmaður Íslands (Icelandic Pioneers)
- 1935: Sjálfstætt fólk (Part II) - Erfiðir tímar (Hard Times)
- 1937: Heimsljós (Part I, World Light) - Ljós heimsins (later named Kraftbirtíngarhljómur guðdómsins)
- 1938: Heimsljós (Part II) - Höll sumarlandsins
- 1939: Heimsljós (Part III) - Hús skáldsins
- 1940: Heimsljós (Part IV) - Fegurð himinsins
- 1952: Heiman eg fór
- 1943: Íslandsklukkan (Iceland's Bell, Part I) - Íslandsklukkan
- 1944: Íslandsklukkan (Part II) - Hið ljósa man
- 1946: Íslandsklukkan (Part III) - Eldur í Kaupinhafn
- 1948: Atómstöðin (The Atom Station)
- 1952: Gerpla (Happy Warriors)
- 1957: Brekkukotsannáll (The Fish Can Sing)
- 1960: Paradísarheimt (Paradise Reclaimed)
- 1968: Kristnihald undir Jökli (Under the Glacier/Christianity at Glacier)
- 1970: Innansveitarkronika
- 1972: Guðsgjafaþula
- 1923: Nokkrar sögur
- 1933: Fótatak manna
- 1935: Þórður gamli halti
- 1942: Sjö töframenn
- 1954: Þættir (collection)
- 1964: Sjöstafakverið
- 1987: Sagan af brauðinu dýra
- 1992: Jón í Brauðhúsum
- 1996: Fugl á garðstaurnum og fleiri smásögur
- 1999: Úngfrúin góða og Húsið
- 2000: Smásögur
- 2001: Kórvilla á Vestfjörðum og fleiri sögur
- 1934: Straumrof
- 1950: Snæfríður Íslandssól (from the novel Íslandsklukkan)
- 1954: Silfurtúnglið
- 1961: Strompleikurinn
- 1962: Prjónastofan Sólin
- 1966: Dúfnaveislan
- 1970: Úa (from the novel Kristnihald undir Jökli)
- 1972: Norðanstúlkan (from the novel Atómstöðin)
- 1930: Kvæðakver
- 1997: Únglíngurinn í skóginum
- 1933: Í Austurvegi
- 1938: Gerska æfintýrið
- 1975: Í túninu heima, part I
- 1976: Úngur eg var, part II
- 1978: Sjömeistarasagan, part III
- 1980: Grikklandsárið, part IV
- 1987: Dagar hjá múnkum
Popular culture references
His daughter Guðný Halldórsdóttir is an award-winning filmmaker. Her first work, a popular magical realism-ending film adaptation of Kristnihald undir jōkli (Christianity at Glacier) screened at world film festivals and repertory cinemas for many years since, including in the European cites, the USA and in Canada (at least Toronto and Montreal). The film is well known in Iceland.
His grandson is known in Iceland as Dóri DNA.
- Hallberg, Peter. 1970. Hús skáldsins: um skáldverk Halldórs Laxness frá Sölku Völku til Gerplu. Reykjavík. Mál og menning.
- Hallberg, Peter. 1975. Halldór Laxness. Hið íslenska bókmenntafélag, Reykjavík.
- Halldór Guðmundsson. 2004. Halldór Laxness. JPV, Reykjavík .
- Hannes Hólmsteinn Gissurarson. 2003. Halldór. Vol. I of Laxness’ biography. Almenna bókafélagið, Reykjavík.
- Hannes Hólmsteinn Gissurarson. 2004. Kiljan. Vol. II of Laxness’ biography. Bókafélagið, Reykjavík.
- Hannes Hólmsteinn Gissurarson. 2005. Laxness. Vol. III of Laxness’ biography. Bókafélagið, Reykjavík.
- Íslenska alfræðiorðabókin H-O. 1990. Editors: Dóra Hafsteinsdóttir and Sigríður Harðardóttir. Örn og Örlygur hf., Reykjavík.
- Ólafur Ragnarsson and Valgerður Benediktsdóttir. 1992. Lífsmyndir skálds : æviferill Halldórs Laxness í myndum og máli. Vaka-Helgafell, Reykjavík.
- Ólafur Ragnarsson. 2002. Halldór Laxness : líf í skáldskap. Vaka-Helgafell, Reykjavík.
- Ólafur Ragnarsson. 2007. Til fundar við skáldið Halldór Laxness. Veröld, Reykjavík.
- Hallberg, Peter. 1971. Halldór Laxness. Twayne Publishers, New York.
- Halldór Guðmundsson, translated by Philip Roughton. 2008. The Islander: a Biography of Halldór Laxness. McLehose Press/Quercus.