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Group → 17
↓ Period
2 9
F
3 17
Cl
4 35
Br
5 53
I
6 85
At
7 (117)
(Uus)

Legend
Halogen
Gas
Liquid
Primordial element
From decay
Synthetic
.The halogens or halogen elements are a series of nonmetal elements from Group 17 IUPAC Style (formerly: VII, VIIA) of the periodic table, comprising fluorine, (F); chlorine, (Cl); bromine, (Br); iodine, (I); and astatine, (At).^ Sampling & analysis methods developed for the detection of toxic oxidants such as bromine, chlorine , chlorine dioxide & iodine in air.

The undiscovered element 117, provisionally referred to by the systematic name ununseptium, may also be a halogen.
The group of halogens is the only periodic table group which contains elements in all three familiar states of matter at standard temperature and pressure.

Contents

Abundance

Owing to their high reactivity, the halogens are found in the environment only in compounds or as ions. .Halide ions and oxoanions such as iodate (IO3) can be found in many minerals and in seawater.^ CHLORINE REACTS WITH ORGANIC PRECURSORS THAT ARE FOUND IN MANY SOURCE WATERS TO PRODUCE A POTENTIAL CARCINOGEN, /SUCH AS/ CHLOROFORM (CHCL3).

.Halogenated organic compounds can also be found as natural products in living organisms.^ Trihalomethanes are suspect carcinogenic disinfection by-products associated with chlorination of naturally occurring organics in the raw water.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In their elemental forms, the halogens exist as diatomic molecules, but these only have a fleeting existence in nature and are much more common in the laboratory and in industry.^ I AM saying is that we must be much more careful about our "facts" and only then can we EACH decide in a fully informed manner which risks we each are willing to take.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At room temperature and pressure, fluorine and chlorine are gases, bromine is a liquid and iodine and astatine are solids; Group 17 is therefore the only periodic table group exhibiting all three states of matter at room temperature.^ Solid calcium burns spontaneously in chlorine at elevated temperatures.

^ QC REVIEWED** Arsenic burns spontaneously in gaseous chlorine ; with liquid chlorine , arsenic ignites at 33 deg C. [Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials.

^ QC REVIEWED** The reaction between liquid chlorine and iodine is violent.

Etymology

.The Swedish chemist Baron Jöns Jakob Berzelius coined the term "halogen" – ἅλς (háls), "salt" or "sea", and γεν- (gen-), from γίγνομαι (gnomai), "come to be" – for an element that produces a salt when it forms a compound with a metal.^ In ion form, chlorine is part of common salt and other compounds, and necessary to most forms of life, including human.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1]

Properties

.
Fluorine, (F); chlorine, (Cl); bromine, (Br); iodine, (I) at room temperature.
^ The reaction of chlorine and ethylene is explosive at room temperature over yellow mercuric oxide, mercurous oxide, or silver oxide.

^ Sampling & analysis methods developed for the detection of toxic oxidants such as bromine, chlorine , chlorine dioxide & iodine in air.

^ QC REVIEWED** The reaction of chlorine and methane is explosive at room temperature over yellow mercuric oxide.

The first two are gaseous, the third is liquid and the fourth is solid.
Like other groups, the candidates of this family show patterns in its electron configuration, especially the outermost shells resulting in trends in chemical behavior:
Z Element No. of electrons/shell
9 fluorine 2, 7
17 chlorine 2, 8, 7
35 bromine 2, 8, 18, 7
53 iodine 2, 8, 18, 18, 7
85 astatine 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 7
The halogens show a series of trends when moving down the group—for instance, decreasing electronegativity and reactivity, and increasing melting and boiling point.
Halogen Standard Atomic Weight (u) Melting Point (K) Boiling Point (K) Electronegativity (Pauling)
Fluorine 18.998 53.53 85.03 3.98
Chlorine 35.453 171.60 239.11 3.16
Bromine 79.904 265.80 332.00 2.96
Iodine 126.904 386.85 457.40 2.66
Astatine (210) 575 610 (?) 2.20

Diatomic halogen molecules

halogen molecule structure model d(X−X) / pm
(gas phase)
d(X−X) / pm
(solid phase)
fluorine
F2
Difluorine-2D-dimensions.png
Fluorine-3D-vdW.png
143
149
chlorine
Cl2
Dichlorine-2D-dimensions.png
Chlorine-3D-vdW.png
199
198
bromine
Br2
Dibromine-2D-dimensions.png
Bromine-3D-vdW.png
228
227
iodine
I2
Diiodine-2D-dimensions.png
Iodine-3D-vdW.png
266
272
The elements become less reactive and have higher melting points as you go down the table

Chemistry

Reactivity

Halogens are highly reactive, and as such can be harmful or lethal to biological organisms in sufficient quantities. This high reactivity is due to the atoms being highly electronegative due to their high effective nuclear charge. .They can gain an electron by reacting with atoms of other elements.^ Similar problems apply to methylene blue and many other drugs if they have an unoxidized sulfur atom, a phenol group, a secondary amine or a tertiary amine.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Oxidizing agents are chemical compounds that readily accept electrons from “electron donors.” They gain electrons via chemical reaction.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Fluorine is one of the most reactive elements in existence, attacking otherwise inert materials such as glass, and forming compounds with the heavier noble gases.^ In ion form, chlorine is part of common salt and other compounds, and necessary to most forms of life, including human.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thiols (RSH) such as glutathione and other sulfur compounds are reactive with sodium chlorite (NaClO2) and with chlorine dioxide (ClO2).
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It is a corrosive and highly toxic gas. .The reactivity of fluorine is such that if used or stored in laboratory glassware, it can react with glass in the presence of small amounts of water to form silicon tetrafluoride (SiF4).^ Thus far, chlorine treatment (chlorination) represents the most common form of disinfection used in water treatment.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Under such dire circumstances it was found that a solution useful to sanitize drinking water was also effective to treat malaria if diluted and taken orally.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ QC REVIEWED** REACTS WITH ORGANIC MATERIALS, ACTIVE METALS, REDUCING AGENTS, AND AMMONIA. REACTS WITH WATER TO FORM CORROSIVE, ACIDIC SOLUTIONS. ...

.Thus fluorine must be handled with substances such as Teflon (which is itself an organofluorine compound), extremely dry glass, or metals such as copper or steel which form a protective layer of fluoride on their surface.^ QC REVIEWED** Reacts explosively or forms explosive compounds with many common substances such as acetylene, ether, turpentine, ammonia, fuel gas, hydrogen & finely divided metals.

.The high reactivity of fluorine means that once it does react with something, it bonds with it so strongly that the resulting molecule is very inert and non-reactive to anything else.^ I am great at ski jumps and balance (big surprise) and "no stranger to exercise" which means that maybe cycling actually does something.

For example, Teflon is fluorine bonded with carbon.
.Both chlorine and bromine are used as disinfectants for drinking water, swimming pools, fresh wounds, spas, dishes, and surfaces.^ ClO2 and chlorine have long been used as disinfectants of public water supplies.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chlorine dioxide can be used to disinfect endoscopes.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) is a gas that can be used for water disinfection.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They kill bacteria and other potentially harmful microorganisms through a process known as sterilization.^ Anyway, they go on about how their product helps you to enjoy the tremendous benefits of oxygen to the body other than through the breathing process.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chlorine dioxide can be used to kill "disease-bearing bacteria, yeasts, molds, fungi and algae", including MRSA and other deadly pathogens.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Their reactivity is also put to use in bleaching. .Sodium hypochlorite, which is produced from chlorine, is the active ingredient of most fabric bleaches and chlorine-derived bleaches are used in the production of some paper products.^ Some benefits of chlorine dioxide disinfection include longer shelf-life of produce, minimal equipment corrosion, significantly less water use, reduced chemical costs, and reduced packinghouse sanitation costs.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To test my mixture, I bought some chlorine measuring sticks used for swimming pools, and guess what?
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ ABSTRACT Sodium chlorite (NaClO2) can be acidified as a convenient method to produce chlorine dioxide (ClO2) which is a strong oxidant and a potent disinfectant.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Hydrogen halides

The halogens all form binary compounds with hydrogen known as the hydrogen halides (HF, HCl, HBr, HI, and HAt), a series of particularly strong acids. When in aqueous solution, the hydrogen halides are known as hydrohalic acids. HAt, or "hydrastatic acid", should also qualify, but it is not typically included in discussions of hydrohalic acid due to astatine's extreme instability toward alpha decay.

Interhalogen compounds

.The halogens react with each other to form interhalogen compounds.^ In ion form, chlorine is part of common salt and other compounds, and necessary to most forms of life, including human.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Diatomic interhalogen compounds such as BrF, ICl, and ClF bear resemblance to the pure halogens in some respects. The properties and behaviour of a diatomic interhalogen compound tend to be intermediate between those of its parent halogens. Some properties, however, are found in neither parent halogen. For example, Cl2 and I2 are soluble in CCl4, but ICl is not since it is a polar molecule due to the relatively large electronegativity difference between I and Cl.

Organohalogen compounds

.Many synthetic organic compounds such as plastic polymers, and a few natural ones, contain halogen atoms; these are known as halogenated compounds or organic halides.^ In all the research I have been able to read concerning Stabilized Oxygen, no one increased the drops beyond 25 drops and very few ever used that many.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It operates through donation of hydrogen atoms to these compounds and thereby restores their original condition as thiols.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The entire cult committed suicide at one point or actually a few committed suicides after killing the children and many of the other adults with cyanide.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Chlorine is by far the most abundant of the halogens, and the only one needed in relatively large amounts (as chloride ions) by humans.^ The genius of it is the formulating of the two most abundant and important electrolytes of body fluid, sodium and chlorine, to act as the oxygen carriers.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In ion form, chlorine is part of common salt and other compounds, and necessary to most forms of life, including human.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ First I needed something that would taste okay, but I also needed something that would not change the amount of chlorine.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, chloride ions play a key role in brain function by mediating the action of the inhibitory transmitter GABA and are also used by the body to produce stomach acid.^ The oxygen just becomes a part of the water in the body and/or possibly becomes part of a carbon dioxide ion, but it cannot be used by the body for anything else.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That's one ion of chlorine and two ions of oxygen, but the body cannot use that oxygen.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ HA plays a key role in initiating viral infection by binding to sialic acid-containing receptors on host cells and mediates viral entry into cells and fusion with the cellular membrane (Tsuchiya et al., 2001 ; Wagner et al., 2002 ; Bentz & Mittal, 2003 ).
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Iodine is needed in trace amounts for the production of thyroid hormones such as thyroxine. On the other hand, neither fluorine nor bromine are believed to be essential for humans.

Polyhalogenated compounds

Polyhalogenated compounds are industrially created compounds substituted with multiple halogens. Many of them are very toxic and bioaccumulate in humans, and have a very wide application range. .They include the much maligned PCB's, PBDE's, and PFC's as well as numerous other compounds.^ They interfere so much so that this treatment should not be taken at the same time as certain other alternative cancer treatments which include vitamin C, other antioxidants or immune builders.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Research has proven chlorine dioxide to be much safer than chlorine, as it is selective for pathogens when used in water and it does not create compounds from other constituents in the water, which chlorine does.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The tourists are crashing into each other so much the air is full of sirens and when they are not crashing at the traffic lights they are being carted off on stretchers with heatstroke.

Drug discovery

.In drug discovery, the incorporation of halogen atoms into a lead drug candidate results in analogues that are usually more lipophilic and less water soluble.^ I realized that if water did make the Stabilized Oxygen unstable, it was because the water had made it less alkaline (more neutral).
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chlorine administered chronically in drinking water for 3 mo incr the incorporation of (3)H-thymidine into nuclei of rat kidney and testes in the 100 mg/l group.

^ ADD MORE HOT WATER. Heat opens the pores and MMS penetrates into the muscles.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[2] Consequently, halogen atoms are used to improve penetration through lipid membranes and tissues. Consequently, there is a tendency for some halogenated drugs to accumulate in adipose tissue.
The chemical reactivity of halogen atoms depends on both their point of attachment to the lead and the nature of the halogen. Aromatic halogen groups are far less reactive than aliphatic halogen groups, which can exhibit considerable chemical reactivity. For aliphatic carbon-halogen bonds the C-F bond is the strongest and usually less chemically reactive than aliphatic C-H bonds. The other aliphatic-halogen bonds are weaker, their reactivity increasing down the periodic table. .They are usually more chemically reactive than aliphatic C-H bonds.^ In concentrations at or below the threshold limit value of 1 ppm (more than what is usually generated in home accidents) only minimal findings will occur.

^ Someone sent me an email the other day asking me if they were real or, in fact, there was more than one of them.

^ What a swizz, a packet of wienersnitzel, escalopes or whatever they are called, have more than doubled in price.

.Consequently, the most common halogen substitutions are the less reactive aromatic fluorine and chlorine groups.^ In ion form, chlorine is part of common salt and other compounds, and necessary to most forms of life, including human.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Its most common use in water treatment is as a pre-oxidant prior to chlorination of drinking water to destroy natural water impurities that produce trihalomethanes on exposure to free chlorine.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus far, chlorine treatment (chlorination) represents the most common form of disinfection used in water treatment.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Reactivity with water

Fluorine reacts vigorously with water to produce oxygen (O2) and hydrogen fluoride (HF):[3]
2 F2(g) + 2 H2O(l) → O2(g) + 4 HF(aq)
.Chlorine has minimal solubility of 0.7g Cl2 per kg of water at ambient temperature (21oC).^ CARCINOGENICITY 0.2.21.2 HUMAN OVERVIEW o Lymphoma has been observed in relation to water treatment with chlorine .

^ Mold and yeast spores are reduced 80 to 99% by chlorine dioxide concentrations of 0.75 to 5 ppm (parts per million) in water.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The toxicity of chlorinated effluents increased with increasing temperature in fresh water environments.

[4] Dissolved chlorine reacts to form hydrochloric acid (HCl) and hypochlorous acid, a solution that can be used as a disinfectant or bleach:
Cl2(g) + H2O(l) → HCl(aq) + HClO(aq)
Bromine has a solubility of 3.41 g per 100 g of water,[5] but it slowly reacts to form hydrogen bromide (HBr) and hypobromous acid (HBrO):
Br2(g) + H2O(l) → HBr(aq) + HBrO(aq)
.Iodine, however, is minimally soluble in water (0.03 g/100 g water @ 20 °C) and does not react with it.^ PEER REVIEWED** Solubilities: 310 CC/100 CC WATER @ 10 DEG C [Weast, R.C. (ed.

[6] However, iodine will form an aqueous solution in the presence of iodide ion, such as by addition of potassium iodide (KI), because the triiodide ion is formed.

See also

References

  1. ^ Online Etymology Dictionary, halogen.
  2. ^ G. Thomas, Medicinal Chemistry an Introduction, John Wiley & Sons, West Sussex, UK, 2000.
  3. ^ The Oxidising Ability of the Group 7 Elements
  4. ^ Solubility of chlorine in water
  5. ^ Properties of bromine
  6. ^ Iodine MSDS

Further reading

Explanation of above periodic table slice:
Halogens Atomic numbers in red are gases Atomic numbers in green are liquids Atomic numbers in black are solids
Solid borders indicate primordial elements (older than the Earth) Dashed borders indicate radioactive natural elements Dotted borders indicate radioactive synthetic elements No borders indicates undiscovered elements

Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also halogen

German

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German Wikipedia has an article on:
Halogene
Wikipedia de

Noun

Halogen n.
  1. halogen (any element of group 7)

Simple English

The halogens are chemical elements under the second-to-right column in the periodic table, also known as Group 17. The elements in the group are fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, astatine, and ununseptium. Halogen literally means "salt producer". They are very reactive, so they are likely to join with other elements on the left side of the periodic table to make compounds. This is due to the fact that they are missing one electron. They are rarely found alone in nature, except astatine, which is not found in nature. Fluorine is the most reactive, while iodine is the least reactive. Astatine is very radioactive and hard to get.


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 14, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Chlorine, which are similar to those in the above article.








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