Hamburgers: Wikis

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Hamburger
Hamburger sandwich.jpg
A fast-food hamburger
Origin
Place of origin United States
Creator(s) Multiple claims (see text)
Dish details
Course served Main course
Serving temperature Hot
Main ingredient(s) Ground beef, bread
Variations Many

A hamburger (or burger for short) is a sandwich consisting of a cooked patty of ground meat, (usually beef, but occasionally pork, turkey, or a combination of meats) placed between two wheat buns. Hamburgers are often served with lettuce, bacon, tomato, onion, pickles, or cheese and condiments such as mustard, mayonnaise, ketchup and/or relish; these condiments or excess material are optional for the consumer.[1] The hamburger has attained widespread popularity and is proliferated worldwide in chains such as McDonald's or Burger King.

Contents

Etymology

The term hamburger originally derives from the German city of Hamburg[2], Germany's second largest city, from where many emigrated to America. In high German, "Burg" means "castle", or king's abode; earlier also city/town, and is a widespread component of city names. "Bürger" describes someone coming from that castle or town, (compare London -> Londoner), hence Hamburger can be a descriptive noun in German, referring to something from Hamburg. Similarly, frankfurter and wiener, names for other meat-based foods, are also used in German as descriptive nouns for people or things from the cities of Frankfurt and Wien (Vienna), respectively.

The term "ham" could derive from the word "hamme", a denomination for a moraine hillside[citation needed], although this remains unclear. The likeness to the English word "ham" is by pure chance (not to mention the fact that hamburgers do not contain ham).

The term "burger" became the synonym for many types of round sandwiches, although this word actually described a type of food rather than their creator(s) who allegedly originated in Hamburg.

Invention

There are several accounts of the invention of the hamburger. All take place in the United States near the end of the nineteenth century.

Residents of Hamburg, New York, which was named after Hamburg, Germany, attribute the hamburger to Ohioans Frank and Charles Menches. According to legend, the Menches brothers were vendors at the 1885 Erie County Fair (then called the Buffalo Fair) when they ran out of sausage for sandwiches and used beef instead. They named the result after the location of the fair.[3][4] But, Frank Menches's obituary in The New York Times states instead that these events took place at the 1892 Summit County Fair in Akron, Ohio.[5]

The Seymour Community Historical Society of Seymour, Wisconsin, credits Charlie Nagreen, now known as "Hamburger Charlie", with the invention of the hamburger. Nagreen was fifteen when he reportedly made sandwiches out of meatballs that he was selling at the 1885 Seymour Fair (now the Outagamie County Fair), so that customers could eat while walking. The Historical Society explains that Nagreen named the hamburger after the Hamburg steak with which local German immigrants were familiar.[6][7]

The Library of Congress credits Louis Lassen of Louis' Lunch, a small lunch wagon in New Haven, Connecticut, for selling the first hamburger and steak sandwich in the U.S. in 1895. [8][9][10] New York magazine states that, "The dish actually had no name until some rowdy sailors from Hamburg named the meat on a bun after themselves years later", noting also that this claim is subject to dispute.[11]

The Texas historian Frank X. Tolbert attributes the invention to Fletcher Davis of Athens, Texas. Davis is believed to have sold hamburgers at his café at 115 Tyler Street in Athens, Texas in the late 1880s, then brought them to the 1904 St. Louis World's Fair.[12][13] An article about Louis' Lunch in The New York Times on January 12, 1974, stated that the McDonald's hamburger chain claims the inventor was an unknown food vendor at the 1904 St. Louis World's Fair. Tolbert's research documented that this vendor was in fact Fletcher Davis. Dairy Queen spokesman Bob Phillips made a similar claim for Dairy Queen in a commercial filmed in Athens in the 1980s calling the town the birthplace of the hamburger.

There is good evidence that the first hamburger served on a bun was made by Oscar Bilby of Tulsa in 1891.[14][15][16]

"In April of 1995, the Dallas Morning News reported Oklahoma author says Tulsa beats out Texas as the birthplace of delicacy. Michael Wallis, author of "Route 66, The Mother Road", was quoted by the newspaper to say he had discovered Tulsa's place in culinary history. The discovery was made while researching the state’s tastiest hamburgers. What better place to start than the restaurant that has been voted Tulsa's best burger more often than any other restaurant since 1933…Weber’s Root Beer Stand. Mr. Wallis’ research revealed that Oscar Weber Bilby was the first person to serve a real hamburger. On July 4, 1891, ground beef was served on his wife’s homemade buns. The Fourth of July party took place on his farm, just west of present day Tulsa. Until then, ground beef had been served in Athens, Texas on simple slices of bread, known presently and then as a "patty melt". According to the Tulsa-based author, the bun is essential. Therefore, in 1995, Governor Frank Keating cited Athens, Texas' feat of ground beef between two slices of bread to be a minor accomplishment. The Governor's April 1995 Proclamation also cites the first true hamburger on the bun, as meticulous research shows, was created and consumed in Tulsa in 1891. The Governor's Proclamation cites April 13, 1995 as Tulsa as "The Real Birthplace of the Hamburger." [17]

The hamburger bun was invented in 1916 by a fry cook named Walter Anderson, who co-founded White Castle in 1921.

Early major vendors

  • 1921 — White Castle, Wichita, Kansas. Due to widely prevalent anti-German sentiment in the U.S. during World War I, an alternative name for hamburgers was salisbury steak. Following the war, hamburgers became unpopular until the White Castle restaurant chain marketed and sold large numbers of small 2.5-inch square hamburgers, known as slyders. They started to punch five holes in each patty, which help them cook evenly and eliminates the need to flip the burger. White Castle was the first to sell their hamburgers in grocery stores and vending machines.[citation needed]
  • 1940 — McDonald's restaurant, San Bernardino, California, opened by Dick and Mac McDonald. Their introduction of the "Speedee Service System" in 1948 established the principles of the modern fast-food restaurant. The McDonald brothers began franchising in 1953. In 1961, Ray Kroc (the supplier of their multi-mixer milkshake machines) purchased the company from the brothers for $2.7 million and a 1.9% royalty.

Hamburgers today

Hamburgers are usually a feature of fast food restaurants. The hamburgers served in major fast food establishments are usually mass-produced in factories and frozen for delivery to the site.[18] These hamburgers are thin and of uniform thickness, differing from the traditional American hamburger prepared in homes and conventional restaurants, which is thicker and prepared by hand from ground beef. Generally most American hamburgers are round, but some fast-food chains, such as Wendy's, sell square-cut hamburgers. Hamburgers in fast food restaurants are usually fried, but some firms, such as Burger King use a gas flame grilling process. At conventional American restaurants, hamburgers may be ordered "rare", but normally are served well-done for food safety reasons. Fast food restaurants do not offer this option.

The McDonald's fast-food chain sells a sandwich called the Big Mac, one of the world's top selling hamburgers. Other major fast-food chains, including Burger King (also known as Hungry Jack's in Australia), A&W, Culver's, Whataburger, Carl's Jr./Hardee's chain, Wendy's (known for their square patties), Jack in the Box, Cook Out, Harvey's, Shake Shack, In-N-Out Burger, Five Guys, Fatburger, Burgerville, Back Yard Burgers, Lick's Homeburger, Roy Rogers, Smashburger, Sonic, and Good Burger, also rely heavily on hamburger sales. Fuddruckers and Red Robin are popular hamburger chains that specialize in mid-tier "restaurant-style" variety of hamburgers. The "slider" style of mini hamburger is still popular regionally in the White Castle and Krystal chains.

Some North American establishments offer a unique take on the hamburger beyond what is offered in fast food restaurants, using upscale ingredients such as sirloin or other steak along with a variety of different cheeses, toppings, and sauces. Some examples would be the Bobby's Burger Palace chain founded by well-known chef and Food Network star Bobby Flay and burger 55 in Canada.

Hamburgers are often served as a fast dinner, picnic or party food, and cooked outdoors on barbecue grills. Raw hamburger may contain harmful bacteria that can produce food-borne illness such as Escherichia coli O157:H7, due to the occasional initial improper preparation of the meat, so caution is needed when handling it. Hamburger patties can be cooked rare, medium rare, medium, medium well, or well done. These terms refer to how thoroughly the meat is cooked, ranging from having a little bit of pink coloring to being dark brown, cooked almost to a crisp. However because of the potential for food-borne illness, it is recommended that hamburgers should be cooked to an internal temperature of 170°F (80°C). If cooked to this temperature, they are considered well-done.[19]

Ingredients and variations

A high-quality hamburger patty is made entirely of ground (minced) beef and seasonings; this may be described as an "all-beef hamburger" or "all-beef patties" to distinguish them from inexpensive hamburgers made with added flour, texturized vegetable protein or other fillers to decrease their cost. In the 1930s ground liver was sometimes added to the patties. Some cooks prepare their patties with binders, such as eggs or bread crumbs. Seasonings are also commonly included with the hamburger patty, most commonly salt and pepper, and others such as parsley, onions, soy sauce, Thousand Island dressing, onion soup mix, or Worcestershire sauce. Many name brand seasoned salt products are also used.

There is an increasing popularity of new types of burgers that use alternatives to ground beef as the primary ingredient. For example, a turkey burger uses ground turkey meat, a chicken burger uses ground chicken meat. A buffalo burger uses ground meat from a bison and some mix cow and buffalo meat, thus creating a "Beefalo burger" and an ostrich burger is made from ground seasoned ostrich meat. A deer burger uses ground venison from deer.[20] Burgers can also be made by mixing seafood or lamb with beef.[21]

A veggie burger, garden burger, or tofu burger uses a meat analogue, a meat substitute such as tofu, TVP, seitan (wheat gluten), quorn, beans, grains or an assortment of vegetables, ground up and mashed into patties.

Regional variations

The ingedients used in hamburgers may vary depending upon location.

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North America

North American homemade hamburger

In North America, burgers may be classified as two main types: fast food hamburgers and individually prepared burgers made in homes and restaurants. The latter are traditionally prepared "with everything" (or "all the way", "deluxe", "the works", "dragged through the garden", or in some regions "all dressed"), which includes lettuce, tomato, onion, and often sliced pickles (or pickle relish). Cheese (usually processed cheese slices but often Cheddar, Swiss, pepper jack, or blue), either melted on the meat patty or crumbled on top, is generally an option.

Condiments are usually added to the hamburger or may be offered separately on the side; the three most common are mustard, mayonnaise, and ketchup. However, salad dressings and barbecue sauce are also popular. Traditional "Texas burgers" use mustard as the only sauce, with or without vegetables and cheese. McDonald's uses their own "Big Mac sauce" on their signature Big Mac hamburger.

Other popular toppings include bacon, avocado or guacamole, sliced sautéed mushrooms, cheese sauce and/or chili (usually without beans). Heinz 57 sauce is popular among burger enthusiasts. Somewhat less common ingredients include fried egg, scrambled egg, feta cheese, blue cheese, salsa, pineapple, Jalapenos and other kinds of chile peppers, anchovies, slices of ham or bologna, pastrami or teriyaki-seasoned beef, tartar sauce, french fries, onion rings or potato chips.

Standard toppings on hamburgers may depend upon location, particularly at restaurants that are not national or regional franchises. In the Upper Midwest, particularly Wisconsin, burgers are often made with a buttered bun, butter as one of the ingredients of the patty or with a pat of butter on top of the burger patty. This is called a "Butter Burger". In the Carolinas, for instance, a Carolina-style hamburger "with everything" may be served with cheese, chili, onions, mustard, and coleslaw. National chain Wendy's sells a "Carolina Classic" burger with these toppings in these areas. In Hawaii hamburgers are often topped with teriyaki sauce, derived from the Japanese-American culture, and locally grown pineapple. Waffle House claims on its menus and website to offer 70,778,880 different ways of serving a hamburger. In portions of the Midwest and East coast, a hamburger served with lettuce, tomato, and onion is called a "California burger". This usage is sufficiently widespread to appear on the menus of Dairy Queen. In the Western U.S., a "California" burger often means a cheeseburger, with guacamole and bacon added. Pastrami burgers are particularly popular in Salt Lake City, Utah.[22]

A hamburger with two patties is called a "double decker" or simply a "double". The Big Boy claims to have been the first to sell these. A hamburger with three patties is called a "triple"; Wendy's restaurant chain was one of the first to offer this as a regular product. Doubles and triples are often combined with cheese and sometimes with bacon, yielding a "double cheeseburger" or a "triple bacon cheeseburger", or alternatively, a "bacon double or triple cheeseburger". A hamburger with one patty, bacon, and cheese is a "bacon cheeseburger" or a "Banquet Burger"; hamburgers with bacon but no cheese are often called "bacon-burgers".

A hamburger smothered in red or green chile is called a slopper and is common in the southwestern United States.

The Carl's Jr./Hardee's restaurant chain gained extensive publicity within the United States following its introduction of the Monster Thickburger, containing two meat patties, three slices of cheese, six strips of bacon, 1,420 calories and 107 grams of fat. Other restaurants, such as In-N-Out, offer multiple patties and cheese on a burger; a "3 X 3" is three meat patties and three slices of cheese. Current corporate regulations provide that the largest In-N-Out burger is a 4 X 4, but previously one could order as many meat patties as desired, and one group of customers actually ordered and was served a "100X100", which cost US$100.

A patty melt consists of a patty, sautéed onions and cheese between two slices of rye bread. The sandwich is then buttered and fried.

To decrease cooking and serving time, fast food hamburgers have thinner patties than those used in restaurants. The Carl's Jr./Hardee's restaurant chain acknowledged this with the introduction of the "Six Dollar Burger", featuring a patty the same size as those served by sit-down restaurants for a lower price.

Hamburgers may be described by their combined uncooked weight, with a single uncooked burger a nominal four ounces or 113.5 grams is a "quarter pounder". Instead of a "double hamburger", one might encounter a third- or half-pounder, weighing eight ounces or 227 grams. Burger patties are nearly always specified in fractions of a pound.

Another variety of hamburger is the "slider", which is a very small square hamburger patty sprinkled with diced onions and served on an equally small bun, popularized by White Castle. The name comes from their size, whereby they are considered to "slide" right down your throat in one or two bites (Many U.S. vets will disagree; the term "slider" originated from the hamburgers served by flight line galleys at military airfields, which were so greasy they slid right through you. Aboard U.S. Navy ships, the term "slider" was used by crews due to the way the greasy burgers slid across the galley grill while the ship pitched and rolled[23][24]). Another purveyor of the slider is Krystal. Burger King has sold pull-apart mini-burgers, first under the name "Burger Buddies" and later as "Burger Shots". In the late 2000s, the "slider" has gained in popularity and has been featured on the menu even at more expensive restaurants such as T.G.I. Fridays. Jack-in-the-Box also now serves sliders marketed as "Mini Sirloin Burgers".

In the continental U.S. it is uncommon to hear a chicken patty or breast on a hamburger bun referred to as a "chicken burger". This is almost always called a "chicken sandwich" except for rare exceptions, such as with the Red Robin chain of restaurants. In Canada, "chicken burgers" generally refer to patties and when using a chicken breast, to "chicken sandwiches". In Hawaii, small (usually marinated) pieces of chicken piled on a bun can be found, referred to as a teriyaki chicken burger, for example. This is similar to what is found in Japan,[25] but is a local variation.

In Alberta, Canada a "kubie burger" is a hamburger made with a pressed Ukrainian sausage (kubasa).[26]

In Mexico, a hamburger usually consists of actual ham with the meat patty along with avocado, cheese, and bacon.

In Minnesota, a "Juicy Lucy" (or "Jucy Lucy", depending on which restaurant's origin claims you believe) it is a hamburger having cheese inside the meat patty rather than on top. A piece of cheese is surrounded by raw meat and cooked until it melts, resulting in a molten core of cheese within the patty. This scalding hot cheese tends to gush out at the first bite, so servers frequently warn patrons to let the sandwich cool for a few minutes before consumption.

United Kingdom and Ireland

Hamburgers in the UK and Ireland are very similar to their US cousins, and the High Street is dominated by the same big two chains as in the U.S. — McDonald's and Burger King. The menus offered to both countries are virtually identical, although portion sizes tend to be smaller in the UK

An original and indigenous rival to the big two U.S. giants was the quintessentially British fast-food chain Wimpy, originally known as Wimpy Bar (opened 1954 at the Lyon’s Corner House in Coventry Street London), which served its hamburgers on a plate with British-style chips, accompanied by cutlery and delivered to the customer's table. In the late 1970s, to compete with McDonald's,[27] Wimpy began to open American-style counter-service restaurants and the brand disappeared from many UK high streets when those restaurants were rebranded as Burger Kings in 1989/90 by the then-owner of both brands, Grand Metropolitan. A management buyout in 1990 split the brands again and now Wimpy table-service restaurants can still be found in many town centers whilst new counter-service Wimpys are now often found at motorway service stations.

Hamburgers are also available from mobile kiosks, particularly at outdoor events such as football matches. Burgers from this type of outlet are usually served without any form of salad — only fried onions and a choice of tomato ketchup, mustard or brown sauce.

Chip shops, particularly in the West Midlands, North-East and Scotland, serve battered hamburgers. This is where the burger patty, by itself, is deep-fat-fried in batter and is usually served with chips.

Hamburgers and veggie burgers served with chips and salad, are standard pub grub menu items. Many pubs specialize in "gourmet" burgers. These are usually high quality minced steak patties, topped with items such as blue cheese, brie, avocado et cetera. Some British pubs serve burger patties made from more exotic meats including venison burgers (sometimes nicknamed Bambi Burgers), bison burgers, ostrich burgers and in some Australian themed pubs even kangaroo burgers can be purchased. These burgers are served in a similar way to the traditional hamburger but are sometimes served with a different sauce; redcurrant sauce, mint sauce and plum sauce being common examples.

In the early 21st century "premium" hamburger chain and independent restaurants have arisen, selling burgers produced from meat stated to be of high quality and often organic, usually served to eat on the premises rather than to take away.[28] Chains include Gourmet Burger Kitchen, Ultimate Burger, and Hamburger Union.

In recent years Rustlers has sold pre-cooked hamburgers re-heatable in a microwave oven in the United Kingdom.

In the UK, as in North America and Japan, the term "burger" can refer simply to the patty, be it beef, some other kind of meat, or vegetarian.

Australia and New Zealand

Fast food franchises sell American style fast food hamburgers in both Australia and New Zealand. The traditional Australasian hamburgers are usually bought from fish and chip shops or milk bars. The hamburger meat is almost always ground beef, or "mince" as it is more commonly referred to in Australia and New Zealand. They almost always include tomato, lettuce, grilled onion, beetroot (canned slices), and meat as minimum, and can optionally include cheese, pineapple, a fried egg (usually with a soft yolk) and bacon. If all these optional ingredients are included it is known in Australia as a "hamburger with the lot".[29][30] The only variance between the two countries' hamburgers is that New Zealand's equivalent to the "hamburger with the lot" often contains a steak (beef) as well. The only condiments regularly used are tomato sauce, which is similar to ketchup, or BBQ sauce. The McDonald's "McOz" Burger is partway between American and Australian style burgers, having beetroot and tomato in an otherwise typical American burger, However it is no longer a part of the menu, recently replaced by the McFeast burger. Likewise McDonald's in New Zealand created a Kiwiburger, similar to a Quarter Pounder, but features salad, beetroot and a fried egg. The Hungry Jack's (Burger King) "Aussie Burger" has tomato, lettuce, onion, cheese, bacon, beetroot, egg, ketchup and a meat patty.

In Dunedin, NZ, Velvet Burger were invented. A Velvet Burger has venison as an ingredient.

China

In China, restaurants such as McDonald's and KFC have been proliferating all across the country. In many parts of China, small hamburger chains have opened up to capitalize on the popularity of hamburgers with children. Restaurants such as Peter Burger attempt to copy McDonald's.

In supermarkets and corner stores, customers can buy unrefrigerated "hamburgers" (hanbao) off the bread shelf. These are ultra-sweet buns cut open with a thin slice of pork or ham placed inside without any condiments or vegetables. These hanbao are a half-westernised form of the traditional Cantonese buns called "char siu bao" (BBQ Pork Bun). The Chinese word for hamburger (hanbao) often refers to all sandwiches containing hamburger buns and cooked meat, regardless of the meat's origin. This includes chicken burgers, as KFC is very popular in China.

Japan

In Japan, hamburgers can be served in a bun, called hanbāgā (ハンバーガー), or just the patties served without a bun, known as hanbāgu (ハンバーグ) or "hamburg", short for "hamburg steak".

Hamburg steaks (served without buns) are similar to what is known as Salisbury steaks in the USA. They are made from minced beef, pork or a blend of the two, mixed with minced onions, egg, breadcrumbs and spices. They are served with brown sauce (or demi-glace in restaurants) with vegetable or salad sides, or occasionally in Japanese curries. It is a popular item at home, and in casual, western style suburban restaurant chains known in Japan as "family restaurants". It became popular in the 1960s.

Hamburgers in buns, on the other hand, are predominantly the domain of fast food chains such as American chains known as McDonald's and Wendy's. Japan has home grown hamburger chain restaurants such as MOS Burger, First Kitchen and Lotteria. Local varieties of burgers served in Japan include teriyaki burgers, katsu burgers (containing tonkatsu) and burgers containing shrimp korokke. Some of the more unusual examples include the "Rice Burger", where the bun is made of rice, and the luxury 1000-yen (US$10) "Takumi Burger" (meaning "artisan taste"), featuring avocados, freshly grated wasabi, and other rare seasonal ingredients. In terms of the actual patty, there are burgers made with the famous Kobe beef, butchered from cows that are fed with beer and massaged daily. McDonald's Japan also recently launched a McPork burger, made with U.S. pork. McDonald's has been gradually losing market share in Japan to these local hamburger chains, due in part to the preference of Japanese diners for fresh ingredients and more refined, "upscale" hamburger offerings.[citation needed] Burger King once retreated from Japan, but re-entered the market in Summer 2007 in cooperation with the Japanese fast-food chain Lotteria.

Other countries

Chicken burger with rice bun (sold in Taiwan, Korea, Hong Kong, Macao, the Philippines, Thailand and Singapore). Note that the "bun" is composed of cooked rice

Rice burgers, mentioned above, are also available in several East Asian countries such as Taiwan and South Korea. Lotteria is a big hamburger franchise in Japan owned by the South Korean Lotte group, with outlets also in China, South Korea, Vietnam, and Taiwan. In addition to selling beef hamburgers, they also have hamburgers made from squid, pork, tofu, and shrimp. Variations available in Korea include bulgogi burgers and kimchi burgers.

Not surprisingly, the Philippines, with American culinary influences going back to U.S. political influence of the islands at the beginning of the 20th century, retains a strong bond with American trends. A wide range of major U.S. fast-food franchises are well represented, together with local imitators, often amended to the local palate. The famous chain McDonald's (locally nicknamed "McDo"), which is immensely popular with Filipinos, have a range of burger and chicken dishes often accompanied by plain steamed rice and/or french fries. Most popular of all with locals, the Philippines boasts its own burger-chain called Jollibee, which offers burger meals and chicken, including a signature burger called "The Big Champ". Jollibee now has a number of outlets in the United States.

Vada pav or other wise known as Indian Burger, made of Potatoes and spices.

In India, burgers are usually made from chicken or a vegetable patties due to cultural taboos against eating beef, which stem from Hindu religious practice and pork, which stems from Islamic religious practice. Because of this, the majority of fast food chains and restaurants in India do not serve beef. McDonald's in India, for instance, do not serve beef, offering the "Maharaja Mac" instead of the Big Mac, substituting the beef patties with chicken. Another version of the Indian vegetarian burger is the Wada Pav consisting deep-fried potato patty dipped in gramflour batter. It is usually served with mint chutney and fried green chili. Plus they may consist of eggs.

In Pakistan, apart from American fast food chains, burgers can be found in stalls near shopping areas, the best known being the "shami burger". This is made from "shami kebab", made by mixing lentil and minced lamb. Onions, scrambled egg and ketchup are the most common toppings.

In Malaysia there are 300 McDonald's restaurants. The menu in Malaysia also includes eggs and fried chicken on top of the regular burgers. Burgers are also easily found at nearby mobile kiosks, especially Ramly Burger.

In Mongolia, a recent fast food craze due to the sudden influx of foreign influence has led to the prominence of the hamburger. Specialized fast food restaurants serving to Mongolian tastes have sprung up and seen great success.

In Turkey along with global chains McDonald's and Burger King a different variation of the hamburger called Islak Hamburger can be found in many small shops around the country. The Islak Hamburger has originated from Turkish fast food retailer Kizilkayalar. Hamburger shops have also adopted a pizza store like approach when it comes to delivering and almost all major fast food chains deliver.

In Mexico, burgers are often accompanied by ham and avocado. They also usually have shredded lettuce, onions, tomatoes, and bacon, which can be fried or grilled along with the meat patty, cheese, and condiments. Some restaurant's burgers also have barbecue sauce, and others also replace the ground patty with sirloin, meat "al pastor", barbacoa, and other "guisados". A fried chicken breast is also common. In the city of Puebla, the hamburger is often served without the bun, accompanied by corn tortillas. Many burger chains from the United States can be found all over Mexico, including Carl's Jr., Sonic, as well as global chains such as McDonald's and Burger King.

Health-related controversies

Oprah Winfrey was sued[31] for saying on her show broadcast on April 16, 1996 that she would stop eating hamburgers when there was a mad cow disease scare, on the grounds that it was unsafe.[32][33][34] February 26, 1998 the jurors rejected the $11 million-dollar defamation lawsuit by Texas cattlemen.[35]

Super Size Me is a 2004 documentary film by Morgan Spurlock, which follows a 30-day time period in 2003 during which Spurlock eats only McDonald's food and increases body mass by 13%. In contrast, 2007 Johan Groundstroem on a hamburger-only diet lost 30% body mass.[36] These culturally recognized events are not to be confused with clinical diet studies—where total caloric intake in addition to food types are monitored.

In 1993, hundreds of people were sickened and four children died after eating at Jack in the Box restaurants. The primary cause of the outbreak was hamburger patties contaminated with E. coli, manufactured and sold to the restaurant chain by one of its suppliers. Litigation that resulted from this outbreak took years, and tens of millions of dollars, to resolve.[37]

Hamburger trivia

  • At $499, the world's largest hamburger commercially available, tips the scales at 185.8 pounds and is on the menu at Mallie's Sports Grill & Bar in Southgate, Michigan. It is called the "Absolutely Ridiculous Burger", which takes about 12 hours to prepare. It was cooked and adjudicated on 30 May 2009.[38]
  • "$100 hamburger" (formerly "$50 hamburger") is aviation slang for a private general aviation flight for the sole purpose of dining at a non-local airport. It is most often used by pilots who are looking for any excuse to fly. A $100 hamburger trip usually involves flying a short distance (less than two hours), eating at an airport restaurant, and flying home.[39]
  • A $777 Kobe beef and Maine lobster burger, topped with caramelized onion, Brie cheese and prosciutto, was reported available at Le Burger Brasserie, inside the Paris Las Vegas casino.[40]
  • New York chef Daniel Boulud created an intricate dish composed of layers of ground sirloin, foie gras, and wine-braised short ribs, assembled to look exactly like a fast-food burger. It is available with truffles in season.[41][42]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Cooking wizardry for kids, Margaret Kenda, Kenda & Williams, Phyllis S. Williams, Contributor Phyllis S. Williams, Barron's Educational Series, 1990 ISBN 0812044096, 9780812044096 page 113 [1]
  2. ^ Harper, Douglas. "hamburger". Online Etymology Dictionary. http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=hamburger. Retrieved 2009-10-17. 
  3. ^ "Going On in the Northeast". The New York Times. July 21, 1985. 
  4. ^ "Fest maintains claim to first burger, despite beef from critics". Buffalo News. July 17, 2009. http://www.buffalonews.com/cityregion/southernsuburbs/story/736022.html. Retrieved 2009-07-17. 
  5. ^ "Obituary: Charles Menches". The New York Times. October 5, 1951. 
  6. ^ http://www.seymourhistory.org/news/?id=35
  7. ^ Heuer, Myron (1999-10-12). "The real home of the hamburger". Herald & Journal. http://www.herald-journal.com/archives/1998/columns/mh101298.html. Retrieved 2008-03-24. 
  8. ^ Library of Congress website retrieved on 2009-12-23
  9. ^ U.S. Library of Congress Folklife Center Local Legacies Project retrieved on 2009-04-13 Louis' Lunch A Local Legacy
  10. ^ State of Connecticut official website list of firsts retrieved on 2009-05-20 [2]
  11. ^ New York Magazine, May 16, 1977 page 42
  12. ^ Atlas of Popular Culture in the Northeast United States, John Harmon
  13. ^ "The World's First Hamburger". Texas Monthly. August 2009. http://www.texasmonthly.com/preview/2009-08-01/feature7. Retrieved August 15, 2009. 
  14. ^ J. Ozersky, The Hamburger: a History, p.19
  15. ^ J.T. Edge, Hamburgers and Fries: An American Story, p.22
  16. ^ Wallis, Hogs on Route 66, p.67 Written by Tulsa author Michael Wallis
  17. ^ http://webersrootbeer.net/index.html
  18. ^ See for example the literature review in U.S. Patent 5484625 for references.
  19. ^ United States Department of Agriculture Safety and Inspection Service Media Communications Office, USDA Urges Consumers To Use Food Thermometer When Cooking Ground Beef Patties. Aug. 11, 1998
  20. ^ "Highland schools get Bambi burgers". The Guardian(UK news). http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk_news/story/0,3604,1318965,00.html. 
  21. ^ Orange Coast Magazine May 2007
  22. ^ John T. Edge, "Pastrami Meets the Patty in Utah", "New York Times", July 29, 2009.
  23. ^ http://blogs.houstonpress.com/eating/2008/02/sliders_rollers_and_monkey_dic.php
  24. ^ http://www.barrypopik.com/index.php/new_york_city/entry/slider_or_slyder_mini_hamburger/
  25. ^ Teriyaki Chicken Sandwich recipe — teriyaki chicken burger — Japanese recipes
  26. ^ The Canadian Oxford Dictionary has headwords for the Canadianisms "kubasa", "kubie" (as a hot dog), and "kubie burger", the latter two being specific to Alberta.
  27. ^ "Wimpy History". http://www.wimpy.uk.com/moments.htm. 
  28. ^ "Camembert with that, sir?". The Guardian (UK news). http://www.guardian.co.uk/food/Story/0,,1676523,00.html. 
  29. ^ "Fed: Tough to swallow inflationary hamburgers". Australian Associated Press General News (Australian Associated Press). 2006-07-26. 
  30. ^ Hay, Donna (2002-11-24). "The new burger". Sunday Herald Sun (The Herald and Weekly Times). 
  31. ^ "Texas Beef Group V Oprah Winfrey". http://www.legalcasedocs.com/120/246/531.html. 
  32. ^ http://www.mad-cow.org/~tom/oprah.html "Cattlemen Condemn False and Misleading Oprah Show"
  33. ^ http://www.mcspotlight.org/media/television/oprah_transcript.html "Oprah's report on Mad Cow Disease".
  34. ^ http://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php?title=Oprah_Winfrey_and_mad_cows "Oprah Winfrey and mad cows"
  35. ^ "Oprah: "Free speech rocks". Texas cattlemen lose defamation suit". http://www.cnn.com/US/9802/26/oprah.verdict/. 
  36. ^ "Minimize me". http://www.minimizeme.net/. 
  37. ^ "Jack-in-the-box E.coli outbreak". http://www.about-ecoli.com/ecoli_outbreaks/view/jack-in-the-box-e-coli-outbreak. 
  38. ^ "World's largest commercially available hamburger". http://community.guinnessworldrecords.com/_Largest-hamburger-commercially-available/blog/334882/7691.html?b=. 
  39. ^ Portland Hamburgers: Burger Skills: Hamburger Slang
  40. ^ Neal Ungerleider (June 4, 2009). "10 Most Expensive Hamburgers". Forbes. http://www.forbestraveler.com/food-drink/best-burgers-2009-story.html. 
  41. ^ CNN website article
  42. ^ N.Y. times article

References

  • Barber, Katherine, editor (2004). The Canadian Oxford Dictionary, second edition. Toronto, Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-541816-6.
  • Edge, John T. (2005). Hamburgers & Fries : an American Story. G.P. Putnam's Sons. ISBN 0-399-15274-1.  — History and origins of the hamburger
  • Trage, (1997). The Food Chronology: A Food Lover's Compendium of Events and Anecdotes, From Prehistory to the Present. Owl Books. ISBN 0-805-05247-x. 
  • Allen, Beth (2004). Great American classics Cookbook. Hearst Books. ISBN 1-588-16280-X. 
  • Smith, Andrew (2008). Hamburger: A Global History. Reaktion Books. pp. 128. ISBN 9781861893901. [3]

Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

English

Noun

Hamburgers

  1. Plural form of Hamburger.

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