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韓國
State of Han
Kingdom

403 BC–230 BC
Capital Yangzhai (before 375 BC)
Xinzheng (after 375 BC)
Religion Chinese folk religion, ancestor worship
Government Monarchy
King
 - BCE– BCE Tang Shuyu
History
 - Established 403 BC
 - Disestablished 230 BC
Currency Chinese coin
State of Han
(small seal script, 220 BC)

Han (韓, Hán) (403 BC-230 BC) was a kingdom during the Warring States Period in China. Not to be confused with South Korea which shares the same character.

Its territory directly blocked the passage of the state of Qin into the North China Plain, thus becoming a frequent target of Qin's military operations. Although Han had attempted several self strengthening reforms, notably under the famous Legalist Shen Buhai, it would never overcome the Qin. In fact it was the first of the other six Chinese kingdoms to be conquered by Qin.

The Qin invasion of Han's Shangdang Commandery (上党郡) ushered in the bloodiest battle of the whole period, the Battle of Changping in 260 BC.

Contents

Rise

According to Shiji, the Han family was descended from the Zhou kings. The Zhou kings granted Hanyuan (韓原) to the Han family which the family used to gain influence and importance. In 403 BC, Marquis Jing of Han (韓景侯), along with Marquis Wen of Wei and Marquis Lie of Zhao partitioned the powerful state Jin into Han, Wei, and Zhao marking the beginning of the Warring States Period and Han as an independent polity. King Lie of Zhou was forced to recognize the new states and elevated the ruler's titles to Marquis.

Height

The height of the Han state was during the rule of Marquis Xi. Xi appointed Shen Buhai (申不害) Chancellor and implemented Shen's Legalist philosophy. Shen's policies strengthened Han and the kingdom became a xiaokang society.

Fall

Because of the nature of the split of Jin, the Han state was landlocked on all sides by other powerful states like Chu, Qi, Qin, and Wei. Han was the smallest of the seven states, and was bullied militarily by more powerful neighbors. During its steady decline, the Han state lost the power to defend its territory and was requesting military assistance from other states when faced with invasions. Eventually, Han became the first of the six states to be conquered by the expanding Qin in 230 BC.

Famous people

The most famous person of Han is the Legalist philosopher Han Fei. Another famous Han personality was Zhang Liang, who helped bring about the founding of the Han dynasty.

List of Han rulers

Title(s) Given name Reign years
Pre-State sovereigns
Viscount Xian of Han
韓獻子
Hán Jué
韓厥
Viscount Xuan of Han
韓宣子
Hán Qǐ
韓起
Viscount Zhen of Han
韓貞子
Hán Xū
韓須
Viscount Jian of Han
韓簡子
Hán Bùxìn
韓不信
Viscount Zhuang of Han
韓莊子
Hán Gēng
韓庚
Viscount Kang of Han
韓康子
Viscount Wu of Han
韓武子
Hán Qǐzhāng
韓啓章
424 BC409 BC
State sovereigns
Marquis Jing of Han
韓景侯
Hán Qián
韓虔
408 BC400 BC
Marquis Lie of Han / Marquis Wu of Han
韓烈侯 / 韓武侯
Hán Qǔ
韓取
399 BC387 BC
Marquis Wen of Han
韓文侯
386 BC377 BC
Marquis Ai of Han
韓哀侯
376 BC374 BC
Marquis Gong of Han / Marquis Zhuang of Han /
Marquis Yi of Han
韓共侯 / 韓莊侯 /
韓懿侯
Hán Ruòshān?
韓若山?
374 BC363 BC
Marquis Xi of Han / Marquis Zhao of Han
韓厘侯 / 韓昭侯
362 BC333 BC
King Xuanhui of Han / King Xuan of Han /
Marquis Wei of Han (before 323 BC)
韓宣惠王 / 韓宣王 /
韓威侯
332 BC312 BC
King Xiang of Han / King Xiang'ai of Han /
King Daoxiang of Han
韓襄王 / 韓襄哀王 /
韓悼襄王
Hán Cāng
韓倉
311 BC296 BC
King Xi of Han
韓厘王
Hán Jiù
韓咎
295 BC273 BC
King Huanhui of Han
韓桓惠王
272 BC239 BC
King Fei of Han / King An of Han
韓廢王 / 韩王安
Hán Ān
韓安
238 BC230 BC

See also

References

This article contains Chinese text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Chinese characters.

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