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Hanging is the lethal suspension of a person by a ligature. Scientifically, the person dies by strangulation. The Oxford English Dictionary states that hanging in this sense is "specifically to put to death by suspension by the neck", although it formerly also referred to crucifixion and death by impalement in which the body would remain "hanging".

For lack of a better term, hanging has also been used to describe a method of suicide in which a person applies a ligature to the neck and brings about unconsciousness and then death, by means of partial suspension or partial weight-bearing on the ligature. This method has been most often used in prisons or other institutions, where full suspension support is difficult to devise. The earliest known use of the word in this sense was in A.D. 1300.[1]

Contents

Methods of judicial hanging

There are four ways of performing a judicial hanging — the short drop, suspension hanging, the standard drop, and the long drop. A mechanised form of hanging, the upright jerker, was also experimented with in the 18th century.

Suspension

Suspension, like the short drop, causes death by using the weight of the body to tighten the trachea with the noose. Criminals are often reported of having little or no struggle before they go limp, since their jugular vein and carotid arteries are blocked and the blood that rushes to the brain reduces.[2] For example, John Smith describes his pain vanishing after seeing a great blaze of glaring light. [3]

Short drop

The short drop is done by placing the condemned prisoner on the back of a cart, horse, or other vehicle, with the noose around the neck. The object is then moved away, leaving the person dangling from the rope. The condemned prisoner dies of strangulation, which typically takes between ten and twenty minutes. Before 1850, it was the main method.[citation needed] A ladder was also commonly used with the condemned being forced to ascend, after which the noose was tied and the ladder pulled away or turned (hence the colloquial slang for hanging "to be turned off"), leaving the condemned hanging. Another method involves using a stool, which the condemned is required to stand on, being kicked away.

Yet another short drop variant is the Austro-Hungarian "pole" method, in which the condemned is hoisted to the top of a pole approximately ten ft. in height via a sling under the armpits, a narrow diameter noose affixed to a hook and the prisoner's neck and the prisoner is rapidly jerked downward by the assistant executioners via a rope attached to the condemned's feet and routed through a pulley in the body of the pole and out the back. The executioner stands on a stepped platform approximately four ft. high beside the condemned and guides the head downward with his hand simultaneous to the efforts of his assistants. Unconsciousness is nearly instant, with death occurring via strangulation. Nazi war criminal Karl Hermann Frank was executed in this manner in 1946 in Prague.

"Hanging Corner" at Lancaster Castle. Site of numerous public executions between the late 18th Century and 1865. The double doors on the right led directly onto the gallows platform which was situated in front of the sealed archway.

Standard drop

The standard drop, which arrived as calculated in English units, involves a drop of between four and six feet (1.2 to 1.8 m) and came into use from 1866, when the scientific details were published by an Irish doctor, Samuel Haughton. Immediately its use spread to English-speaking countries and those where judicial systems had an English origin. It was considered a humane improvement on the short drop because it was intended to be enough to break the person's neck, causing immediate paralysis and immobilization (and probable immediate unconsciousness). This method was used to execute condemned Nazis under United States jurisdiction after the Nuremberg Trials including Joachim von Ribbentrop and Ernst Kaltenbrunner.[4]

Nazis executed under British jurisdiction, including Josef Kramer, Fritz Klein, Irma Grese and Elisabeth Volkenrath, were hanged by Albert Pierrepoint using the variable drop method devised by William Marwood.[5]

Black Jack Ketchum's execution, New Mexico Territory, 1901.
Sepia-tone photo from a contemporary postcard showing Tom Ketchum's decapitated body. Caption reads "Body of Black Jack after the hanging showing head snapped off."

Long drop

This process, also known as the measured drop, was introduced to Britain in 1872 by William Marwood as a scientific advancement to the standard drop. Instead of everyone falling the same standard distance, the person's height, weight and strength[6] were used to determine how much slack would be provided in the rope so that the distance dropped would be enough to ensure that the neck was broken but not so much that the person was decapitated.

Prior to 1892, the drop was between four and ten feet (about one to three metres), depending on the weight of the body, and was calculated to deliver a force of 1,260 lbf (5,600 newtons or 572 kgf), which fractured the neck at either the 2nd and 3rd or 4th and 5th cervical vertebrae. However, this force resulted in some decapitations, such as the famous case of "Black Jack" Tom Ketchum in New Mexico Territory in 1901. Between 1892 and 1913, the length of the drop was shortened to avoid decapitation. After 1913, other factors were also taken into account, and the force delivered was reduced to about 1,000 lbf (4,400 N or 450 kgf). The decapitation of Eva Dugan during a botched hanging in 1930 led the state of Arizona to switch to the gas chamber as its primary execution method, on the grounds that it was believed more humane.[7] One of the more recent decapitations as a result of the long drop occurred when Barzan Ibrahim al-Tikriti was hanged in Iraq in 2007.

Suicide by hanging.

As suicide

Hanging is a common method for committing suicide. The materials necessary for suicide by hanging are easily available to the average person, compared with firearms or lethal poison. It is a deceptively simple yet highly effective suicide method. Full suspension is not required, and for this reason hanging is especially commonplace among suicidal prisoners (see suicide watch). A type of hanging comparable to full suspension hanging may be obtained by self-strangulation using a ligature of the neck and only partial weight of the body (partial suspension).

In Canada, hanging is the most common method of suicide,[8] and in the U.S., hanging is the second most common method, after firearms.[9] In the United Kingdom, where firearms are less easily available, as of 2001 hanging was the most common method among men and the second most commonplace among women (after poisoning).[10]

Medical effects

Etching by Francisco Goya.

A hanging may induce one or more of the following medical conditions, some leading to death:

The cause of death in hanging depends on the conditions related to the event. When the body is released from a relatively high position, death is usually caused by severing the spinal cord between C1 and C2, which may be functional decapitation. High cervical fracture frequently occurs in judicial hangings, and in fact the C1-C2 fracture has been called the "hangman's fracture" in medicine, even when it occurs in other circumstances. Usually, accidental C1-C2 fracture victims do not immediately become unconscious; instead death occurs after some minutes.[citation needed] Another process that has been suggested is carotid sinus reflex death. By this theory, the mechanical stimulation of the carotid sinus in the neck brings on terminal cardiac arrest.

La Pendaison (The Hanging), a plate from French artist Jacques Callot's 1633 series Les Grandes Misères de la guerre (The Great Miseries of War).

In the absence of fracture and dislocation, occlusion of blood vessels becomes the major cause of death, rather than asphyxiation. Obstruction of venous drainage of the brain via occlusion of the internal jugular veins leads to cerebral edema and then cerebral ischemia. The face will typically become engorged and cyanotic (turned blue through lack of oxygen). There will be the classic sign of strangulation, petechiae, little blood marks on the face and in the eyes from burst blood capillaries. The tongue may protrude.

Compromise of the cerebral blood flow may occur by obstruction of the carotid arteries, even though their obstruction requires far more force than the obstruction of jugular veins, since they are seated deeper and they contain blood in much higher pressure compared to the jugular veins. Only 31 newtons (7 lbf or 3.2 kgf) of force may be enough to constrict the carotid arteries to the point of rapid unconsciousness.[citation needed] Where death has occurred through carotid artery obstruction or cervical fracture, the face will typically be pale in color and not show petechiae. Many reports and pictures exist of actual short-drop hangings that seem to show that the person died quickly, while others indicate a slow and agonizing death by strangulation.[11]

When cerebral circulation is severely compromised by any mechanism, arterial or venous, death occurs over four or more minutes from cerebral hypoxia, although the heart may continue to beat for some period after the brain can no longer be resuscitated. The time of death in such cases is a matter of convention. In judicial hangings, death is pronounced at cardiac arrest, which may occur at times from several minutes up to 15 minutes or longer after hanging. During suspension, once the prisoner has lapsed into unconsciousness, rippling movements of the body and limbs may occur for some time which are usually attributed to nervous and muscular reflexes. In Britain, it was normal to leave the body suspended for an hour to ensure death.

After death, the body typically shows marks of suspension: bruising and rope marks on the neck. Moreover, sphincters will relax spontaneously and urine and faeces will be evacuated. Forensic experts may often be able to tell if hanging is suicide or homicide, as each leaves a distinctive ligature mark. One of the hints they use is the hyoid bone. If broken, it often means the person has been murdered by manual choking.

Notable references by country (political)

Hanging has been a method of capital punishment in many countries.

Australia

Capital punishment was a part of the legal system of Australia from its early days as a penal colony for the British Empire, until 1985. During the 19th century, crimes that could carry a death sentence included burglary, sheep stealing, forgery, sexual assaults, murder and manslaughter. During the 19th century, there were about 80 people hanged each year throughout Australia for these crimes.

Australia abolished the death penalty in all states by 1985.[12] The last man executed by hanging (or any other means) in Australia was Ronald Ryan on 3 February 1967, in Victoria.[13]

Brazil

Death by hanging was the customary method of capital punishment in Brazil throughout its history. Some important national heroes like Tiradentes (1792) were killed by hanging. The last man executed in Brazil was the slave Francisco, in 1876. The death penalty was abolished for all crimes, except for those committed under extraordinary circumstances such as war or military law, in 1890.[14]

Bulgaria

Bulgaria's national hero, Vasil Levski, was executed by hanging by the Ottoman court in Sofia in 1873. Every year since Bulgaria's liberation, thousands come with flowers on the date of his death, February 19, to his monument where the gallows stood.

The last execution was in 1989, and the death penalty was abolished for all crimes in 1998.[14]

Canada

Historically, hanging was the only method of execution used in Canada and was in use as punishment for all murders until 1961, when murders were reclassified into capital and non-capital offences. The death penalty was restricted to only apply for certain offences to the National Defence Act in 1976 and was completely abolished in 1998.[15]

The last hangings in Canada took place on December 11, 1962.[14]

Germany

In the territories occupied by Nazi Germany from 1939 to 1945, strangulation hanging was a preferred means of public execution, although more criminal executions were performed by guillotine than hanging. The most common sentenced were partisans and black marketeers, whose bodies were usually left hanging for long periods of time. There are also numerous reports of concentration camp inmates being hanged. Hanging was continued in post-war Germany in the British and US Occupation Zones under their jurisdiction, and for Nazi war criminals, until well after (western) Germany itself had abolished the death penalty by the German constitution as adopted in 1949. West-Berlin was not subject to the "Grundgesetz" and abolished the death penalty in 1951. The German Democratic Republic did not abolish the death penalty until 1987. The last execution ordered by a West German court was carried out by guillotine in Moabit prison 1949. The last hanging in Germany was the one ordered of several war criminals in Landsberg am Lech on June 7, 1951. The last known execution in East Germany was in 1981 by a pistol shot to the neck.[12]

Hungary

The prime minister of Hungary during the 1956 revolution, Imre Nagy, was secretly tried, executed by hanging, and buried unceremoniously by the new Soviet-backed Hungarian government, in 1958. Nagy was later publicly exonerated by Hungary.[16]

Capital punishment was abolished for all crimes in 1990.[12]

India

All executions in India are carried out by hanging.

Nathuram Godse, Mohandas Gandhi’s assassin, was executed by hanging in 1949.

The modern Supreme Court of India has suggested that capital punishment should be given only in the "rarest of rare cases".[17]

A recent case of capital punishment by hanging is that of Dhananjoy Chatterjee, a Security Guard who was convicted of the 1990 murder and rape of a 14-year-old girl, Hetal Parekh, in Kolkata in India. The manner in which the crime was committed, bludgeoning the victim with a blunt object and raping her as she was slowly dying, was considered brutal enough by the Supreme Court of India to warrant the death penalty. An appeal for clemency was made to the President of India, but was turned down. Chatterjee was hanged on August 14, 2004. It was the first execution in India since 1995.[18]

Iran

As one of several means of capital punishment in Iran, hangings are carried out by using a telescoping construction-style crane to hoist the condemned aloft and is the only punishment for rape, murder and child molestation, with all hangings taking place in public.

On July 19, 2005, two boys, Mahmoud Asgari and Ayaz Marhoni, ages 15 and 17 respectively, who had been convicted of the rape of a 13-year-old boy, were publicly hanged at Edalat (Justice) Square in Mashhad, on charges of homosexuality and rape.[19][20] On August 15, 2004, a 16-year-old girl, Atefeh Sahaaleh (a.k.a. Ateqeh Rajabi), was executed for having committed "acts incompatible with chastity".[21]

At dawn on July 27, 2008, the Iranian Government executed a total of 29 people at Evin Prison in Tehran.[22] On 2 December 2008, an unnamed man was hanged for murder at Kazeroun Prison, just moments before he was pardoned by the murder victim's family, then quickly cut down and rushed to a hospital where he was successfully revived.[23]

Iraq

Hanging was used under the regime of Saddam Hussein,[24] but was suspended along with capital punishment on June 10, 2003, when the United States-led coalition invaded and overthrew the previous regime. The death penalty was reinstated on August 8, 2004.[25]

In September 2005, three murderers were the first people to be executed since the restoration. Then on March 9, 2006, an official of Iraq's Supreme Judicial Council confirmed that Iraqi authorities had executed the first insurgents by hanging.[26]

Saddam Hussein was sentenced to death by hanging for crimes against humanity[27] on November 5, 2006, and was executed on December 30, 2006 at approximately 6:00 a.m. local time. During the drop, there was an audible crack indicating that his neck was broken, a successful example of a long drop hanging.[28]

By contrast, Barzan Ibrahim, the head of the Mukhabarat, Saddam's security agency, and Awad Hamed al-Bandar, former chief judge, were executed on January 15, 2007, also by the long drop method, but Barzan was decapitated by the rope at the end of his fall indicating that the drop was too long.[29]

Also, former vice-president Taha Yassin Ramadan had been sentenced to life in prison on November 5, 2006, but the sentence was changed to death by hanging on February 12, 2007.[30] He was the fourth and final man to be executed for the 1982 crimes against humanity on March 20, 2007. This time, the execution went smoothly and without obvious mistake or problem.[31]

At the Anfal genocide trial, Saddam's cousin Ali Hassan al-Majid (aka Chemical Ali), former defence minister Sultan Hashim Ahmed al-Tay, and former deputy Hussein Rashid Mohammed were sentenced to hang for their role in the Al-Anfal Campaign against the Kurds on June 24, 2007.[32] Al-Majid was sentenced to death three more times: once for the 1991 suppression of a Shi'a uprising along with Abdul-Ghani Abdul Ghafur on December 2, 2008;[33] once for the 1999 crackdown in the assassination of Grand Ayatollah Mohammad al-Sadr on March 2, 2009;[34] and once on January 17, 2010 for the gassing of the Kurds in 1988;[35] he was hanged over a week later on January 25.[36]

Israel

Although Israel has provisions in its criminal law to use the death penalty for extraordinary crimes, it has only been used once. On May 31, 1962, Nazi leader Adolf Eichmann was executed by hanging.[14]

Japan

On February 27, 2004, the mastermind of the Sarin gas attack on the Tokyo subway, Shoko Asahara, was found guilty and sentenced to death by hanging. On December 25, 2006, serial killer Hiroaki Hidaka and three others were hanged in Japan. Hanging is the common method of execution in capital punishment cases in Japan, as in the cases of Norio Nagayama,[37] Mamoru Takuma,[38] and Tsutomu Miyazaki.[39]

Jordan

Death by hanging is the traditional method of capital punishment in Jordan.

Malaysia

Hanging is the traditional way of capital punishment in Malaysia.

Portugal

The last person executed by hanging in Portugal was Francisco Matos Lobos on April 16, 1842. Before, it had been a common death penalty.

Pakistan

In Pakistan hanging is the most common form of execution.

Russia

Hanging was averagely practiced by the Russian Empire during the rule of the Romanov Dynasty as an alternative to impalement used in the XV—XVI centuries.

Hanging was eliminated by Alexander II along with serfdom in 1868 (replaced with already practiced decapitation by guillotine for only the heaviest of crimes), but shortly restored for mass convictions by Nicholas II in 1910 as a response to emerging crowd protests.

After the October Revolution in 1917, capital punishment in whole was abolished, but restored years later. Stalin then replaced hanging with shooting with its definitive adoption in 1923.

Singapore

In Singapore, mandatory hanging using the long-drop method is currently used as punishment for various crimes, such as drug trafficking, kidnapping and unauthorized possession of firearms.[40]

A 25-year old Vietnamese-Australian, Nguyen Tuong Van, was hanged on December 2, 2005, after being convicted of drug trafficking in 2002. Numerous efforts from both the Australian government, Queen's Counsels and petitions from organizations such as Amnesty International failed to persuade Singapore to rescind its decision.

A 24-year old Malaysian, Took Leng How, was hanged on November 2, 2006, after being convicted of the murder of Huang Na in 2004.

Iwuchukwu Amara Tochi, a Nigerian national was sentenced to death in Singapore for drug trafficking. He was hanged on January 26, 2007.

United Kingdom

Detail from a painting by Pisanello, 1436–1438.
Hanging noose used at public executions outside Lancaster Castle, circa 1820-1830.

As a form of judicial execution in England, hanging is thought to date from the Anglo-Saxon period.[41] Records of the names of British hangmen begin with Thomas de Warblynton in the 1360s[citation needed]; complete records extend from the 1500s to the last hangmen, Robert Leslie Stewart and Harry Allen, who conducted the last British executions in 1964.

At the beginning of the 19th century, children in Britain were punished in the same way as adults. They were even sentenced to death for petty theft.[42] In 1814 five child criminals under the age of fourteen were hanged at the Old Bailey, the youngest being only eight years old.[43] Until 1868 hangings were performed in public. In London, the traditional site was at Tyburn, a settlement west of the City on the main road to Oxford, which was used on eight hanging days a year, though before 1865, executions had been transferred to the street outside Newgate Prison, Old Bailey, now the site of the Central Criminal Court.

In 1957, in an attempt to prevent the abolish of capital punishment completely, two levels of murder were defined: First Degree murder and Second Degree with only First Degree murder carrying the death penalty.

In 1965, Parliament passed the Murder (Abolition of Death Penalty) Act, temporarily abolishing capital punishment for murder for 5 years. The Act was renewed in 1969, making the abolition permanent. And with the passage of the Crime and Disorder Act 1998 and the Human Rights Act 1998, the death penalty was officially abolished for all crimes in both civilian and military cases. Following its complete abolition, the gallows were removed from Wandsworth Prison, where they remained in full working order until that year.

The last woman to be hanged was Ruth Ellis on July 13, 1955, by Albert Pierrepoint who was a prominent hangman in the 20th century in England. The last hanging in Britain took place in 1964, when Peter Anthony Allen, at Walton Prison in Liverpool, and Gwynne Owen Evans, at Strangeways Prison in Manchester were executed for the murder of John Alan West.

Silken rope

In the UK, some felons have traditionally been executed by hanging with a silken rope:

United States

The execution of four of the conspirators in the assassination of Abraham Lincoln.

The two largest mass executions in the U.S., of 38 and 13 men at the same time, were carried out by hanging.{{[48]}}

At present, capital punishment varies from state to state; it is outlawed in some states but used in most others. However, the death penalty under federal law is applicable in every state. Other forms of capital punishment have largely been replaced by lethal injection in the U.S., where the condemned may choose this as an option. Only lethal injection is used at the federal level and only the states of Washington and New Hampshire still retain hanging as an option. Hanging was the preferred method of execution in the state of Iowa until 1965, when Iowa abolished the death penalty. The last inmate to be executed by hanging in the state of Iowa was condemned murderer Victor Feguer, on March 15, 1963. Currently, Iowa has no death penalty, all suspects convicted of capital murder are automatically sentenced to life without parole.

Laws in Delaware were changed in 1986 to specify lethal injection, except for those convicted prior to 1986 (who were allowed to choose hanging). If a choice was not made, or the convict refused to choose injection, then hanging was the default method. This was the case in the 1996 execution of Billy Bailey, the most recent hanging in American history. Since the hanging of Bailey, no Delaware prisoner has fit into this category, thus the practice has ended there de facto, and the gallows have been dismantled.

In New Hampshire, if it is found to be 'impractical' to carry out the execution by lethal injection, then the condemned will be hanged, and in Washington the condemned still has an outright choice between hanging and lethal injection.[49]

In California, Clinton Duffy, who served as warden of San Quentin State Prison between 1940 and 1952, presided over ninety executions.[50] He began to oppose the death penalty and after his retirement he wrote a memoir entitled Eighty-Eight Men and Two Women in support of the movement to abolish the death penalty. The book documents several hangings gone wrong and describes how they led his predecessor, Warden James B. Holohan, to persuade the California Legislature to replace hanging with the gas chamber in 1937.[51][52]

Grammar

The proper, traditional past tense and past participle form of the verb "hang", in this sense, is (to be) "hanged" and not "hung". Some dictionaries list only "hanged",[53][54] whereas others show both forms.[55][56]

References

  1. ^ OED Entry (requires subscription).
  2. ^ "Hanged by the neck until dead! The processes and physiology of judicial hanging" (in English). Britain: Capital Punishment U.K.. http://www.capitalpunishmentuk.org/hanging2.html#short2. Retrieved 30 January 2010. 
  3. ^ Deary, Terry (2005). "Cool for Criminals". Loathsome London. Horrible Histories (1st ed.). London: Scholastic. pp. 63. ISBN 978043995900. 
  4. ^ Report by Kingsbury Smith, International News Service, 16th October 1946
  5. ^ Executioner Pierrepoint(ISBN 0-340-21307-8), p. 143–147.
  6. ^ The history of judicial hanging in Britain 1735 - 1964
  7. ^ "Gruesome death in gas chamber pushes Arizona towards injections", New York Times, April 25, 1992 (retrieved 7 January 2008).
  8. ^ "Canadian Injury Data". Statistics Canada. http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/injury-bles/cid98-dbc98/index.html. 
  9. ^ Suicide Statistics. URL accessed on 2006-05-16.
  10. ^ Trends in suicide by method in England and Wales, 1979 to 2001 (PDF), Office of National Statistics. URL accessed on 2006-05-16.
  11. ^ "How hanging causes death". http://www.richard.clark32.btinternet.co.uk/hanging2.html#causes. Retrieved 2006-04-27. 
  12. ^ a b c Countries that have abandoned the use of the death penalty, Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance, November 8, 2005
  13. ^ Death penalty in Australia, New South Wales Council for Civil Liberties
  14. ^ a b c d Capital Punishment Worldwide, MSN Encarta. Archived 2009-10-31.
  15. ^ Susan Munroe, History of Capital Punishment in Canada, About: Canada Online,
  16. ^ Richard Solash, Hungary: U.S. President To Honor 1956 Uprising (June 20, 2006), radio Free Europe; RadioLiberty.
  17. ^ Sakhrani, Monica; Adenwalla, Maharukh; Economic & Political Weekly, "Death Penalty - Case for Its Abolition"
  18. ^ Kumara, Sarath; World Socialist Web Site; "West Bengal carries out first hanging in India in a decade"
  19. ^ "Iran executes 2 gay teenagers". http://direland.typepad.com/direland/2005/07/iran_executes_2.html. Retrieved 2006-04-27. 
  20. ^ "Exclusive interview with gay activists in Iran on situation of gays, recent executions of gay teens and the future". http://www.gayrussia.ru/en/detail.php?ID=1596. Retrieved 2006-04-27. 
  21. ^ "IRAN: Amnesty International outraged at reported execution of a 16 year old girl". Amnesty International. 2004-08-23. http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/MDE13/036/2004/en/Gj2vcmpR0sAJ. Retrieved 2008-03-30. 
  22. ^ Iran executes 29 in jail hangings.
  23. ^ IRAN: Halted execution highlights inherent cruelty of death penalty. Amnesty International USA (2008-12-09). Retrieved on 2008-12-11.
  24. ^ Clark, Richard; The process of Judicial Hanging.
  25. ^ "Scores face execution in Iraq six years after invasion". Amnesty International USA. 2009-03-20. http://www.amnestyusa.org/document.php?id=ENGNAU200903209818&lang=e. Retrieved 2009-03-21. 
  26. ^ "More bombs bring death to Iraq". Mail & Guardian Online. 2006-03-10. http://www.mg.co.za/articlePage.aspx?articleid=266369&area=/breaking_news/breaking_news__international_news/. Retrieved 2006-04-27. 
  27. ^ "Saddam Hussein sentenced to death by hanging". CNN.com. 2006-11-05. http://www.cnn.com/2006/WORLD/meast/11/05/dujail.saddam/index.html. Retrieved 2006-11-05. 
  28. ^ "Saddam Hussein Hanging Video Shows Defiance, Taunts and Glee". National Ledger. 2007-01-01. http://www.nationalledger.com/artman/publish/article_272610730.shtml. Retrieved 2007-01-20. 
  29. ^ AP: Saddam’s half brother and ex-official hanged January 15, 2007.
  30. ^ Top Saddam aide sentenced to hang February 12, 2007.
  31. ^ Saddam's former deputy hanged in Iraq March 20, 2007.
  32. ^ Iraq's "Chemical Ali" sentenced to death, MSNBC.com, June 24, 2007. Retrieved on June 24, 2007.
  33. ^ Second death sentence for Iraq's 'Chemical Ali, MSNBC.com, December 2, 2008. Retrieved on December 2, 2008.
  34. ^ Iraq's 'Chemical Ali' gets 3rd death sentence, Associated Press, March 2, 2009. Retrieved on January 17, 2010.
  35. ^ 'Chemical Ali' gets a new death sentence, MSNBC.com, January 17, 2010. Retrieved on January 17, 2010.
  36. ^ "Saddam Hussein's Henchman Chemical Ali Executed". http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/middleeast/iraq/7072155/Saddam-Husseins-henchman-Chemical-Ali-executed.html. Retrieved 25 January 2010. 
  37. ^ "In Secrecy, Japan Hangs a Best-Selling Author, a Killer of 4". New York Times. 1997-08-07. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9406EED8163CF934A3575BC0A961958260. Retrieved 2008-06-17. 
  38. ^ "Japanese school killer executed". BBC News. 2004-09-14. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/3654144.stm. Retrieved 2008-06-17. 
  39. ^ "Reports: Japan executes man convicted of killing and mutilating young girls in 1980s". International Herald Tribune. 2008-06-17. http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2008/06/17/asia/AS-GEN-Japan-Execution.php. Retrieved 2008-06-17. 
  40. ^ "Singapore clings to death penalty". Sunday Times (South Africa). 2005-11-21. http://www.suntimes.co.za/zones/sundaytimesNEW/basket7st/basket7st1132576915.aspx. Retrieved 2006-04-02. 
  41. ^ "Hanging". The 11th Edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica.
  42. ^ "National Affairs: CAPITAL PUNISHMENT: A FADING PRACTICE". Time. March 21, 1960.
  43. ^ "London's children in the 19th century". Museum of London.
  44. ^ Lords Hansard text for 12 February 1998, Hansard, Col. 1350.
  45. ^ Writ of Execution - Laurence, Earl Ferrers.
  46. ^ The Newgate Calendar - Laurence, Earl Ferrers.
  47. ^ Freedom of the City - History, City of London.
  48. ^ "Execution of Indians in Minnesota" New York Times Dec. 29 1862 pg. 5
  49. ^ "Section 630.5, Procedures in Capital Murder". http://www.gencourt.state.nh.us/rsa/html/lxii/630/630-5.htm. Retrieved 2006-04-27. 
  50. ^ Blake, Gene (1982-10-14). "Famed warden Duffy of San Quentin dead at 84". Los Angeles Times. 
  51. ^ Duffy, Clinton (1962). Eighty-Eight Men and Two Women. Garden City, NY: Doubleday. OCLC 1317754. 
  52. ^ Fimrite, Peter (2005-11-20). "Inside death row. At San Quentin, 647 condemned killers wait to die in the most populous execution antechamber in the United States.". San Francisco Chronicle. http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2005/11/20/INGFUFHCFL56.DTL. Retrieved 2009-01-12. 
  53. ^ Online "Compact Oxford English Dictionary of Current English". http://www.askoxford.com/concise_oed/hang?view=uk. Retrieved 2009-07-06. 
  54. ^ Online "American Heritage Dictionary". http://education.yahoo.com/reference/dictionary/entry/hang. Retrieved 2009-07-06. 
  55. ^ "Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionary". http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/hang. Retrieved 2009-07-06. 
  56. ^ Jess Stein, ed (1979 printing). Random House Dictionary of the English Language (1st ed.). 

See also

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(as a punishment), a mark of infamy inflicted on the dead bodies of criminals (Deut 21:23) rather than our modern mode of punishment. Criminals were first strangled and then hanged (Nu. 25:4; Deut 21:22). (See 2 Sam 21:6 for the practice of the Gibeonites.)

Hanging (as a curtain).

  1. Heb. masak, (a) before the entrance to the court of the tabernacle (Ex 35:17); (b) before the door of the tabernacle (26:36, 37); (c) before the entrance to the most holy place, called "the veil of the covering" (35:12; 39:34), as the word properly means.
  2. Heb. kelaim, tapestry covering the walls of the tabernacle (Ex 27:9; 35:17; Num 3:26) to the half of the height of the wall (Ex 27:18; comp. 26:16). These hangings were fastened to pillars.
  3. Heb. bottim (2Kg 23:7), "hangings for the grove" (R.V., "for the Asherah"); marg., instead of "hangings," has "tents" or "houses." Such curtained structures for idolatrous worship are also alluded to in Ezek 16:16.
This entry includes text from Easton's Bible Dictionary, 1897.

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