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Hannibal, son of Hamilcar Barca
248–183 or 182 BC
.HannibalTheCarthaginian.jpg
A marble bust, reputedly of Hannibal, originally found at the ancient city-state of Capua in Italy.
^ It was originally found at the ancient city-state of Capua in Italia.
  • Patton, The Second Coming of Hannibal 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.reversespins.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Capua, which was not only the chief city of Campania, but now that the power of Rome had been shattered at Cannae was the head of Italy, had surrendered to Hannibal.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Capua was closely allied to the general, was no doubt intended to be the Carthaginian political representative in Italy, and possibly commissioned the bust in honor of him.
  • Patton, The Second Coming of Hannibal 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.reversespins.com [Source type: Original source]

Some historians doubt the authenticity of the portrait.[1][2][3][4][5]
Allegiance Carthaginian Republic
Rank General, commander-in-chief of the Carthaginian armies
Battles/wars Second Punic War: Battle of Lake Trasimene, Battle of Trebia, Battle of Cannae, Battle of Zama
.Hannibal, son of Hamilcar Barca,[n 1] (248–183 or 182 BC),[n 2] commonly known as Hannibal (in Punic: Annobal, meaning "Ba'al's grace/help/blessing", Greek: Ἁννίβας, Hanníbas),[7][8][9][10] was a Carthaginian military commander and tactician who is popularly credited as one of the most talented commanders in history.^ There was a Lucanian named Flavus, the head of that section of the Lucanians who stood by Rome-one section had gone over to Hannibal-and they elected him praetor.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Hannibal will only feel contempt for a man who runs all risks, he will be afraid of one who never takes a rash step.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Barca was not a family name, but it was carried by Hamilcar's sons to distinguish them from others bearing the same first name.
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

.His father Hamilcar Barca was the leading Carthaginian commander during the First Punic War, his younger brothers were Mago and Hasdrubal, and he was brother-in-law to Hasdrubal the Fair.^ He was also brother to Mago and Hasdrubal and brother-in-law to Hasdrubal the Fair.
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When his father was killed in battle, Hannibal's brother-in-law Hasdrubal succeeded to his command of the army.
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At the age of nine he accompanied his father—Hamilcar Barca, who commanded the Carthaginian army—to Spain where the elder Barca soon defeated the many tribes of Spain and established New Carthage .

.Hannibal lived during a period of tension in the Mediterranean, when Rome (then the Roman Republic) established its supremacy over other great powers such as Carthage, and the Hellenistic kingdoms of Macedon, Syracuse, and the Seleucid empire.^ He lived during a period of tension in the Mediterranean , when Rome (then the Roman Republic ) established its supremacy over other great powers such as Carthage , and the Hellenistic Kingdoms of Macedon , Syracuse , and the Seleucid empire .
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Following the end of the war that established Rome as the supreme power in the western and central Mediterranean and left Carthage without a navy or the ability to wage war, Hannibal remained an influential figure in Carthage and became a Shophet , or chief magistrate between 200 and 196.

^ After outmaneuvering the natives, who had tried to prevent his crossing, Hannibal evaded a Roman force marching from the Mediterranean coast by turning inland up the valley of the Rhône.
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

.One of his most famous achievements was at the outbreak of the Second Punic War, when he marched an army, which included war elephants, from Iberia over the Pyrenees and the Alps into northern Italy.^ Second Punic War in Italy (218–203 BC) .
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His most famous achievement was at the outbreak of the Second Punic War , when he marched an army, which included war elephants , from Iberia over the Pyrenees and the Alps into northern Italy .
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 218 the Second Punic War began.

.In his first few years in Italy, he won three dramatic victories, Trebia, Trasimene, and Cannae, and won over several Roman allies.^ For the next few years, Hannibal was forced to sustain a scorched earth policy and obtain local provisions for protracted and ineffectual operations throughout Southern Italy.
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At that time Casilinum was held by 500 Praenestines with a few Roman and Latin troops, who had gone there when they heard of the disaster at Cannae.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

^ By this time the Roman left wing, where the allied cavalry were fronting the Numidians, had become engaged, but the fighting was slack at first owing to a Carthaginian stratagem.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

.Hannibal occupied much of Italy for 15 years, however a Roman counter-invasion of North Africa forced Hannibal to return to Carthage, where he was decisively defeated by Scipio Africanus at the Battle of Zama.^ This was because the Romans had forced certain restrictions on Carthage after the Africans were defeated.
  • AfricanHistory 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.crbcc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A Roman counter-invasion of North Africa forced him to return to Carthage, where he was defeated by Scipio Africanus at the Battle of Zama .
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ HANNIBAL BARCA - of Carthage (North Africa) was 100% caucasian!
  • HANNIBAL BARCA - of Carthage (North Africa) was 100% caucasian! - Topix 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.topix.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Scipio studied Hannibal's tactics and brilliantly devised some of his own, and finally defeated Rome's nemesis at Zama having previously driven Hasdrubal, Hannibal's brother, out of Spain.^ Roman forces not only captured Cartagena , one of his main supply bases but also defeated his brother Hasdrubal in northern Spain as he marched to join Hannibal and gave Hannibal the news by throwing his head into his camp.

^ In 204 Rome finally decided that the best way to get Hannibal out of Italy would be to reciprocate Hannibal's occupation of Italy by launching an invasion of Carthage.

^ Some say that his men buried him in his own camp; others say that he was buried by Hannibal, and this is the more generally accepted account.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

.After the war Hannibal successfully ran for the office of suffete.^ After the war he successfully ran for the office of shofet .
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

.He enacted political and financial reforms to enable the payment of the war indemnity imposed by Rome.^ He enacted political and financial reforms to enable the payment of the war indemnity imposed by Rome.
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ So effectively did Hannibal reform abuses that the heavy tribute imposed by Rome could be paid by installments without additional and extraordinary taxation.
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ From the day when he was proclaimed commander-in-chief, he seemed to regard Italy as his assigned field of action, and war with Rome as a duty imposed upon him.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

.However, Hannibal's reforms were unpopular with members of the Carthaginian aristocracy and Rome, and he fled into voluntary exile.^ Hannibal thereupon went into voluntary exile .
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, Hannibal's reforms were unpopular with members of the Carthaginian aristocracy and Rome, and he fled into voluntary exile.
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ So effectively did Hannibal reform abuses that the heavy tribute imposed by Rome could be paid by installments without additional and extraordinary taxation.
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

.During his exile, he lived at the Seleucid court, where he acted as military advisor to Antiochus III in his war against Rome.^ During his exile, he lived at the Seleucid court, where he acted as military advisor to Antiochus III in his war against Rome.
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He lived during a period of tension in the Mediterranean , when Rome (then the Roman Republic ) established its supremacy over other great powers such as Carthage , and the Hellenistic Kingdoms of Macedon , Syracuse , and the Seleucid empire .
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "Well, Hanno," he began, "do you still disapprove of our commencing a war against Rome?
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

.After Antiochus met defeat and was forced to accept Rome's terms, Hannibal fled again, making a stop in Armenia.^ After Antiochus met defeat and was forced to accept Rome's terms, Hannibal fled again, making a stop in Armenia , where he worked as a planner for the new capital.
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But he could not make much impression on Antiochus, who listened to his courtiers and would not entrust Hannibal with any important office.
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Rome got its first real dictator in 217 B.C.E.17when the Roman Senate appointed Fabius "MARSHALL OF ALL FORCES" to stop the onslaught of the African invaders in northern Italy under the command of General Hannibal Barca.
  • AfricanHistory 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.crbcc.com [Source type: Original source]

.His flight ended in the court of Bithynia, where he achieved an outstanding naval victory against a fleet from Pergamum.^ His flight ended in the court of Bithynia where he achieved an outstanding naval victory against a fleet from Pergamum .
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

.He was afterwards betrayed to the Romans.^ He was afterwards betrayed to the Romans.
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

.Often regarded as the greatest military tactician and strategist in history, Hannibal would later be considered as one of the greatest generals of antiquity, together with Alexander the Great, Julius Caesar, Scipio, and Pyrrhus of Epirus.^ Top Generals in Ancient History - Alexander, Hannibal, Caesar, Scipio Notes on some of the best generals in ancient times, from Hannibal to Caesar.
  • Hannibal - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 12 September 2009 10:24 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ Alexander the Great, Hannibal and Julius Caesar - all of them met with struggle on their rise to power.
  • Hannibal - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 12 September 2009 10:24 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ It is during the sixteen years that followed that Hannibal and the motley army of mercenaries that he held together with sheer willpower and skilled leadership became a fighting force that is studied in military training 22 centuries later.

.Plutarch gives that, when questioned by Scipio as to who was the greatest general, Hannibal is said to have replied either Alexander, Pyrrhus, then himself,[11] or, according to another version of the event, Pyrrhus, Scipio, then himself.^ Plutarch gives that when questioned by Scipio as to who was the greatest general, Hannibal is said to have replied either Alexander, Pyrrhus, then himself, or, according to another version of the event, Pyrrhus, Scipio, then himself.
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is said that at one of their meetings in the gymnasium Scipio and Hannibal had a conversation on the subject of generalship, in the presence of a number of bystanders, and that Scipio asked Hannibal whom he considered the greatest general, to which the latter replied, " Alexander of Macedonia ."
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In fact, Plutarch tells of an encounter at Ephesus in which Hannibal placed himself third on the list of great generals, after Alexander and Pyrrhus , both of whom he had studied as a youth.

[12] .Military historian Theodore Ayrault Dodge once famously called Hannibal the "father of strategy",[13] because his greatest enemy, Rome, came to adopt elements of his military tactics in its own strategic arsenal.^ Military historian Theodore Ayrault Dodge once famously called Hannibal the "father of strategy" , because his greatest enemy, Rome, came to adopt elements of his military tactics in its own strategic arsenal.
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ According to the military historian, Theodore Ayrault Dodge , Hannibal excelled as a tactician .
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Other sources report that Hannibal told his father, " I swear so soon as age will permit...I will use fire and steel to arrest the destiny of Rome.
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

.This praise has earned him a strong reputation in the modern world and he was regarded as a "gifted strategist" by men like Napoleon Bonaparte and the Duke of Wellington.^ This praise has earned him a strong reputation in the modern world and he was regarded as a "gifted strategist" by men like Napoleon Bonaparte and the Duke of Wellington .
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When your commonwealth is prosperous and safe send to Pythian Apollo a gift from the gains you have earned and honour him with your substance out of the plunder, the booty, and the spoils.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

^ At length, no sooner had the Dictator departed than, like men delivered from a blockade, they left their entrenchments and routed the enemy and put him to flight.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

.His life has been the basis for a number of films and documentaries.^ His life has been the basis for a number of films and documentaries.
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

.He has been attributed with the famous quotation, "We will either find a way, or make one."^ He has been attributed with the famous quotation, "We will either find a way, or make one."
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We will either find a way, or make one.” – Hannibal Barca .

^ Excellent post on finding a way, or making one.

Contents

Background and early career

.Hannibal was one of the sons of Hamilcar Barca, a Carthaginian leader.^ Hannibal Barca was the son of Hamilcar Barca and his Iberian wife.
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Barca was not a family name, but it was carried by Hamilcar's sons to distinguish them from others bearing the same first name.
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Hannibal Barca Jan 01, 2004; Hannibal Barca Hannibal Barca (247-183 B.C.) was a Carthaginian general and one of the greatest military leaders of the ancient...
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

.He had several sisters and two brothers, Hasdrubal and Mago.^ He was also brother to Mago and Hasdrubal and brother-in-law to Hasdrubal the Fair.
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ What more than anything else made the battle glorious and memorable was the capture of the commander-in-chief, Hasdrubal, and also of Hanno and Mago, two Carthaginian nobles.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Hasdrubal was in command of the left wing, Maharbal of the right; Hannibal himself with his brother Mago commanded the centre.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

.His brothers-in-law were Hasdrubal the Fair and the Numidian king Naravas.^ He was also brother to Mago and Hasdrubal and brother-in-law to Hasdrubal the Fair.
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The journey was planned originally by Hannibal's brother-in-law Hasdrubal.
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When his father was killed in battle, Hannibal's brother-in-law Hasdrubal succeeded to his command of the army.
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

.He was still a child when his sisters married and his brothers-in-law were close associates during his father's struggles in the Mercenary War and the Punic conquest of Iberia.^ These were the main incidents of the campaign in Spain during the second summer of the Punic war.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

^ When his father was killed in battle, Hannibal's brother-in-law Hasdrubal succeeded to his command of the army.
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At the age of twenty six, after the death of his father and his brother-in-law who had succeeded him, Hannibal was named commander of the army.

.In light of Hamilcar Barca's cognomen, historians refer to Hamilcar's family as the Barcids.^ Historians thus refer to Hamilcar's family as the Barcids .
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Barca was not a family name, but it was carried by Hamilcar's sons to distinguish them from others bearing the same first name.
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Polybius , Roman historian Of all the great generals the world has seen, Hannibal Barca, son of the Carthaginian general Hamilcar Barca , ranks as one of the most able--and one of the most unlucky.

.However, there is debate as to whether the cognomen Barca (meaning "thunderbolt") was applied to Hamilcar alone or was hereditary within his family.^ According to this tradition ten came at first, and there was a debate in the senate as to whether they should be allowed within the City or not; they were admitted on the understanding that the senate would not grant them an audience.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

^ He had, however, on leaving his winter quarters noticed that there were discontented "rumblings going on in the army, men were asking whether they would ever serve as free men.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

If the latter, then Hannibal and his brothers also bore the name 'Barca'.[14]
.After Carthage's defeat in the First Punic War, Hamilcar set out to improve his family's and Carthage's fortunes.^ After Carthage's defeat in the First Punic War , Hamilcar set out to improve his family's and Carthage's fortunes.
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Barca was not a family name, but it was carried by Hamilcar's sons to distinguish them from others bearing the same first name.
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was the beginning of a series of wars that were later called the "FIRST PUNIC WARS".
  • AfricanHistory 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.crbcc.com [Source type: Original source]

.With that in mind and supported by Gades, Hamilcar began the subjugation of the tribes of the Iberian Peninsula.^ With that in mind and supported by Gades , Hamilcar began the subjugation of the tribes of the Iberian Peninsula .
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He began to consolidate the Carthaginian hold on Iberia, took a local princess by the name of Imilce for his wife and, one by one, picked off any of the peninsula's tribes that resisted him.

.Carthage at the time was in such a poor state that its navy was unable to transport his army to Iberia (Hispania); instead, Hamilcar had to march it towards the Pillars of Hercules and transport it across the Strait of Gibraltar (present-day Morocco/Spain).^ Carthage at the time was in such a poor state that its navy was unable to transport his army to Iberia ( Hispania ); instead, Hamilcar had to march it towards the Pillars of Hercules and ferry it across the Strait of Gibraltar (present-day Morocco ).
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It also took over British trading interests with Spain and commanded the strait of the pillar of Hercules (Strait of Gibraltar).
  • AfricanHistory 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.crbcc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Through prompt decision and speedy movement, he succeeded in transporting his army to Italy by sea, in time to meet Hannibal.
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

[citation needed]
.According to Livy, Hannibal much later said that when he came upon his father and begged to go with him, Hamilcar agreed and demanded him to swear that as long as he lived he would never be a friend of Rome.^ According to Livy , Hannibal much later said that when he came upon his father and begged to go with him, Hamilcar agreed and demanded him to swear that as long as he lived he would never be a friend of Rome.
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But he could not make much impression on Antiochus, who listened to his courtiers and would not entrust Hannibal with any important office.
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Hi Rita: I can see how reading about Hannibal would make certain images that I wasn’t referring to here pop into your head, since you already know so much about him.

.There is even an account of him at a very young age begging his father to take him to an overseas war.^ Even if any one had escaped from the carnage the Romans, after taking that camp, ran on so swiftly to the other one that no one could get there before them to announce the disaster.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The oligarchy, always jealous of him, had even charged him with having betrayed the interests of his country while in Italy, for neglecting to take Rome when he might have done so.
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I am a profound INTJ, and even when I was very young I understood that I had an unusual and difficult personality type, and that while it caused problems, it was no flaw.

.In the story, Hannibal's father took him up and brought him to a sacrificial chamber.^ On leaving the Senate-house Hannibal took his seat on the magistrates' tribunal and ordered Decius Magius to be arrested, brought before him, and put on his defence, alone and unbefriended.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

^ "It was by the nobility," he declared, "who had for many years been trying to get up a war, that Hannibal was brought into Italy, and when the war might have been brought to a close, it was they who were unscrupulously protracting it.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Prusias agreed to give him up, but Hannibal was determined not to fall into his enemies' hands.
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

.Hamilcar held Hannibal over the fire roaring in the chamber and made him swear that he would never be a friend of Rome.^ Other sources report that Hannibal told his father, " I swear so soon as age will permit...I will use fire and steel to arrest the destiny of Rome.
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ According to Livy , Hannibal much later said that when he came upon his father and begged to go with him, Hamilcar agreed and demanded him to swear that as long as he lived he would never be a friend of Rome.
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If, as they felt certain would be the case, Hannibal came to Capua to help his friends, it would be necessary, in view of the sudden emergency, to provide against the attacks of his cavalry.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

Other sources report that Hannibal told his father, "I swear so soon as age will permit...I will use fire and steel to arrest the destiny of Rome."[13][15]
.Hannibal's father went about the conquest of Hispania.^ Hannibal's father went about the conquest of Hispania .
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In "Hannibal," Lecter talks about Clarice's father being a nightwatchman.
  • Ain't It Cool News: The best in movie, TV, DVD, and comic book news. 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.aintitcool.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After he assumed command, Hannibal spent two years consolidating his holdings and completing the conquest of Hispania south of the Ebro.
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

.When his father was killed in battle, Hannibal's brother-in-law Hasdrubal succeeded to his command of the army with Hannibal serving as an officer under him.^ The journey was planned originally by Hannibal's brother-in-law Hasdrubal.
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He was also brother to Mago and Hasdrubal and brother-in-law to Hasdrubal the Fair.
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When his father was killed in battle, Hannibal's brother-in-law Hasdrubal succeeded to his command of the army.
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

.Hasdrubal pursued a policy of consolidation of Carthage's Iberian interests, even signing a treaty with Rome whereby Carthage would not expand north of the Ebro River, so long as Rome did not expand south of it.^ Hasdrubal pursued a policy of consolidation of Carthage's Iberian interests, even signing a treaty with Rome whereby Carthage would not expand north of the Ebre River, so long as Rome did not expand south of it.
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Hasdrubal at once sent a despatch to Carthage pointing out what mischief the mere rumour of his departure had caused, and also that if he did really leave Spain it would pass into the hands of the Romans before he crossed the Ebro.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

^ All Spain west of the Ebro would have abandoned the side of Rome had not P. Cornelius Scipio hurriedly crossed the Ebro and by his timely appearance confirmed the wavering allies.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

.Hasdrubal also endeavored to consolidate Carthaginian power through diplomatic relationships with native tribes.^ Hasdrubal tried to consolidate Carthaginian power even through diplomatic relationships with native tribes.
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^ He began to consolidate the Carthaginian hold on Iberia, took a local princess by the name of Imilce for his wife and, one by one, picked off any of the peninsula's tribes that resisted him.

.As a part of his deals Hasdrubal arranged the marriage between Hannibal and an Iberian princess named Imilce.^ As a part of his deals Hasdrubal arranged the marriage between Hannibal and an Iberian princess named Imilce.
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.Upon the assassination of Hasdrubal (221 BC), Hannibal was proclaimed commander-in-chief by the army and confirmed in his appointment by the Carthaginian government.^ Upon the assassination of Hasdrubal (221 BC), Hannibal was proclaimed commander-in-chief by the army and confirmed in his appointment by the Carthaginian government.
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^ Hasdrubal was assassinated around the same time (221 BC), bringing Hannibal to the fore.
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 210 BC Hannibal again proved his superiority in tactics by inflicting a severe defeat at Herdoniac (modern Ordona ) in Apulia upon a proconsular army, and in 208 BC destroyed a Roman force engaged in the siege of Locri Epizephyri .
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Livy, a Roman scholar, gives a depiction of the young Carthaginian:
.
No sooner had he arrived...the old soldiers fancied they saw Hamilcar in his youth given back to them; the same bright look; the same fire in his eye, the same trick of countenance and features.^ The veterans thought they saw Hamilcar restored to them as he was in his youth; they saw the same determined expression the same piercing eyes, the same cast of features.
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^ Titus Livy , a Roman scholar, gives a depiction of the young Carthaginian: No sooner had he arrived...the old soldiers fancied they saw Hamilcar in his youth given back to them; the same bright look; the same fire in his eye, the same trick of countenance and features.
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But when the news arrived that Hasdrubal-Gisgo's son-had crossed the Ebro and was coming to stamp out the remains of the war and the soldiers saw the signal for battle put out by their new general they gave way completely.
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.Never was one and the same spirit more skillful to meet opposition, to obey, or to command...^ Never was one and the same spirit more skillful to meet opposition, to obey, or to command...
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^ Whenever courage and resolution were needed Hasdrubal never cared to entrust the command to any one else; and there was no leader in whom the soldiers placed more confidence or under whom they showed more daring.
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^ Never was there a character more capable of the two tasks so opposed to each other of commanding and obeying; you could not easily make out whether the army or its general were more attached to him.
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[16]
.After he assumed command, Hannibal spent two years consolidating his holdings and completing the conquest of Hispania south of the Ebro.^ After he assumed command, Hannibal spent two years consolidating his holdings and completing the conquest of Hispania south of the Ebro.
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^ The Romans mounted two sieges of Capua, which fell in 211 BC, and the Romans completed their conquest of Syracuse and destruction of a Carthaginian army in Sicily.
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^ Two legions were decreed for each of the consuls in the operations against Hannibal; one consul took over the army from Q. Fabius, the consul of the previous year, the other that of Fulvius Centumalus.
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[17] .However, Rome, fearing the growing strength of Hannibal in Iberia, made an alliance with the city of Saguntum which lay a considerable distance south of the River Ebro and claimed the city as its protectorate.^ What our strength and courage are now here, such will be the fortune of our City yonder and of the empire of Rome."
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^ Epicydes made a sortie against Marcellus and the Carthaginian fleet which lay between the city and the Roman camp was brought ashore and so prevented Crispinus from sending any help to Marcellus.
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^ At that time he was one of Hannibal's soldiers, but he was recognised as a guest friend by the city of Saguntum.
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.Hannibal perceived this as a breach of the treaty signed with Hasdrubal and so he laid siege to the city, which fell after eight months.^ Hannibal perceived this as a breach of the treaty signed with Hasdrubal and so he laid siege to the city, which fell after eight months.
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^ One part where a continuous fall had taken place laid the city open; three towers in succession, and the whole of the wall between them fell with a tremendous crash.
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.Rome reacted to this apparent violation of the treaty and demanded justice from Carthage.^ Rome reacted to this apparent violation of the treaty and demanded justice from Carthage.
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^ If he refused to abandon hostilities they were to proceed to Carthage to demand the surrender of the general to answer for his breach of treaty.
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.In view of Hannibal's great popularity, the Carthaginian government did not repudiate Hannibal's actions, and the war he sought was declared at the end of the year.^ In view of Hannibal's great popularity, the Carthaginian government did not repudiate Hannibal's actions, and the war he sought was declared at the end of the year.
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^ Although the aging Hannibal was suffering from mental exhaustion and deteriorating health after years of campaigning in Italy, the Carthaginians still had the advantage in numbers and were boosted by the presence of 80 war elephants.
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^ They were instructed to inquire whether it was with the sanction of the government that Hannibal had attacked Saguntum, and if, as seemed most probable, the Carthaginians should admit that it was so and proceed to defend their action, then the Roman envoys were to formally declare war upon Carthage.
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.Hannibal was now determined to carry the war into the heart of Italy by a rapid march through Hispania and southern Gaul.^ With thirty-seven elephants, Hannibal’s army climbed through the Pyrenees, across the Rhone River Valley, over the Alps, and into Italy, launching a surprise attack and conquering northern Italy.

^ Capua, which was not only the chief city of Campania, but now that the power of Rome had been shattered at Cannae was the head of Italy, had surrendered to Hannibal.
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^ His reputation was quite as great with Hannibal and the Carthaginians; now at last they felt that the were warring with Romans and on Italian soil.
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Second Punic War in Italy (218–203 BC)

Overland journey to Italy

Hannibal´s route of invasion given by the Department of History, United States Military Academy.
.The journey was planned originally by Hannibal's brother-in-law Hasdrubal.^ The journey was planned originally by Hannibal's brother-in-law Hasdrubal.
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^ He was also brother to Mago and Hasdrubal and brother-in-law to Hasdrubal the Fair.
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^ Thus, Hannibal took the Romans by surprise a scant two years later in 218 BC by merely reviving and adapting the original Gaulo-Carthaginian invasion plan of his brother-in-law.
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.Hasdrubal became Carthaginian commander in Iberia in 229 BC, a post he would maintain for some eight years until 221 BC. Soon the Romans became aware of an alliance between Carthage and the Celts of the Po River valley in Northern Italy.^ With thirty-seven elephants, Hannibal’s army climbed through the Pyrenees, across the Rhone River Valley, over the Alps, and into Italy, launching a surprise attack and conquering northern Italy.

^ At the age of nine he accompanied his father—Hamilcar Barca, who commanded the Carthaginian army—to Spain where the elder Barca soon defeated the many tribes of Spain and established New Carthage .

^ Hasdrubal set forth to return to his brother the same year with the relief column to link up with the battle weary Carthaginians, only to march directly between a Roman army twice the size of his relief column on both sides of a mountain pass in Iberia.
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.The latter were amassing forces to invade Italy, presumably with Carthaginian backing.^ With this combined land and sea force he was sent to Sicily, with instructions to cross over to Africa if the other consul succeeded in preventing the Carthaginian from invading Italy.
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.Thus, the Romans pre-emptively invaded the Po region in 225 BC. By 220 BC, the Romans had annexed the area as Gallia Cisalpina [18].^ Thus, the Romans pre-emptively invaded the Po region in 225 BC. By 220 BC, the Romans had annexed the area as Gallia Cisalpina .
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^ The Romans invaded and annexed Corsica and Sardinia in 238 BCE, only a scant three (3) years after they had made a peace treaty with Carthage covering Mediterranean area limitations, .
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.Hasdrubal was assassinated around the same time (221 BC), bringing Hannibal to the fore.^ As he did not know what understanding they had come to with Hannibal, or what proposals Hannibal's agents were bringing to him, he despatched a second embassy with the same instructions.
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.It seems that, having apparently dealt with the threat of a Gaulo-Carthaginian invasion of Italy (and perhaps with the original Carthaginian commander killed), the Romans lulled themselves into a false sense of security.^ In Spain nothing of any importance took place except that the Romans secured for themselves the services of the Celtiberians by offering them the same pay which the Carthaginians had agreed to pay.
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^ The next day the Romans marched into the field, but the Carthaginian remained in camp, thereby tacitly admitting that he was vanquished.
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^ He had a secret interview with Mago, who was commanding in Bruttium, and obtained his solemn pledge that if he would betray the Roman commander to the Carthaginians the Lucanians should be taken into friendship and allowed to live as a free people under their own laws.
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.Thus, Hannibal took the Romans by surprise a scant two years later in 218 BC by merely reviving and adapting the original Gaulo-Carthaginian invasion plan of his brother-in-law.^ For your own soldiers will want the same thing as the enemy; Varro though he is a Roman consul will desire just what Hannibal the Carthaginian commander desires.
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^ His reputation was quite as great with Hannibal and the Carthaginians; now at last they felt that the were warring with Romans and on Italian soil.
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^ There I should have had my brother to share my plans and dangers; I should have had Hasdrubal rather than Hannibal as my foe, and undoubtedly a less serious war on my hands.
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[citation needed]
.Hannibal departed New Carthage in late spring of 218 BC[19] He fought his way through the northern tribes to the Pyrenees, subduing the tribes through clever mountain tactics and stubborn fighting.^ Hannibal departed New Carthage in late spring of 218 BC He fought his way through the northern tribes to the Pyrenees , subduing the tribes through clever mountain tactics and stubborn fighting.
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^ With thirty-seven elephants, Hannibal’s army climbed through the Pyrenees, across the Rhone River Valley, over the Alps, and into Italy, launching a surprise attack and conquering northern Italy.

^ Starting in the spring of 218 BC, he easily fought his way through the northern tribes to the Pyrenees and, by conciliating the Gaulish chiefs along his passage, reached the Rhône River before the Romans could take any measures to bar his advance.
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.He left a detachment of 11,000 troops to garrison the newly conquered region.^ He left a detachment of 11,000 troops to garrison the newly conquered region.
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^ Out of these city troops, all under thirty-five years of age were placed on board the ships, the rest were left to garrison the City.
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^ At the Pyrenees, he released another 11,000 Iberian troops who showed reluctance to leave their homeland.
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At the Pyrenees, he released another 11,000 Iberian troops who showed reluctance to leave their homeland. .Hannibal reportedly entered Gaul with 40,000 foot soldiers and 12,000 horsemen.^ Mago, Hannibal's brother, was preparing to transport to Italy a force of 12,000 infantry, 1500 cavalry, and 20 elephants, escorted by a fleet of 60 warships.
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[20]
The Little St Bernard: one of the proposed crossing points into Italy
.Hannibal recognized that he still needed to cross the Pyrenees, the Alps, and many significant rivers.^ Hannibal recognized that he still needed to cross the Pyrenees, the Alps, and many significant rivers.
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^ With thirty-seven elephants, Hannibal’s army climbed through the Pyrenees, across the Rhone River Valley, over the Alps, and into Italy, launching a surprise attack and conquering northern Italy.

^ This river, which also takes its rise in the Alps, is of all the rivers of Gaul the most difficult to cross.
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.Additionally, he would have to contend with opposition from the Gauls, whose territory he passed through.^ From the Durance Hannibal's route lay mostly through open level country, and he reached the Alps without meeting with any opposition from the Gauls who inhabited the district.
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^ These two passes, however, would not have brought him to the Taurini but through the Salassi, a mountain tribe, to the Libuan Gauls.
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.Starting in the spring of 218 BC, he easily fought his way through the northern tribes to the Pyrenees and, by conciliating the Gaulish chiefs along his passage, reached the Rhône River before the Romans could take any measures to bar his advance.^ With thirty-seven elephants, Hannibal’s army climbed through the Pyrenees, across the Rhone River Valley, over the Alps, and into Italy, launching a surprise attack and conquering northern Italy.

^ The numerous betrayals and defections which reached his ears and the massacre of Roman garrisons made him more than ever careful to take every possible precaution.
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^ Before Hasdrubal commenced his march, he levied contributions on all the tribes under his rule, for he was quite aware that Hannibal had secured a passage through some tribes by paying for it, and had obtained his Gaulish auxiliaries simply by hiring them.
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.Arriving at the Rhône in September, Hannibal's army numbered 38,000 infantry, 8,000 cavalry, and 37 war elephants.^ The Balearic and light-armed infantry were posted in front of the standards; they numbered about 8000; behind them the heavy-armed infantry, the mainstay and backbone of the army; on the flanks Hannibal distributed the cavalry, and outside them, again, the elephants.
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^ According to Caelius, Mago with the cavalry and Spanish infantry at once swam across, whilst Hannibal himself took his army across higher up the river where it was fordable, the elephants being stationed in a row from bank to bank to break the force of the current.
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^ His land force was made up of two Roman legions, with their complement of cavalry, and 14,000 infantry from the allies with 1600 cavalry.
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[21]
Hannibal and his men crossing the Alps.
.After outmaneuvering the natives, who had tried to prevent his crossing, Hannibal evaded a Roman force marching from the Mediterranean coast by turning inland up the valley of the Rhône.^ His land force was made up of two Roman legions, with their complement of cavalry, and 14,000 infantry from the allies with 1600 cavalry.
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^ To prevent them from carrying out their intentions Fabius marched between Capua and Hannibal's camp on Tifata and established himself in Claudius' camp overlooking Suessula.
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^ Whilst he marched inland, the legion proceeded along the coast, accompanied by the fleet, and joined Appius Claudius who had come to meet it with a portion of his force.
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.His exact route over the Alps has been the source of scholarly dispute ever since.^ His exact route over the Alps has been the source of scholarly dispute ever since.
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.(Polybius, the surviving ancient account closest in time to Hannibal's campaign, reports that the route was already debated.^ (Polybius, the surviving ancient account closest in time to Hannibal's campaign, reports that the route was already debated.
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) .The most influential modern theories favour either a march up the valley of the Drôme and a crossing of the main range to the south of the modern highway over the Col de Montgenèvre or a march farther north up the valleys of the Isere and Arc crossing the main range near the present Col de Mont Cenis or the Little St Bernard Pass.^ The most influential modern theories favour either a march up the valley of the Drôme and a crossing of the main range to the south of the modern highway over the Col de Montgenèvre or a march farther north up the valleys of the Isere and Arc crossing the main range near the present Col de Mont Cenis .
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^ After outmaneuvering the natives, who had tried to prevent his crossing, Hannibal evaded a Roman force marching from the Mediterranean coast by turning inland up the valley of the Rhône.
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^ He had started in a direction that ran along the East Coast of Spain, from where he planned to cross Gaul (France) at the south, and invade Italy from the north.
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[22]
By Livy's account the crossing was accomplished in the face of huge difficulties.[23] .These Hannibal surmounted with ingenuity such as when he used vinegar and fire to break through a rockfall.^ Other sources report that Hannibal told his father, " I swear so soon as age will permit...I will use fire and steel to arrest the destiny of Rome.
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[24] .According to Polybius he arrived in Italy accompanied by 20,000 foot soldiers and 4000 horsemen, and only a few elephants.^ This class of soldiers was only to terminate its service when the enemy had been driven out of Italy.
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^ You would have to-day, senators, at Canusium 20,000 brave loyal soldiers; but as for these men, how can they possibly be good and loyal citizens?
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^ There were 18,000 Romans, 20,000 Latin allies, and an auxiliary force of Cenomani, the only Gallic tribe which had remained faithful.
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.If Polybius is correct in his figure for the number of troops he commanded after the crossing of the Rhone this would suggest that he had lost almost half of his force.^ He crossed the Apennines (during which he lost his right eye because of conjunctivitis ) and the seemingly impassable Arno without opposition, but in the marshy lowlands of the Arno, he lost a large part of his force, including, it would seem, his remaining elephants.
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^ He thought it would be easier to storm Hasdrubal's camp whilst he was alone than to defend his own, in case the three commanders united their forces once more.
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^ But when the three commanders appeared in full force with three regular armies it was obvious that they would be unable to defend the position by arms alone in the absence of entrenchments.
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.Historians like Serge Lancell have questioned the reliability of the figures for the number of troops he had when he left Hispania.^ Historians like Serge Lancell questioned the reliability of the figures for the number of troops he had when he left Hispania.
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[25] .From the start, he seems to have calculated that he would have to operate without aid from Hispania.^ From the start, he seems to have calculated that he would have to operate without aid from Hispania.
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Battle of Trebia

.Hannibal's perilous march brought him into the Roman territory and frustrated the attempts of the enemy to fight out the main issue on foreign ground.^ Hannibal's perilous march brought him into the Roman territory and frustrated the attempts of the enemy to fight out the main issue on foreign ground.
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^ Hannibal capitalized on the eagerness of Varro and drew him into a trap by using an envelopment tactic which eliminated the Roman numerical advantage by shrinking the surface area where combat could occur.
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^ The Romans deprived Hannibal of a large-scale battle and instead, assaulted his weakening army with multiple smaller armies in an attempt to both weary him and create unrest in his troops.
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.His sudden appearance among the Gauls of the Po Valley, moreover, enabled him to detach those tribes from their new allegiance to the Romans before the latter could take steps to check the rebellion.^ His sudden appearance among the Gauls of the Po Valley, moreover, enabled him to detach those tribes from their new allegiance to the Romans before the latter could take steps to check the rebellion .
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^ Starting in the spring of 218 BC, he easily fought his way through the northern tribes to the Pyrenees and, by conciliating the Gaulish chiefs along his passage, reached the Rhône River before the Romans could take any measures to bar his advance.
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Romans could not withstand their attack, but their flight was checked by the narrow space and the obstructions caused by the work which had been begun and the preparations made for continuing it.
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A diagram depicting the tactics used in the Battle of Trebia
.Publius Cornelius Scipio, the consul who commanded the Roman force sent to intercept Hannibal, and Scipio Africanus' father, had not expected Hannibal to make an attempt to cross the Alps, since the Romans were prepared to fight the war in Iberia.^ Publius Cornelius Scipio , the consul who commanded the Roman force sent to intercept Hannibal, had not expected Hannibal to make an attempt to cross the Alps, since the Romans were prepared to fight the war in Iberia .
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^ Scipio was severely injured, his life only saved by the bravery of his son who rode back onto the field to rescue his fallen father.
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^ Norman Schwarzkopf , the commander of the Coalition Forces in the Gulf War, claimed that "The technology of war may change, the sophistication of weapons certainly changes.
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.With a small detachment still positioned in Gaul, Scipio made an attempt to intercept Hannibal.^ With a small detachment still positioned in Gaul, Scipio made an attempt to intercept Hannibal.
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^ Having secured his position in northern Italy by this victory, Hannibal quartered his troops for the winter with the Gauls, whose support for him abated.
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^ The next day the Romans, seeing how small a number were holding the position, made short work of them and drove them off and then transferred their own camp there.
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.Through prompt decision and speedy movement, he succeeded in transporting his army to Italy by sea, in time to meet Hannibal.^ Through prompt decision and speedy movement, he succeeded in transporting his army to Italy by sea, in time to meet Hannibal.
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^ With thirty-seven elephants, Hannibal’s army climbed through the Pyrenees, across the Rhone River Valley, over the Alps, and into Italy, launching a surprise attack and conquering northern Italy.

^ He read the letters of Philip and Hannibal through and sent everything under seal by land to the senate, the agents he ordered to be taken by sea.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

.Hannibal's forces moved through the Po Valley and were engaged in a small confrontation at Ticinus.^ Hannibal's forces moved through the Po Valley and were engaged in a small confrontation at Ticinus .
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After outmaneuvering the natives, who had tried to prevent his crossing, Hannibal evaded a Roman force marching from the Mediterranean coast by turning inland up the valley of the Rhône.
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^ Scipio, however, made the first move by crossing the Po and shifting his camp to the Ticinus.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

.Here, Hannibal forced the Romans, by virtue of his superior cavalry, to evacuate the plain of Lombardy.^ Here, Hannibal forced the Romans, by virtue of his superior cavalry , to evacuate the plain of Lombardy .
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 210 BC Hannibal again proved his superiority in tactics by inflicting a severe defeat at Herdoniac (modern Ordona ) in Apulia upon a proconsular army, and in 208 BC destroyed a Roman force engaged in the siege of Locri Epizephyri .
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After outmaneuvering the natives, who had tried to prevent his crossing, Hannibal evaded a Roman force marching from the Mediterranean coast by turning inland up the valley of the Rhône.
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

[26] .While the victory was minor, it encouraged the Gauls and Ligurians to join the Carthaginian cause, whose troops bolstered his army back to 40,000 men.^ While the victory was minor, it encouraged the Gauls and Ligurians to join the Carthaginian cause, whose troops bolstered his army back to 40,000 men.
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Having secured his position in northern Italy by this victory, Hannibal quartered his troops for the winter with the Gauls, whose support for him abated.
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^ The effect on morale of this victory meant that many parts of Italy joined Hannibal's cause.
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.Scipio was severely injured, his life only saved by the bravery of his son who rode back onto the field to rescue his fallen father.^ Scipio was severely injured, his life only saved by the bravery of his son who rode back onto the field to rescue his fallen father.
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^ The only thing which saved the invested city from assault and storm was the severity of the weather.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

^ To make matters worse the consul was wounded and in danger; he was rescued by the intervention of his son who was just approaching manhood.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

.Scipio retreated across the river Trebia to camp at Placentia with his army intact.^ Scipio retreated across the river Trebia to camp at Placentia with his army intact.
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^ Whilst the Carthaginians were keeping quiet, Scipio led his army to Placentia and thence across the Po to Cremona, in order that one colony might not be burdened with providing winter quarters for the two armies.
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^ Three days after Hannibal had left the banks of the Rhone, P. Cornelius Scipio arrived at the deserted camp with his army in battle order, ready to engage at once.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

[26]
.The other Roman consular army was rushed to the Po Valley.^ The other Roman consular army was rushed to the Po Valley.
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ So far did the Roman knight surpass all others in the authority and respect which he possessed with the soldiers that the whole army unanimously conferred the supreme command on L. Marcius.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

^ After one consul had been beaten at the Ticinus the other was recalled from Sicily, and now both consuls and both consular armies had been worsted.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

.Even before news of the defeat at Ticinus had reached Rome, the senate had ordered the consul Sempronius Longus to bring his army back from Sicily to meet Scipio and face Hannibal.^ Even before news of the defeat at Ticinus had reached Rome, the senate had ordered the consul Sempronius Longus to bring his army back from Sicily to meet Scipio and face Hannibal.
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^ Whilst he was returning to Sicily the news of these depredations reached the consul, and at the same time a despatch was handed to him from the senate informing him of Hannibal's presence in Italy and ordering him to come to his colleague's assistance as soon as possible.
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^ He read the letters of Philip and Hannibal through and sent everything under seal by land to the senate, the agents he ordered to be taken by sea.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

.Hannibal, by skillful maneuvers, was in position to head him off, for he lay on the direct road between Placentia and Arminum, by which Sempronius would have to march in order to reinforce Scipio.^ Hannibal, by skillful maneuvers, was in position to head him off, for he lay on the direct road between Placentia and Arminum, by which Sempronius would have to march in order to reinforce Scipio.
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Antiochus III showed off a vast and well-armed formation to Hannibal and asked him if they would be enough for the Roman Republic, to which Hannibal replied, "Yes, enough for the Romans, however greedy they may be."
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There was a Lucanian named Flavus, the head of that section of the Lucanians who stood by Rome-one section had gone over to Hannibal-and they elected him praetor.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

.He then captured Clastidium, from which he drew large amounts of rations for his men.^ He then captured Clastidium, from which he drew large amounts of rations for his men.
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^ But the large number of men, which now amounted to something like 10,000, made the burden imposed upon Busa much heavier.
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.But this gain was not without its loss, as Sempronius avoided Hannibal's watchfulness, slipped around his flank, and joined his colleague in his camp near the Trebia River near Placentia.^ But this gain was not without its loss, as Sempronius avoided Hannibal's watchfulness, slipped around his flank, and joined his colleague in his camp near the Trebbia River near Placentia .
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The consul Tiberius Sempronius had in the meanwhile purified his army at Sinuessa, the appointed rendezvous, and after crossing the Vulturnus pitched his camp near Liternum.
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^ A few days later Himilco, who had been joined by Hippocrates, fixed his camp by the river Anapus, about eight miles from Syracuse.
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.There, in December of the same year, Hannibal had an opportunity to show his superior military skill at Trebia; after wearing down the excellent Roman infantry he cut it to pieces by a surprise attack from an ambush in the flank.^ There, in December of the same year, Hannibal had an opportunity to show his superior military skill at Trebia ; after wearing down the excellent Roman infantry he cut it to pieces by a surprise attack from an ambush in the flank.
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Here, Hannibal forced the Romans, by virtue of his superior cavalry , to evacuate the plain of Lombardy .
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus, Hannibal took the Romans by surprise a scant two years later in 218 BC by merely reviving and adapting the original Gaulo-Carthaginian invasion plan of his brother-in-law.
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

Battle of Lake Trasimene

.Having secured his position in northern Italy by this victory, Hannibal quartered his troops for the winter with the Gauls, whose support for him abated.^ Having secured his position in northern Italy by this victory, Hannibal quartered his troops for the winter with the Gauls, whose support for him abated.
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Hannibal was now determined to carry the war into the heart of Italy by a rapid march through Hispania and southern Gaul .
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ To Hannibal the victory seemed too great and too joyous for him to realise all at once.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

.In the Spring of 217 BC, Hannibal decided to find a more reliable base of operations farther south.^ In the Spring of 217 BC, Hannibal decided to find a more reliable base of operations farther south.
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^ In the spring of 216 BC, Hannibal took the initiative and seized the large supply depot at Cannae in the Apulian plain.
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^ Or check out the Hannibal News Page to find more stories.
  • Hannibal Forum - Topix 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.topix.net [Source type: General]

.Expecting Hannibal to carry on advancing to Rome, Cnaeus Servilius and Gaius Flaminius (the new Consuls of Rome) took their armies to block the Eastern and Western routes Hannibal could use to get to Rome.^ Expecting Hannibal to carry on advancing to Rome, Cnaeus Servilius and Gaius Flaminius (the new Consuls of Rome) took their armies to block the Eastern and Western routes Hannibal could use to get to Rome.
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Other sources report that Hannibal told his father, " I swear so soon as age will permit...I will use fire and steel to arrest the destiny of Rome.
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Advancing through the uplands of Etruria , Hannibal provoked Flaminius to a hasty pursuit and, catching him in a defile on the shore of Lake Trasimenus , destroyed his army in the waters or on the adjoining slopes while killing Flaminius as well (see Battle of Lake Trasimene ).
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

[citation needed]
Battle of Lake Trasimene, 217 BC.
From the Department of History, United States Military Academy
.The only alternate route to central Italy lay at the mouth of the Arno.^ The only alternate route to central Italy lay at the mouth of the Arno .
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Hannibal knew that this route was full of difficulties, but it remained the surest and certainly the quickest route to Central Italy.
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.This route was practically one huge marsh, and happened to be overflowing more than usual during this particular season.^ This route was practically one huge marsh, and happened to be overflowing more than usual during this particular season.
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ HAWKINS You like to think when it's over your things would fill more than one cardboard box.
  • "Hannibal", production draft, by Steven Zaillian 12 September 2009 10:24 UTC www.dailyscript.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One of the two referred to events which had already happened before it saw the light, and the authority thus acquired by its fulfilment gained more credence for the other, which had yet to be fulfilled.
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Hannibal knew that this route was full of difficulties, but it remained the surest and certainly the quickest route to Central Italy. .As Polybius claims, Hannibal’s men marched for four days and three nights, “through a route which was under water”, suffering terribly from fatigue and enforced want of sleep.^ What distressed them most of all was want of sleep, from which they had been suffering for four days and three nights.
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^ As Polybius claims, Hannibal’s men marched for four days and three nights, “through a route which was under water”, suffering terribly from fatigue and enforced want of sleep.
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^ He read the letters of Philip and Hannibal through and sent everything under seal by land to the senate, the agents he ordered to be taken by sea.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

.He crossed the Apennines (during which he lost his right eye [27] because of conjunctivitis) and the seemingly impassable Arno without opposition, but in the marshy lowlands of the Arno, he lost a large part of his force, including, it would seem, his remaining elephants.^ He crossed the Apennines (during which he lost his right eye because of conjunctivitis ) and the seemingly impassable Arno without opposition, but in the marshy lowlands of the Arno, he lost a large part of his force, including, it would seem, his remaining elephants.
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^ Finally, that his land force might be complete in all its parts, there were twenty-one elephants.
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^ They remained on that spot for two days like a force blockaded; many men and animals perished; of the elephants which survived the battle of the Trebia they lost seven.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

[28]
.Arriving in Etruria in the spring of 217 BC, Hannibal decided to lure the main Roman army under Flaminius, into a pitched battle, by devastating under his very own eye the area Flaminius had been sent to protect.^ It was decided that Valerius should be sent to Apulia to take over the army from Terentius: when the legions came from Sicily he was to employ them mainly for the defence of that district and send the army of Terentius under one of his lieutenants to Tarentum.
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^ There Hannibal left all his booty and his baggage, and then forming his army into two divisions, gave Mago the command of one and retained the other himself.
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^ The corn which had lately been sent from Sardinia as well as that which M. Junius had purchased in Etruria was conveyed from Ostia into these two maritime fortresses, that the army might have a supply throughout the winter.
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.As Polybius tells us, “he [Hannibal] calculated that, if he passed the camp and made a descent into the district beyond, Flaminius (partly for fear of popular reproach and partly of personal irritation) would be unable to endure watching passively the devastation of the country but would spontaneously follow him .^ As Polybius tells us, “he [Hannibal] calculated that, if he passed the camp and made a descent into the district beyond, Flaminius (partly for fear of popular reproach and partly of personal irritation) would be unable to endure watching passively the devastation of the country but would spontaneously follow him .
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^ Some say that his men buried him in his own camp; others say that he was buried by Hannibal, and this is the more generally accepted account.
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^ It seemed the best course to send to Hannibal and obtain from him an assurance that on its capture Croto should pass to the Bruttians.
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. . and give him opportunities for attack.”
[29] .At the same time, Hannibal tried to break the allegiance of Rome’s allies, by proving that Flaminius was powerless to protect them.^ At the same time, Hannibal tried to break the allegiance of Rome’s allies, by proving that Flaminius was powerless to protect them.
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^ This was young Masinissa, at that time an ally of the Carthaginians, but afterwards raised to fame and power by his friendship with Rome.
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^ All Spain west of the Ebro would have abandoned the side of Rome had not P. Cornelius Scipio hurriedly crossed the Ebro and by his timely appearance confirmed the wavering allies.
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.Despite this, Hannibal found Flaminius still passively encamped at Arretium.^ Despite this, Hannibal found Flaminius still passively encamped at Arretium.
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^ While the consul was occupied in these propitiatory ceremonies and also in the enrolment of troops, information reached Hannibal that Flaminius had arrived at Arretium, and he at once broke up his winter quarters.
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.Unable to draw Flaminius into battle by mere devastation, Hannibal marched boldly around his opponent’s left flank and effectively cut Flaminius off from Rome (thus executing the first recorded turning movement in military history).^ Unable to draw Flaminius into battle by mere devastation, Hannibal marched boldly around his opponent’s left flank and effectively cut Flaminius off from Rome (thus executing the first recorded turning movement in military history).
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus, inadequately supported by his Italian allies, abandoned by his government (either because of jealousy or simply because Carthage was overstretched) , and unable to match Rome’s resources, Hannibal slowly began losing ground.
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There, in December of the same year, Hannibal had an opportunity to show his superior military skill at Trebia ; after wearing down the excellent Roman infantry he cut it to pieces by a surprise attack from an ambush in the flank.
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

.Advancing through the uplands of Etruria, Hannibal provoked Flaminius to a hasty pursuit and, catching him in a defile on the shore of Lake Trasimenus, destroyed his army in the waters or on the adjoining slopes while killing Flaminius as well (see Battle of Lake Trasimene).^ Some of those on board got out through the shallow water, others jumped on to the beach, with arms or without, and made good their escape to the army which was drawn up ready for action along the shore.
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^ Flaminius took over the two legions from Sempronius, the late consul, and the two from C. Atilius, the praetor, and commenced his march to Etruria through the passes of the Apennines.
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^ In the meantime Hannibal had marched the whole of his army through the pass, and after surprising and scattering some Roman troops in the pass itself, fixed his camp in the district of Allifae.
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.This was the most costly ambush the Romans would ever sustain until the Battle of Carrhae against the Parthians.^ Unlike most battles of the Second Punic War , at Zama the Romans had superiority in cavalry and the Carthaginians had superiority in infantry.
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^ They also promised that they would have an armed force there, to guard against any danger from either Romans or Carthaginians.
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^ Indeed, throughout the war Roman aristocrats ferociously competed with each other for positions of command to fight against Rome's most dangerous enemy.
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.He had now disposed of the only field force which could check his advance upon Rome, but, realizing that without siege engines he could not hope to take the capital, he preferred to exploit his victory by passing into central and southern Italy and encouraging a general revolt against the sovereign power.^ He had now disposed of the only field force which could check his advance upon Rome, but, realizing that without siege engines he could not hope to take the capital, he preferred to exploit his victory by passing into central and southern Italy and encouraging a general revolt against the sovereign power.
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^ So effectively did Hannibal reform abuses that the heavy tribute imposed by Rome could be paid by installments without additional and extraordinary taxation.
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As the forces detached his lieutenants were generally unable to hold their own, and neither his home government nor his new ally Philip V of Macedon helped to make good his losses, his position in southern Italy became increasingly difficult and his chance of ultimately conquering Rome grew ever more remote.
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

After Lake Trasimene, Hannibal stated, “I have not come to fight Italians, but on behalf of the Italians against Rome.”[30]
.The Romans appointed Fabius Maximus as a dictator.^ Marcellus resigned his office and Q. Fabius Maximus was appointed in his place; this was his third consulship.
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^ All the annalists, with one or two exceptions, state that Fabius acted against Hannibal as Dictator; Caelius adds that he was the first Dictator who was appointed by the people.
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^ Q. Fabius Maximus was now Dictator for the second time.
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.Departing from Roman military traditions, Fabius adopted the Fabian strategy — named after him — of refusing open battle with his opponent while placing several Roman armies in Hannibal’s vicinity to limit his movement.^ Departing from Roman military traditions, Fabius adopted the Fabian strategy — named after him — of refusing open battle with his opponent while placing several Roman armies in Hannibal’s vicinity to limit his movement.
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^ Hannibal's movements were reported to Fabius by his scouts.
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^ Count Alfred von Schlieffen 's eponymously-titled " Schlieffen Plan " was developed from his military studies, with particularly heavy emphasis on Hannibal's envelopment technique he employed to surround and victoriously destroy the Roman army at Cannae .
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Silver double shekel, c. .230 BC showing the god Melqart, the Carthaginian equivalent of Herakles/ Hercules, and a war elephant.^ The Roman cavalry won an early victory by swiftly routing the Carthaginian horse, and standard Roman tactics for limiting the effectiveness of the Carthaginian war elephants were effective.
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.There are no known authentic images of Hannibal and there is no proof that even Carthaginian coins such as this one show his likeness.^ During the war there are no reports of revolutions among the Roman citizens, no factions with the Senate desiring peace, no pro-Carthaginian Roman turncoats, no coups.
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^ While there was a Carthaginian Senate, the real power in Carthage was with the inner " Council of 30 Nobles " and the board of judges from ruling families known as the " Hundred and Four ."
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^ There was a Lucanian named Flavus, the head of that section of the Lucanians who stood by Rome-one section had gone over to Hannibal-and they elected him praetor.
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[31][32]
.Having ravaged Apulia without provoking Fabius to battle, Hannibal decided to march through Samnium to Campania, one of the richest and most fertile provinces of Italy, hoping that the devastation would draw Fabius into battle.^ Having ravaged Apulia without provoking Fabius to battle, Hannibal decided to march through Samnium to Campania , one of the richest and most fertile provinces of Italy, hoping that the devastation would draw Fabius into battle.
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Advancing through the uplands of Etruria , Hannibal provoked Flaminius to a hasty pursuit and, catching him in a defile on the shore of Lake Trasimenus , destroyed his army in the waters or on the adjoining slopes while killing Flaminius as well (see Battle of Lake Trasimene ).
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This famous Latin phrase evolved into a common expression that is often still used when a client arrives through the door or when one is faced with calamity.
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.Fabius closely followed Hannibal’s path of destruction, yet still refused to let himself be drawn, and thus remained on the defensive.^ Fabius closely followed Hannibal’s path of destruction, yet still refused to let himself be drawn, and thus remained on the defensive.
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^ To prevent them from carrying out their intentions Fabius marched between Capua and Hannibal's camp on Tifata and established himself in Claudius' camp overlooking Suessula.
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^ Some of the ships which came in still more closely in order to be beneath the range of the artillery were attacked in the following way.
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.This strategy was unpopular with many Romans, who believed it was a form of cowardice.^ This strategy was unpopular with many Romans, who believed it was a form of cowardice.
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ George S. Patton believed that he was a reincarnation of Hannibal as well as many other people including a Roman legionary and a Napoleonic soldier.
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Everything that the Romans now possess, which they have won through so many triumphs, all that they have amassed, will become yours, together with those who own it.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

.Hannibal decided that it would be unwise to winter in the already devastated lowlands of Campania but Fabius had ensured that all the passes out of Campania were blocked.^ Hannibal decided that it would be unwise to winter in the already devastated lowlands of Campania but Fabius had ensured that all the passes out of Campania were blocked.
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Xenophanes passed through the Roman troops into Campania and thence by the nearest route reached Hannibal's camp.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

^ When he ran out of money, he decided to give the sheep what they wanted and concocted Hannibal in a year or less.
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.To avoid this, Hannibal deceived the Romans into thinking that the Carthaginian Army was going to escape through the woods.^ The next day the Romans marched into the field, but the Carthaginian remained in camp, thereby tacitly admitting that he was vanquished.
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^ Both armies now began to prepare for battle; the Romans before the walls of Nola and the Carthaginians in front of their camp.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Xenophanes passed through the Roman troops into Campania and thence by the nearest route reached Hannibal's camp.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

.As the Romans moved off towards the woods, Hannibal's army occupied the pass, and his army made their way through the pass unopposed.^ As the Romans moved off towards the woods, Hannibal's army occupied the pass, and his army made their way through the pass unopposed.
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The next day the Romans, seeing how small a number were holding the position, made short work of them and drove them off and then transferred their own camp there.
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^ Through prompt decision and speedy movement, he succeeded in transporting his army to Italy by sea, in time to meet Hannibal.
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

.Fabius was within striking distance but in this case his caution worked against him.^ Fabius was within striking distance but in this case his caution worked against him.
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Fabius kept on high ground, at a moderate distance from the enemy, so that he never lost sight of him and never closed with him.
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^ Fabius watched all this confusion and excitement, but as he took it to be an ambuscade, and in any case shrank from a battle in the night, he kept his men within their lines.
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Smelling a stratagem (rightly), he stayed put. .For the winter, Hannibal found comfortable quarters in the Apulian plain.^ For the winter, Hannibal found comfortable quarters in the Apulian plain.
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, when the mild weather came, Hannibal led his army out of their winter quarters and marched back to Casilinum.
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^ Having secured his position in northern Italy by this victory, Hannibal quartered his troops for the winter with the Gauls, whose support for him abated.
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

.What Hannibal achieved in extricating his army was, as Adrian Goldsworthy puts it, "a classic of ancient generalship, finding its way into nearly every historical narrative of the war and being used by later military manuals".^ Hannibal ordered Hanno who was in Bruttium to march his army into Campania and see to it that the people of Capua were plentifully supplied with corn.
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^ After laying before him the resolutions and instructions of the senate and being in his turn shown in what way the war was to be managed in Spain, he returned to his camp.
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^ Whilst time was thus being wasted in disputes instead of deliberation, Hannibal withdrew the bulk of his army, who had been standing most of the day in order of battle, into camp.
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[33] .This was a severe blow to Fabius’s prestige, and soon after this, his period of power ended.^ This was a severe blow to Fabius’s prestige, and soon after this, his period of power ended.
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

Battle of Cannae

Destruction of the Roman army, courtesy of The Department of History, United States Military Academy.
.In the spring of 216 BC, Hannibal took the initiative and seized the large supply depot at Cannae in the Apulian plain.^ The Disaster of Cannae Spring was now coming on; Hannibal accordingly moved out of his winter quarters.
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.By seizing Cannae, Hannibal had placed himself between the Romans and their crucial source of supply.^ After riding round the place and satisfying himself from personal observation that it was capable of concealing even cavalry, Hannibal, turning to his brother Mago, said, "This will be the place for you to occupy.
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^ To prevent them from carrying out their intentions Fabius marched between Capua and Hannibal's camp on Tifata and established himself in Claudius' camp overlooking Suessula.
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^ The Romans first fixed their camp at Castrum Album, a place made famous by the death of the great Hamilcar, and had accumulated supplies of corn there.
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[34] .Once the Roman Senate resumed their Consular elections in 216 BC, they appointed Gaius Terentius Varro and Lucius Aemilius Paullus as Consuls.^ The senate passed a resolution that Aemilius should also write to the consuls asking one of them, if they approved, to come to Rome to hold the consular elections, and he would give notice of the elections for whatever day they fixed upon.
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^ The senate thought it better for a Dictator to be nominated by the consul for the purpose of holding the elections.
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^ The following night the consul made his way back to the army, without letting the senate know, as he did not want to be detained in the City for the elections.
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In the meantime, the Romans, hoping to gain success through sheer strength in numbers, raised a new army of unprecedented size, estimated by some to be as large as 100,000 men, but more likely around 60-80,000.[35]
.The Roman and Allied legions of the Consuls, resolving to confront Hannibal, marched southward to Apulia.^ His land force was made up of two Roman legions, with their complement of cavalry, and 14,000 infantry from the allies with 1600 cavalry.
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^ At the centre gate he posted the strongest part of the legions and the Roman cavalry, at the two on either side he stationed the recruits, the light infantry, and the cavalry of the allies.
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^ Flaminius took over the two legions from Sempronius, the late consul, and the two from C. Atilius, the praetor, and commenced his march to Etruria through the passes of the Apennines.
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.They eventually found him on the left bank of the Aufidus River, and encamped six miles (10 km) away.^ Without any word of command having been given, they raised a universal shout and plunged, each man straight in front of him, into the river.
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^ No enemy, however, was found in the neighbourhood, for they had left for Italy to ravage the coastal districts, and after laying waste the territory of Vibo they were threatening the city.
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^ Lecter said that he found him that way and tucked him away, putting his head in a jar after he had missed three appointments.
  • Ain't It Cool News: The best in movie, TV, DVD, and comic book news. 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.aintitcool.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On this occasion, the two armies were combined into one, the Consuls having to alternate their command on a daily basis.^ Irregular as this was, the circumstances at the time, the exigencies of the war, the critical position of the State prevented any one from inquiring into precedents or suspecting the consul of love of power.
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^ Without any word of command having been given, they raised a universal shout and plunged, each man straight in front of him, into the river.
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^ The consul's reply was far from being a cheerful one, for he admitted that the advice given was true, but not easy to put into practice.
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.The Consul Varro, who was in command on the first day, was a man of reckless and hubristic nature, and was determined to defeat Hannibal.^ In order, therefore, that you might have a consul to lead you against Hannibal and the Carthaginians, I have volunteered to command in this battle, and as I am new to you and you to me I must say a few words to you.
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^ For your own soldiers will want the same thing as the enemy; Varro though he is a Roman consul will desire just what Hannibal the Carthaginian commander desires.
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^ Against Hannibal and his legions you will have your cavalry and infantry, when Varro is in command he will use your own men against you.
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[35] .Hannibal capitalized on the eagerness of Varro and drew him into a trap by using an envelopment tactic which eliminated the Roman numerical advantage by shrinking the surface area where combat could occur.^ The numerous betrayals and defections which reached his ears and the massacre of Roman garrisons made him more than ever careful to take every possible precaution.
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^ Some who were familiar with the country told him that if he marched into the neighbourhood of Casinum and occupied the pass, he would prevent the Romans from rendering assistance to their allies.
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^ He did his best to exasperate the Roman commander, hoping that he would be so incensed by the insults and sufferings inflicted on his allies that he would be able to draw him into an engagement on level ground.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

.Hannibal drew up his least reliable infantry in a semicircle in the center with the wings composed of the Gallic and Numidian horse.^ He first sought to check Scipio's advance with a body of Numidian horse, and he kept up incessant attacks upon him day and night.
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^ The Numidians, attacking and retreating in small bodies, drew him gradually almost up to their camp, his men and horses by this time thoroughly tired.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Hasdrubal strengthened his centre with his Spaniards, on the right wing he posted the Carthaginians, on the left the Africans and the mercenaries, the Numidian horse he stationed in front of the Carthaginian infantry, and the rest of the cavalry in front of the Africans.
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[35] .The Roman legions forced their way through Hannibal's weak center, but the Libyan Mercenaries in the wings, swung around by the movement, menaced their flanks.^ His land force was made up of two Roman legions, with their complement of cavalry, and 14,000 infantry from the allies with 1600 cavalry.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Xenophanes passed through the Roman troops into Campania and thence by the nearest route reached Hannibal's camp.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In the meantime Hannibal had marched the whole of his army through the pass, and after surprising and scattering some Roman troops in the pass itself, fixed his camp in the district of Allifae.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

.The onslaught of Hannibal's cavalry was irresistible, and Maharbal, Hannibal's chief cavalry commander, who led the mobile Numidian cavalry on the right, shattered the Roman cavalry opposing them.^ Capua, which was not only the chief city of Campania, but now that the power of Rome had been shattered at Cannae was the head of Italy, had surrendered to Hannibal.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

^ He also charged them to take immediate steps to persuade the Numidians who were acting as auxiliaries with the Carthaginian troops to come over to the Romans.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Henna, situated on a lofty position precipitous on all sides was naturally impregnable, and it had also a strong Roman garrison and a commandant who was not at all a suitable man for traitors to approach.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

.Hannibal's Spanish and Gallic heavy cavalry, led by Hanno on the left, defeated the Roman heavy cavalry, and then both the Carthaginian heavy cavalry and the Numidians attacked the legions from behind.^ He also charged them to take immediate steps to persuade the Numidians who were acting as auxiliaries with the Carthaginian troops to come over to the Romans.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

^ His land force was made up of two Roman legions, with their complement of cavalry, and 14,000 infantry from the allies with 1600 cavalry.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

^ At the centre gate he posted the strongest part of the legions and the Roman cavalry, at the two on either side he stationed the recruits, the light infantry, and the cavalry of the allies.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

.As a result, the Roman army was hemmed in with no means of escape.^ Many of the Roman soldiers were wounded by rashly venturing too near the walls, and the operations were by no means successful.
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^ Famine, generally the result of a long siege, was already beginning to press upon the Campanians, as they had been prevented by the Roman armies from sowing their crops.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

.Due to these brilliant tactics, Hannibal, with much inferior numbers, managed to surround and destroy all but a small remnant of this force.^ As they appeared to be a small and disorganised force, a troop of cavalry came out against them, they were drawn on by the retreating Numidians into the ambuscade and surrounded.
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^ As the mischief appeared to be too much for the inferior magistrates to deal with, M. Aemilius, the City praetor, was entrusted with the task of delivering the people from these superstitions.
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^ The force was quite adequate for the small circuit of walls, protected, too, as they were on one side by the river, but the scarcity of corn made even that number appear too large.
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.Depending upon the source, it is estimated that 50,000-70,000 Romans were killed or captured at Cannae.^ Above 12,000 men were killed in the two battles and more than a thousand were made prisoners; thirty-six standards were also captured.
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^ Over l0,000 of the enemy were killed and over 7000 made prisoners, including the Campanians who had come for corn, and all the wagons and draught animals were captured.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

[13] .Among the dead were the Roman consul Lucius Aemilius Paullus, as well as two consuls for the preceding year, two quaestors, twenty-nine out of the forty-eight military tribunes and an additional eighty senators (at a time when the Roman Senate comprised no more than 300 men, this constituted 25%–30% of the governing body).^ The Roman prisoners restored were two hundred and forty-seven more than the Carthaginians.
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^ Amongst the number were both the quaestors attached to the consuls, L. Atilius and L. Furius Bibulcus, twenty-nine military tribunes, several ex-consuls, ex-praetors, and ex-aediles (amongst them are included Cn.
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^ Whilst Hannibal was entering Liguria, two Roman quaestors who had been ambushed and captured, C. Fulvius and L. Lucretius, together with three military tribunes and five members of the equestrian order, most of them sons of senators, were given up to him by the Gauls in order that he might feel more confidence in their maintenance of peaceful relations, and their determination to give him active support.
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.This makes the Battle of Cannae one of the most catastrophic defeats in the history of Ancient Rome, and one of the bloodiest battles in all of human history (in terms of the number of lives lost within a single day).^ The battle commenced in his absence and the Romans undoubtedly had the advantage, but owing to the cavalry not making their appearance in time the general's plans were all upset.
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^ To make up this number of legions six new ones had to be raised.
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^ In Rome also a lectisternium was ordered for Juventas and a special service of intercession at the temple of Hercules, and afterwards one in which the whole population were to take part at all the shrines.
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[35] .After Cannae, the Romans were very hesitant to confront Hannibal in pitched battle; preferring instead to weaken him by attrition, relying on their advantages of interior lines, supply, and manpower.^ Hannibal at Capua Immediately after the battle of Cannae and the capture and plunder of the Roman camp, Hannibal moved out of Apulia into Samnium, in consequence of an invitation he had received from a man named Statius Trebius, who promised to hand over Compsa to him if he would visit the territory of the Hirpini.
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^ No sooner was Marcellus aware of it than he formed his line of battle, nor did Hannibal decline the challenge.
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^ After the report of the battle of Cannae had reached the town, and Trebius was telling everybody that Hannibal was coming, the Mopsian party left the city.
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.As a result, Hannibal fought no more major battles in Italy for the rest of the war.^ After his great success at Cannae, Hannibal made his arrangements more as though his victory were a complete and decisive one than as if the war were still going on.
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^ No sooner was Marcellus aware of it than he formed his line of battle, nor did Hannibal decline the challenge.
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^ But after the third battle had been fought and the victory rested with the Carthaginians for the third time, he inclined to the side which Fortune favoured and sent ambassadors to Hannibal.
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.It is believed his refusal to bring the war to Rome itself was due to a lack of commitment from Carthage in terms of men, money and materiel - principally siege equipment.^ No practical method suggested itself for bringing up the two consular armies to sufficient strength for such an important war.
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^ Such, in the main, were the circumstances under which Syracuse was captured, and the amount of plunder was almost greater than if Carthage had been taken, the city which was waging war on equal terms with Rome.
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^ Information reached him there of the proceedings at Rome and Carthage, and he learnt that he was not only the general who was to conduct the war, but also the sole person who was responsible for its outbreak.
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.Whatever the reason, the choice prompted Maharbal to say, "Hannibal, you know how to gain a victory, but not how to use one."^ How did you know?
  • "Hannibal", unproduced draft, by David Mamet 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.dailyscript.com [Source type: Original source]

^ STARLING And how would you know that?
  • "Hannibal", unproduced draft, by David Mamet 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.dailyscript.com [Source type: Original source]

^ PAZZI How could you know?
  • "Hannibal", unproduced draft, by David Mamet 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.dailyscript.com [Source type: Original source]

[36]
Hannibal counting the rings of Roman nobles killed during the battle, statue by Sébastien Slodzt, 1704, Louvre.
.The effect on morale of this victory meant that many parts of Italy joined Hannibal's cause.^ "It was by the nobility," he declared, "who had for many years been trying to get up a war, that Hannibal was brought into Italy, and when the war might have been brought to a close, it was they who were unscrupulously protracting it.
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^ Authorities in military matters have regarded the wintering at Capua as a greater mistake on the part of Hannibal than his not marching straight to Rome after his victory at Cannae.
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^ It is, however, more probable that these joined Hannibal in Italy, and some authorities actually assert this.
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[37] .As Polybius notes, "How much more serious was the defeat of Cannae, than those which preceded it can be seen by the behavior of Rome’s allies; before that fateful day, their loyalty remained unshaken, now it began to waver for the simple reason that they despaired of Roman Power."[38] During that same year, the Greek cities in Sicily were induced to revolt against Roman political control, while the Macedonian king, Philip V, pledged his support to Hannibal – thus initiating the First Macedonian War against Rome.^ Up to that day the loyalty of our allies had remained unshaken, now it began to waver, for no other reason, we may be certain, than that they despaired of the maintenance of our empire.
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^ How much more of an INFJ can you get?

^ "But," he went on, "there is a much more serious and formidable danger impending, for the populace are not simply contemplating beginning their revolt from Rome by banishing the senate from the city, they mean to murder the senators and then hand over the city to Hannibal and the Carthaginians.
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.Hannibal also secured an alliance with newly appointed Hieronymus of Syracuse.^ Through their agency an alliance was formed between Hannibal and the Syracusan tyrant, and with Hannibal's consent they stayed on with Hieronymus.
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^ Hieronymus sent envoys to Carthage to conclude a treaty in the terms of their alliance with Hannibal.
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.It is often argued that if Hannibal had received proper material reinforcements from Carthage he might have succeeded with a direct attack upon Rome.^ Not far from the Tagus an attack was made upon Hannibal as he was returning from his expedition against the Vaccaei, and his army, laden as it was with plunder, was thrown into some confusion.
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^ He also wished to be free to march wherever any hope of defection from Rome summoned him that he might by his presence encourage those whose sympathies were with Carthage.
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^ They were instructed to inquire whether it was with the sanction of the government that Hannibal had attacked Saguntum, and if, as seemed most probable, the Carthaginians should admit that it was so and proceed to defend their action, then the Roman envoys were to formally declare war upon Carthage.
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.For the present he had to content himself with subduing the fortresses which still held out against him, and the only other notable event of 216 BC was the defection of certain Italian territories, including Capua, the second largest city of Italy, which Hannibal made his new base.^ Click for news, events and info in Hannibal .
  • Hannibal Forum - Topix 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.topix.net [Source type: General]

^ The Romans had already gone out in crowds to watch the duel, and the Campanians had not only lined the rampart of their camp, but had gathered in large numbers on the fortifications of the city.
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^ Capua, which was not only the chief city of Campania, but now that the power of Rome had been shattered at Cannae was the head of Italy, had surrendered to Hannibal.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

.However, only a few of the Italian city-states which he had expected to gain as allies consented to join him.^ For not only was there nothing left out of his daily plunder, but there was nothing left anywhere for him to seize, as all the corn, now that the country was unsafe, had been everywhere stored in the cities.
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^ When, however, he went up to the walls and there was no such movement as he expected at the sight of his army, he went into camp about a mile from the city.
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^ It is only a few hours ago that we pledged our faith, swearing by all the gods and joining hand to hand, and do you want us, when we have just separated after friendly talk, to arm those hands, consecrated by such a pledge, against him?
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Stalemate

.The war in Italy settled into a strategic stalemate.^ "It was by the nobility," he declared, "who had for many years been trying to get up a war, that Hannibal was brought into Italy, and when the war might have been brought to a close, it was they who were unscrupulously protracting it.
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^ They came into Italy as emigrants looking for a land to settle in, and they crossed the Alps often in immense bodies with their wives and children and all their belongings.
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.The Romans utilized the attritional strategies Fabius had taught them, and which, they finally realized, were the only feasible means of defeating Hannibal.^ They not only maintained a commerce with them by means of the Euphrates River, but they also were their rivals and co-operators in the Indian Ocean.
  • HANNIBAL BARCA a white Phoenician - Topix 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.topix.com [Source type: General]

^ In truth, they're not really browsing; they're stealing glances at Starling, the only woman in the place, and the most beautiful one any of them has ever seen in real life.
  • "Hannibal", production draft, by Steven Zaillian 12 September 2009 10:24 UTC www.dailyscript.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They constantly test their ideas in the real world and tend to use people as a means to an end.

[39] .Indeed, Fabius received the surname "Cunctator" ("the Delayer") because of his policy of not meeting Hannibal in open battle but through guerilla tactics.^ Hannibal did not venture upon a regular battle because his camp was so weakly guarded that it could not have repelled an assault.
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^ This would enable whichever general was in command to meet Hannibal with tactics and strength equal to his own should an opportunity arise of striking a blow.
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^ From the Durance Hannibal's route lay mostly through open level country, and he reached the Alps without meeting with any opposition from the Gauls who inhabited the district.
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[40] .The Romans deprived Hannibal of a large-scale battle and instead, assaulted his weakening army with multiple smaller armies in an attempt to both weary him and create unrest in his troops.^ He had sent Hippocrates and Epicydes in advance, each with 2000 troops, to attempt some cities which were held by Roman garrisons, whilst he himself advanced to Leontini with 15,000 foot and horse, which comprised the rest of his army.
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^ Hannibal was undecided whether to resume his march to Italy or to engage the Romans, the first army to oppose him.
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^ Xenophanes passed through the Roman troops into Campania and thence by the nearest route reached Hannibal's camp.
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[13] .For the next few years, Hannibal was forced to sustain a scorched earth policy and obtain local provisions for protracted and ineffectual operations throughout Southern Italy.^ "It was by the nobility," he declared, "who had for many years been trying to get up a war, that Hannibal was brought into Italy, and when the war might have been brought to a close, it was they who were unscrupulously protracting it.
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^ Mago, Hannibal's brother, was preparing to transport to Italy a force of 12,000 infantry, 1500 cavalry, and 20 elephants, escorted by a fleet of 60 warships.
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^ Two legions were decreed for each of the consuls in the operations against Hannibal; one consul took over the army from Q. Fabius, the consul of the previous year, the other that of Fulvius Centumalus.
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.His immediate objectives were reduced to minor operations which centered mainly round the cities of Campania.^ Not a single man was tempted by the prospect; they all dispersed, wherever they had friends, or wherever each man's fancy led him, amongst the cities of Campania, mainly Nola and Neapolis.
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.As the forces detached to his lieutenants were generally unable to hold their own, and neither his home government nor his new ally Philip V of Macedon helped to make good his losses, his position in southern Italy became increasingly difficult and his chance of ultimately conquering Rome grew ever more remote.^ Some say that his men buried him in his own camp; others say that he was buried by Hannibal, and this is the more generally accepted account.
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^ I can find it difficult to generate small talk at times but I find when I do make the effort it seems to have a positive effect on the impressions others have of me.

^ The next day the Romans, seeing how small a number were holding the position, made short work of them and drove them off and then transferred their own camp there.
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.Hannibal still won a number of notable victories: completely destroying two Roman armies in 212 BC, and at one point, killing two Consuls (which included the famed Marcus Claudius Marcellus) in a battle in 208 BC. Nevertheless, without the resources his allies could contribute, or reinforcements from Carthage, Hannibal could not make further significant gains.^ Hannibal, it is further stated, ordered his men to retire, the Romans followed them up, and with the aid of the Samnites captured two of their fortified positions the same day; 6000 of the enemy were killed and about 5000 of the Romans, yet though the losses were so evenly balanced an idle and foolish report of a splendid victory reached Rome together with a despatch from the Master of the Horse which was still more foolish.
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^ The gold which had been offered by one or two cities had not been accepted, though the Roman people were very grateful for the offer.
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^ Marcellus in the meanwhile proceeded with about one-third of his army to recover the cities which in the general disturbance had seceded to the Carthaginans.
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.Thus, inadequately supported by his Italian allies, abandoned by his government (either because of jealousy or simply because Carthage was overstretched), and unable to match Rome’s resources, Hannibal slowly began losing ground.^ Castulo, a powerful and famous city of Spain, and in such close alliance with Carthage that Hannibal took a wife from there, seceded to Rome.
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^ After they had been heavily censured for their cowardice in abandoning the fleet at the Ebro they had never been very loyal either to their general or to the cause of Carthage.
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^ The fact that both consuls and all the available strength that Rome possessed were now brought up to oppose Hannibal, was a pretty clear proof that either that force was adequate for the defence of Rome or that all hope of its defence must be abandoned.
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.Hannibal continued defeating the Romans whenever he could bring them into battle, yet he was never able to complete another decisive victory that produced a lasting strategic effect.^ The Romans could not withstand their attack, but their flight was checked by the narrow space and the obstructions caused by the work which had been begun and the preparations made for continuing it.
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^ After his great success at Cannae, Hannibal made his arrangements more as though his victory were a complete and decisive one than as if the war were still going on.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Xenophanes passed through the Roman troops into Campania and thence by the nearest route reached Hannibal's camp.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

Carthaginian political will was embodied in the ruling oligarchy. While there was a Carthaginian Senate, the real power in Carthage was with the inner "Council of 30 Nobles" and the board of judges from ruling families known as the "Hundred and Four." These two bodies consisted of the wealthy, commercial families of Carthage. .Two political factions operated in Carthage: the war party, also known as the "Barcids" (Hannibal’s family name) and the peace party led by Hanno the Great.^ When he first heard the rumour of Hannibal's passage of the Alps, delighted as he was at the outbreak of war between Rome and Carthage, he was still undecided, till their relative strength had been tested, which of the two he would prefer to have the victory.
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^ Two legions were decreed for each of the consuls in the operations against Hannibal; one consul took over the army from Q. Fabius, the consul of the previous year, the other that of Fulvius Centumalus.
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^ The operations against Hannibal were entrusted to the two consuls, and Sempronius was to retain the army he had been commanding.
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.Hanno had been instrumental in denying Hannibal’s requested reinforcement following the battle at Cannae.^ After the report of the battle of Cannae had reached the town, and Trebius was telling everybody that Hannibal was coming, the Mopsian party left the city.
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.Hannibal started the war without the full backing of Carthaginian oligarchy.^ His reputation was quite as great with Hannibal and the Carthaginians; now at last they felt that the were warring with Romans and on Italian soil.
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^ The reply which it was decided to make to the Roman demands was that the war was started by the Saguntines not by Hannibal, and that the Roman people would commit an act of injustice if they took the part of the Saguntines against their ancient allies, the Carthaginians.
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^ This was the youth who afterwards won the glory of bringing this war to a close, and gained the soubriquet of Africanus for his splendid victory over Hannibal and the Carthaginians.
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.His attack of Saguntum had presented the oligarchy with a choice of war with Rome or loss of prestige in Iberia.^ The ruins of Saguntum-would that I might prove a false prophet-will fall on our heads, and the war which was begun with Saguntum will have to be carried on with Rome.
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^ He appealed to them in the name of the gods, who are the witnesses and arbiters of treaties, not to provoke a war with Rome in addition to the one with Saguntum.
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The oligarchy and not Hannibal controlled the strategic resources of Carthage. Hannibal constantly sought reinforcement from either Iberia or North Africa. .Hannibal’s troops lost in combat were replaced with less well-trained and motivated mercenaries from Italy or Gaul.^ The authorities are hopelessly at variance as to the number of the troops with which Hannibal entered Italy.
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.The commercial interests of the Carthaginian oligarchy dictated the reinforcement of Iberia rather than Hannibal throughout the duration of the campaign.^ There I should have had my brother to share my plans and dangers; I should have had Hasdrubal rather than Hannibal as my foe, and undoubtedly a less serious war on my hands.
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^ You are mistaken, L. Paulus, if you imagine that you will have less difficulty with C. Terentius than with Hannibal; I rather think the former will prove a more dangerous enemy than the latter.
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^ Hannibal thought that the courage of his men ought to be roused by deeds first rather than by words.
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Hannibal's retreat in Italy

.In 212 BC Hannibal captured Tarentum but he failed to obtain control of the harbour.^ It seemed the best course to send to Hannibal and obtain from him an assurance that on its capture Croto should pass to the Bruttians.
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^ The betrayal of Tarentum had long been an object of hope with Hannibal and of suspicion with the Romans, and now an incident which occurred outside its walls hastened its capture.
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The tide was slowly turning against him, and in favor of Rome.
.The Romans mounted two sieges of Capua, which fell in 211 BC, and the Romans completed their conquest of Syracuse and destruction of a Carthaginian army in Sicily.^ When the Carthaginian armies came up, their column had no difficulty in mounting the hill, but they stopped short at the sight of the novel defence as though it were something uncanny.
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^ Both armies now began to prepare for battle; the Romans before the walls of Nola and the Carthaginians in front of their camp.
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^ For more than two hours, however, in spite of the utterly unequal conditions, the Roman army kept up the fighting as long as their leader stood his ground.
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.Shortly thereafter, the Romans pacified Sicily and entered into an alliance with the Aetolian League to counter Phillip V. Philip, who attempted to exploit Rome's preoccupation in Italy to conquer Illyria, now found himself under attack from several sides at once and was quickly subdued by Rome and her Greek allies.^ In the case of the three hundred Campanian knights, who after loyally serving their time in Sicily had now come to Rome, a proposal was made to the people that they should receive the full rights of Roman citizenship and should be entered on the roll of the burghers of Cumae, reckoning from the day previous to the revolt of the Campanians from Rome.
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^ Capua, which was not only the chief city of Campania, but now that the power of Rome had been shattered at Cannae was the head of Italy, had surrendered to Hannibal.
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^ "You are now," he said, "crossing the barriers not only of Italy, but of Rome itself.
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.Meanwhile, Hannibal had defeated Fulvius at Herdonea in Apulia, but lost Tarentum in the following year.^ The Romans, meanwhile, amongst their other cares, had not lost sight of the citadel of Tarentum and its beleaguered garrison.
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^ Two legions were decreed for each of the consuls in the operations against Hannibal; one consul took over the army from Q. Fabius, the consul of the previous year, the other that of Fulvius Centumalus.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

.In 210 BC Hannibal again proved his superiority in tactics by inflicting a severe defeat at Herdoniac (modern Ordona) in Apulia upon a proconsular army, and in 208 BC destroyed a Roman force engaged in the siege of Locri Epizephyri.^ Hellenistic Hannibal, Carthage, and the Punic Wars Hannibal (247 BC - 183 BC) was a great military leader who by his superior strategies nearly brought the mighty Romans to their knees...
  • Hannibal - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 12 September 2009 10:24 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ While the Roman generals were thus engaged elsewhere Hannibal had reached Tarentum, utterly ruining and destroying everything as he advanced.
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^ And now Hannibal was upon them; a general so different from their own, with an army so different and in such different order!
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.But with the loss of Tarentum in 209 BC and the gradual reconquest by the Romans of Samnium and Lucania, his hold on south Italy was almost lost.^ For according to the reports two consular armies and two consuls were lost; there was no longer any Roman camp, any general, any single soldier in existence; Apulia, Samnium, almost the whole of Italy lay at Hannibal's feet.
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.In 207 BC he succeeded in making his way again into Apulia, where he waited to concert measures for a combined march upon Rome with his brother Hasdrubal Barca.^ Servilius entered upon his consulship at Rome, on the 15th of March.
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^ Paul Krendler makes his way through the right-angled passageway leading into the darkened room.
  • "Hannibal", production draft, by Steven Zaillian 12 September 2009 10:24 UTC www.dailyscript.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Carthaginian left the Peligni, and marching back into Apulia, reached Gereonium.
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.On hearing, however, of his brother's defeat and death at the Metaurus he retired into Bruttium, where he maintained himself for the ensuing years.^ Scipio was killed after he had been eight years in Spain, and twenty-nine days after his brother's death.
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^ WE SEE LECHTER EXCUSE HIMSELF, AND RETIRE INTO THE KITCHEN. WE SEE HIM TAKING DOWN SAUCEPANS, AND MIXING WHAT APPEARS TO BE A MARINADE. LECHTER Now, what were we last speaking of...?
  • "Hannibal", unproduced draft, by David Mamet 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.dailyscript.com [Source type: Original source]

.His brother's head had been cut off, carried across Italy, and tossed over the palisade of Hannibal's camp as a cold message of the iron-clad will of the Roman Republic.^ Capua, which was not only the chief city of Campania, but now that the power of Rome had been shattered at Cannae was the head of Italy, had surrendered to Hannibal.
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^ Xenophanes passed through the Roman troops into Campania and thence by the nearest route reached Hannibal's camp.
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^ To prevent them from carrying out their intentions Fabius marched between Capua and Hannibal's camp on Tifata and established himself in Claudius' camp overlooking Suessula.
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.The combination of these events marked the end to Hannibal's success in Italy.^ While these events were in progress in Italy, Cn.
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^ While these events were occurring in Italy, the consul., Cn.
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^ It is, however, more probable that these joined Hannibal in Italy, and some authorities actually assert this.
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.With the failure of his brother Mago Barca in Liguria (205 BC-203 BC) and of his own negotiations with Philip of Macedon, the last hope of recovering his ascendancy in Italy was lost.^ Mago, Hannibal's brother, was preparing to transport to Italy a force of 12,000 infantry, 1500 cavalry, and 20 elephants, escorted by a fleet of 60 warships.
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^ On the receipt of this news, however, some were in favour of Mago, with such a fleet and army as he had, going to Spain instead of Italy, but whilst they were deliberating there was a sudden gleam of hope that Sardinia might be recovered.
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.In 203 BC, after nearly fifteen years of fighting in Italy, and with the military fortunes of Carthage rapidly declining, Hannibal was recalled to Carthage to direct the defense of his native country against a Roman invasion under Scipio Africanus.^ Hellenistic Hannibal, Carthage, and the Punic Wars Hannibal (247 BC - 183 BC) was a great military leader who by his superior strategies nearly brought the mighty Romans to their knees...
  • Hannibal - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 12 September 2009 10:24 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ They do not even march in military detachments, but they scour the whole of our country like brigands and more carelessly than if they were roaming about on Roman ground.
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^ But here too Hiero had for many years devoted money and pains to fitting up military engines of every kind, guided and directed by the unapproachable skill of Archimedes.
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Conclusion of Second Punic War (203–201 BC)

Return to Carthage

.In 203 BC, Hannibal was recalled from Italy by the war party at Carthage.^ Hellenistic Hannibal, Carthage, and the Punic Wars Hannibal (247 BC - 183 BC) was a great military leader who by his superior strategies nearly brought the mighty Romans to their knees...
  • Hannibal - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 12 September 2009 10:24 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ "It was by the nobility," he declared, "who had for many years been trying to get up a war, that Hannibal was brought into Italy, and when the war might have been brought to a close, it was they who were unscrupulously protracting it.
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^ "Well, then," said Hanno, "we have as much work before us in this war as we had on the day when Hannibal first set foot in Italy.
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.After leaving a record of his expedition engraved in Punic and Greek upon bronzen tablets in the temple of Juno at Crotona, he sailed back to Africa.^ They reached the spot near the temple of Juno Lacinia, where they had left their ship moored in a hidden creek, and set sail for Greece.
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[41] .His arrival immediately restored the predominance of the war party, who placed him in command of a combined force of African levies and his mercenaries from Italy.^ What can be inaccessible or insuperable to the soldier who carries nothing with him but his weapons of war?
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^ There were still left in the field the generals Epicydes and Hanno who had commanded in the late war, and a fresh general who had been sent in place of Hippocrates by Hannibal, a man of Libyphoeniclan nationality, called Hippacritanus-his fellow-countrymen called him Muttines-a man of energy and enterprise, who had had a thorough military training under that master of war, Hannibal.
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^ After they had returned they consulted the senate on the conduct of the war, the allocation of provinces to themselves and the praetors, the armies to be raised, and the men who were to command them.
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In 202 BC, Hannibal met Scipio in a fruitless peace conference. .Despite mutual admiration, negotiations floundered due to Roman allegations of "Punic Faith," referring to the breach of protocols which ended the First Punic War by the Carthaginian attack on Saguntum, and a Carthaginan attack on a stranded Roman fleet.^ This was the first occasion on which a Roman fleet was manned by seamen provided at private cost.
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^ His reputation was quite as great with Hannibal and the Carthaginians; now at last they felt that the were warring with Romans and on Italian soil.
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^ By this time the Roman left wing, where the allied cavalry were fronting the Numidians, had become engaged, but the fighting was slack at first owing to a Carthaginian stratagem.
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What had happened was that Scipio and Carthage had worked out a peace plan, which was approved by Rome. .The terms of the treaty were quite modest, but the war had been long for the Romans.^ His reputation was quite as great with Hannibal and the Carthaginians; now at last they felt that the were warring with Romans and on Italian soil.
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.Carthage could keep its African territory but would lose its overseas empire, a fait-accompli.^ This force was destined partly for the defence of Carthage, partly to hold the African territory.
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Masinissa (Numidia) was to be independent. .Also, Carthage was to reduce its fleet and pay a war indemnity.^ The Turdetani, who had brought about the war between Saguntum and Carthage, were reduced to subjection and sold as slaves; their city was utterly destroyed.
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But Carthage then made a terrible blunder. .Its long-suffering citizens had captured a stranded Roman fleet in the Gulf of Tunes and stripped it of supplies, an action which aggravated the faltering negotiations.^ Shortly afterwards a despatch was handed in from the City stating that some transports which were carrying supplies for the army in Spain had been captured by the Carthaginian fleet near the port of Cosa.
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^ The betrayal of Tarentum had long been an object of hope with Hannibal and of suspicion with the Romans, and now an incident which occurred outside its walls hastened its capture.
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.Meanwhile Hannibal, recalled from Italy by the Carthaginian senate, had returned with his army.^ After they had returned they consulted the senate on the conduct of the war, the allocation of provinces to themselves and the praetors, the armies to be raised, and the men who were to command them.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Whilst he was returning to Sicily the news of these depredations reached the consul, and at the same time a despatch was handed to him from the senate informing him of Hannibal's presence in Italy and ordering him to come to his colleague's assistance as soon as possible.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The camp, however, enriched the soldiers with the property belonging not only to the army they had defeated but also to the one serving with Hannibal in Italy.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

.Fortified by both Hannibal and the supplies, the Carthaginians rebuffed the treaty and Roman protests.^ Both armies now began to prepare for battle; the Romans before the walls of Nola and the Carthaginians in front of their camp.
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^ His reputation was quite as great with Hannibal and the Carthaginians; now at last they felt that the were warring with Romans and on Italian soil.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

^ When these supplies reached Spain, the town of Iliturgi, which had gone over to the Romans, was being attacked by three Carthaginian armies under Hasdrubal, Mago, and Hannibal, the son of Bomilcar.
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.The decisive battle at Zama soon followed, and it removed Hannibal's air of invincibility.^ Hannibal declined battle and fixed his camp by the side of the river; as soon as there was quiet and silence amongst the enemy, he forded the stream.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

^ "Part 1" Hannibal was unbeatable, until he met Scipio, in the decisive clash at Zama which sealed the fate of Carthage and Rome.
  • Hannibal - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 12 September 2009 10:24 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

Battle of Zama

.Unlike most battles of the Second Punic War, at Zama the Romans had superiority in cavalry and the Carthaginians had superiority in infantry.^ Hellenistic Hannibal, Carthage, and the Punic Wars Hannibal (247 BC - 183 BC) was a great military leader who by his superior strategies nearly brought the mighty Romans to their knees...
  • Hannibal - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 12 September 2009 10:24 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ He also made them so familiar with the work of entrenchment and other regular military tasks that the king placed quite as much confidence in his infantry as in his cavalry, and in a pitched battle fought on a level plain he proved superior to the Carthaginians.
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^ The battle commenced in his absence and the Romans undoubtedly had the advantage, but owing to the cavalry not making their appearance in time the general's plans were all upset.
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.This Roman cavalry superiority was due to the betrayal of Masinissa, who had earlier assisted Carthage in Iberia, but changed sides in 206 BC with the promise of land and due to his personal conflicts with Syphax, a Carthaginian ally.^ This was young Masinissa, at that time an ally of the Carthaginians, but afterwards raised to fame and power by his friendship with Rome.
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^ His land force was made up of two Roman legions, with their complement of cavalry, and 14,000 infantry from the allies with 1600 cavalry.
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^ At the centre gate he posted the strongest part of the legions and the Roman cavalry, at the two on either side he stationed the recruits, the light infantry, and the cavalry of the allies.
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This betrayal gave Scipio Africanus an advantage that had previously been possessed by the Carthaginians. .Although the aging Hannibal was suffering from mental exhaustion and deteriorating health after years of campaigning in Italy, the Carthaginians still had the advantage in numbers and were boosted by the presence of 80 war elephants.^ "It was by the nobility," he declared, "who had for many years been trying to get up a war, that Hannibal was brought into Italy, and when the war might have been brought to a close, it was they who were unscrupulously protracting it.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

Engraving of the Battle of Zama by Cornelis Cort, 1567.
Note that the elephants shown are Asian ones rather than the very small North African ones used by Carthage.
.The Roman cavalry won an early victory by swiftly routing the Carthaginian horse, and standard Roman tactics for limiting the effectiveness of the Carthaginian war elephants were successful.^ If we are successful, as I trust we shall be, in our operations against Hannibal and the Carthaginians, we can safely leave the war with the Gauls out of account for the present; the gods and the Roman people will have it in their power to avenge that act of treachery.
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^ After his great success at Cannae, Hannibal made his arrangements more as though his victory were a complete and decisive one than as if the war were still going on.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

^ His reputation was quite as great with Hannibal and the Carthaginians; now at last they felt that the were warring with Romans and on Italian soil.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

.Part of Scipio's tactics for stopping Hannibal's elephants was to bring trumpets to frighten the elephants into running into the Carthaginian lines.^ There was a low narrow gate which led into an unfrequented street running through a lonely part of the city.
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^ They were in as great a state of fear as though they saw the victorious Hannibal amongst them, and all took the oath and surrendered themselves into Scipio's custody.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

^ This was the youth who afterwards won the glory of bringing this war to a close, and gained the soubriquet of Africanus for his splendid victory over Hannibal and the Carthaginians.
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.Some historians say that the elephants routed the Carthaginian cavalry and not the Romans.^ By this time the Roman left wing, where the allied cavalry were fronting the Numidians, had become engaged, but the fighting was slack at first owing to a Carthaginian stratagem.
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.However, the battle remained closely fought.^ They fought in order of march rather than of battle; the Romans, however, had the advantage, in spite of its being an irregular battle.
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.At one point it seemed that Hannibal was on the verge of victory, but Scipio was able to rally his men, and his cavalry, having routed the Carthaginian horse, attacked Hannibal's rear.^ He first sought to check Scipio's advance with a body of Numidian horse, and he kept up incessant attacks upon him day and night.
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^ About sunset Nero returned with his horses and men tired out to no purpose and without having even seen the enemy.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

^ After his great success at Cannae, Hannibal made his arrangements more as though his victory were a complete and decisive one than as if the war were still going on.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

This two-pronged attack caused the Carthaginian formation to disintegrate and collapse. .With their foremost general defeated, the Carthaginians had no choice but to accept defeat and surrender to Rome.^ From there the Carthaginians retreated to Auringis, the Romans following them up slowly and allowing them no time to recover from their defeats.
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^ Though the Romans were fighting far away from their homes their generals had no difficulty in making them realise that they were fighting for Italy and for Rome.
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^ Gelo, the eldest son of the family, treating with equal contempt his aged father and the alliance with Rome, after the defeat of Cannae, went over to the Carthaginians.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

Carthage lost approximately 20,000 troops with an additional 15,000 wounded. In contrast, the Romans suffered only 1,500 casualties. .The battle resulted in a loss of respect for Hannibal by his fellow Carthaginians.^ In order, therefore, that you might have a consul to lead you against Hannibal and the Carthaginians, I have volunteered to command in this battle, and as I am new to you and you to me I must say a few words to you.
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^ This was the first battle with Hannibal, and the result made it quite clear that the Carthaginian was superior in his cavalry, and consequently that the open plains which stretch from the Po to the Alps were not a suitable battlefield for the Romans.
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^ But after the third battle had been fought and the victory rested with the Carthaginians for the third time, he inclined to the side which Fortune favoured and sent ambassadors to Hannibal.
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.It marked the last major battle of the Second Punic War, with Rome the victor.^ This is the second year of the war in Sicily with all its hard-fought battles.
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^ It was in the fifth year of the second Punic war that Q. Fabius Maximus assumed the consulship for the fourth time and M. Claudius Marcellus for the third time.
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^ As to the war with Rome, if Trasumennus was a more famous battle than the Trebia, if Cannae was more famous than Trasumennus, I shall make even the memory of Cannae fade in the light of a greater and more brilliant victory."
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

.The conditions of defeat were such that Carthage could no longer battle for Mediterranean supremacy.^ These words so kindled their courage that they seemed like different men; they raised the battle shout again and flung themselves on the enemy with such force that their attack could no longer be withstood.
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^ But they did not remain quiet long, for just after this battle an order was received from Carthage for Hasdrubal to lead his army as soon as he could into Italy.
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^ Besides, if he succeeded he would have gone far to retrieve their late disasters; if he failed the enemy could no longer despise him, since he would have been the first to attack.
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Later career

Peacetime Carthage (200–196 BC)

.Hannibal was still only 43 and soon showed that he could be a statesman as well as a soldier.^ If both the consuls and their two armies had been at Nola, they would still be no more a match for Hannibal than they were at Cannae, how then could one praetor with a few raw soldiers defend the place?
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The camp, however, enriched the soldiers with the property belonging not only to the army they had defeated but also to the one serving with Hannibal in Italy.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Orson Welles plays the Third man and they spend most of the movie talking about him but he only shows up for a few minutes.
  • Ain't It Cool News: The best in movie, TV, DVD, and comic book news. 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.aintitcool.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Following the conclusion of a peace that left Carthage stripped of its formerly mighty empire, Hannibal prepared to take a back seat for a time.^ Bolton takes his time, but eventually backs away a step.
  • "Hannibal", production draft, by Steven Zaillian 12 September 2009 10:24 UTC www.dailyscript.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He thought the safest way of gaining power was to yield for the time being, so he told the envoys to take back word that he should submit to the authority of the senate and people.
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^ He addressed them in the following terms: "If your fellow-townsman, Alco, had shown the same courage in bringing back to you the terms on which Hannibal will grant peace that he showed in going to Hannibal to beg for peace, this journey of mine would have been unnecessary.
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.However, the blatant corruption of the oligarchy gave Hannibal a chance to re-emerge and he was elected as suffete, or chief magistrate.^ It was, however, decided to elect magistrates before sending the envoys.
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^ It was a cause of grave anxiety to Hannibal, for he fully realised that the Romans had chosen for their commander-in-chief a man who conducted war on rational principles and not by trusting to chance.
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The office had become rather insignificant, but Hannibal restored its power and authority. .The oligarchy, always jealous of him, had even charged him with having betrayed the interests of his country while in Italy, for neglecting to take Rome when he might have done so.^ The numerous betrayals and defections which reached his ears and the massacre of Roman garrisons made him more than ever careful to take every possible precaution.
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^ The public interest in him, however, did not slacken through their having to wait, and a large crowd escorted him to his house.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

^ This battle secured for Rome all the tribes who were wavering and deprived Hasdrubal of all hopes of taking his army to Italy or even of remaining with anything like safety in Spain.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

.So effectively did Hannibal reform abuses that the heavy tribute imposed by Rome could be paid by installments without additional and extraordinary taxation.^ Hannibal did not venture upon a regular battle because his camp was so weakly guarded that it could not have repelled an assault.
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.He also reformed the Hundred and Four, stipulating that its membership be chosen by direct election rather than co-option.^ Hardly more than four hundred country carts were sent and a few draught cattle.
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.He also used citizen support to change the term of office in the Hundred and Four from life to a year with a term limit of two years.^ He had already been a year in office when suddenly he changed his mind and began to look out for an opportunity of ingratiating himself with the Carthaginians.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

^ There were two great floods this year; the Tiber inundated the fields, causing widespread destruction of farm-buildings and stock and much loss of life.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

^ For a hundred years we have been at war with Rome and no general, no army from without, has come to our aid save for the two years when Pyrrhus used our soldiers to increase his strength rather than use his strength to defend us.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

Exile (195–183/181 BC)

.Fourteen years after the victory of Zama, the Romans, alarmed by Carthage's renewed prosperity, demanded Hannibal's surrender.^ Give orders for Hannibal to be surrendered, put your veto upon all thanksgivings to the gods after we have received such blessings, let us hear the voice of a Roman senator in the Senate-house of Carthage?"
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

^ If they had thought of surrendering to Hannibal would they have asked for a Roman garrison?
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

^ If he refused to abandon hostilities they were to proceed to Carthage to demand the surrender of the general to answer for his breach of treaty.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

.Hannibal thereupon went into voluntary exile.^ From the Hirpini Hannibal went across into Samnium; he ravaged the territory of Beneventum and captured the city of Telesia.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Most of them, to escape the danger, went into exile.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In order to draw Hannibal away from Capua the consuls left in the night after the battle for different destinations; Fulvius went into the neighbourhood of Cumae and Claudius into Lucania.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

.He journeyed to Tyre, the mother-city of Carthage, and then to Ephesus, where he was honorably received by Antiochus III of Syria, who was preparing for war with Rome.^ When these preparations were completed, the formalities necessary before entering upon war required that a commission should be despatched to Carthage.
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^ After they had transacted all the necessary business in Rome the consuls began to prepare for war.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Such, in the main, were the circumstances under which Syracuse was captured, and the amount of plunder was almost greater than if Carthage had been taken, the city which was waging war on equal terms with Rome.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

.Hannibal soon saw that the king's army was no match for the Romans.^ When Hannibal saw that the ill-considered movement which the Romans had commenced was not recklessly carried out to its final stage, and that his ruse had been detected, he returned to camp.
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^ No sooner had Hannibal landed in Spain than he became a favourite with the whole army.
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^ The consul saw that there must be no delay in his sailing for Lilybaeum; he started at once and the king accompanied him with his fleet.
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.He advised him to equip a fleet and land a body of troops in the south of Italy, offering to take command himself.^ Lastly, T. Otacilius Crassus was despatched to Sicily, after he had dedicated the temple of Mens, with full powers as propraetor to take command of the fleet.
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^ He was quite aware, however, that the guardians of the hostages would take no step without the orders of Bostar, their commanding officer, and so he employed his arts against Bostar himself.
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^ When the latter offered himself as a candidate, the tribunes of the plebs objected to him, and said that he could not be allowed to stand because he had not yet reached the legal age.
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.But he could not make much impression on Antiochus, who listened to his courtiers and would not entrust Hannibal with any important office.^ His well-known dislike of the Barcas deprived his words of weight and they were too much preoccupied with the delightful news they had just heard to listen to anything which would make them feel less cause for joy.
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^ The Romans, he knew, would not be implacable to those who had formerly offended, there had never been a nation more ready to listen to prayers and more quick to grant forgiveness.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

^ As he could not get out through Casilinum, and would have to make for the mountains and cross the ridge of Callicula, he would be liable to be attacked by the Romans whilst he was shut up in the valleys.
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[citation needed] According to Cicero, while at the court of Antiochus, Hannibal attended a lecture by Phormio, a philosopher, that ranged through many topics. When Phormio finished a discourse on the duties of a general, Hannibal was asked his opinion. .He replied: "I have seen during my life many old fools; but this one beats them all." Another story about Hannibal in exile gives a strange slant to his supposed Punic perfidy.^ I finally realized that I'd been humoring people all my life, on THEIR terms, in order to fit in, and was actually quite resentful for it.

^ Hannibal will only feel contempt for a man who runs all risks, he will be afraid of one who never takes a rash step.
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^ If what I am learning will not help me achieve or help my career in many ways, I don't see the benefits of it at all.

.Antiochus III showed off a vast and well-armed formation to Hannibal and asked him if they would be enough for the Roman Republic, to which Hannibal replied, "Yes, enough for the Romans, however greedy they may be." It should be noted that in this situation Hannibal had not been given command of the army, but Antiochus himself had developed the battle plan and was subsequently defeated.^ If they had thought of surrendering to Hannibal would they have asked for a Roman garrison?
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^ "They shall escape," Hannibal replied.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

^ When he had entered the city Hannibal asked that the senate should be convened at once.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

[citation needed]
.In 190 BC he was placed in command of a Seleucid fleet but was defeated in a battle off the Eurymedon River.^ His son Hostus was in command and in the impetuosity of youth he rashly offered battle, with the result that he was defeated and put to flight.
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According to Strabo and Plutarch, Hannibal also received hospitality at the Armenian court of Artaxias I. The authors add an apocryphal story of how Hannibal planned and supervised the building of the new royal capital Artaxata.[42] .From the court of Antiochus, who seemed prepared to surrender him to the Romans, Hannibal fled to Crete, but he soon went back to Asia Minor and sought refuge with Prusias I of Bithynia, who was engaged in warfare with Rome's ally, King Eumenes II of Pergamon.^ There was a Lucanian named Flavus, the head of that section of the Lucanians who stood by Rome-one section had gone over to Hannibal-and they elected him praetor.
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^ Capua, which was not only the chief city of Campania, but now that the power of Rome had been shattered at Cannae was the head of Italy, had surrendered to Hannibal.
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^ It seemed the best course to send to Hannibal and obtain from him an assurance that on its capture Croto should pass to the Bruttians.
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Hannibal went on to serve Prusias in this war. .During one of the naval victories he gained over Eumenes, Hannibal had large pots filled with poisonous snakes thrown onto Eumenes' ships.^ After his great success at Cannae, Hannibal made his arrangements more as though his victory were a complete and decisive one than as if the war were still going on.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

^ During these incidents in Spain, Petelia in Bruttium was taken by Himilco, one of Hannibal's lieutenants, after a siege which lasted several months.
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^ While these various steps were being taken, one of the captured ships which were on their way to Rome escaped during the voyage to Philip, and he then learnt that his agents had been captured together with his despatches.
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[43] Hannibal also visited Tyre; the home of his forefathers. .However the Romans were determined to hunt him down, and they insisted on his surrender.^ If they had thought of surrendering to Hannibal would they have asked for a Roman garrison?
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^ Nuts, however, were scattered on the river from the Roman camp; these floated down the mid-stream and were caught in baskets.
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^ Atinius and his men were conducted down to the sea and placed on board ship, not because they were Romans, but because, after Atinius' mild and impartial administration, they wished to provide for his safety.
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Death (183/181 BC)

.Prusias agreed to give him up, but Hannibal was determined not to fall into his enemies' hands.^ When Mancinus saw that there was no chance of the enemy giving up the pursuit, or of his escaping them, he rallied his men and faced the Numidians, though completely outnumbered and outmatched.
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^ I am told that you did not give up the struggle on the field of Cannae until you were buried almost lifeless, beneath a falling mass of men and horses and arms.
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^ Nothing that was going on amongst his enemies escaped the observation of Hannibal, for ample information was supplied to him by deserters as well as by his scouts.
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.At Libyssa on the eastern shore of the Sea of Marmara, he took poison, which, it was said, he had long carried about with him in a ring.^ "He has often," he said, "argued with me about our respective merits, let him settle the matter with the sword, and if he is vanquished yield me the spolia opima, or if he is the victor take them from me."
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^ He told them that he saw no way of carrying a citadel so strongly fortified by storm, and there was nothing to hope for from a blockade as long as the enemy were masters of the sea.
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[44]. Before dying, he left behind a letter declaring:
"Let us relieve the Romans from the anxiety they have so long experienced, since they think it tries their patience too much to wait for an old man's death".[citation needed]
.The precise year of Hannibal's death is unknown.^ The death of Hamilcar, occurring as it did most opportunely, and the tender years of Hannibal delayed the war.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

In his Annales, Titus Pomponius Atticus reports it occurred in 183 BC,[45] and Livy implies the same. Polybius, who wrote nearest the event, gives 182 BC. Sulpicius Blitho records it under 181 BC.[45]

Possible gravesite

In modern-day Turkey (ruins near Diliskelesi, south of Gebze, 60 km (38 miles east of Istanbul), an interesting curiosity is to be found in an industrial estate on a small hill beneath some cypress trees. .Reputed to be Hannibal's grave, it was magnificently restored by emperor Septimius Severus (ruled AD 193-211), but it is now just a pile of stones.^ His reputation was quite as great with Hannibal and the Carthaginians; now at last they felt that the were warring with Romans and on Italian soil.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

Excavations were carried out in 1906 by the German archeologist, Theodor Wiegand, but he was skeptical of the site.[citation needed]

Legacy to the ancient world

It was written that he taught the Romans the meaning of fear. .It has been said that for generations, Roman housekeepers would tell their children brutal tales of Hannibal when they misbehaved.^ If they had thought of surrendering to Hannibal would they have asked for a Roman garrison?
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

^ His reputation was quite as great with Hannibal and the Carthaginians; now at last they felt that the were warring with Romans and on Italian soil.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

^ They declared publicly that they had been sent by Hannibal to Hieronymus as to a friend and ally; they had obeyed the commands of the men whom their general Hannibal had wished them to obey, and now they were anxious to return to Hannibal.
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.In fact, Hannibal became such a figure of terror, that whenever disaster struck, the Roman Senators would exclaim "Hannibal ante portas" (“Hannibal before the Gates!”) to express their fear or anxiety.^ Give orders for Hannibal to be surrendered, put your veto upon all thanksgivings to the gods after we have received such blessings, let us hear the voice of a Roman senator in the Senate-house of Carthage?"
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Even if any one had escaped from the carnage the Romans, after taking that camp, ran on so swiftly to the other one that no one could get there before them to announce the disaster.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

^ If they had thought of surrendering to Hannibal would they have asked for a Roman garrison?
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

.This famous Latin phrase evolved into a common expression that is often still used when a client arrives through the door or when one is faced with calamity.^ Pazzi knows which man at the table Fell is now, however he - and we - still can't see his face, seated as he is with his back to the door.
  • "Hannibal", production draft, by Steven Zaillian 12 September 2009 10:24 UTC www.dailyscript.com [Source type: Original source]

[46] .This illustrates the psychological impact Hannibal's presence in Italy had on Roman Culture.^ Hannibal was undecided whether to resume his march to Italy or to engage the Romans, the first army to oppose him.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

A grudging admiration for Hannibal is evident in the works of Roman writers such as Livy, Frontinus, and Juvenal. .The Romans even built statues of the Carthaginian in the very streets of Rome to advertise their defeat of such a worthy adversary.^ This condition was within a very little of being broken, for the Carthaginians charged the Locrians with treachery in sending away the Romans, whilst the Locrians pleaded that they had escaped.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Gelo, the eldest son of the family, treating with equal contempt his aged father and the alliance with Rome, after the defeat of Cannae, went over to the Carthaginians.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The Roman envoys in accordance with their instructions went on to Spain for the purpose of visiting the different tribes and drawing them into alliance with Rome, or at least detaching them from the Carthaginians.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

[47] .It is plausible to suggest that Hannibal engendered the greatest fear Rome had towards an enemy.^ The news flew quickly through the ranks that the cavalry of whom they stood in greatest fear had left the enemy in the lurch, and their courage rose accordingly.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Both nations sent envoys simultaneously to Hannibal, who addressed him thus: "We have been the enemies of Rome, Hannibal, from very early times.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

.Nevertheless, they grimly refused to admit the possibility of defeat and rejected all overtures for peace, and they even refused to accept the ransom of prisoners after Cannae.^ They passed a resolution that all those whom the censors had degraded were to serve as foot soldiers and be sent to the remains of the army of Cannae in Sicily.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The aedile Tuditanus was the officer who led his men through the midst of the enemy after the defeat at Cannae when all the others were paralysed with terror.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

^ After they had all been burst open the army was admitted through the whole length of the Hexapylon.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

[48]
During the war there are no reports of revolutions among the Roman citizens, no factions with the Senate desiring peace, no pro-Carthaginian Roman turncoats, no coups.[49][50] .Indeed, throughout the war Roman aristocrats ferociously competed with each other for positions of command to fight against Rome's most dangerous enemy.^ As the position was one of especial danger, so the resistance offered by a picked body of defenders was of the most resolute character.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Henna, situated on a lofty position precipitous on all sides was naturally impregnable, and it had also a strong Roman garrison and a commandant who was not at all a suitable man for traitors to approach.
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^ On this the fighting was renewed and even the cavalry were sent against the enemy.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

.Hannibal's military genius was not enough to really disturb the Roman political process and the collective political and military genius of the Roman people.^ Armed hosts cannot bear even to gaze on the face of Hannibal, the Roman people dread it, and will yon endure it?
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.As Lazenby states, "It says volumes, too, for their political maturity and respect for constitutional forms that the complicated machinery of government continued to function even amidst disaster--there are few states in the ancient world in which a general who had lost a battle like Cannae would have dared to remain, let alone would have continued to be treated respectfully as head of state."^ Bad as the man was, he was not utterly abandoned, since he preferred to play the autocrat in a commonwealth which was constitutionally sound rather than in one that was ruined, and he knew that no political constitution could be sound where there was no council of state.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

^ I am in college and would really like to date more to learn what is out there, but it's just hard for all of the INTJ reasons.

^ The next day he was going to fight a pitched battle in a free and open plain where there would be full scope for true courage without any fear of ambuscade.
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[51] .According to the historian Livy, Hannibal's military genius was feared among the Romans and during Hannibal's march against Rome in 211 BC[52] "a messenger who had travelled from Fregellae for a day and a night without stopping created great alarm in Rome, and the excitement was increased by people running about the City with wildly exaggerated accounts of the news he had brought.^ They all independent and do not give much shit about others opinion, but they respect each other and in general people who do, not talk.

^ It's fascinating...now I need to stop reading about INTJ's and start making sense of the other people in the world!

^ Its going to go down as a stinker, and hopefully the people involved will learn a lesson about creating a movie with some goddamned tension....Who am I kidding?
  • Ain't It Cool News: The best in movie, TV, DVD, and comic book news. 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.aintitcool.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The wailing cry of the matrons was heard everywhere, not only in private houses but even in the temples. .Here they knelt and swept the temple-floors with their dishevelled hair and lifted up their hands to heaven in piteous entreaty to the gods that they would deliver the City of Rome out of the hands of the enemy and preserve its mothers and children from injury and outrage."^ He tried to bring the Crotonians to a surrender on condition that they would admit a Bruttian colony and allow their city, wasted and desolate as it was by war, to recover its ancient populousness.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

^ He sees the custodian coming in with the hand truck and points out to him that he'd like the lectern up front, to one side of the screen.
  • "Hannibal", production draft, by Steven Zaillian 12 September 2009 10:24 UTC www.dailyscript.com [Source type: Original source]

^ According to their custom they cleaned out the skull and covered the scalp with beaten gold; it was then used as a vessel for libations and also as a drinking cup for the priest and ministers of the temple.
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[53] .In the Senate the news was "received with varying feelings as men's temperaments differed,"[54] so it was decided to keep Capua under siege, but send 15,000 infantry and 1,000 cavalry as reinforcements to Rome.^ His land force was made up of two Roman legions, with their complement of cavalry, and 14,000 infantry from the allies with 1600 cavalry.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The elephants and cavalry were in front, he himself followed with the main body of the infantry, keeping a sharp and anxious look-out in all directions.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

^ You would have to-day, senators, at Canusium 20,000 brave loyal soldiers; but as for these men, how can they possibly be good and loyal citizens?
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

[54].
.According to Livy, the land occupied by Hannibal's army outside Rome in 211 BC was sold at the very time of its occupation and for the same price.^ "Now," he said, "this very moment will I ratify our treaty with Rome in Hannibal's blood.
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^ No sooner had Hannibal landed in Spain than he became a favourite with the whole army.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

^ About the same time a Carthaginian spy who for two years had escaped detection was caught in Rome, and after both his hands were cut off, he was sent away.
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[55] .This may not be true but as Lazenby states, "could well be, exemplifying as it does not only the supreme confidence felt by the Romans in ultimate victory, but also the way in which something like normal life continued.^ In this state of careless disorder they were assailed by the Romans who were tired by their recent fighting and flushed with victory.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The Romans felt now as much confidence in their army as in their navy, and marched as far as the pass of Castulo.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Their innate fearlessness, the confidence inspired by their numbers, their belief that the enemy's retreat was due to fear, all made them look on victory as certain, and the river as the only obstacle to it.
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[56]. After Cannae the Romans showed a considerable steadfastness in adversity. .An undeniable proof of Rome's confidence is demonstrated by the fact that after the Cannae disaster she was left virtually defenseless, but the Senate still chose not to withdraw a single garrison from an overseas province to strengthen the city.^ After the report of the battle of Cannae had reached the town, and Trebius was telling everybody that Hannibal was coming, the Mopsian party left the city.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

^ When the election of the praetors was finished the senate passed a resolution that Quintus Fulvius should have the City as his special province, and when the consuls had gone to the war he should command at home.
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^ For what was left us at Cannae that we should wish what is lacking-as though we still possessed something-to be made up by our allies?
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.In fact, they were reinforced and the campaigns there maintained until victory was secured; beginning first in Sicily under direction of Claudius Marcellus, and later Hispania under Scipio Africanus.^ Making their way up to the highest points, they took the direction where there appeared to be the fewest flames, thinking this to be the safest road.
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^ After satisfying himself as to the security of that part of Sicily, the consul sailed to the Insulae Vulcani, as he heard that the Carthaginian fleet was anchored there.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Up to that day there had only been the military oath binding the men to assemble at the bidding of the consuls and not to disband until they received orders to do so.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

[57][58] Although the long-term consequences of Hannibal's war are debatable, this war was undeniably Rome's "finest hour".[59][60]
.Most of the sources available to historians about Hannibal are from Romans.^ Spain also had to be provided for, all the more so as Hannibal was fully aware that Roman commissioners had been going all about the country to win over the leading men of the various tribes.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

.They considered him the greatest enemy Rome had ever faced.^ There was a Lucanian named Flavus, the head of that section of the Lucanians who stood by Rome-one section had gone over to Hannibal-and they elected him praetor.
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^ His informants begged him to send help and to keep off one who was unmistakably an enemy to Rome from injuring the cities on the coast which were in danger solely because they lay opposite to Italy.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

^ At length, no sooner had the Dictator departed than, like men delivered from a blockade, they left their entrenchments and routed the enemy and put him to flight.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

Livy gives us the idea that he was extremely cruel. .Even Cicero, when he talked of Rome and her two great enemies, spoke of the "honourable" Pyrrhus and the "cruel" Hannibal.^ Even before the fall of Saguntum the name of Hannibal was on all men's lips in Rome, and in Scipio Hannibal recognised a great leader, seeing that he had been chosen beyond all others to oppose him.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Even in the senate he produced an unfavourable impression when he spoke in laudatory terms of the enemy and put down the disasters of the past two years to rashness and lack of generalship on the part of the commanders.
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^ Both nations sent envoys simultaneously to Hannibal, who addressed him thus: "We have been the enemies of Rome, Hannibal, from very early times.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

Yet a different picture is sometimes revealed. .When Hannibal's successes had brought about the death of two Roman consuls, he vainly searched for the body of Gaius Flaminius on the shores of Lake Trasimene, held ceremonial rituals in recognition of Lucius Aemilius Paullus, and sent Marcellus' ashes back to his family in Rome.^ Whoever brought back the head of an enemy would be at once by his orders declared to be a free man; whoever quitted his place in the ranks he would punish with a slave's death.
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^ The parents and relatives of these troopers succeeded after much difficulty in getting envoys sent to the Roman consul.
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^ During the reign of Hiero this body had continued to act as the great council of the nation, but after his death it had never up to that day been summoned or consulted about any matter whatever.
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.Any bias attributed to Polybius, however, is more troublesome, since he was clearly sympathetic towards Hannibal.^ It is, however, more probable that these joined Hannibal in Italy, and some authorities actually assert this.
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.Nevertheless, Polybius spent a long period as a hostage in Italy and relied heavily on Roman sources, so there remains the possibility that he was reproducing elements of Roman propaganda.^ There were 18,000 Romans, 20,000 Latin allies, and an auxiliary force of Cenomani, the only Gallic tribe which had remained faithful.
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^ But they did not remain quiet long, for just after this battle an order was received from Carthage for Hasdrubal to lead his army as soon as he could into Italy.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

^ It was decided that those of Marcellus' troops who were involved in the flight from Cannae should be transported to Sicily to serve there as long as the war continued in Italy.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

Legacy

The material of legend: in "Snow-storm: Hannibal and his Army Crossing the Alps", J.M.W. Turner envelopes Hannibal’s crossing of the Alps in Romantic atmosphere
Hannibal's name is also commonplace in later art and popular culture, an objective measure of his foreign influence on Western history.
.Like other military leaders, Hannibal's victories against superior forces in an ultimately losing cause won him enduring fame that outlasted his native country within North Africa.^ They do not even march in military detachments, but they scour the whole of our country like brigands and more carelessly than if they were roaming about on Roman ground.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Some say that his men buried him in his own camp; others say that he was buried by Hannibal, and this is the more generally accepted account.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

^ As to guarding against any other contingency, so little care was shown that this movement on the part of the Numidians was actually taken as a proof that Hannibal and his army had not stirred from their camp.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

.His crossing of the Alps remains one of the most monumental military feats of ancient warfare[61] and has since captured the imagination of the world (romanticized by several artworks).^ I identify with most of them, but I will write mainly about Augustus Caesar, since he's the one I know best and, in fact, it was when I read that he was an INTJ that I was persuaded that I was one, too.

^ This river, which also takes its rise in the Alps, is of all the rivers of Gaul the most difficult to cross.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

^ I have been one of the most successful at interviewing resistant personalities and proven it repeatedly since early high school.

Literature

Novel unless otherwise noted:
  • written 1308-21, Dante's Divine Comedy, poem, Inferno XXXI.97-132, 115-124 (Battle of Zama) and Paradiso VI
  • 1726, Gulliver's Travels, satirical work
  • 1862, Gustave Flaubert's Salammbô, set in Carthage at the time of Hamilcar Barca. Hannibal appears as a child.
  • 1996, Elisabeth Craft, A Spy for Hannibal: A Novel of Carthage, 091015533X
  • 1996-2000, Ross Leckie, Carthage trilogy, source of the 2008 film (1996, Hannibal: A Novel, ISBN 0-89526-443-9 ; 1999, Scipio, a Novel, ISBN 0-349-11238-X ; Carthage, 2000, ISBN 0-86241-944-1)
  • 2005, Terry McCarthy, The Sword of Hannibal, ISBN 0-446-61517-X
  • 2006, David Anthony Durham, Pride of Carthage: A Novel of Hannibal, ISBN 0-385-72249-4
  • 2006, Angela Render, Forged By Lightning: A Novel of Hannibal and Scipio, ISBN 1-4116-8002-2

Theatre and opera

Military history

Hannibal is usually ranked among the best military strategists and tacticians. .According to Appian, several years after the Second Punic War, Hannibal was a political advisor in the Seleucid Kingdom and Scipio was sent there on a diplomatic mission from Rome.^ There was a Lucanian named Flavus, the head of that section of the Lucanians who stood by Rome-one section had gone over to Hannibal-and they elected him praetor.
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^ The third year of the Punic war had run its course when Ti.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

^ This is the second year of the war in Sicily with all its hard-fought battles.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

.
It is said that at one of their meetings in the gymnasium Scipio and Hannibal had a conversation on the subject of generalship, in the presence of a number of bystanders, and that Scipio asked Hannibal whom he considered the greatest general, to which the latter replied, 'Alexander of Macedonia.'^ They declared publicly that they had been sent by Hannibal to Hieronymus as to a friend and ally; they had obeyed the commands of the men whom their general Hannibal had wished them to obey, and now they were anxious to return to Hannibal.
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^ This would enable whichever general was in command to meet Hannibal with tactics and strength equal to his own should an opportunity arise of striking a blow.
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^ He considered that the easier and safer course would be to meet Hannibal as he came down from the Alps.
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To this Scipio assented since he also yielded the first place to Alexander. .Then he asked Hannibal whom he placed next, and he replied, 'Pyrrhus of Epirus,' because he considered boldness the first qualification of a general; "for it would not be possible," he said, 'to find two kings more enterprising than these.'^ The numerous betrayals and defections which reached his ears and the massacre of Roman garrisons made him more than ever careful to take every possible precaution.
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^ I ask you, as an act of grace, to order me to retain my office and these, each man of them, his place in the ranks."
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^ As for himself, Paulus said that he would not anticipate events by disclosing his measures, for, after all, circumstances determined measures for men much more than men made circumstances subservient to measures.
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.Scipio was rather nettled by this, but nevertheless he asked Hannibal to whom he would give the third place, expecting that at least the third would be assigned to him; but Hannibal replied, 'To myself; for when I was a young man I conquered Hispania and crossed the Alps with an army, the first after Hercules.^ Whom are we expecting as our third consul; what fresh army are we looking for?
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^ The decree of the plebs, which I feel to be onerous rather than an honour, I am the first to repeal and annul, and with a prayer that it may turn out well for you, for me, and for these armies of yours, for preserved and preserver alike, I place myself again under your auspicious authority and restore to you these legions with their standards.
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^ When he first heard the rumour of Hannibal's passage of the Alps, delighted as he was at the outbreak of war between Rome and Carthage, he was still undecided, till their relative strength had been tested, which of the two he would prefer to have the victory.
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.I invaded Italy and struck terror into all of you, laid waste 400 of your towns, and often put your city in extreme peril, all this time receiving neither money nor reinforcements from Carthage.'^ And all you had to do was put on sun screen.
  • "Hannibal", production draft, by Steven Zaillian 12 September 2009 10:24 UTC www.dailyscript.com [Source type: Original source]

^ You have all your shots?
  • "Hannibal", production draft, by Steven Zaillian 12 September 2009 10:24 UTC www.dailyscript.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I got you into all this.
  • "Hannibal", production draft, by Steven Zaillian 12 September 2009 10:24 UTC www.dailyscript.com [Source type: Original source]

.As Scipio saw that he was likely to prolong his self-laudation he said, laughing, 'Where would you place yourself, Hannibal, if you had not been defeated by me?'^ "I see here," said Hannibal, "the very flower of my army, but you must be strong in numbers as well as in courage.
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^ It is of more importance to you, T. Otacilius, than it can be to any one else that you should not have a burden placed upon your shoulders whose weight would crush you.
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^ It's much easier to be yourself when you have people like you around, so I do spend time with the INTJ that I do know, and I do enjoy that time.

.Hannibal, now perceiving his jealousy, replied, 'In that case I should have put myself before Alexander.'^ Hannibal felt that he ought not to trust them blindly nor to meet their offer with a flat refusal, in case they should become hostile.
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^ Owing to his success and popularity Minucius had been almost unbearable before, but now that he had won as great a victory over Fabius as over Hannibal, his boastful arrogance knew no bounds.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The town of Casilinum was given back to the Campanians, and a garrison of 700 men from Hannibal's army was placed in it in case the Romans should attack it after Hannibal's departure.
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.Thus Hannibal continued his self-laudation, but flattered Scipio in a delicate manner by suggesting that he had conquered one who was the superior of Alexander.^ There was a Lucanian named Flavus, the head of that section of the Lucanians who stood by Rome-one section had gone over to Hannibal-and they elected him praetor.
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^ Hannibal will only feel contempt for a man who runs all risks, he will be afraid of one who never takes a rash step.
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^ Thus Arpi was restored to the Romans without the loss of a single life, except in the case of one man who had long ago been a traitor and had recently deserted.
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.At the end of this conversation Hannibal invited Scipio to be his guest, and Scipio replied that he would be so gladly if Hannibal were not living with Antiochus, who was held in suspicion by the Romans.^ At that time Casilinum was held by 500 Praenestines with a few Roman and Latin troops, who had gone there when they heard of the disaster at Cannae.
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^ The Romans, he knew, would not be implacable to those who had formerly offended, there had never been a nation more ready to listen to prayers and more quick to grant forgiveness.
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^ He had a secret interview with Mago, who was commanding in Bruttium, and obtained his solemn pledge that if he would betray the Roman commander to the Carthaginians the Lucanians should be taken into friendship and allowed to live as a free people under their own laws.
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.Thus did they, in a manner worthy of great commanders, cast aside their enmity at the end of their wars.^ His reputation was quite as great with Hannibal and the Carthaginians; now at last they felt that the were warring with Romans and on Italian soil.
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^ They stated that they had had notice from the financial commissioners that they were to receive the value of their slaves, but they would not accept it till the war was at an end.
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^ The fugitives were driven back by their comrades who poured in great numbers out of the camp, and thus reinforced they renewed the fighting.
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[9][62]
.Hannibal's exploits (especially his victory at Cannae) continue to be studied in military academies all over the world.^ After his great success at Cannae, Hannibal made his arrangements more as though his victory were a complete and decisive one than as if the war were still going on.
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^ Authorities in military matters have regarded the wintering at Capua as a greater mistake on the part of Hannibal than his not marching straight to Rome after his victory at Cannae.
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^ To Hannibal the victory seemed too great and too joyous for him to realise all at once.
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.
Hannibal's celebrated feat in crossing the Alps with war elephants passed into European legend: a fresco detail, ca.
^ Xenophanes passed through the Roman troops into Campania and thence by the nearest route reached Hannibal's camp.
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^ It was understood that they were induced to desert not so much by the prospect of the war as by the length of the march and the impossibility of crossing the Alps.
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^ "It was by the nobility," he declared, "who had for many years been trying to get up a war, that Hannibal was brought into Italy, and when the war might have been brought to a close, it was they who were unscrupulously protracting it.
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1510, Capitoline Museums, Rome
Maximilian Otto Bismarck Caspari, in his article in the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, praises Hannibal in these words:
.As to the transcendent military genius of Hannibal there cannot be two opinions.^ There Hannibal left all his booty and his baggage, and then forming his army into two divisions, gave Mago the command of one and retained the other himself.
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.The man who for fifteen years could hold his ground in a hostile country against several powerful armies and a succession of able generals must have been a commander and a tactician of supreme capacity.^ Henna, situated on a lofty position precipitous on all sides was naturally impregnable, and it had also a strong Roman garrison and a commandant who was not at all a suitable man for traitors to approach.
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^ In order, therefore, that you might have a consul to lead you against Hannibal and the Carthaginians, I have volunteered to command in this battle, and as I am new to you and you to me I must say a few words to you.
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^ So far did the Roman knight surpass all others in the authority and respect which he possessed with the soldiers that the whole army unanimously conferred the supreme command on L. Marcius.
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.In the use of strategies and ambuscades he certainly surpassed all other generals of antiquity.^ So far did the Roman knight surpass all others in the authority and respect which he possessed with the soldiers that the whole army unanimously conferred the supreme command on L. Marcius.
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^ They all independent and do not give much shit about others opinion, but they respect each other and in general people who do, not talk.

^ There were now three Carthaginian generals and they all encamped on the other side of the river opposite the Roman camp.
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.Wonderful as his achievements were, we must marvel the more when we take into account the grudging support he received from Carthage.^ But they did not remain quiet long, for just after this battle an order was received from Carthage for Hasdrubal to lead his army as soon as he could into Italy.
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^ It makes sense to me, and regular meditation takes me"out of my head" and into a more natural state.

As his veterans melted away, he had to organize fresh levies on the spot. We never hear of a mutiny in his army, composed though it was of North Africans, Iberians and Gauls. .Again, all we know of him comes for the most part from hostile sources.^ He invited him to come and see him and spoke to him most kindly.
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^ As he did not know what understanding they had come to with Hannibal, or what proposals Hannibal's agents were bringing to him, he despatched a second embassy with the same instructions.
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.The Romans feared and hated him so much that they could not do him justice.^ Syphax, they said, could easily be crushed, for he had got nothing out of the Roman alliance except the name.
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^ It was the unanimous opinion that the gates should be shut and the city put in a state of defence, but they were not unanimous in their fears and hates.
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^ They expressed neither surprise nor displeasure at this fickleness and levity in the hot-headed youth provided only they could keep him from declaring for Rome.
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.Livy speaks of his great qualities, but he adds that his vices were equally great, among which he singles out his more than Punic perfidy and an inhuman cruelty.^ But these great merits were matched by great vices-inhuman cruelty, a perfidy worse than Punic, an utter absence of truthfulness, reverence, fear of the gods, respect for oaths, sense of religion.
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^ After his great success at Cannae, Hannibal made his arrangements more as though his victory were a complete and decisive one than as if the war were still going on.
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^ Unlike here, one more often smokes indoors than out, and the man lights an MS cigarette, his reward for reaching the landing.
  • "Hannibal", production draft, by Steven Zaillian 12 September 2009 10:24 UTC www.dailyscript.com [Source type: Original source]

.For the first there would seem to be no further justification than that he was consummately skillful in the use of ambuscades.^ There was no place where he would sooner live than under the rule of the man whom he had known as the champion and asserter of his freedom.
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^ It seems like there's no in between no matter what I am doing.

^ Had he been commander-in-chief of the Carthaginians there was no torture to which he would not have been subjected.
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.For the latter there is, we believe, no more ground than that at certain crises he acted in the general spirit of ancient warfare.^ They do not even march in military detachments, but they scour the whole of our country like brigands and more carelessly than if they were roaming about on Roman ground.
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^ He saw that the spirits of his men were restored, and that there was no one but his colleague who wished to delay battle; he believed that Scipio was more sick in mind than in body, and that the thought of his wound made him shrink from the dangers of the battlefield.
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^ LECTER'S VOICE Clarice, there's nothing I'd love more in the world than to chat with you.
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Sometimes he contrasts most favorably with his enemy. .No such brutality stains his name as that perpetrated by Claudius Nero on the vanquished Hasdrubal.^ In the latter it was expressly stated that it would only be of force if the people approved it, whereas in Hasdrubal's treaty there was no such saving clause.
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Polybius merely says that he was accused of cruelty by the Romans and of avarice by the Carthaginians. .He had indeed bitter enemies, and his life was one continuous struggle against destiny.^ Not one of them was sent into exile, not one was deprived of the prospect of obtaining his discharge, and above all they had the chance of putting an end either to their life or their disgrace by fighting the enemy.
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For steadfastness of purpose, for organizing capacity and a mastery of military science he has perhaps never had an equal.[8]
Even his Roman chroniclers acknowledged his supreme military leadership, writing that, "he never required others to do what he could and would not do himself".[63] According to Polybius 23, 13, p. 423: "It is a remarkable and very cogent proof of Hannibal's having been by nature a real leader and far superior to anyone else in statesmanship, that though he spent seventeen years in the field, passed through so many barbarous countries, and employed to aid him in desperate and extraordinary enterprises numbers of men of different nations and languages, no one ever dreamt of conspiring against him, nor was he ever deserted by those who had once joined him or submitted to him."
.Count Alfred von Schlieffen's eponymously-titled "Schlieffen Plan" was developed from his military studies, with particularly heavy emphasis on Hannibal's envelopment technique he employed to surround and victoriously destroy the Roman army at Cannae.^ In the meantime Hannibal had marched the whole of his army through the pass, and after surprising and scattering some Roman troops in the pass itself, fixed his camp in the district of Allifae.
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^ While the Roman generals were thus engaged elsewhere Hannibal had reached Tarentum, utterly ruining and destroying everything as he advanced.
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^ When the bridge was completed the Roman army crossed over in the territory of the Insubres and took up a position five miles from Ictumuli, where Hannibal had his camp.
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[64][65] .George S. Patton believed that he was a reincarnation of Hannibal as well as many other people including a Roman legionary and a Napoleonic soldier.^ So far did the Roman knight surpass all others in the authority and respect which he possessed with the soldiers that the whole army unanimously conferred the supreme command on L. Marcius.
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^ Still, many of the Roman soldiers, too, were carried off by that pestilence.
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^ Many of the Roman soldiers were wounded by rashly venturing too near the walls, and the operations were by no means successful.
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[66][67] Norman Schwarzkopf, the commander of the Coalition Forces in the Gulf War, claimed that "The technology of war may change, the sophistication of weapons certainly changes. .But those same principles of war that applied to the days of Hannibal apply today."^ It was a cause of grave anxiety to Hannibal, for he fully realised that the Romans had chosen for their commander-in-chief a man who conducted war on rational principles and not by trusting to chance.
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^ "Well, then," said Hanno, "we have as much work before us in this war as we had on the day when Hannibal first set foot in Italy.
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[68]
According to the military historian, Theodore Ayrault Dodge,
Hannibal excelled as a tactician. .No battle in history is a finer sample of tactics than Cannae.^ No sooner was Marcellus aware of it than he formed his line of battle, nor did Hannibal decline the challenge.
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^ As to the war with Rome, if Trasumennus was a more famous battle than the Trebia, if Cannae was more famous than Trasumennus, I shall make even the memory of Cannae fade in the light of a greater and more brilliant victory."
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^ No sooner had they reached the place than the cavalry dashed forward with their battle cry.
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But he was yet greater in logistics and strategy. .No captain ever marched to and fro among so many armies of troops superior to his own numbers and material as fearlessly and skillfully as he.^ In the meantime Hannibal had marched the whole of his army through the pass, and after surprising and scattering some Roman troops in the pass itself, fixed his camp in the district of Allifae.
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^ He himself, too, picked up a considerable number of volunteers in the country through which he was marching, and he arrived in Lucania with double the army he started with.
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^ These were the dispositions on each side, and whilst the two armies were standing ready to engage, their commanders felt almost equally confident of victory, for neither side was much superior to the other either in the numbers or the quality of the troops.
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.No man ever held his own so long or so ably against such odds.^ When, however, he saw the abandoned lines and realised that it would be no easy matter to overtake his opponent after he had got such a long start, he returned to his ships.
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.Constantly overmatched by better soldiers, led by generals always respectable, often of great ability, he yet defied all their efforts to drive him from Italy, for half a generation.^ "He has often," he said, "argued with me about our respective merits, let him settle the matter with the sword, and if he is vanquished yield me the spolia opima, or if he is the victor take them from me."
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^ They all independent and do not give much shit about others opinion, but they respect each other and in general people who do, not talk.

^ His need to be around people drives me nuts, and I think my isolation bothers him, so we don't socialize together, and the relationship works much better that way.

.Excepting in the case of Alexander, and some few isolated instances, all wars up to the Second Punic War, had been decided largely, if not entirely, by battle-tactics.^ This is the second year of the war in Sicily with all its hard-fought battles.
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^ How did Hannibal know anything at all about Krendler, enough to decide to go to his lake house and set up camp there?
  • Ain't It Cool News: The best in movie, TV, DVD, and comic book news. 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.aintitcool.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was in the fifth year of the second Punic war that Q. Fabius Maximus assumed the consulship for the fourth time and M. Claudius Marcellus for the third time.
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Strategic ability had been comprehended only on a minor scale. .Armies had marched towards each other, had fought in parallel order, and the conqueror had imposed terms on his opponent.^ About the first watch he ordered the advance to be made and the army marched in silence to Hamae, which they reached at midnight.
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^ Hannibal ordered Hanno who was in Bruttium to march his army into Campania and see to it that the people of Capua were plentifully supplied with corn.
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^ They fought in order of march rather than of battle; the Romans, however, had the advantage, in spite of its being an irregular battle.
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Any variation from this rule consisted in ambuscades or other stratagems. .That war could be waged by avoiding in lieu of seeking battle; that the results of a victory could be earned by attacks upon the enemy’s communications, by flank-maneuvers, by seizing positions from which safely to threaten him in case he moved, and by other devices of strategy, was not understood...^ He first sought to check Scipio's advance with a body of Numidian horse, and he kept up incessant attacks upon him day and night.
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^ When your commonwealth is prosperous and safe send to Pythian Apollo a gift from the gains you have earned and honour him with your substance out of the plunder, the booty, and the spoils.
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^ Fabius continued to move along the heights, keeping between the enemy and the City, neither avoiding nor attacking him.
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[However] .For the first time in the history of war, we see two contending generals avoiding each other, occupying impregnable camps on heights, marching about each other's flanks to seize cities or supplies in their rear, harassing each other with small-war, and rarely venturing on a battle which might prove a fatal disaster—all with a well-conceived purpose of placing his opponent at a strategic disadvantage...^ The first day he pitched his camp in view of the enemy not far from Arpi; the Carthaginian lost no time in marching out his men in battle order to give him the chance of fighting.
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^ He also made them so familiar with the work of entrenchment and other regular military tasks that the king placed quite as much confidence in his infantry as in his cavalry, and in a pitched battle fought on a level plain he proved superior to the Carthaginians.
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^ He got into the town first, and hearing that Hanno had encamped by the river Caloris about three miles from the city and was ravaging the country, he moved out of the place and fixed his camp about a mile from the enemy.
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That it did so was due to the teaching of Hannibal.[13]

TV and film

Year Film Other notes
1914 Cabiria Italian Silent film
1939 Scipio Africanus - the Defeat of Hannibal (Scipione l'africano) Italian Motion Picture
1955 Jupiter's Darling MGM musical picture starring Howard Keel and Esther Williams
1960 Annibale Italian Motion Picture starring Victor Mature
1996 Gulliver’s Travels Gulliver summons Hannibal from a magic mirror.
1997 The Great Battles of Hannibal British documentary
2001 Hannibal: The Man Who Hated Rome British documentary
2005 The True Story of Hannibal British documentary
2004 The Phantom of the Opera The beginning Opera being rehearsed is one about Hannibal so titled Hannibal
2005 Hannibal vs. Rome in National Geographic Channel
2006 Hannibal - Rome's Worst Nightmare TV film
2008 Battles BC S01E01 History Channel TV film
2010/2011 Hannibal the Conqueror Mainstream movie, starring Vin Diesel in the role of Hannibal (not confirmed)

Comics

Timeline


See also

Notes

  1. ^ As with Greek and Roman practice filiation was a normal part of Carthaginian nomenclature.[6]
  2. ^ Hannibal's date of death is most commonly given as 183 BC, but there is a possibility it could have taken place in 182 BC.

References

  1. ^ Lancel, Serge (1995) Hannibal cover: "Roman bust of Hannibal. Museo Archeologico Nazionale. Naples"
  2. ^ Goldsworthy, Adrian (2000) The Fall of Carthage cover: "Hannibal in later life"
  3. ^ Goldsworthy, Adrian (2001) Cannae p.24: "a bust which may be a representation of Hannibal in later life, although there are no definite images of him"
  4. ^ Goldsworthy, Adrian (2003) The Complete Roman Army p.41: "a bust that purports to show Hannibal in later life"
  5. ^ Matyszak, Philip (2003) Chronicle of the Roman Republic p.95: "bust, thought to be of Hannibal, found in Capua"
  6. ^ Ameling, Walter Karthago: Studien zu Militär, Staat und Gesellschaft p.81-82
  7. ^ "Microsoft Encarta — Hannibal (general)". Archived from the original on 2009-10-31. http://www.webcitation.org/5kwqTdZ6j. 
  8. ^ a b M.O.B. Caspari, HANNIBAL ("grace of Baal") 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica
  9. ^ a b Mary Macgregor. "The Death of Hannibal". The Story of Rome. http://www.mainlesson.com/display.php?author=macgregor&book=rome&story=hannibal2&PHPSESSID=eb1cde7138b9994d0c97c7a7c1005a85. Retrieved 2006-07-05. 
  10. ^ Church, Alfred J., The Story of Carthage, p. 269
  11. ^ Plutarch, and when asked what his choices would be if he had beaten Scipio, he replied that he would be the best of them all Life of Titus Flamininus 21.3-4.
  12. ^ Plutarch, Life of Pyrrhus 8.2.
  13. ^ a b c d e Ayrault Dodge, Theodore (1995). Hannibal: A History of the Art of War Among the Carthagonians and Romans Down to the Battle of Pydna, 168 BC. Da Capo Press. 
  14. ^ Lancel, S. Hannibal p.6.
  15. ^ Reverse Spins Patton, the Second Coming of Hannibal.
  16. ^ [1] The History of Rome: Vol III, by Livy
  17. ^ Dodge, Theodore Ayrault, Hannibal: A History of the Art of War Among the Carthaginians and Romans Down to the Battle of Pydna, 168 B.C, p. 143
  18. ^ Fagan, Garret G. "The History of Ancient Rome". Lecture 13: "The Second Punic War". Teaching Company, "Great Courses" series.
  19. ^ Lancel, Serge, Hannibal, p. 225
  20. ^ Prevas, John, Hannibal Crosses the Alps: The Invasion of Italy and the Second Punic War, p. 86
  21. ^ Lancel, Serge, Hannibal, p. 60
  22. ^ Montgenèvre: Peter Connolly, Hannibal and the Enemies of Rome (1978); (extensive summary); Col de la Traversette: Gavin de Beer, Alps and Elephants and Napoleon III; Mahaney 2008, "Hannibal's Odyssey; Environmental Background to the Alpine Invasion of Italia"; Mont Cenis: Denis Proctor, Hannibal's March in History. Other theories include the Col du Clapier (Serge Lancel, Hannibal (1995) and the Col du Petit Saint Bernard (Barthold Niebuhr).
  23. ^ Livy History of Rome book21 ,36
  24. ^ Livy History of Rome, Book 21 sections 32-36
  25. ^ S. Lancel, Hannibal (1995; English translation 1999) page 60.
  26. ^ a b Dodge, Theodore. Hannibal. Cambridge Massachusetts: De Capo Press, 1891 ISBN 0-306-81362-9
  27. ^ John Selby Watson; Marcus Junianus; Justinus, Cornelius; Nepos, Eutropius (1853). Justin, Cornelius Nepos, and Eutropius: Literally Translated, with Notes. H. G. Bohn. pp. 420. http://books.google.com/books?id=7KuFCUqLA8gC&pg=RA1-PA421&vq=right+eye&dq=hannibal+greatest&lr=. Retrieved 2008-07-23. 
  28. ^ Polybius, Histories, Book III, p76
  29. ^ Liddell Hart, B. H., Strategy, New York City, New York, Penguin Group, 1967
  30. ^ USAWC Comparing Strategies of the 2nd Punic War by James Parker. View as HTML
  31. ^ De Beer, Sir G. (1974) Hannibal: the Struggle for Power in the Mediterranean p.91. Thames and Hudson, London.
  32. ^ Hannibal ad Portas. Konrad Theiss Verlag, Stuttgart, 2004.
  33. ^ Goldsworthy, Adrian K. The Roman Army at War 100 BC - AD 200, New York
  34. ^ "Internet Ancient History Sourcebook". http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/ancient/polybius-cannae.html. 
  35. ^ a b c d Cottrell, Leonard, Enemy of Rome, Evans Bros, 1965, ISBN 0-237-44320-1
  36. ^ Prevas, John, Hannibal Crosses the Alps, p. xv
  37. ^ Chaplin, Jane Dunbar, Livy's Exemplary History, p. 66
  38. ^ Polybius, The Histories of Polybius, 2 Vols., trans. Evelyn S. Shuckburgh (London: Macmillan, 1889), I. 264-275.
  39. ^ Prevas, John, Hannibal Crosses the Alps: The Invasion of Italy and the Second Punic War, p. 200
  40. ^ Pliny, tr. by Mary Beagon, The Elder Pliny on the Human Animal, p 361
  41. ^ Livy, The War with Hannibal, 28.46
  42. ^ Bournoutian, George A. (2006). A Concise History of the Armenian People: From Ancient Times to the Present. Costa Mesa, CA: Mazda, p. 29. ISBN 1-5685-9141-1.
  43. ^ Cornelius Nepos, Hannibal 11.4-5.
  44. ^ Cornelius Nepos, Hannibal 12.5; Juvenal, Satires X.164
  45. ^ a b Cornelius Nepos, Hannibal 13.1
  46. ^ Alan Emrich, Practical Latin
  47. ^ Holland, Rome and her Enemies 8
  48. ^ Livy, The War With Hannibal 22.61
  49. ^ Lazenby, Hannibal's War 237-8
  50. ^ Goldsworthy, The Fall of Carthage 315
  51. ^ J. F. Lazenby, The Hannibalic War, 254
  52. ^ Livy, The War With Hannibal 26.7 http://mcadams.posc.mu.edu/txt/ah/Livy/Livy26.html
  53. ^ Livy, The War With Hannibal 26.9 http://mcadams.posc.mu.edu/txt/ah/Livy/Livy26.html
  54. ^ a b Livy, The War With Hannibal 26.8 http://mcadams.posc.mu.edu/txt/ah/Livy/Livy26.html
  55. ^ Livy, The War with Hannibal, 26.11
  56. ^ J.F. Lazenby, The Hannibalic War, p. 254
  57. ^ Bagnall, The Punic Wars 203
  58. ^ Lazenby, Hannibal's War 235
  59. ^ Lazenby Hannibal's War 254
  60. ^ Goldsworthy The Fall of Carthage 366-7)
  61. ^ Hannibal, Carthaginian general, The Columbia Encyclopedia
  62. ^ Appian, History of the Syrian Wars, §10 and §11 at Livius.org
  63. ^ Hannibal at CarpeNoctem.tv
  64. ^ Daly, Gregory, Cannae: The Experience of Battle in the Second Punic War, p. x
  65. ^ Cottrell, Leonard, Hannibal: Enemy of Rome, p. 134
  66. ^ "Any man who thinks he is the reincarnation of Hannibal or some such isn't quite possessed of all his buttons", quoted by D'Este, Carlo, in Patton: A Genius For War, p. 815
  67. ^ Hirshson, Stanley, General Patton: A Soldier's Life, p. 163
  68. ^ Carlton, James, The Military Quotation Book, New York City, New York, Thomas Dunne Books, 2002

Further reading in Punic Wars

.
  • Bickerman, Elias J. "Hannibal’s Covenant", American Journal of Philology, Vol. 73, No. 1. (1952), pp. 1–23.
  • Bradford, E, Hannibal, London, Macmillan London Ltd., 1981
  • Caven, B., Punic Wars, London, George Werdenfeld and Nicholson Ltd., 1980
  • Cottrell, Leonard, Hannibal: Enemy of Rome, Da Capo Press, 1992, ISBN 0-306-80498-0
  • Daly, Gregory, Cannae: The Experience of Battle in the Second Punic War, London/New York, Routledge, 2002, ISBN 0-415-32743-1
  • Delbrück, Hans, Warfare in Antiquity, 1920, ISBN 0-8032-9199-X
  • Hoyos, Dexter: Hannibal's Dynasty: Power and Politics in the Western Mediterranean, 247–183 B.C. (Routledge: London & New York, 2003; paperback edition with maps, 2005) - has much discussion of strategy and warfare.
  • Hoyos, Dexter, Hannibal: Rome's Greatest Enemy, Bristol Phoenix Press, 2005, ISBN 1-904675-46-8 (hbk) ISBN 1-904675-47-6 (pbk)
  • Lamb, Harold, Hannibal: One Man Against Rome, 1959.
  • Lancel, Serge, Hannibal, Blackwell Publishing, 1999, ISBN 0631218483
  • Livy, and De Selincourt, Aubery, The War with Hannibal: Books XXI-XXX of the History of Rome from its Foundation, Penguin Classics, Reprint edition, July 30, 1965, ISBN 0-14-044145-X (pbk)(also [3])
  • Prevas, John, Hannibal Crosses the Alps: The Invasion of Italy and the Second Punic War, 2001, ISBN 0306810700, questions which route he took
  • Talbert, Richard J.A., ed., Atlas of Classical History, Routledge, London/New York, 1985, ISBN 0-415-03463-9
  • Yardley, J.C. (translator) & Hoyos, D. (introduction, notes, maps and appendix on Hannibal's march over the Alps): Livy: Hannibal's War: Books 21 to 30 (Oxford World's Classics: Oxford Univ.^ And that I may not be the only one to be surprised at your delight-for as I have answered Himilco, I have a perfect right to ask questions in my turn-I should be glad if either Himilco or Mago would tell me, since, you say, the battle of Cannae has all but destroyed the power of Rome and the whole of Italy is admittedly in revolt, whether, in the first place, any single community of the Latin nation has come over to us, and, secondly, whether a single man out of the thirty-five Roman tribes has deserted to Hannibal."
    • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ There was a Lucanian named Flavus, the head of that section of the Lucanians who stood by Rome-one section had gone over to Hannibal-and they elected him praetor.
    • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ But when the news arrived that Hasdrubal-Gisgo's son-had crossed the Ebro and was coming to stamp out the remains of the war and the soldiers saw the signal for battle put out by their new general they gave way completely.
    • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

    Press, UK & USA, 2006).
  • Dodge, Theodore. ."Hannibal", Hannibal During the Second Punic War.^ It was in the fifth year of the second Punic war that Q. Fabius Maximus assumed the consulship for the fourth time and M. Claudius Marcellus for the third time.
    • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ These were the main incidents of the campaign in Spain during the second summer of the Punic war.
    • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

    New York: Barnes and Noble
This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

External links


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

This article is for quotes of or about the Carthaginian leader; for the 2001 movie see: Hannibal (film)
I have come not to make war on the Italians, but to aid the Italians against Rome.
.Hannibal (from Punic, literally "Baal is merciful to me", 247 BC182 BC) was a politician, statesman and military commander of ancient Carthage.^ Hannibal (247 - 182 BC) by Mary Holtby .
  • The Incomparable Hannibal, Phoenician Punic Hero -- A Personal View 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC phoenicia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Timeline of Hannibal's life (247 BC-c.
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Hannibal (247–182 bc), Carthaginian general.
  • Hannibal Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Hannibal 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Sourced

God has given to man no sharper spur to victory than contempt of death.
.
I will either find a way, or make one.
  • I have come not to make war on the Italians, but to aid the Italians against Rome.
    • Spoken to Italian soldiers of Rome captured at the Battle of Lake Trasimene (24 June 217 BC) as quoted in Hannibal : One Man Against Rome (1958) by Harold Lamb, p.^ He has been attributed with the famous quotation, "We will either find a way, or make one."
      • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

      ^ We will either find a way, or make one.” – Hannibal Barca .

      ^ Excellent post on finding a way, or making one.

      .119
  • Ah there is one thing about them more wonderful than their numbers ...^ There was more fighting than might have been expected from the number of the combatants.
    • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ For the latter there is, we believe, no more ground than that at certain crises he acted in the general spirit of ancient warfare.
    • MySpace - Hannibal Barca - 104 - Male - Tel Aviv, IL - myspace.com/hannibal_barca 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ This route was practically one huge marsh, and happened to be overflowing more than usual during this particular season.
    • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

    in all that vast number there is not one man called Gisgo. .
    • Spoken as a jest to one of his officers named Gisgo, who had remarked on the numbers of Roman forces against them before the Battle of Cannae (2 August 216 BC), as quoted in A History of Rome (1855), by Henry George Liddell Vol.^ In fact, the Romans prided themselves on not sacrificing people, that was one of the things they held against the Carthaginians.
      • Hannibal Goes to Rome | Zuda Comics 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC zudacomics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Before Hannibal's greatest battle and Rome's worst defeat in history, Cannae, he stood with his Commanders overlooking a terrifying sight, Roman Legions and cavalry that out numbered them two to one, one of his followers, called Gisgo, a Carthaginian of equal rank with himself, told him that the numbers of the enemy were astonishing; to which Hannibal replied with a serious countenance, .
      • Patton, The Second Coming of Hannibal 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.reversespins.com [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Hannibal seized a grain depot in the small village of Cannae in order to lure the Romans to battle.
      • Timeline Tunisia 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      1, p. .355
    • Variant translation: You forget one thing Gisgo, among all their numerous forces, there is not one man called Gisgo.
  • God has given to man no sharper spur to victory than contempt of death.
    • As quoted by Livy, in Ab urbi condita Book XXI, 44, as translated by Aubrey De Sélincourt, in The War with Hannibal (1965)
  • Liberemus diuturna cura populum Romanum, quando mortem senis exspectare longum censent. (Latin, not original language)
    • Let us ease the Roman people of their continual care, who think it long to await the death of an old man.
    • Last words according to Livy "ab urbe condita", Book XXXIX, 51
  • Aut viam inveniam aut faciam.
    • I will either find a way, or make one.
      • Latin proverb, most commonly attributed to Hannibal in response to his generals who had declared it impossible to cross the Alps with elephants; English translation as quoted in Salesmanship and Business Efficiency (1922) by James Samuel Knox, p.^ The ones who've harmed you .
        • "Hannibal", production draft, by Steven Zaillian 12 September 2009 10:24 UTC www.dailyscript.com [Source type: Original source]

        ^ "There is one thing, Gisgo, yet more astonishing, which you take no notice of."
        • Patton, The Second Coming of Hannibal 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.reversespins.com [Source type: Original source]

        ^ We will either find a way, or make one.” – Hannibal Barca .

        .27
  • I am not carrying on a war of extermination against the Romans.^ Whilst these preparations were going on in Italy, the war in Spain was being carried on with as much energy as ever and, so far, in favour of the Romans.
    • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Indeed, throughout the war Roman aristocrats ferociously competed with each other for positions of command to fight against Rome's most dangerous enemy.
    • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

    I am contending for honor and empire. My ancestors yielded to Roman valour. .I am endeavouring that others, in their turn, will be obliged to yield to my good fortune, and my valour.^ So brilliant have been my good fortune and my merits.
    • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ His fathers had yielded to Roman courage, his one object now was that the Romans should yield to his good fortune and courage.
    • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Also, I don't like working in teams because I want things done my way and I feel that if left to others, the results would not be as good.

    .
    • As quoted in Hannibal : Enemy of Rome (1992) by Leonard Cottrell, p.^ The arguments in this article were brought forward for the first time by Peter Connolly in his book Hannibal and the Enemies of Rome (1978 London).
      • Hannibal in the Alps 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.livius.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Even Cicero , when he talked of Rome and her two great enemies, spoke of the "honorable" Pyrrhus and the "cruel" Hannibal.
      • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Both nations sent envoys simultaneously to Hannibal, who addressed him thus: "We have been the enemies of Rome, Hannibal, from very early times.
      • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

      150

Quotes about Hannibal

.
No captain ever marched to and fro among so many armies of troops superior to his own numbers and material as fearlessly and skillfully as he.
^ No captain ever marched to and fro among so many armies of troops superior to his own numbers and material as fearlessly and skillfully as he.
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the meantime Hannibal had marched the whole of his army through the pass, and after surprising and scattering some Roman troops in the pass itself, fixed his camp in the district of Allifae.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

^ He himself, too, picked up a considerable number of volunteers in the country through which he was marching, and he arrived in Lucania with double the army he started with.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

.No man ever held his own so long or so ably against such odds.^ No man ever held his own so long or so ably against such odds.
  • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When, however, he saw the abandoned lines and realised that it would be no easy matter to overtake his opponent after he had got such a long start, he returned to his ships.
  • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

~ .Theodore Ayrault Dodge
  • Hannibal excelled as a tactician.^ According to the military historian, Theodore Ayrault Dodge , Hannibal excelled as a tactician .
    • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Military historian Theodore Ayrault Dodge once famously called Hannibal the "father of strategy" , because his greatest enemy, Rome, came to adopt elements of his military tactics in its own strategic arsenal.
    • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

    .No battle in history is a finer sample of tactics than Cannae.^ No battle in history is a finer sample of tactics than Cannae .
    • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ No sooner was Marcellus aware of it than he formed his line of battle, nor did Hannibal decline the challenge.
    • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ As to the war with Rome, if Trasumennus was a more famous battle than the Trebia, if Cannae was more famous than Trasumennus, I shall make even the memory of Cannae fade in the light of a greater and more brilliant victory."
    • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

    .But he was yet greater in logistics and strategy.^ But he was yet greater in logistics and strategy.
    • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

    .No captain ever marched to and fro among so many armies of troops superior to his own numbers and material as fearlessly and skillfully as he.^ No captain ever marched to and fro among so many armies of troops superior to his own numbers and material as fearlessly and skillfully as he.
    • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In the meantime Hannibal had marched the whole of his army through the pass, and after surprising and scattering some Roman troops in the pass itself, fixed his camp in the district of Allifae.
    • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ He himself, too, picked up a considerable number of volunteers in the country through which he was marching, and he arrived in Lucania with double the army he started with.
    • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

    .No man ever held his own so long or so ably against such odds.
    Constantly overmatched by better soldiers, led by generals always respectable, often of great ability, he yet defied all their efforts to drive him from Italy, for half a generation.^ No man ever held his own so long or so ably against such odds.
    • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Constantly overmatched by better soldiers, led by generals always respectable, often of great ability, he yet defied all their efforts to drive him from Italy, for half a generation.
    • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Some say that his men buried him in his own camp; others say that he was buried by Hannibal, and this is the more generally accepted account.
    • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

    ... .As a soldier, in the countenance he presented to the stoutest of foes and in the constancy he exhibited under the bitterest adversity, Hannibal stands alone and unequaled.^ I studied and marvelled over their exploits, but to my mind, no general who has ever lived can bear comparison to the awe-inspiring Hannibal of Carthage, a man who stands alone.
    • The Incomparable Hannibal, Phoenician Punic Hero -- A Personal View 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC phoenicia.org [Source type: Original source]

    As a man, no character in history exhibits a purer life or nobler patriotism. .
    • Theodore Ayrault Dodge, in Hannibal : A History of the Art of War among the Carthaginians and Romans (1893), p.^ Unlike most battles of the Second Punic War , at Zama the Romans had superiority in cavalry and the Carthaginians had superiority in infantry.
      • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Hannibal had started the war without the full backing of Carthaginian oligarchy.
      • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Military historian Theodore Ayrault Dodge once famously called Hannibal the "father of strategy" , because his greatest enemy, Rome, came to adopt elements of his military tactics in its own strategic arsenal.
      • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

      .652
  • As to the transcendent military genius of Hannibal there cannot be two opinions.^ Here's some nice things that were said about me: "As to the transcendent military genius of Hannibal there cannot be two opinions.
    • MySpace - Hannibal Barca - 104 - Male - Tel Aviv, IL - myspace.com/hannibal_barca 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ There Hannibal left all his booty and his baggage, and then forming his army into two divisions, gave Mago the command of one and retained the other himself.
    • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ There are two ancient texts that give a description of Hannibal's route.
    • Hannibal in the Alps 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.livius.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The man who for fifteen years could hold his ground in a hostile country against several powerful armies and a succession of able generals must have been a commander and a tactician of supreme capacity.^ During the year 203 BCE the Romans finally found a hero in a general, who was born, raised and educated in Carthage.
    • AfricanHistory 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.crbcc.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Henna, situated on a lofty position precipitous on all sides was naturally impregnable, and it had also a strong Roman garrison and a commandant who was not at all a suitable man for traitors to approach.
    • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Before that, Owen Glendower and his men fought a bloody rebellion against two English kings in an insurrection that lasted for fifteen years.
    • The Incomparable Hannibal, Phoenician Punic Hero -- A Personal View 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC phoenicia.org [Source type: Original source]

    .In the use of strategies and ambuscades he certainly surpassed all other generals of antiquity.^ So far did the Roman knight surpass all others in the authority and respect which he possessed with the soldiers that the whole army unanimously conferred the supreme command on L. Marcius.
    • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ There were now three Carthaginian generals and they all encamped on the other side of the river opposite the Roman camp.
    • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

    .Wonderful as his achievements were, we must marvel the more when we take into account the grudging support he received from Carthage.^ But they did not remain quiet long, for just after this battle an order was received from Carthage for Hasdrubal to lead his army as soon as he could into Italy.
    • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ It makes sense to me, and regular meditation takes me"out of my head" and into a more natural state.

    .As his veterans melted away, he had to organize fresh levies on the spot.
    We never hear of a mutiny in his army, composed though it was of North Africans, Iberians and Gauls.^ As his veterans melted away, he had to organize fresh levies on the spot.
    • MySpace - Hannibal Barca - 104 - Male - Tel Aviv, IL - myspace.com/hannibal_barca 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ We never hear of a mutiny in his army, composed though it was of Africans, Spaniards and Gauls.
    • MySpace - Hannibal Barca - 104 - Male - Tel Aviv, IL - myspace.com/hannibal_barca 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ On this, the Romans, who had fought one battle to no purpose, left the Gauls and Spaniards, whose rear they had been slaughtering, and commenced a fresh struggle with the Africans.
    • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

    .Again, all we know of him comes for the most part from hostile sources.^ As Krendler comes over and hovers over her shoulder, it's all she can do to keep herself from slugging him.
    • "Hannibal", production draft, by Steven Zaillian 12 September 2009 10:24 UTC www.dailyscript.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ He invited him to come and see him and spoke to him most kindly.
    • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ As he did not know what understanding they had come to with Hannibal, or what proposals Hannibal's agents were bringing to him, he despatched a second embassy with the same instructions.
    • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

    .The Romans feared and hated him so much that they could not do him justice.
    Livy speaks of his great qualities, but he adds that his vices were equally great, among which he singles out his more than Punic perfidy and an inhuman cruelty.^ As Polybius notes, "How much more serious was the defeat of Cannae, than those which preceded it can be seen by the behavior of Rome’s allies; before that fateful day, their loyalty remained unshaken, now it began to waver for the simple reason that they despaired of Roman Power."
    • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ They both also wish him every success with this venture and are completely confident that this enormously talented man will do full justice to the memory of the greatest warrior that's ever lived."
    • The Incomparable Hannibal, Phoenician Punic Hero -- A Personal View 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC phoenicia.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ But these great merits were matched by great vices-inhuman cruelty, a perfidy worse than Punic, an utter absence of truthfulness, reverence, fear of the gods, respect for oaths, sense of religion.
    • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

    .For the first there would seem to be no further justification than that he was consummately skillful in the use of ambuscades.^ There was no place where he would sooner live than under the rule of the man whom he had known as the champion and asserter of his freedom.
    • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Had he been commander-in-chief of the Carthaginians there was no torture to which he would not have been subjected.
    • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Magius said that he would not be safe at Capua, and as there was at that time war between Rome and Capua, he would be living in Rome more like a deserter than a guest.
    • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

    .For the latter there is, we believe, no more ground than that at certain crises he acted in the general spirit of ancient warfare.^ There was an angle of the fortifications which looked down on a more open and level descent than the rest of the ground surrounding the city, and here he decided to bring up his vineae to allow the battering rams to be placed against the walls.
    • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ You are mistaken, L. Paulus, if you imagine that you will have less difficulty with C. Terentius than with Hannibal; I rather think the former will prove a more dangerous enemy than the latter.
    • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Q. Terentius and M. Antistius were delegated for this task, but they had no more influence with him than the despatch of the senate in his former consulship.
    • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

    Sometimes he contrasts most favorably with his enemy. .No such brutality stains his name as that perpetrated by Claudius Nero on the vanquished Hasdrubal.^ In the latter it was expressly stated that it would only be of force if the people approved it, whereas in Hasdrubal's treaty there was no such saving clause.
    • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

    .Polybius merely says that he was accused of cruelty by the Romans and of avarice by the Carthaginians.^ Polybius , Roman historian Of all the great generals the world has seen, Hannibal Barca, son of the Carthaginian general Hamilcar Barca , ranks as one of the most able--and one of the most unlucky.

    .He had indeed bitter enemies, and his life was one continuous struggle against destiny.^ Indeed, throughout the war Roman aristocrats ferociously competed with each other for positions of command to fight against Rome's most dangerous enemy.
    • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Not one of them was sent into exile, not one was deprived of the prospect of obtaining his discharge, and above all they had the chance of putting an end either to their life or their disgrace by fighting the enemy.
    • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

    .For steadfastness of purpose, for organizing capacity and a mastery of military science he has perhaps never had an equal.
  • Of a truth the gods do not give the same man everything: you know how to gain a victory, Hannibal, but you do not know how to make use of it.
    • Maharbal, commander of Hannibals' Numidian cavalry, as quoted in Livy's History of Rome (1880), Anonymous translation, revised by C. A. M. Fennell, Book XXII, p.^ You know how to win victory, Hannibal, you do not how to use it."
      • The History of Rome, Vol. III 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC www.brainfly.net [Source type: Original source]

      ^ The author of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article praises Hannibal in these words: Even his Roman chroniclers acknowledged his supreme military leadership, writing that, "he never required others to do what he could and would not do himself".
      • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Other sources report that Hannibal told his father, " I swear so soon as age will permit...I will use fire and steel to arrest the destiny of Rome.
      • Hannibal encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

      151
    • Variant translation: You, Hannibal, know how to gain a victory; you do not know how to use it.

External links

Wikipedia
Wikipedia has an article about:

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

.Hannibal [1] is a city in Missouri.^ Back to Hannibal, MO housing info , Marion County , Missouri , MO smaller cities , MO small cities , All Cities .
  • Hannibal, Missouri (MO 63401) Detailed Profile - relocation, real estate, travel, jobs, hospitals, schools, crime, move, moving, houses news, sex offenders 12 September 2009 10:24 UTC www.city-data.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is the famous home of Samuel Longhorn Clemens, aka Mark Twain.^ When I tell someone that I grew up there, and I see a glimmer of recognition , I immediately say "You know, the boyhood home of Mark Twain ."

^ Mark Mark Twain Dinette & Family Restaurant in Hannibal, Missouri: AReview Mark Twain Dinette & Family Restaurant is located on 3rd Street in Hannibal, Missouri, right next to the Mark Twain Home & Museum.
  • Hannibal - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 12 September 2009 10:24 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ Mark Twain Lake, Perry, MO Mark Twain Lake Homes , Set as Default Current Conditions , Historical Data & Charts .
  • Hannibal, Missouri (63401) Conditions & Forecast : Weather Underground 12 September 2009 10:24 UTC www.wunderground.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hannibal, Missouri (63401) Conditions & Forecast : Weather Underground 12 September 2009 10:24 UTC contests.wcco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

  • Hannibal Conventions & Visitor's Bureau, [2]
  • Missouri Divison of Tourism, [3]
  • Mark Twain Boyhood Home & Museum, 120 N Main St, (573) 221-9010, [4]
  • Molly Brown Birthplace & Museum, 505 N Thrid St, (573) 221-2100, [5]
  • Rockcliffe Mansion, 1000 Bird, (573) 221-4140, [6]
This article is an outline and needs more content. It has a template, but there is not enough information present. Please plunge forward and help it grow!

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

.There is more than one meaning of Hannibal discussed in the 1911 Encyclopedia.^ There is ALWAYS more than one way to skin a cat.
  • Hannibal Gaddafi Pays Beyonce To Perform In St. Barts 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.huffingtonpost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There’s so much more than books.
  • Hannibal Missouri (MO) Census and detailed community profile - AmericanTowns.com 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.americantowns.com [Source type: General]

^ For the latter there is, we believe, no more ground than that at certain crises he acted in the general spirit of ancient warfare.
  • Hannibal 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Hannibal - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

.We are planning to let all links go to the correct meaning directly, but for now you will have to search it out from the list below by yourself.^ Now if you can safely do it, get out of the house.
  • "Hannibal", production draft, by Steven Zaillian 12 September 2009 10:24 UTC www.dailyscript.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I stay crispy you dissed me you pissy I ll stomp you out like Hannibal did in Sicily It s Keith and I go...
  • The Mighty Hannibal on Yahoo! Music 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC new.music.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This strategy wore us down; we were not able to maintain our supply lines so far from Africa and so we ultimately ‘ran out of gas’ as you now say.

.If you want to change the link that led you here yourself, it would be appreciated.^ I would've changed it, but I didn't want to wake you.
  • "Hannibal", production draft, by Steven Zaillian 12 September 2009 10:24 UTC www.dailyscript.com [Source type: Original source]

^ No, what I want is to get you out of here.
  • "Hannibal", production draft, by Steven Zaillian 12 September 2009 10:24 UTC www.dailyscript.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If you would like to link to this hometown, please copy the following text and paste it onto your website: .
  • Hannibal Missouri Information and Hotels 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.hometownusa.com [Source type: General]
  • Hannibal Ohio Information and Hotels 13 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.hometownusa.com [Source type: General]


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

Etymology

.From Phoenician, meaning “mercy of (the god) Baal”.^ The Carthaginian general is Hannibal Barca (حني بعل برق meaning "Mercy of Baal Lightening").
  • Two examples of real Bogeymen in History: Hannibal Barca and Al-Azraq | The Baheyeldin Dynasty 23 September 2009 10:20 UTC baheyeldin.com [Source type: General]

Proper noun

Singular
Hannibal
Plural
-
Hannibal
  1. A male given name of mostly historical use. Most notably borne by the the Carthaginian general Hannibal Barca.
  2. A city in Missouri: Hannibal.

Translations


Latin

Alternative forms

  • Annibal

Proper noun

Hannibal (genitive Hannibalis); m, third declension
  1. A Carthaginian given name.
  2. The Carthaginian general Hannibal Barca.

Wikispecies

Up to date as of January 23, 2010
(Redirected to Lester Stuart Hannibal article)

From Wikispecies

U.S. Botanist (1906- ) (L.S.Hannibal)

External links


Simple English

Hannibal (247 BC – 183/182 BC) sometimes known as Hǎnnibal Barca) was a Carthaginian statesman and general. He was the biggest enemy of the Roman Republic. He is most famous for what he did in the Second Punic War. He marched an army from Iberia over the Pyrenees mountains and the Alps mountains into northern Italy and defeated the Romans in a series of battles. He kept an army in Italy for many years. A Roman invasion of North Africa made him return to Carthage. He lost and the Romans made him leave Carthage. He lived at the Seleucid court, and convinced the Emperor to fight Rome. When he lost a naval battle, Hannibal fled to the Bithynian court. When the Romans told him to give up, he killed himself.

Hannibal is listed as one of the greatest military commanders in history. Military historian Theodore Ayrault Dodge once called Hannibal the "father of strategy" because even his greatest enemy, Rome, copied his military ideas. s passed into European legend: a fresco detail, ca. 1510, Capitoline Museums, Rome]]

Contents

Background and early career

Hannibal, which means "mercy of Baal" , was the son of Hamilcar Barca. After Carthage lost the First Punic War, Hamilcar began to try to make Carthage have better luck. Hamilcar began to conquer the tribes of Spain. Carthage at the time was in a poor condition. Its navy could not carry his army to Iberia (Hispania). Hamilcar had to march towards the Pillars of Hercules and transport it across the strait. According to a story, Hannibal went to his father while he was making a sacrifice to the gods. Hannibal was quite young. He begged to go with his father. Hamilcar said yes and made Hannibal promise that he would never be a friend of Rome. Hannibal told his father

I swear so soon as age will permit...I will use fire and steel to arrest the destiny of Rome.

In (221 BC), Hannibal became the leader of the army. He spent two years consolidating his holdings and finishing the conquest of Iberia south of the river Ebro. Rome feared the growing strength of Hannibal. They made an alliance with the city of Saguntum and claimed to be protecting the city. Saguntum was south of the river Ebro. Hannibal attacked the city because of this. It was captured after eight months. Rome wanted justice from Carthage. The Carthaginian government saw nothing wrong with Hannibal's actions. The war Hannibal wanted was declared at the end of the year.

Overland journey to Italy

Hannibal's army was made up of as many as 75,000 foot soldiers and 9,000 horsemen. Hannibal left New Carthage in late spring of 218 BC. He fought his way north to the Pyrenees. He defeated the tribes through clever mountain tactics and stubborn fighting. After marching 290 miles and reaching the Ebro river, Hannibal chose the most trustworthy and loyal parts of his army of Libyan and Iberian mercenaries to keep going with him. He left 11,000 troops to keep watch over the newly conquered region. At the Pyrenees, he let go of another 11,000 Iberian troops. Hannibal entered Gaul with 50,000 foot soldiers and 9,000 horsemen.

Hannibal needed to cross the Pyrenees, the Alps, and many important rivers. In the spring of 218 BC, he fought his way to the Pyrenees. He made peace deals with the Gaulish leaders and reached the Rhône River. Arriving at the Rhône in September, Hannibal's army numbered 38,000 infantry, 8,000 horsemen, and thirty-seven war elephants.

Hannibal got away from a Roman force sent to fight him in Gaul. He then went up the valley of one of the streams of the Rhône River. By autumn, he reached the foot of the Alps. His journey over the mountains is one of the most famous achievements of any military force. After this journey, Hannibal came down from the foothills into northern Italy. He had arrived with only half the forces he had started with and only a few elephants. Hannibal had lost as many as 20,000 men crossing over the mountains.

Battle of Trebia

]] Publius Cornelius Scipio commanded the Roman force sent to stop Hannibal. He did not expect Hannibal to cross the Alps. He expected to fight Hannibal in Spain. With a small army still in Gaul, Scipio tried to stop Hannibal. He moved his army to Italy by sea in time to meet Hannibal. Hannibal made the area behind him safer by defeating the tribe of the Taurini (modern Turin). The opposing forces fought at carthage. Here, Hannibal forced the Romans to get out of the plain of Lombardy. This victory did much to weaken Roman control over the Gauls. The Gauls decided to join the Carthaginians. Soon all of northern Italy was unofficially allied. Gallic and Ligurian troops soon raised his army back to 40,000 men. Hannibal’s army was ready to invade Italy. Scipio retreated across the River Trebia. He camped at the town of Placentia and waited for more troops.

The senate had ordered Sempronius Longus to bring his army from Sicily to meet Scipio and face Hannibal. Hannibal was in position to head him off. Sempronius avoided Hannibal and joined Scipio near the Trebbia River near Placentia. At Trebia, Hannibal deafeated the Roman infantry by a surprise attack from an ambush in the flank.

Battle of Lake Trasimene

Arriving in Etruria in the spring of 217 BC, Hannibal decided to lure the main Roman army led by Flaminius into battle. Hannibal found Flaminius camped at Arretium. Hannibal marched around his opponent’s left side and cut Flaminius off from Rome. Hannibal made Flaminius chase him. On the shore of Lake Trasimenus, Hannibal destroyed Flaminius's army in the waters or on the nearby slopes. He killed Flaminius as well. He had gotten rid of the only force that could stop him from getting to Rome. He realized that without siege engines he could not hope to take the capital. He decided to comtinue on into central and southern Italy. He hoped this show of strength would create a revolt against the Roman government. After Lake Trasimene, Hannibal said, “I have not come to fight Italians, but on behalf of the Italians against Rome.”

Fabius Cunctator

(seealso Fabian strategy, Fabius Maximus) Rome was put into an immense state of panic. They appointed a dictator named Quintus Fabius Maximus. He was an intelligent and prudent general.

Fabius adopted the Fabian strategy. He refused open battle with his enemy while placing several Roman armies in Hannibal’s vicinity to limit his movement. Fabius sent out small detachments against Hannibal’s foraging parties. Residents of small northern villages were told to post lookouts. They could gather their livestock and possessions and take refuge into fortified towns. This would wear down the invaders’ endurance.


Hannibal decided to march through Samnium to Campania. He hoped that the devastation would draw Fabius into battle. Fabius refused to let himself be drawn into battle. His troops became irritated by his “cowardly spirit”. The epithet "cunctator" means "delayer." His policies were not liked. Romans were used to facing their enemies in the field. The people wanted to see a quick end to the war.

The rest of autumn continued with frequent skirmishes. After six months, Fabius would be removed from his position in accordance with the Roman law.

Battle of Cannae

In the Spring of 216 B.C. Hannibal captured the large supply depot at Cannae in the Apulian plain. He had placed himself between the Romans and their source of supply. The Roman Senate resumed their Consular elections in 216. They chose Caius Terentius Varro and Lucius Aemilius Paullus as Consuls. The Romans raised a new army that was much larger than ever before. The total strength of the army which faced Hannibal was between 90,000 and 100,000 men.


The Roman army marched southward to Apulia. After a two days’ march, they found Hannibal at the Audifus River. The Consuls had to switch their command on a daily basis. The Consul Varro was a man of reckless and hubris nature. He was determined to defeat Hannibal. Hannibal drew him into a trap. The Roman army had no way to escape. Due to brilliant tactics, Hannibal surrounded and destroyed all but a small remainder of this force. It is estimated that 50,000-70,000 Romans were killed or captured at Cannae. Among the dead were eighty senators. The Roman Senate was comprised of no more than 300 men - this was 25%–30% of the governing body. This makes the Battle of Cannae one of the worst defeats in the history of Ancient Rome. It is also one of the bloodiest battles in all of human history in terms of the number of lives lost within a single day. After Cannae, the Romans refused to fight Hannibal in battles. They tried instead to defeat him by attrition. They relied on their advantages of supply and manpower.

Because of this victory most of southern Italy joined Hannibal's cause. During that same year, the Greek cities in Sicily revolted against Roman control. The Macedonian king, Philip V supported Hannibal. This started the First Macedonian War against Rome. Hannibal made his new base in Capua, the second largest city of Italy.

Stalemate

Without the resources from his allies or reinforcements from Carthage, Hannibal could not do much more. Hannibal began losing ground. He continued defeating the Romans whenever he could bring them into battle but was never able to complete another decisive victory.

End of War in Italy

In 212 BC conspirators in Tarentum let Hannibal into the city. They then blew the alarm with some Roman trumpets. This let Hannibal's troops pick off the Romans as they stumbled into the streets. Hannibal told the Tarentines to mark every house where Tarentines lived. The houses not marked were looted. The citadel held out. This stopped Hannibal from using the harbor and Rome was slowly gaining ground over Hannibal. In the same year, he lost Campania.

In 211 BC the city of Capua fell. In summer of that year, the Romans destroyed the Carthaginian army in Sicily. Meanwhile, Hannibal had defeated Fulvius at Herdonea in Apulia, but lost Tarentum. With the loss of Tarentum in 209 BC and the Romans capturing of Samnium and Lucania, his hold on south Italy was almost lost.

In 207 BC he retired into Bruttium. These events marked the end to Hannibal's success in Italy. In 203 BC, Hannibal was recalled to Carthage to lead the defence of his homeland against a Roman invasion.

Conclusion of Second Punic War (203–201 B.C.)

]]

The Battle of Zama

Both Scipio and Hannibal met on the field of Zama. Hannibal had about 50,000 infantry and 4,000 cavalry. Scipio had 34,000 infantry and 8,700 cavalry. For years, Hannibal had won victories with his experienced army. He now faced the best of the Roman army, while he led a makeshift army. They did not do well against the Romans. Hannibal was defeated. 20,000 men of Hannibal’s army were killed at Zama. The same number of men were taken as prisoners. The Romans lost as few as 500 dead and 4,000 wounded. With their best general defeated, the Carthaginians accepted defeat and surrendered to Rome.

Exile and death (195–183 B.C.)

Seven years after the victory of Zama, the Romans demanded Hannibal's surrender. Hannibal went into voluntary exile. He journeyed to Tyre, the mother-city of Carthage, and then to Ephesus and Syria.

In 190 BC he was placed in command of a Phoenician fleet but was defeated in a battle off the Eurymedon River. Hannibal went to Crete, but he soon returned to the Asia Minor. At Libya on the eastern shore of the Sea of Marmora, he was going to be turned over to the Romans. Rather than letting himself be taken, he drank poison. The precise year of his death is not certain. It is believed to be 183 BC. He died in the same year as Scipio Africanus.

Hannibal in film and television

Year Film Other notes
2006 Hannibal Motion Picture starring Vin Diesel
2004 The Phantom of the Opera The beginning Opera being rehearsed is one about Hannibal so titled Hannibal
2005 The True Story of Hannibal English documentary
2001 Hannibal: The Man Who Hated Rome English documentary
1997 The Great Battles of Hannibal English documentary
1996 Gulliver’s Travels Gulliver summons Hannibal from a magic mirror.
1960 Annibale Italian Motion Picture starring Victor Mature
1955 Jupiter's Darling English Motion Picture starring Howard Keel
1939 Scipio Africanus - the Defeat of Hannibal (Scipione l'africano) Italian Motion Picture
1914 Cabiria Italian Silent film

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Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 19, 2010

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