|Time of origin||probably >15 kya (see subclade descriptions)|
|Place of origin||Southeastern Europe|
|Descendants||I2a, I2b (see subclade descriptions)|
|Highest frequencies||I2a2 Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, I2a1 Sardinia , Basques; I2b1 Germany, Denmark, Netherlands, Belgium, England|
Note: The systematic subclade names have changed several times in recent years, and they are likely to change again, as new markers are discovered which clarify the sequential branching of the tree.
I2 (L68, M438/P215/S31) (formerly I1b)
Haplogroup I2a1 (M26) accounts for approximately 40% of all patrilines among the Sardinians. It is also found at low to moderate frequency among populations of the Basque Country and Iberia, and it has been found in 1.6% (1/64) of a sample of Albanians living in the Republic of Macedonia and 1.2% (3/257) of a sample of Czechs. The age of YSTR variation for the M26 subclade is 8.0±4.0 kya (Rootsi 2004). From 456 - 534, Sardinia was a part of the short-lived kingdom of the Vandals in North Africa, until it was reconquered by the Byzantine emperor Justinian I.
I2a2 (M423) is typical of populations of south-eastern Europe, being highest in Dalmatia (Croatia) and Bosnia-Herzegovina(>50%). Haplogroup I2a2 is also commonly found in other Slavic peoples, Romanians, Moldovans, Hungarians, Albanians, Greeks, and northeastern Italians. The highest frequency and diversity of Haplogroup I2a2 among populations of the Western Balkans lends support to the hypothesis that the Adriatic region of modern-day Croatia served as a refuge for populations bearing Haplogroup I2a2 during the last glacial maximum. The subclade divergence for P37.2 occurred 10.7±4.8 kya (Rootsi 2004). The age of YSTR variation for the P37.2 subclade is 8.0±4.0 kya (Rootsi 2004). The age of YSTR variation for the M423 subclade is 8.8±3.6 kya (Underhill 2007). Pericic places its expansion to have occurred "not earlier than the YD to Holocene transition and not later than the early Neolithic” (Pericic 2005).
The distribution of Haplogroup I2b1 is closely correlated to that of Haplogroup I1 except in Fennoscandia, which suggests that it was probably harbored by at least one of the Paleolithic refuge populations that also harbored Haplogroup I1; the lack of correlation between the distributions of I1 and I2b1 in Fennoscandia may be a result of Haplogroup I2b1's being more strongly affected in the earliest settlement of this region by founder effects and genetic drift due to its rarity, as Haplogroup I2b1 comprises less than 10% of the total Y-chromosome diversity of all populations outside of Lower Saxony. The distributions of Haplogroup I1 and Haplogroup I2b1 seem to correlate fairly well with the extent of historical influence of Germanic peoples. Haplogroup I2b1 has been found in over 4% of the population only in Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, Denmark, England (not including Wales or Cornwall), Scotland, and the southern tips of Sweden and Norway in Northwest Europe; the provinces of Normandy, Maine, Anjou, and Perche in northwestern France; the province of Provence in southeastern France; the regions of Tuscany, Umbria, and Latium in Italy; and Moldavia and the area around Russia's Ryazan Oblast and Republic of Mordovia in Eastern Europe. One subclade of Haplogroup I2b1, namely I2b1a (M284), has been found almost exclusively among the population of Great Britain, suggesting that the clade may have a very long history in that island. Of historical note, both haplogroups I1 and I2b appear at a low frequency in the historical regions of Bithynia and Galatia in Turkey, possibly descendants of the ancient Gauls of Thrace, several tribes of which are recorded to have immigrated to those parts of Anatolia at the invitation of Nicomedes I of Bithynia. Haplogroup I2b1 also occurs among approximately 1% of the Sardinians. The subclade divergence for M223 occurred 14.6±3.8 kya (Rootsi 2004). Haplogroup I2b1 can be further subdivided in 5 subgroups. Haplogroup I2b1* with no further known polymorphisms, Haplogroup I2b1a with M284 polymorphism with an undergroup Haplogroup I2b1a1 with the L126/S165, L137/S166 polymorphisms, Haplogroup I2b1b with M379 polymorphism, Haplogroup I2b1c with P78 polymorphism, and Haplogroup I2b1d with P95 polymorphism. The age of YSTR variation for the M223 subclade is 13.2±2.7 kya (Rootsi 2004) and 12.3±3.1 kya (Underhill 2007).
Haplogroup I2b2 was found in the skeletal remains of Lichtenstein Cave, a Bronze Age archaeological site in central Germany associated with artifacts of the Urnfield culture . Of the 19 males represented in the cave, 15 yielded the full 12 tested STR values, with twelve showing I2b2, one R1b, and two R1a. Of the 21 females in the cave, the majority were mtDNA H, with mtDNA U5b the runner-up. No radio-carbon dating was discussed and no metrics were assigned based on the adult remains, which are thought to be about 3000 years old. The small sample and their possible familial connections do not permit drawing conclusions regarding the overall contemporary population mixture. However, the cave lies at the center of the area predicted to be high in historical I2b population density based on statistical analysis of current population DNA.
|most recent common Y-ancestor|