Haplogroup K (Y-DNA): Wikis

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Haplogroup K

Yhaplotree.JPG

Time of origin 35,000-40,000 years BP
Place of origin Southwest Asia
Ancestor IJK
Descendants L, KMNOPS, and T
Defining mutations M9

In human genetics, Haplogroup K (M9) is a Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. This haplogroup is a descendant of Haplogroup IJK. Its major descendant haplogroups are L (M20), KMNOPS (M525)[1], and T (M70). Haplogroups K1, K2, K3 and K4 are found only at low frequency in South Asia, the Malay Archipelago, Oceania, and Australia.

Contents

Origins

Y-DNA haplogroup K is an old lineage established approximately 40,000 years ago whose origins were probably in southwestern Asia. At present this group contains two distinct classes of subgroups: (1) major groups L to T (refer to the main tree at Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree) and (2) minor groups K* and K1 to K4 which do not have any of the SNPs defining the major groups. These groups are found at low frequencies in various parts of Africa, Eurasia, Australia and the South Pacific.[2]

Subgroups

The subclades of Haplogroup K with their defining mutation, according to Karafet et al. (2008)[3] (abbreviated for clarity to a maximum of five steps away from the root of Haplogroup K):

Note The 2008 paper made a number of changes compared to the previous 2006 ISOGG tree. The former subgroups K2 and K5 were renamed Haplogroups T and S; the old subgroups K1 and K7 were re-assigned as new subgroups M2 and M3 of a redefined Haplogroup M; and the former subgroups K3, K4 and K6 were renamed to new K1, K2 and K3.

References

  1. ^ http://www.pnas.org/content/106/48/20174.abstract
  2. ^ [1]
  3. ^ Karafet TM, Mendez FL, Meilerman MB, Underhill PA, Zegura SL, Hammer MF (2008). "New binary polymorphisms reshape and increase resolution of the human Y chromosomal haplogroup tree". Genome Research 18: 830–8. doi:10.1101/gr.7172008. http://www.genome.org/cgi/content/abstract/gr.7172008v1. 
  4. ^ Peter A. Underhill, Peidong Shen, Alice A. Lin et al., "Y chromosome sequence variation and the history of human populations," Nature Genetics, Volume 26, November 2000
  5. ^ a b c d e f Manfred Kayser, Ying Choi, Mannis van Oven et al., "The impact of the Austronesian expansion: evidence from mtDNA and Y-chromosome diversity in the Admiralty Islands of Melanesia," Molecular Biology and Evolution (2008)
  6. ^ a b Stefano Mona, Mila Tommaseo-Ponzetta, Silke Brauer et al., "Patterns of Y-Chromosome Diversity Intersect with the Trans-New Guinea Hypothesis," Molecular Biology and Evolution 24(11):2546–2555. (2007) doi:10.1093/molbev/msm187
  7. ^ Scheinfeldt L, Friedlaender F, Friedlaender J, et al. (August 2006). "Unexpected NRY chromosome variation in Northern Island Melanesia". Mol. Biol. Evol. 23 (8): 1628–41. doi:10.1093/molbev/msl028. PMID 16754639. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=16754639. 
  8. ^ Murray P. Cox and Marta Mirazón Lahr, "Y-Chromosome Diversity Is Inversely Associated With Language Affiliation in Paired Austronesian- and Papuan-Speaking Communities from Solomon Islands," American Journal of Human Biology 18:35–50 (2006)
  9. ^ Laura Scheinfeldt, Françoise Friedlaender, Jonathan Friedlaender, Krista Latham, George Koki, Tatyana Karafet, Michael Hammer and Joseph Lorenz, "Unexpected NRY Chromosome Variation in Northern Island Melanesia," Molecular Biology and Evolution (2006) 23(8):1628-1641
  10. ^ Xue Y, Zerjal T, Bao W, et al. (April 2006). "Male demography in East Asia: a north-south contrast in human population expansion times". Genetics 172 (4): 2431–9. doi:10.1534/genetics.105.054270. PMID 16489223. 
  11. ^ Wen B, Li H, Lu D, et al (September 2004). "Genetic evidence supports demic diffusion of Han culture". Nature 431 (7006): 302–5. doi:10.1038/nature02878. PMID 15372031. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v431/n7006/abs/nature02878.html. "Supplementary Table 2: NRY haplogroup distribution in Han populations". 
  12. ^ a b Bing Su, Chunjie Xiao, Ranjan Deka et al., "Y chromosome haplotypes reveal prehistorical migrations to the Himalayas," Human Genetics (2000) 107 : 582–590 DOI 10.1007/s004390000406
  13. ^ a b Wells RS, Yuldasheva N, Ruzibakiev R, et al (August 2001). "The Eurasian heartland: a continental perspective on Y-chromosome diversity". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98 (18): 10244–9. doi:10.1073/pnas.171305098. PMID 11526236. "Table 1: Y-chromosome haplotype frequencies in 49 Eurasian populations, listed according to geographic region". 
  14. ^ Sanghamitra Sengupta, Lev A. Zhivotovsky, Roy King, S.Q. Mehdi, Christopher A. Edmonds, Cheryl-Emiliane T. Chow, Alice A. Lin, Mitashree Mitra, Samir K. Sil, A. Ramesh, M.V. Usha Rani, Chitra M. Thakur, L. Luca Cavalli-Sforza, Partha P. Majumder, and Peter A. Underhill, "Polarity and Temporality of High-Resolution Y-Chromosome Distributions in India Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence of Central Asian Pastoralists," The American Journal of Human Genetics, Volume 78, Issue 2, 202-221, 1 February 2006.
  15. ^ I. Nonaka, K. Minaguchi, and N. Takezaki, "Y-chromosomal Binary Haplogroups in the Japanese Population and their Relationship to 16 Y-STR Polymorphisms," Annals of Human Genetics Volume 71 Issue 4, Pages 480 - 495 (July 2007).
  16. ^ Gayden T, Cadenas AM, Regueiro M, et al (May 2007). "The Himalayas as a directional barrier to gene flow". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 80 (5): 884–94. doi:10.1086/516757. PMID 17436243. 
  17. ^ Bortolini MC, Salzano FM, Thomas MG, et al. (September 2003). "Y-chromosome evidence for differing ancient demographic histories in the Americas". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 73 (3): 524–39. doi:10.1086/377588. PMID 12900798.& PMC 1180678. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0002-9297(07)62016-3. 

External links

Human Y-chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) haplogroups (by ethnic groups · famous haplotypes)

most recent common Y-ancestor
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A BT
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B CT
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CF DE
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C F D E
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G H IJK
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IJ K
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I J L MNOPS T
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M NO P S
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N O Q R

Genealogy

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Familypedia

In human genetics, Haplogroup K (M9) is a Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.

It first appeared approximately 40,000 years ago in Iran or southern Central Asia. Today, haplogroup K and its descendant haplogroups are the patrilineal ancestors of most of the people living in the Northern Hemisphere, including most Europeans, Asians, and Native Americans. Other lineages derived from Haplogroup K are found among Melanesian populations, indicating an ancient link between most Eurasians and some populations of Oceania.

This haplogroup is a descendant of Haplogroup F (M89).

Its major descendant haplogroups are K2 (M70), L (M20), M (M4), NO (M214) (plus NO's descendants N and O), and P (M45) (plus P's descendants Q and R}. Haplogroups K1, K3, K4, K5, K6, and K7 are found only at low frequency among various populations of Eurasia, Oceania, and northern Africa.

Its subgroup K2 (M70) is present at a low level throughout Africa, Southwest Asia, and Southern Europe, and at a much lower level in Britain. A famous member of the K2 haplogroup is Thomas Jefferson; his Y-chromosomal complement received prominence through the Sally Hemings controversy. Haplogroup K2-M70 has been detected in 7.2% of men (10 of 139 individuals) in a sample of modern Iraqis and 10.4% (21/201) of Somalis, which is much higher than its frequency in other populations.[1]

According to an article by N. Al-Zahery et al., the potentially paraphyletic haplogroup K*-M9(xK2, O, P) occurs at a fairly high frequency among the modern population of Turkey. However, the loci of the downstream mutations that define Haplogroup L and Haplogroup N were not tested in that study, and other studies have suggested that these two haplogroups might comprise a substantial minority of the Y-chromosome diversity among modern Anatolian populations, so it is possible that most or all of the reported K*-M9 Y-chromosomes might actually belong to Haplogroup L or Haplogroup N.

Subgroups

The subclades of Haplogroup K with their defining mutation, according to the 2006 ISOGG tree (abbreviated for clarity to a maximum of five steps away from the root of Haplogroup K):

References

  1. ^ Juan J Sanchez et al., "High frequencies of Y chromosome lineages characterized by E3b1, DYS19-11, DYS392-12 in Somali males," European Journal of Human Genetics (2005) 13, 856–866
  2. ^ Laura Scheinfeldt, Françoise Friedlaender, Jonathan Friedlaender, Krista Latham, George Koki, Tatyana Karafet, Michael Hammer and Joseph Lorenz, "Unexpected NRY Chromosome Variation in Northern Island Melanesia," Molecular Biology and Evolution 2006 23(8):1628-1641
  3. ^ Supplementary Table 2: NRY haplogroup distribution in Han populations, from the online supplementary material for the article by Bo Wen et al., "Genetic evidence supports demic diffusion of Han culture," Nature 431, 302-305 (16 September 2004)
  4. ^ Table 1: Y-chromosome haplotype frequencies in 49 Eurasian populations, listed according to geographic region, from the article by R. Spencer Wells et al., "The Eurasian Heartland: A continental perspective on Y-chromosome diversity," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (August 28, 2001)
  5. ^ "Y-Chromosome Evidence for Differing Ancient Demographic Histories in the Americas," Maria-Catira Bortolini et al., American Journal of Human Genetics 73:524-539, 2003

External links

Human Y-chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) haplogroups

Y-most recent common ancestor
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A BR
B CR
C DE F
D E G H IJ K
I J L M NO P
N O Q R


This page uses content from the English language Wikipedia. The original content was at Haplogroup K (Y-DNA). The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with this Familypedia wiki, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons License.
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