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Haplogroup L0 (mtDNA): Wikis

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Haplogroup L0
Time of origin 112,200 to 188,000 YBP[1]
Place of origin Southern or East Africa
Ancestor Mitochondrial Eve
Descendants L0a'b'f'k, L0d
Defining mutations 146 263 3516A 5442 9042 9347 10589 10664 10915 12720 13276 16230[2]

In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup L0 is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup.

Contents

Origin

The region in Africa where Tishkoff found the greatest level of mitochondrial diversity (green) and the region Behar et al. postulated the most ancient division in the human population began to occur (light brown)

L0 is one of two branches from the most recent common ancestor, MRCA, for the shared human maternal lineage. This ancestor is estimated to have lived in Southern Africa or East Africa approximately 150,000 to 170,000 years ago. Haplogroup L0 consists of five main branches (L0a, L0b, L0d, L0f, L0k). Four of them were originally classified into haplogroup L1 as L1a, L1d, L1f, and L1k.

MRCA (mtDNA) 
   L0   
 
 
 
 

 L0a



 L0b




 L0f




 L0k




 L0d



 L1-6 
 

L1



 L2-6




Distribution

It is found most commonly in the Sub-Saharan Africa. It reaches its highest frequency in the Khoisan people at 73%.[3] Some of the higher frequencies are: [4] Namibia (!Xun) 79%, South Africa (Khwe/!Xun) 83% and Botswana (!Kung) 100%.

Haplogroup L0a is most prevalent in South-East African populations (25% in Mozambique).[3] Among Guineans, it has a frequency between 1% and 5%, with the Balanta group showing increased frequency of about 11%. Haplogroup L0a has a Paleolithic time depth of about 33,000 years and likely reached Guinea between 10,000 and 4,000 years ago. It also is often seen in the Mbuti and Biaka-pygmies.

Haplogroup L0b Ethiopia.

Haplogroup L0f is present in relatively small frequencies in Tanzania, East Africa.

Haplogroups L0d and L0k are the most ancient ones and are typical for Khoisans in South Africa.

Subclades

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Tree

This phylogenetic tree of haplogroup L0 subclades is based on the paper by Mannis van Oven and Manfred Kayser Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation[2] and subsequent published research.

  • Most Recent Common Ancestor (MRCA)
    • L0
      • L0d
        • L0d3
        • L0d1'2
          • L0d1
            • L0d1a
            • L0d1b
            • L0d1c
              • L0d1c1
          • L0d2
            • L0d2a'b
              • L0d2a
                • L0d2a1
              • L0d2b
            • L0d2c
      • L0a'b'f'k
        • L0k
          • L0k1
          • L0k2
        • L0a'b'f
          • L0f
            • L0f1
            • L0f2
              • L0f2a
              • L0f2b
          • L0a'b
            • L0a
              • L0a1
                • L0a1a
                  • L0a1a2
                • L0a1b
                  • L0a1b1
                    • L0a1b1a
                  • L0a1b2
                • L0a1c
                • L0a1d
              • L0a2
                • L0a2a
                  • L0a2a1
                    • L0a2a1a
                      • L0a2a1a1
                      • L0a2a1a2
                  • L0a2a2
                    • L0a2a2a
                • L0a2b
                  • L0a2ba
                • L0a2c
                • L0a2d
              • L0a3
              • L0a4
            • L0b

References

  1. ^ Soares, Pedro; Luca Ermini, Noel Thomson, Maru Mormina, Teresa Rito, Arne Röhl, Antonio Salas, Stephen Oppenheimer, Vincent Macaulay and Martin B. Richards (04 Jun 2009). "Supplemental Data Correcting for Purifying Selection: An Improved Human Mitochondrial Molecular Clock". The American Society of Human Genetics 84 (6): 82–93. PMID 19500773 doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2009.05.001. http://www.cell.com/AJHG/abstract/S0002-9297(09)00163-3. Retrieved 2009-08-13.  
  2. ^ a b van Oven, Mannis; Manfred Kayser (13 Oct 2008). "Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation". Human Mutation 30 (2): E386-E394. PMID 18853457 doi:10.1002/humu.20921. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/121449735/abstract?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0. Retrieved 2009-05-20.  
  3. ^ a b Rosa, A. et al. 2004 July. "MtDNA Profile of West Africa Guineans: Towards a Better Understanding of the Senegambia Region", "Annals of Human Genetics", 68(Pt 4): 344
  4. ^ Sarah A. Tishkoff et al. 2007, History of Click-Speaking Populations of Africa Inferred from mtDNA and Y Chromosome Genetic Variation. Molecular Biology and Evolution 2007 24(10):2180-2195

See also

Human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups

  Mitochondrial Eve (L)    
L0 L1 L2 L3   L4 L5 L6
  M N  
CZ D E G Q   A S   R   I W X Y
C Z B F R0   pre-JT P  U
HV JT K
H V J T Former Clusters IWX

External links


Genealogy

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Familypedia

In human genetics, Haplogroup L0 is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup.

Confusingly, some scientists use L0 to refer to an extinct haplogroup, while other scientists have identified haplogroups L0-L6 as existing in living humans[1].

Contents

As extinct

Some scientists use L0 to refer to an extinct haplogroup. For example, one commercial testing company states, "Another haplogroup, L0, preceded L1, but is long since extinct."[2] In this model, L1 is considered the haplogroup from which all living humans are descended.

As existing today

Some scientists use L0 to refer to the first offshoot of Mitochondrial Eve, estimated to have lived in Africa approximately 150,000 to 170,000 years ago. Haplogroup L0 consist of four main branches (L0d, L0k, L0a, L0f). All of them were originally classified into haplogroup L1 as L1d, L1k, L1a and L1f.

Haplogroups L0d and L0k are typical for Khoisan tribes in South Africa.

Haplogroup L0a is most prevalent in South-East African populations (25% in Mozambique).[3] Among Guineans, it has a frequency between 1% and 5%, with the Balanta group showing increased frequency of about 11%. Haplogroup L0a has a Paleolithic time depth of about 33,000 years and likely reached Guinea between 10,000 and 4,000 years ago.

Haplogroup L0f is present in relatively small frequencies in East Africa.

References

  1. ^ For example, Ethiopian Mitochondrial DNA Heritage: Tracking Gene Flow Across and Around the Gate of Tears states "Because (preHV)1 lineages occur in populations of the Near East, the Caucasus, and Mediterranean Europe—where African L0-L6 lineages are absent or rare—it is more likely that their presence in East Africa reflects a back-migration from the Near East rather than an in situ origin of (preHV)1 in Ethiopia (Richards et al. 2003)."
  2. ^ GeneTree Haplogroup Table
  3. ^ Rosa, A; Brehm A, Kivisild T, Metspalu E, Villems R (July 2004). MtDNA Profile of West Africa Guineans: Towards a Better Understanding of the Senegambia Region. Annals of Human Genetics 68 (4): 340-52. DOI:10.1046/j.1529-8817.2004.00100.x. PMID 1522515. 
4. A. Knight et al.: African Y Chromosome and mtDNA Divergence Provides Insight into the History of Click Languages. Current Biology, Vol. 13, 464–473, March 18, 2003, http://www.stanford.edu/~sylpha/Knight_2003.pdf

See also

Human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups

  most recent common mt-ancestor    
L0   L1  
L2 L3   L4 L5 L6 L7
  M N  
CZ D E G Q   A I O   R   S W X Y
C Z B F pre-HV   pre-JT P  UK
HV JT U K
H V J T

External links

This page uses content from the English language Wikipedia. The original content was at Haplogroup L0 (mtDNA). The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with this Familypedia wiki, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons License.
Facts about Haplogroup L0 (mtDNA)RDF feed

This article uses material from the "Haplogroup L0 (mtDNA)" article on the Genealogy wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

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