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Haplogroup L1
Time of origin 107,600–174,300 YBP[1]
Place of origin East Africa
Ancestor L1-6
Descendants L1b, L1c
Defining mutations 3666, 7055, 7389, 13789, 14178, 14560 [2]

In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup L1 is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup and major subclade of Haplogroup L (mtDNA). Though it is typically used to refer to a family of lineages found in Africa, L1 is sometimes referred to as haplogroup L1-6, which is the macrohaplogroup that includes the majority of African lineages and all non-African lineages. Haplogroup L1-6 is is the macrohaplogroup that includes subclades L2, L3, L5, L6, and also L3 which gave rise to the two non-African haplogroups M and N. Haplogroup L1 is therefore the paragroup of haplogroup L1-6. Haplogroup L1 and its only sibling haplogroup L0 are united by the matrilineal most recent common ancestor, (MRCA) of all living humans, Mitochondrial Eve. The existence of these two lineages, implies that Mitochondrial Eve had at least two daughters, one of whom is the maternal common ancestor of haplogroup L1 lineages.



Haplogroup L1 is believed to have first appeared in East Africa approximately 150,000 to 170,000 years ago.[3] Haplogroup L1 is a daughter of Mitochondrial Eve like haplogroup L0. L1 and sisters haplogroups L2, L3, L4, L5, and L6 are distinguished from L0 by the genetic marker changes at 182, 1048, 4312, 6185, 11914, and 12007.


It is found most commonly in the Sub-Saharan Africa. It reaches its highest frequency in the Mbenga Pygmies.

L1 has two branches:


The formerly named L1 branches (L1d, L1k, L1a, L1f) have been re-classified into haplogroup L0 as L0d, L0k, L0a and L0f.



This phylogenetic tree of haplogroup L1 subclades is based on the paper by Mannis van Oven and Manfred Kayser Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation[2] and subsequent published research.

  • Most Recent Common Ancestor (MRCA)
    • L1'2'3'4'5'6
      • L1
        • L1b
          • L1b1
            • L1b1a
              • L1b1a1
              • L1b1a2
                • L1b1a2a
              • L1b1a3
              • L1b1a4
              • L1b1a5
            • L1b1b
          • L1b2
        • L1c
          • L1c1'2'4'6
            • L1c1
              • L1c1a
                • L1c1a1
                  • L1c1a1a
                    • L1c1a1a1
                      • L1c1a1a1a
                      • L1c1a1a1b
                        • L1c1a1a1b1
                    • L1c1a1a2
                  • L1c1a1b
                • L1c1a2
                  • L1c1a2a
                    • L1c1a2a1
                  • L1c1a2b
              • L1c1b
              • L1c1c'd
                • L1c1c
                • L1c1d
            • L1c2'4
              • L1c2
                • L1c2a
                  • L1c2a1
                    • L1c2a1a
                    • L1c2a1b
                  • L1c2a2
                • L1c2b
                  • L1c2b1
                    • L1c2b1a
              • L1c4
            • L1c6
          • L1c3
            • L1c3a
              • L1c3a1
              • L1c3b
                • L1c3b1
                  • L1c3b1a
                  • L1c3b1b
                • L1c3b2
              • L1c3c


  1. ^ Soares, Pedro; Luca Ermini, Noel Thomson, Maru Mormina, Teresa Rito, Arne Röhl, Antonio Salas, Stephen Oppenheimer, Vincent Macaulay and Martin B. Richards (04 Jun 2009). "Supplemental Data Correcting for Purifying Selection: An Improved Human Mitochondrial Molecular Clock". The American Society of Human Genetics 84 (6): 82–93. PMID 19500773 doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2009.05.001. Retrieved 2009-08-13.  
  2. ^ a b van Oven, Mannis; Manfred Kayser (13 Oct 2008). "Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation". Human Mutation 30 (2): E386-E394. PMID 18853457 doi:10.1002/humu.20921. Retrieved 2009-05-20.  
  3. ^ Tishkoff et al., Whole-mtDNA Genome Sequence Analysis of Ancient African Lineages, Mol. Biol. Evol, 24(3):757-68. 2007
  4. ^ Rosa A. et al. 2004, MtDNA Profile of West Africa Guineans: Towards a Better Understanding of the Senegambia Region.
  5. ^ Quintana-Murci et al. 2008. Maternal traces of deep common ancestry and asymmetric gene flow between Pygmy hunter–gatherers and Bantu-speaking farmers 'Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America'. 105(5): 1599
  6. ^ Sarah A. Tishkoff et al. 2007, History of Click-Speaking Populations of Africa Inferred from mtDNA and Y Chromosome Genetic Variation. Molecular Biology and Evolution 2007 24(10):2180-2195

See also

Human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups

  Mitochondrial Eve (L)    
L0 L1 L2 L3   L4 L5 L6
  M N  
CZ D E G Q   A S   R   I W X Y
C Z B F R0   pre-JT P  U
H V J T Former Clusters IWX

External links


Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Familypedia

In human genetics, Haplogroup L1 is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup.

Haplogroup L1 is found in West and Central sub-Saharan Africa. Some of its branches (L1d, L1k, L1a, L1f) were recently re-classified into haplogroup L0 as L0d, L0k, L0a and L0f.

Haplogroup L1 arose with Mitochondrial Eve and haplogroup L0 is an offshoot.

The descendants of haplogroup L1 are also African haplogroups L2 and L3, the latter of which gave rise to all non-African haplogroups.

Haplogroup L1 is believed to have first appeared in Africa approximately 150,000 to 170,000 years ago.


See also

External links

Human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups

  most recent common mt-ancestor    
L0   L1  
L2 L3   L4 L5 L6 L7
  M N  
CZ D E G Q   A I O   R   S W X Y
C Z B F pre-HV   pre-JT P  UK
This page uses content from the English language Wikipedia. The original content was at Haplogroup L1 (mtDNA). The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with this Familypedia wiki, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons License.

This article uses material from the "Haplogroup L1 (mtDNA)" article on the Genealogy wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.


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