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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Fossil range: Early Eocene – Recent
Common Squirrel Monkey (Saimiri sciureus)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Primates
Suborder: Haplorrhini
Pocock, 1918


The haplorrhines, the "dry-nosed" primates (the Greek name means "simple-nosed"), are members of the Haplorrhini clade: the prosimian tarsiers and all of the true simians. The simians are the catarrhines (Old World monkeys and apes, including humans) and the platyrrhines (New World monkeys).

The omomyids are an extinct group of prosimians, believed to be more closely related to the tarsiers than to any strepsirrhines, and are considered the most primitive haplorrhines. The Darwinius specimen from Messel has been suggested as the earliest known true haplorrhine.[2]

Haplorrhines are considered to be less primitive than the strepsirrhine "wet-nosed" primates (whose Greek name means "curved nose"), the other suborder of primates from which they parted in evolution some 63 million years ago. The haplorrhines, including tarsiers, have all lost the function of the terminal enzyme which manufactures vitamin C, while the strepsirrhine prosimians, like most other orders of mammals, have retained this enzyme and the ability to manufacture vitamin C.[3] The haplorrhine upper lip, which has replaced the ancestral rhinarium found in strepsirrhines, is not directly connected to their nose or gum, allowing a large range of facial expressions. Their brain to body ratio is significantly greater than the strepsirrhines, and their primary sense is vision. Unlike the strepsirhines, haplorrhines have a post-orbital plate. Most species are diurnal (the exceptions being the tarsiers and the night monkeys) and have trichromatic color vision. Their hands and feet are more generally adapted, with specialization only for locomotion, such as the hooked hands common to gibbons and orangutans, or the human bipedal feet.

All of the simians have a single-chambered uterus; tarsiers have a bicornate uterus like the strepsirrhines. Most species typically have single births, although twins and triplets are common for marmosets and tamarins. Despite similar gestation periods, haplorrhine newborns are relatively much larger than strepsirrhine newborns, but have a longer dependence period on their mother. This difference in size and dependence is credited to the increased complexity of their behavior and natural history.

Classification and evolution

Haplorrhini and its sister clade, Strepsirrhini ("wet-nosed" primates), parted ways about 63 million years ago (mya). Approximately 5 million years later (58 mya), only a short time afterward from an evolutionary perspective, the infraorder Tarsiiformes, whose only remaining family is that of the tarsier (Tarsiidae), branched off from the other haplorrhines. This could explain why the prosimian tarsiers show characteristics which once caused them to be grouped with the strepsirrhines.

The remaining clade (Simiiformes [formerly Anthropoidea]) is divided into two parvorders: Platyrrhini (the New World monkeys) and Catarrhini (the Old World monkeys and apes). The New World monkeys split from the Old World about 40 mya, while the apes diverged from the Old World monkeys about 25 mya. The current theory has the ape/monkey split happening in Africa. However, the recent discovery of three new anthropoid fossils (Bugtipithecus inexpectans, Phileosimias kamali and Phileosimias brahuiorum) in Pakistan's Bugti Hills is causing some scientists to revise this thinking.

In the cladist perspective of daughter groups nested within ancestral groups, humans and extinct bipedal humanoids, (including australopithecines, Kenyanthropus platyops and a few others) -are grouped together in the tribe Hominini. Hominines are classed together with knuckle-walking apes (formerly known as pongids) and are collectively referred to as great apes [Hominidae] because they each possess all the traits indicative of that clade. Similarly, all apes, large or small, living or extinct, (including humans) still share all the definitive biological traits of Haplorrhini in general, and Catarrhini specifically, and are members of each of those clades also.

The following is the listing of the various haplorrhine families, and their placement in the Order Primates:[1][4]


  1. ^ a b Groves, C. (2005). Wilson, D. E., & Reeder, D. M.. ed. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 127-184. ISBN 0-801-88221-4.  
  2. ^ "Scientists Unveil Missing Link In Evolution". Sky News. May 20, 2009. Retrieved May 21, 2009.  
  3. ^ Pollock, J. I.; Mullin, R. J. (1987). "Vitamin C biosynthesis in prosimians: Evidence for the anthropoid affinity of Tarsius". American Journal of Physical Anthropology 73 (1): 65–70. doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330730106. PMID 3113259.  
  4. ^ Rylands AB and Mittermeier RA (2009). "The Diversity of the New World Primates (Platyrrhini)". in Garber PA, Estrada A, Bicca-Marques JC, Heymann EW, Strier KB. South American Primates: Comparative Perspectives in the Study of Bahavior, Ecology, and Conservation. Springer. ISBN 978-0-387-78704-6.  
  • Primate Taxonomy (Smithsonian Institution Press, 2001), Colin Groves (ISBN 1-56098-872-X)
  • Primates in Question (Smithsonian Institution Press, 2003), Robert W. Shumaker & Benjamin B. Beck (ISBN 1-58834-176-3)
  • Neotropical Primates 10(3)


Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Wikipedia has an article on:





Ancient Greek straight or dry + nose

This definition is lacking an etymology or has an incomplete etymology. You can help Wiktionary by giving it a proper etymology.

Proper noun


  1. a taxonomic suborder, within order Primates — various monkeys

See also

Wikispecies has information on:



Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikispecies


Main Page
Cladus: Eukaryota
Supergroup: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Classis: Mammalia
Subclassis: Theria
Infraclassis: Placentalia
Ordo: Primates
Subordo: Haplorrhini
Infraordines: Simiiformes - Tarsiiformes


Haplorrhini Pocock, 1918

Vernacular names

Deutsch: Trockennasenaffen
English: Monkeys and Apes
Español: Haplorrinos
Français: Haplorrhiniens, Haplorhiniens
한국어: 진원아목
日本語: 直鼻猿亜目
‪Norsk (bokmål)‬: Aper
Polski: Wyższe naczelne
Português: Haplorrinos
Русский: Сухоносые обезьяны
Svenska: Högre primater
Türkçe: Göz çukurları önde olup üç boyutlu görebilenler - Kuru burunlu maymunlar
中文: 简鼻亚目
Wikimedia Commons For more multimedia, look at Haplorrhini on Wikimedia Commons.

Simple English

Fossil range: Early Eocene - Recent
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Primates
Suborder: Haplorrhini

see text

The haplorrhines, the "dry-nosed" primates (the Greek name means "simple-nosed"), are members of the Haplorrhini clade: the prosimian tarsiers and all of the true simians. The simians are the catarrhines (Old World monkeys and apes, including humans) and the platyrrhines (New World monkeys).


  • Suborder Haplorrhini: tarsiers, monkeys and apes
    • Infraorder Tarsiiformes
    • Infraorder Simiiformes
      • Parvorder Platyrrhini: New World monkeys
        • Family Callitrichidae: marmosets and tamarins
        • Family Cebidae: capuchins and squirrel monkeys
        • Family Aotidae: night or owl monkeys (douroucoulis)
        • Family Pitheciidae: titis, sakis and uakaris
        • Family Atelidae: howler, spider and woolly monkeys
        • Parvorder Catarrhini
        • Superfamily Cercopithecoidea: Old World monkeys
          • Family Cercopithecidae
        • Superfamily Hominoidea: apes


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