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Harare
(Salisbury)
—  City  —
Harare, Zimbabwe from the Kopje

Flag

Coat of arms
Nickname(s): Sunshine City
Motto: Pamberi Nekushandira Vanhu (Forward with Service to the People)
Map of Zimbabwe showing the location of Harare.
Coordinates: 17°51′50″S 31°1′47″E / 17.86389°S 31.02972°E / -17.86389; 31.02972Coordinates: 17°51′50″S 31°1′47″E / 17.86389°S 31.02972°E / -17.86389; 31.02972
Country Zimbabwe
Province Harare
Founded as Fort Salisbury 1890
Incorporated (city) 1935
Renamed to Harare 1982
Government
 - Mayor Muchadeyi Masunda
Elevation [1] 1,490 m (4,888 ft)
Population (2006)
 - City 1,600,000
 Urban 2,800,111
  estimated
Time zone CAT (UTC+2)
 - Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+1)
Twin Cities
 - Nottingham United Kingdom
 - Munich Germany
 - Cincinnati United States
 - Prato Italy
 - Lago Italy
Website http://www.hararecity.co.zw
Dialling code 4 (or 04 from within Zimbabwe)

Harare (pronounced /həˈrɑrɛ/ or /həˈrɑri/, before 1982 known as Salisbury) is the capital of Zimbabwe. It has an estimated population of 1,600,000, with 2,800,000 in its metropolitan area (2006). Administratively, Harare is an independent city equivalent to a province. It is Zimbabwe's largest city and its administrative, commercial, and communications centre. The city is a trade centre for tobacco, maize, cotton, and citrus fruits. Manufactures include textiles, steel, and chemicals, and gold is mined in the area. Harare is situated at an elevation of 1483 metres (4865 feet) and its climate falls into the warm temperate category.

Harare is the site of the University of Zimbabwe, the largest institution of higher learning in Zimbabwe, which is situated about 5 km north of the city. Numerous suburbs surround the city, retaining the names colonial administrators gave them during the 19th century, such as Warren Park 'D', Borrowdale, Mount Pleasant, Marlborough, Tynwald and Avondale. The largest and second oldest suburb is Highfield which encorparates numerous townships including but not limited to Western Triangle, Canaan, Egypt, Lusaka and Jerusalem.

Contents

History

Salisbury in 1930

The Pioneer Column, a military volunteer force of settlers organised by Cecil Rhodes, founded the city on 12 September 1890 as a fort.[2] They originally named the city Fort Salisbury after the 3rd Marquess of Salisbury, then British prime minister, and it subsequently became known simply as Salisbury. It was declared to be a municipality in 1897 and it became a city in 1935. Salisbury was the capital of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland from 1953 to 1963. After that point, it was the capital of Southern Rhodesia. The government of Ian Smith declared Rhodesia independent from the United Kingdom on November 11, 1965, and proclaimed the Republic of Rhodesia in 1970. Subsequently, the nation became the short-lived state of Zimbabwe Rhodesia; it was not until April 18, 1980, that the country was internationally recognized as independent as the Republic of Zimbabwe. The capital city retained the name Salisbury until 1982.

The name of the city was changed to Harare on April 18, 1982, the second anniversary of Zimbabwean independence, taking its name from the Shona chieftain Neharawa. It is also said the name derived from the European corruption of "Haarari" ("He does not sleep"), the epithet of the chief whose citadel was located in the area known today as the Kopje (pronounced "Koppie"). It was said that no enemy could ever launch a sneak attack on him. Prior to independence, "Harare" was the name of the Black residential area now known as Mbare.

The area at the time of founding of the city was poorly drained and earliest development was on sloping ground along the left bank of a stream that is now the course of a trunk road (Julius Nyerere Way). The first area to be fully drained was near the head of the stream and was named Causeway as a result. This area is now the site of many of the most important Government buildings, including the Senate House and the Office of the Prime Minister (now renamed for the use of President Mugabe after the position was abolished in January 1988.)[3]

Climate

Jacaranda trees in Montagu Ave, Salisbury in 1975.

Harare has a pleasant and healthy Subtropical highland climate (Koppen Cwb). The average annual temperature is 17.95 °C, rather low for the tropics, and this is due to its high altitude position and the prevalence of a cool south-easterly airflow.[4] There are three main seasons: a warm, wet season from November to March/April; a cool, dry season from May to August (corresponding to winter in the Southern Hemisphere); and a hot, dry season in September/October. Daily temperature ranges are about 7 °C to 20 °C in July (the coldest month), about 13 °C to 28 °C in October (the hottest month) and about 15.5 °C to 25 °C in January (midsummer). The hottest year on record was 1914 (19.73 °C) and the coldest year was 1965 (17.13 °C). The average annual rainfall is about 825 mm in the southwest, rising to 855 mm on the higher land of the northeast (from around Borrowdale to Glen Lorne). Very little rain typically falls during the period May to September, although sporadic showers occur most years. Rainfall varies a great deal from year to year and follows cycles of wet and dry periods from 7 to 10 years long. Records begin in October 1890 but all three Harare stations stopped reporting in early 2004.[5] The climate supports a natural vegetation of open woodland. The most common tree of the local region is the Msasa Brachystegia spiciformis that colours the landscape wine-red with its new leaves in late August. An introduced tree that contributes most to the town's atmosphere is the Jacaranda (a South American species). It produces a burst of lilac when it blooms in September. Also prevalent is Bougainvillea.

Climate data for Harare
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 32
(90)
31
(88)
30
(86)
32
(90)
28
(82)
26
(79)
28
(82)
31
(88)
33
(91)
34
(93)
35
(95)
33
(91)
35
(95)
Average high °C (°F) 26
(79)
26
(79)
26
(79)
26
(79)
23
(73)
21
(70)
21
(70)
23
(73)
26
(79)
28
(82)
27
(81)
26
(79)
25
(77)
Average low °C (°F) 16
(61)
16
(61)
14
(57)
13
(55)
9
(48)
7
(45)
7
(45)
8
(46)
12
(54)
14
(57)
16
(61)
16
(61)
12
(54)
Record low °C (°F) 8
(46)
9
(48)
8
(46)
6
(43)
2
(36)
0
(32)
0
(32)
1
(34)
3
(37)
7
(45)
8
(46)
9
(48)
0
(32)
Precipitation mm (inches) 196
(7.72)
178
(7.01)
117
(4.61)
28
(1.1)
13
(0.51)
3
(0.12)
0
(0)
3
(0.12)
5
(0.2)
28
(1.1)
97
(3.82)
163
(6.42)
831
(32.72)
Source: BBC Weather [6] 2009-08-21

Suburbs

These are some of the suburbs of Harare.

Region Suburbs
Northern Alexandra Park (Alex Park); Avondale, Belgravia; Groombridge; Gunhill; Mount Pleasant; Northwood; Newlands; Vainona
North-Eastern Borrowdale; Chisipite; Colne Valley; Colray; Glen Lorne; The Grange; Greystone Park; Highlands; Hogerty Hill; Mandara; Greendale; Shawasha Hills; Umwinsdale
Eastern Amby; Athlone; Eastlea; Eastlea North; Greendale; Hillside; Mabvuku, Tafara, Epworth
Southern (incl. South-Eastern and South-Western) Arcadia; Ardbennie; Braeside; Chadcombe; Cranborne; Glen Norah; Glen View; Budiriro; Graniteside; Harare Airport; Hatfield; Highfield; Lochinvar; Logan Park; Malvern; Mbare; Park Meadowlands; Parktown; Prospect; Southerton; St. Martins; Waterfalls; Willowvale; Workington
Western (incl. North-Western) Adylinn; Avonlea; Avondale West; Belvedere; Belvedere South; Bluff Hill; Dzivaresekwa; Emerald Hill; Greencroft; Kambuzuma; Kuwadzana; Mabelreign; Marlborough; Meyrick Park; Milton Park; Ridgeview; Sentosa; St. Andrews Park; Strathaven; Tynwald; Warren Park; Westgate; Mufakose

International Venue

Harare has been the location of several international summits such as the 8th Summit of the Non-Aligned Movement (6 September 1986) and Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting 1991. The latter produced the Harare Declaration, dictating the membership criteria of the Commonwealth. In 1995, Harare hosted most of the 6th All-Africa Games, sharing the event with other Zimbabwean cities such as Bulawayo and Chitungwiza. It has hosted some of the matches of 2003 Cricket World Cup which was hosted jointly by South Africa and Zimbabwe. Other venue used here was Bulawayo.

Transport

Harare International Airport

City and its environs: The public transport system within the city includes both public and private sector operations. The former consist of ZUPCO buses and National Railways of Zimbabwe commuter trains. Privately-owned public transport comprised licensed station wagons, nicknamed emergency taxis until the mid-1990s, when they were replaced by licensed buses and minibuses, referred to officially as commuter omnibuses.

Inter-City: The National Railways of Zimbabwe operates a daily overnight passenger train service that runs from Harare to Mutare and another one from Harare to Bulawayo.

Air: Harare International Airport serves Harare.

News & information

Residents are exposed to a variety of sources for information, though almost all of their sources are controlled by the government. In the print media, there is the Herald, Financial Gazette, Independent, Standard, and Kwayedza. Since there has been an explosion of online media outlets. These include ZimOnline, ZimDaily, Guardian, NewZimbabwe, Times, Harare Tribune, Zimbabwe Metro, The Zimbabwean and many others; however, a number of factors have combined to effectively eliminate all media except those controlled by the state.

The government controls all the electronic media, though Voice of America, Voice of the people and SW Radio Africa beam broadcasts into the country occasionally.

Recent developments

In the early 21st century Harare has been adversely affected by the political and economic crisis that is currently plaguing Zimbabwe, after the contested 2002 presidential election and 2005 parliamentary elections. The elected council was replaced by a government-appointed commission for alleged inefficiency, but essential services such as rubbish collection and street repairs have rapidly worsened, and are now virtually non-existent. In May 2006 the Zimbabwean newspaper the Financial Gazette, described the city in an editorial as a "sunshine city-turned-sewage farm".[7]

In May 2005 the Zimbabwean government demolished shanties and backyard cottages in Harare and the other cities in the country in Operation Murambatsvina ("Drive Out Trash"). This caused a sharp reaction in the international community because it took place without prior warning and no advance plans were made to provide alternative housing.[citation needed] It was widely alleged that the true purpose of the campaign was to punish the urban poor for supporting the opposition Movement for Democratic Change and to reduce the likelihood of mass action against the government by driving people out of the cities. The government claimed it was necessitated by a rise of criminality and disease. This was followed by Operation Chikerema (Operation "Better Living") a year later which consisted of building concrete housing.

In 2009, Harare was voted to be the toughest city to live in according to the Economist Intelligence Unit's liveability poll.[8]

Notable landmarks and institutions

Sister cities

Image gallery

See also

References

  1. ^ Google Earth
  2. ^ Hoste, Skipper (1977). N.S.Davies. ed. Gold Fever. Salisbury, Rhodesia: Pioneer Head. ISBN 0-86918-013-4. 
  3. ^ Journal of Frederick Courtney Selous, Rhodesiana Reprint Library, Salisbury, 1969
  4. ^ Average for years 1965-1995, Goddard Institute of Space Studies World Climate database
  5. ^ Global Historic Climate Network database NGDC
  6. ^ "Average Conditions Harare, Zimbabwe". BBC Weather. http://www.bbc.co.uk/weather/world/city_guides/results.shtml?tt=TT000840. Retrieved August 21, 2009. 
  7. ^ Financial Gazette editorial of 17 May 2006 "Zimbabwe: It's Chombo's Fault" [1]
  8. ^ Agence France-Presse. "Vancouver world's easiest city to live in, Harare worst: Poll". The Vancouver Sun (Calgary Herald). http://www.calgaryherald.com/Vancouver+world+easiest+city+live+Harare+worst+Poll/1674901/story.html. Retrieved 2009-06-08. 
  9. ^ Mallory cuts off Zimbabwe sister city | Cincinnati Enquirer | Cincinnati.Com

External links

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Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Harare, 1995
Harare, 1995

Harare is the capital of Zimbabwe.

Harare is home to some two million people, with most in central Harare but some 500,000 in the surrounding districts of Rural Harare, Chintungwiza and Epworth. Once a city of modern buildings, wide thoroughfares, numerous parks and gardens, it is now in increasing disrepair thanks to Zimbabwe's economic downward spiral.

Get in

By plane

Harare's airport is the major gateway for flights into the country. Air Zimbabwe also operates a small network of domestic flights. International flights are easily available, with Air Zimbabwe with flights direct to London and Johannesburg. In recent times Air Zimbabwe flights often had to be cancelled due to a lack of spare parts and fuel. Flights are however more frequent now foreign airliners include South African Airways [1] and low-fare Kulula.com [2], both flying from South Africa's Johannesburg International Airport.

By car

A National Road from Johannesburg allows easy access. Buses are easily available ranging from greyhound to the local ones for those saving

Get around

Although the best option to get around is by car, it can become difficult, as there are fuel shortages in Zimbabwe.

Since Zimbabwe redistributed farms, there have been limited exports, meaning there is no foreign currency available to import fuel into Zimbabwe. All gas stations in the country have been closed since about 2004, and the only way to buy fuel is on the black market from someone who has brought it in bottles in the back of his or her car from a neighbouring country. Buying and selling fuel is illegal in Zimbabwe, so be discreet. Prices are about 30-40% higher than those in South Africa (where the bulk of smuggled fuel comes from)

Roads: The condition of the roads in Zimbabwe has deteriorated dramatically in recent years since the government has failed to maintain them. Most of the country is now without street lights. The main highways are still in a good state of repair outside of the cities - traffic is so light now that damage from trucks is minimal. You should be OK without a 4x4 unless you head into rural areas and game parks. If you enter from South Africa, be sure that your insurance waiver is valid for travel in Zimbabwe.

See

There is a strong appreciation for the city's cultural and historical heritage and a number of the older buildings have been preserved. The Mining Pension Fund Building at Central Avenue and Second Street is one example and many more are to be found along Robert Mugabe Road between Second Street and Julius Nyerere Way.

  • The National Gallery houses not only a valuable and interesting national collection but also hosts travelling international exhibitions and has a permanent display of some outstanding Shona soft-stone carvings.
  • The priceless collection of Rhodesiana and Africana in the form of diaries, notebooks and reports of various origins, are housed in the National Archives. Some of the original works of some of the greatest names in African exploration and missionary can be viewed.
  • Other institutions which are well worth visiting include the Queen Victoria Museum and the Queen Victoria National Library, both at the Civic Centre; in Rotten Row.
  • The city was laid out with large open spaces like the 68ha National Botanic Garden with more than 900 species of wild trees and shrubs from all over the country. The Mukuvisi Woodlands is 277 hectares of remarkably preserved natural woodland that stances astride the banks of the small Mukuvisi stream. A variety of bird and of wild animal species such as giraffe, zebra, impala, tsessche, wildebeest, bushbuck, steenbuck, reed buck and eland can be viewed.
  • The Kopje, a granite hill rising above the south-west corner of central Harare, is a great place to go for views of the city.

Buy

If you want to experience shopping the way it is traditionally done in many African countries, you need to stroll around at the open flea-market at Mbare. Here tourists can feast their eyes on a colourful array of baskets, food, clothing and other items.

In September 2005, the government bulldozed Mbare flea market along with every other informal market in the country. Tens of thousands of people have been left homeless and without an income. The government's policy to try and cut down on informal trading has been disastrous in a country with one of the highest unemployment rates in the world.

By October 2006 many markets have sprung up again, including in Mbare, although this area isn't particularly pleasant for the visitor.

Eat

Zimbabwe's Staple food is Sadza: a thick white porridge (a bit like mashed potato), that's made from corn meal. It's eaten at every meal, accompanied by vegetables or meat in some form.

In Harare there are many westernised restaurants serving European or American style food, but far more exciting are the (surprisingly cosmopolitan) outdoor cafes:

  • Cafe espresso on Cork Road, Avondale, Harare has a brilliantly landscaped garden and a wifi spot - excellent coffees
  • 40 Cork Road, Avondale, Harare is an outdoor cafe, art gallery, and sculpture garden. Very much the place to be seen.
  • 167 Enterprise Road, Chisipite, Harare - an old house converted into a restaurant with a huge garden with a pool, an art shop, gallery etc...

With the dollarisation of the economy there has been a big increase in the number of restaurants and coffee shops in Harare. You can find information on the eatout.co.zw website. The Zimbabwe Tourism website has also recently been upgraded.

Diplomats and NGO's are a large part of the clientelle at the Harare Restaurants

Drink

Try Chibuku, a popular local beer. It comes in "scuds" - large 2litre brown plastic containers. The beer is lumpy and opaque beige, but is surprisingly good, and painfully cheap.

The locally brewed Castle, Lion, Zambesi and Bohlingers are definitely worth trying.

Sleep

The city boasts an internationally recognized 5 star hotel (The Meikles Hotel), but also has a signficant number of three to four star hotels that offer affordable accommodation without compromising on quality. These include The Crowne Plaza Monomotapa, The Cresta Lodge and The Holiday Inn. There are several cheap backpackers guesthouses, particularly in Selous Avenue. But be wary when walking alone at night in the Selous Avenue area.

  • Palm Villa Lodge, 39 Selous Ave, dormsEatout 18:13, 28 December 2009 (EST), friendly and centrally located.
  • Mundawanga lodge, 94 Selous Ave.
  • Hillside lodge, 71 Hillside Street.
  • Small World Lodge, Avondale, [3]. Clean and pleasant - It was still operating in October 2006 and should still be going.
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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

English

Proper noun

Singular
Harare

Plural
-

Harare

  1. The capital of Zimbabwe.

Simple English

Harare
(Salisbury)
—  City  —
Harare, Zimbabwe from the Kopje
File:Flag of
Flag
File:Coat of arms of
Coat of arms
Nickname(s): Sunshine City
Motto: Pamberi Nekushandira Vanhu (Forward with Service to the People)
Map of Zimbabwe showing the location of Harare.
Coordinates: 17°51′50″S 31°1′47″E / 17.86389°S 31.02972°E / -17.86389; 31.02972Coordinates: 17°51′50″S 31°1′47″E / 17.86389°S 31.02972°E / -17.86389; 31.02972
Country Zimbabwe
Province Harare
Founded as Fort Salisbury 1890
Incorporated (city) 1935
Renamed to Harare 1982
Government
 - Mayor Muchadeyi Masunda
Elevation [1] 1,490 m (4,888 ft)
Population (2006)
 - City 1,600,000
 Urban 2,800,111
  estimated
Time zone CAT (UTC+2)
 - Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+1)
Twin Cities
 - Nottingham United Kingdom
 - Munich Germany
 - Cincinnati United States
 - Prato Italy
 - Lago Italy
Website http://www.hararecity.co.zw
Dialling code 4 (or 04 from within Zimbabwe)
Harare is the capital of Zimbabwe. It is home to over 1.6 million people. It started as Salisbury in 1890, and was known by that name until April 18, 1982.

References

  1. Google Earth

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