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Hard disk drive
Hard disk platters and head.jpg
Interior of a hard disk.
Date invented December 14, 1954[1]
Invented by An IBM team led by Rey Johnson
Connects to Host adapter of system, in PCs typically integrated into motherboard. via one of:
  • PATA (IDE) interface
  • SATA interface
  • SAS interface
  • SCSI interface (popular on servers)
  • FC interface (almost exclusively found on servers)
  • USB interface
Market Segments Desktop computers
Mobile computing
Enterprise computing
Consumer electronic
A hard disk drive[2] (often shortened as hard disk,[3] hard drive,[4] or HDD) is a non-volatile storage device that stores digitally encoded data on rapidly rotating rigid (i.e. hard) platters with magnetic surfaces. .Strictly speaking, "drive" refers to the motorized mechanical aspect that is distinct from its medium, such as a tape drive and its tape, or a floppy disk drive and its floppy disk.^ Strictly speaking, "drive" refers to a device distinct from its medium, such as a tape drive and its tape, or a floppy disk drive and its floppy disk.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I can’t read a disk in the floppy drive.
  • InformIT: Troubleshooting Storage Devices > Troubleshooting Installed Hard Disk Drives 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC www.informit.com [Source type: General]
  • InformIT: Troubleshooting Storage Devices > Troubleshooting Installed Hard Disk Drives 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC www.informit.com [Source type: General]

^ Disk clamping mechanism for a disk driving device .
  • Microminiature hard disk drive - Google Patent Search 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.google.com [Source type: News]

.Early HDDs had removable media; however, an HDD today is typically a sealed unit (except for a filtered vent hole to equalize air pressure) with fixed media.^ Early HDDs had removable media; however, an HDD today is typically a sealed unit (except for a filtered vent hole to equalize air pressure) with fixed media.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hard disk drive on GetGlue Early HDDs had removable media; however, an HDD today is typically a sealed unit (except for a filtered vent hole to equalize air pressure) with fixed media.
  • http://getglue.com/topics/p/hard_disk_drive 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC getglue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is a filter keep out dust but air can still pass into and out of the unit.

[5][6]

Contents

History

.HDDs (introduced in 1956 as data storage for an IBM accounting computer)[7] were originally developed for use with general purpose computers.^ Chips in the computer used for temporary storage of data .
  • Hard Disk Recovery Jargon - Glossary, Terms and Lingo 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC www.optimumrecovery.com [Source type: Reference]

^ HDDs (introduced in 1956 as data storage for an IBM accounting computer) were originally developed for use with general purpose computers.
  • http://getglue.com/topics/p/hard_disk_drive 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC getglue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Main article: History of hard disk drives HDDs (introduced in 1956 as data storage for an IBM accounting computer [ 5 ] ) were originally developed for use with general purpose computers .
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During the 1990s, the need for large-scale, reliable storage, independent of a particular device, led to the introduction of embedded systems such as RAIDs, network attached storage (NAS) systems, and storage area network (SAN) systems that provide efficient and reliable access to large volumes of data.^ Virtual data storage (VDS) system .
  • Personal computer hard disk ... - Google Patent Search 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Reference]

^ We also provide data recovery for Raid configured data storage devices.
  • External HARD DRIVE DATA RECOVERY Service| Network Attached Storage Recovery (NAS) |External Drive 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC us-datarecovery.com [Source type: General]

^ LaCie Network Attached Storage (NAS) device .
  • External HARD DRIVE DATA RECOVERY Service| Network Attached Storage Recovery (NAS) |External Drive 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC us-datarecovery.com [Source type: General]

.In the 21st century, HDD usage expanded into consumer applications such as camcorders, cellphones (e.g. the Nokia N91), digital audio players, digital video players, digital video recorders, personal digital assistants and video game consoles.^ Pod Classic), digital video recorders , personal digital assistants and video game consoles .
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the 21st century, HDD usage expanded into consumer applications such as camcorders , cellphones (e.g.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ HDD Player/Recorder with Remote control .
  • Hard Disc Manufacturers & Suppliers | Global Sources 20 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: General]

Technology

Diagram of a computer hard disk drive
.HDDs record data by magnetizing ferromagnetic material directionally, to represent either a 0 or a 1 binary digit.^ HDDs record data by magnetizing ferromagnetic material directionally, to represent either a 0 or a 1 binary digit.
  • http://getglue.com/topics/p/hard_disk_drive 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC getglue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ HDDs record data by magnetizing ferromagnetic material directionally, to represent either a 0 or a 1 binary digit .
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An abbreviation for a binary digit which can be either 0 or 1.

.They read the data back by detecting the magnetization of the material.^ The read element has a magnetically sensitive material that detects data recorded on the magnetic disk surface.

^ They read the data back by detecting the magnetization of the material.
  • http://getglue.com/topics/p/hard_disk_drive 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC getglue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A small electromagnet, called a magnetic head , writes a binary digit (1 or 0) by magnetizing tiny spots on the spinning disk in different directions and reads digits by detecting the magnetization direction of the spots.
  • hard disk (computing) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: General]

.A typical HDD design consists of a spindle that holds one or more flat circular disks called platters, onto which the data are recorded.^ A typical HDD design consists of a spindle which holds one or more flat circular disks called platters , onto which the data are recorded.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reassemble the platter onto the spindle.
  • Hard drive resurrection - Hack a Day 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC hackaday.com [Source type: General]

^ HDD Recovery - More information on hard disk data (HDD) recovery.

.The platters are made from a non-magnetic material, usually aluminum alloy or glass, and are coated with a thin layer of magnetic material, typically 10–20 nm in thickness — for reference, standard copy paper may be between 0.07 millimetres (70,000 nm) and 0.18 millimetres (180,000 nm) thick[8] — with an outer layer of carbon for protection.^ Each platter is coated on both sides with magnetic material.
  • How a Linux Distro Saved Hard Disk Data 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC www.linuxjournal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hard disks are flat, circular plates made of aluminum or glass and coated with a magnetic material.
  • hard disk (computing) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: General]

^ The platters are made from a non-magnetic material, usually aluminum alloy or glass, and are coated with a thin layer of magnetic material, typically 10-20 nm in thickness with an outer layer of carbon for protection.
  • http://getglue.com/topics/p/hard_disk_drive 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC getglue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Older disks used iron(III) oxide as the magnetic material, but current disks use a cobalt-based alloy.^ Older disks used iron(III) oxide as the magnetic material, but current disks use a cobalt-based alloy."
  • http://getglue.com/topics/p/hard_disk_drive 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC getglue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Older disks used iron(III) oxide as the magnetic material, but current disks use a cobalt -based alloy.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the hard drive the platter have a core of glass or aluminum, covered with a thin layer of Ferric oxide or an Cobalt alloy (Co-Ni, Co-Cr, Co-Ni-W).
  • Hard Disk Recovery Jargon - Glossary, Terms and Lingo 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC www.optimumrecovery.com [Source type: Reference]

[citation needed]
.
A cross section of the magnetic surface in action.
^ A cross section of the magnetic surface in action.
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^ FIG. 7 is a longitudinal cross sectional view of the lock of FIG. 1 in the locked position shown in FIG. 1 and showing the lock mounted on a window frame engaging a window in a locking action.
  • US Patent 5620213 - Window lock 16 September 2009 21:021 UTC www.wikipatents.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The O ring is rectangular in cross section of the body of the O ring as shown and is also rectangular in plan view so as to surround the rectangular outer surface of the projection 58.
  • US Patent 5620213 - Window lock 16 September 2009 21:021 UTC www.wikipatents.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In this case the binary data are encoded using frequency modulation.
.The platters are spun at very high speeds.^ Any particle of dust inside the HDA can destroy the surface of the discs, because the discs spin at a very high speed (at least 5,400 rpm nowadays).
  • Anatomy of a Hard Disk Drive | Hardware Secrets 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hardwaresecrets.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The data density of notebook drives is very high today, with a maximum per-platter capacity of 50 GB. .
  • hack your pstwo to support a hard disk - Hack a Day 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC hackaday.com [Source type: General]

.Information is written to a platter as it rotates past devices called read-and-write heads that operate very close (tens of nanometers in new drives) over the magnetic surface.^ Read/Write Head Element use to create and access the information stored magnetically on the platters/tape.
  • Hard Disk Recovery Jargon - Glossary, Terms and Lingo 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC www.optimumrecovery.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Data is read on your hard drive by the read/write head that goes over the platter which contain data.
  • Hard Drive Data Recovery and Disk Retrieval Services 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.datamediarecovery.com [Source type: General]

^ Information is written to a platter as it rotates past devices called read-and-write heads that operate very close (tens of nanometers in new drives) over the magnetic surface.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The read-and-write head is used to detect and modify the magnetization of the material immediately under it.^ Also known as a read/write head.

^ The read-and-write head is used to detect and modify the magnetization of the material immediately under it.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Head Head often refered to as the read/write head.
  • Hard Disk Recovery Jargon - Glossary, Terms and Lingo 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC www.optimumrecovery.com [Source type: Reference]

.There is one head for each magnetic platter surface on the spindle, mounted on a common arm.^ There is one head for each magnetic platter surface on the spindle, mounted on a common arm.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So, there are two heads per platter.

^ A typical HDD design consists of a spindle that holds one or more flat circular disks called platters, onto which the data are recorded.
  • http://getglue.com/topics/p/hard_disk_drive 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC getglue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.An actuator arm (or access arm) moves the heads on an arc (roughly radially) across the platters as they spin, allowing each head to access almost the entire surface of the platter as it spins.^ The Head Actuator: All the heads are attached to a single head actuator arm, which moves the heads around the platters.
  • Hard Disk Failure and Data Recovery 16 September 2009 21:021 UTC www.articlesbase.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Actuator arm moves the heads on an arc across the platters as they spin, allowing each head to access almost the entire surface of the platter.
  • Hard Disk Failure and Data Recovery 16 September 2009 21:021 UTC www.articlesbase.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An actuator arm (or access arm) moves the heads on an arc (roughly radially) across the platters as they spin, allowing each head to access almost the entire surface of the platter as it spins.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The arm is moved using a voice coil actuator or in some older designs a stepper motor.^ The original hard drive voice coils are used to move the arms.

^ Actuation of moving arm .
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The arm is moved using a voice coil actuator or in some older designs a stepper motor .
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The magnetic surface of each platter is conceptually divided into many small sub-micrometre-sized magnetic regions, each of which is used to encode a single binary unit of information.^ Each platter is divided in to tracks, which again is divided into sectors.
  • Hard Disk Recovery Jargon - Glossary, Terms and Lingo 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC www.optimumrecovery.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The magnetic surface of each platter is conceptually divided into many small sub- micrometre -sized magnetic regions, each of which is used to encode a single binary unit of information.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A disk drive is made up of a disk that stores information, a motor that rotates the disk, a magnet, and an actuator with read/write heads attached to suspension arms that magnetically and electronically read and write information on the disk surface.
  • Up-Link Internet's Computer Clinic 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.doublehammer.com [Source type: General]

Initially the regions were oriented horizontally, but beginning about 2005, the orientation was changed to perpendicular. .Due to the polycrystalline nature of the magnetic material each of these magnetic regions is composed of a few hundred magnetic grains.^ In today's HDDs, each of these magnetic regions is composed of a few hundred magnetic grains.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The obscure nature of this barrier is due to the fact that not all implementations of these BIOS versions may have this bug while others may.
  • Hard Drive Size Barriers, In Depth 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.dewassoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Magnetic grains are typically 10 nm in size and each form a single magnetic domain.^ The platters are made from a non-magnetic material, usually aluminum alloy or glass, and are coated with a thin layer of magnetic material, typically 10-20 nm in thickness with an outer layer of carbon for protection.
  • http://getglue.com/topics/p/hard_disk_drive 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC getglue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A spear phishing campaign is a highly targeted form of phishing that typically targets a single organization.

.Each magnetic region in total forms a magnetic dipole which generates a highly localized magnetic field nearby.^ Each magnetic region forms a magnetic dipole which generates a highly localized magnetic field nearby.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ The write head magnetizes a region by generating a strong local magnetic field.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ If the magnetic field were uniform, each side would generate opposing forces that would cancel each other out.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A write head magnetizes a region by generating a strong local magnetic field.^ The write head magnetizes a region by generating a strong local magnetic field.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ Each magnetic region forms a magnetic dipole which generates a highly localized magnetic field nearby.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A disk drive is made up of a disk that stores information, a motor that rotates the disk, a magnet, and an actuator with read/write heads attached to suspension arms that magnetically and electronically read and write information on the disk surface.
  • Up-Link Internet's Computer Clinic 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.doublehammer.com [Source type: General]

.Early HDDs used an electromagnet both to magnetize the region and to then read its magnetic field by using electromagnetic induction.^ Early HDDs used an electromagnet both to generate this field and to read the data by using electromagnetic induction .
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ Degaussing is a process whereby the magnetic media is erased using a reverse magnetic field to scramble the electronic data and make it unreadable.
  • PC Hell: Deleting Hard Drive Data vs. Physically Destroying Hard Drive 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.pchell.com [Source type: General]

^ If we read the movement of domains from the head gap leads to a change in magnetic flux in magnetic heads, which leads to a variable electrical signal in a coil due to the effect of electromagnetic induction.
  • firstfreedoms » Hard disk 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC firstfreedoms.com [Source type: Reference]

.Later versions of inductive heads included metal in Gap (MIG) heads and thin film heads.^ Later versions of inductive heads included metal in Gap (MIG) heads and thin film heads.
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^ Since the magneto-resistive element can only read data, a conventional thin-film inductive element writes data to the disk.

^ MR head construction results in a stronger signal than that produced by inductive thin-film read-write heads, which permits it to read higher areal density data.

.As data density increased, read heads using magnetoresistance (MR) came into use; the electrical resistance of the head changed according to the strength of the magnetism from the platter.^ Each platter has a corresponding arm and head for writing and reading data.
  • Selecting Hard Drives for Test, Measurement, and Control Systems - Developer Zone - National Instruments 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC zone.ni.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Magnetoresistive (MR) thin-film read heads were introduced in 1990.
  • Hard disk-drive technology revolutionizes processing - Solid State Technology 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.electroiq.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These platters store data magnetically .
  • Format a computer Hard Drive | Tech Support format a hard drive steps | Format Your Pc Hard Drive Steps tech support page. Web Tech Geek.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.webtechgeek.com [Source type: General]

.Later development made use of spintronics; in these heads, the magnetoresistive effect was much greater than in earlier types, and was dubbed "giant" magnetoresistance (GMR).^ The era of giant magnetoresistive heads" .
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ Later development made use of spintronics ; in these heads, the magnetoresistive effect was much greater than in earlier types, and was dubbed "giant" magnetoresistance (GMR).
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ GMR Head Technology Giant magnetoresistive heads meet the increasing capacity requirements and achieve significant increases in areal densities and performance levels.
  • Hard Drives: HP, IBM and Seagate Hard Drives at BizRate. Compare Prices and Read Consumer Reviews 11 September 2009 6:10 UTC www.bizrate.com [Source type: General]
  • Western Hard Drives at bizrate - Price Comparison and Consumer Reviews 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.bizrate.com [Source type: General]

.In today's heads, the read and write elements are separate, but in close proximity, on the head portion of an actuator arm.^ Each platter has a corresponding arm and head for writing and reading data.
  • Selecting Hard Drives for Test, Measurement, and Control Systems - Developer Zone - National Instruments 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC zone.ni.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also known as a read/write head.

^ The part of the actuator assembly that includes the positioning arm and the read/write heads.

.The read element is typically magneto-resistive while the write element is typically thin-film inductive.^ The read element is typically magneto-resistive while the write element is typically thin-film inductive.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ Read/Write Head Element use to create and access the information stored magnetically on the platters/tape.
  • Hard Disk Recovery Jargon - Glossary, Terms and Lingo 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC www.optimumrecovery.com [Source type: Reference]

^ One can pack more data on a disk drive platter with an MR head than with today's standard thin-film inductive head.
  • Forty Years of Hard Disk Drive Innovation … IBM Shrinks Hard Disk Drives for Mobile Computers; Announces New Record for Storing Data | Business Wire | Find Articles at BNET 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC findarticles.com [Source type: News]

[9]
.HD heads are kept from contacting the platter surface by the air that is extremely close to the platter; that air moves at, or close to, the platter speed.^ HD heads are kept from contacting the platter surface by the air that is extremely close to the platter; that air moves at, or close to, the platter speed.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ The platters are placed inside a sealed case along with an actuator assembly for the heads and arms that move back and forth across the platters to write and retrieve the data.
  • Partitioning Hard Drives in Windows XP 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.theeldergeek.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Data is stored on a magnetic surface employing multiple spinning platters and moving read-write heads.
  • Hard Drive - Mac Guides 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC guides.macrumors.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.March 2008" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] The record and playback head are mounted on a block called a slider, and the surface next to the platter is shaped to keep it just barely out of contact.^ What is the bare minimum of circuitry needed to do just that.
  • HDDJ: Turning an old hard disk drive into a rotary input device 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.instructables.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The record and playback head are mounted on a block called a slider, and the surface next to the platter is shaped to keep it just barely out of contact.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ Special read/write heads realign magnetic particles on the platters, much like a recording head records data onto magnetic recording tape.
  • Format a computer Hard Drive | Tech Support format a hard drive steps | Format Your Pc Hard Drive Steps tech support page. Web Tech Geek.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.webtechgeek.com [Source type: General]

.It's a type of air bearing.^ It's a type of air bearing.
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.In modern drives, the small size of the magnetic regions creates the danger that their magnetic state might be lost because of thermal effects.^ In modern drives, the small size of the magnetic regions creates the danger that their magnetic state might be lost because of thermal effects.
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^ These are pretty big trade-offs for getting a few extra gigabytes of storage, especially since the size of hard drives included with hard drive camcoders is so small compared to modern portable hard drives.
  • Flash Camcorders vs Hard Drive Camcorders | The Camcorder Review 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.thecamcorderreview.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Today, 92% of all new data created reside on magnetic media, primarily hard drives .
  • Hard disk drives on StorageSearch.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.storagesearch.com [Source type: General]

.To counter this, the platters are coated with two parallel magnetic layers, separated by a 3-atom-thick layer of the non-magnetic element ruthenium, and the two layers are magnetized in opposite orientation, thus reinforcing each other.^ To counter this, the platters are coated with two parallel magnetic layers, separated by a 3-atom-thick layer of the non-magnetic element ruthenium , and the two layers are magnetized in opposite orientation, thus reinforcing each other.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Magnetic fields in the adjacent layers can be aligned in a parallel or antiparallel fashion that couples or decouples their electron spin orientations (hence the alternative term, spin valve) to produce easy-current or hard-current flow conditions, respectively.
  • Hard disk-drive technology revolutionizes processing - Solid State Technology 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.electroiq.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Each platter is coated on both sides with magnetic material.
  • How a Linux Distro Saved Hard Disk Data 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC www.linuxjournal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[10] .Another technology used to overcome thermal effects to allow greater recording densities is perpendicular recording, first shipped in 2005,[11] and as of 2007 the technology was used in many HDDs.^ Recently, drive technology has improved with the introduction of Perpendicular Magnetic Recording (PMR) from several manufacturers.
  • H1xx Hard Drive Replacement - MisticRiverWiki 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.misticriver.net [Source type: General]

^ Leveraging a solid track record for reliability, the new Deskstar 7K2000 is now in its fourth-generation using the company’s unique five-platter design with relaxed bit density and proven perpendicular magnetic recording (PMR) technology.
  • Hitachi GST Ships the Industry's First Two Terabyte 7200 RPM Desktop Hard Disk Drive 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.asbis.com [Source type: General]

^ A wide range of skins are available to customize the drives and all skins use the same 3M adhesive technology to prevent air bubbles and allow for clean removal.
  • Hard Drive on I4U News 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.i4u.com [Source type: General]

[12][13][14]
.The grain boundaries turn out to be very important in HDD design.^ Database’s hdd is very important for me.
  • Hard drive resurrection - Hack a Day 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC hackaday.com [Source type: General]

^ The grain boundaries turn out to be very important.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The LG XF1 is a 500 GB "Multimedia HDD" that packs a HDMI-out for quick media playback, and has a slick looking design to boot.
  • Hard Drive - Gizmodo 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC gizmodo.com [Source type: General]

.The grains are very small and close to each other, so the coupling between adjacent grains is very strong.^ And of course, those are very very impressive read and write speeds and the only other drive that comes close to the lightning speeds of HandyDrive is the ClickFree Portable Backup Drive.
  • External Hard Drives - Cheap, Best External Hard Drive Reviews 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.externalharddrives.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other manufacturers aligns the pressure through a small hole with a filter that can hold a very small (several micrometers) particles.
  • firstfreedoms » Hard disk 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC firstfreedoms.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Make note of where it plugs in, it’s a very small rectangular connector that’s hard to differentiate from other components next to it.
  • Richard's Notes » Blog Archive » MacBook Pro Hard Disk Replacement 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC www.richardsnotes.org [Source type: General]

.When one grain is magnetized, the adjacent grains tend to be aligned parallel to it or demagnetized.^ When one grain is magnetized, the adjacent grains tend to be aligned parallel to it or demagnetized.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Magnetic fields in the adjacent layers can be aligned in a parallel or antiparallel fashion that couples or decouples their electron spin orientations (hence the alternative term, spin valve) to produce easy-current or hard-current flow conditions, respectively.
  • Hard disk-drive technology revolutionizes processing - Solid State Technology 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.electroiq.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The poles of the magnetic elements are aligned perpendicularly to the surface of the recording media (*3) One Gigabyte (GB) One GB is equivalent to one billion bytes.
  • Hard Disk Drives support 6 Gbsec SAS interface., Fujitsu Limited 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC news.thomasnet.com [Source type: General]

.Then both the stability of the data and signal-to-noise ratio will be sabotaged.^ Then both the stability of the data and signal-to-noise ratio will be sabotaged.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Normalization adjusts the amplitude of the material so the highest peaks correspond to the system’s highest allowable level to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio.
  • Modular Hard Disk Recorders - Square One - Hard-Disk Recording 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC emusician.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The servo feedback optimizes the signal to noise ratio of the GMR sensors by adjusting the voice-coil of the actuated arm.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A clear grain boundary can weaken the coupling of the grains and subsequently increase the signal-to-noise ratio.^ For heads, technology features are likely to include nanoscale dimensions, a one- to two-order increase in sensitivity, high signal-to-noise ratios, and possibly laser-assisted media heating capability.
  • Hard disk-drive technology revolutionizes processing - Solid State Technology 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.electroiq.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Normalization adjusts the amplitude of the material so the highest peaks correspond to the system’s highest allowable level to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio.
  • Modular Hard Disk Recorders - Square One - Hard-Disk Recording 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC emusician.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In longitudinal recording, the single-domain grains have uniaxial anisotropy with easy axes lying in the film plane.^ In longitudinal recording, the single-domain grains have uniaxial anisotropy with easy axes lying in the film plane.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Perpendicular recording media, on the other hand, has the easy axis of the grains oriented perpendicular to the disk plane.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also, similar Co-based thin films are used in both longitudinal and perpendicular recording.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The consequence of this arrangement is that adjacent magnets repel each other.^ The consequence of this arrangement is that adjacent magnets repel each other.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Adjacent magnets attract to each other and magnetostatic energy are much lower.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Therefore the magnetostatic energy is so large that it is difficult to increase areal density.^ Therefore the magnetostatic energy is so large that it is difficult to increase areal density.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ GMR Head Technology Giant magnetoresistive heads meet the increasing capacity requirements and achieve significant increases in areal densities and performance levels.
  • Hard Drives: HP, IBM and Seagate Hard Drives at BizRate. Compare Prices and Read Consumer Reviews 11 September 2009 6:10 UTC www.bizrate.com [Source type: General]
  • Western Hard Drives at bizrate - Price Comparison and Consumer Reviews 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.bizrate.com [Source type: General]

^ The main way to decrease access time is to increase rotational speed, thus reducing rotational delay , while the main way to increase throughput and storage capacity is to increase areal density.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Perpendicular recording media, on the other hand, has the easy axis of the grains oriented perpendicular to the disk plane.^ Perpendicular recording media, on the other hand, has the easy axis of the grains oriented perpendicular to the disk plane.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I use FAT32 for thumb drives and other tiny media but not for a 250GB or larger disk.
  • How to Format an External Hard Drive – Updated | TheLightroomLab.com | Written by David Marx 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thelightroomlab.com [Source type: General]

^ The 1TB hard disk drive will be based on perpendicular recording technology which packs bits tighter onto the magnetic platter by positioning them perpendicular to the platter as opposed to linear recording which positions bits horizontally.
  • DailyTech - Seagate Confirms 1TB Hard Disk Drive 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

.Adjacent magnets attract to each other and magnetostatic energy are much lower.^ Adjacent magnets attract to each other and magnetostatic energy are much lower.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The consequence of this arrangement is that adjacent magnets repel each other.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.So, much higher areal density can be achieved in perpendicular recording.^ So, much higher areal density can be achieved in perpendicular recording.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Its areal density is much higher.
  • Hard Disk Speed: Which Is Fast? - Thailand Forum 16 September 2009 23:12 UTC www.thaivisa.com [Source type: General]

^ GMR Head Technology Giant magnetoresistive heads meet the increasing capacity requirements and achieve significant increases in areal densities and performance levels.
  • Hard Drives: HP, IBM and Seagate Hard Drives at BizRate. Compare Prices and Read Consumer Reviews 11 September 2009 6:10 UTC www.bizrate.com [Source type: General]
  • Western Hard Drives at bizrate - Price Comparison and Consumer Reviews 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.bizrate.com [Source type: General]

.Another unique feature in perpendicular recording is that a soft magnetic underlayer are incorporated into the recording disk.^ Another unique feature in perpendicular recording is that a soft magnetic underlayer are incorporated into the recording disk.This underlayer is used to conduct writing magnetic flux so that the writing is more efficient.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Recently, drive technology has improved with the introduction of Perpendicular Magnetic Recording (PMR) from several manufacturers.
  • H1xx Hard Drive Replacement - MisticRiverWiki 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.misticriver.net [Source type: General]

^ One cool feature about it is that it can copy entire hard disks from one to another.
  • Partition Your Hard Drive: A Step-by-Step Guide 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.petri.co.il [Source type: General]

.This underlayer is used to conduct writing magnetic flux so that the writing is more efficient.^ Another unique feature in perpendicular recording is that a soft magnetic underlayer are incorporated into the recording disk.This underlayer is used to conduct writing magnetic flux so that the writing is more efficient.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Read/Write Head Element use to create and access the information stored magnetically on the platters/tape.
  • Hard Disk Recovery Jargon - Glossary, Terms and Lingo 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC www.optimumrecovery.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This will sometimes lose a bit of the plating, but the magnets are often more useful by themselves.
  • Take It Apart dot net » Hard Drive 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.takeitapart.net [Source type: General]

.This will be discussed in writing process.^ This will be discussed in writing process.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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.Therefore, a higher anisotropy medium film, such as L10-FePt and rare-earth magnets, can be used.^ Therefore, a higher anisotropy medium film, such as L10-FePt and rare-earth magnets, can be used.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This makes it possible to produce a stronger write field gradient with essentially the same head materials as for longitudinal heads, and therefore allowing for the use of the higher coercivity magnetic storage medium.
  • Techtree.com India > Reviews > Basics > Hard Disks > Seagate ST3750640AS hard Disk Drive 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.techtree.com [Source type: General]

Error handling

.Modern drives also make extensive use of Error Correcting Codes (ECCs), particularly Reed–Solomon error correction.^ Modern drives also make extensive use of Error Correcting Codes (ECCs), particularly Reed–Solomon error correction .
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Obviously make sure you are using the correct drives.
  • 5 Ways To Clone & Copy Your Hard Drive 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.makeuseof.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Do not re-use these drives.
  • Recover a Dead Hard Disk - wikiHow 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC www.wikihow.com [Source type: General]

.These techniques store extra bits for each block of data that are determined by mathematical formulae.^ These platters store data magnetically .
  • Format a computer Hard Drive | Tech Support format a hard drive steps | Format Your Pc Hard Drive Steps tech support page. Web Tech Geek.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.webtechgeek.com [Source type: General]

^ These techniques store extra bits for each block of data that are determined by mathematical formulas.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These specifications also determine the sustained rate at which data can be written to or read from a hard drive, which is often referred to as streaming.
  • Selecting Hard Drives for Test, Measurement, and Control Systems - Developer Zone - National Instruments 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC zone.ni.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The extra bits allow many errors to be fixed.^ The extra bits allow many errors to be fixed.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While these extra bits take up space on the hard drive, they allow higher recording densities to be employed, resulting in much larger storage capacity for user data.^ So, much higher areal density can be achieved in perpendicular recording.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "What is the capacity of your hard drive?"
  • Adding a hard drive 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC askville.amazon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hard Drive benchmark results .
  • Hard Drive benchmark results 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.reportlabs.com [Source type: General]

[15] .In 2009, in the newest drives, low-density parity-check codes (LDPC) are supplanting Reed-Solomon.^ Post subject: Re: Locked Hard Drive Posted: February 10th, 2009, 13:03 .
  • Locked Hard Drive : Hard Disk Drive Technology 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC forum.hddguru.com [Source type: General]

^ Post subject: Re: Locked Hard Drive Posted: February 12th, 2009, 8:24 .
  • Locked Hard Drive : Hard Disk Drive Technology 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC forum.hddguru.com [Source type: General]

^ Modern drives also make extensive use of Error Correcting Codes (ECCs), particularly Reed–Solomon error correction .
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.LDPC codes enable performance close to the Shannon Limit and thus allow for the highest storage density available.^ Highest Available Notebook Performance The Seagate Momentus 7200.4 drive delivers the highest available laptop hard drive capacity while satisfying today’s need for desktop performance in a notebook computer.
  • External Hard Drive - Brief and Straightforward Guide: What is an External Hard Drive? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC externalharddrive.blog.com [Source type: General]

^ If you need the extra storage space, it's nice to know, too, that a drive connected to your computer through FireWire can offer performance that's very close to a desktop.

^ Review Available in either SATA or EIDE interface, these 2.5-inch hard drives offer high-performance, low-power storage for...
  • Harddrive - Shop Smarter.com 11 September 2009 6:10 UTC www.smarter.com [Source type: General]

[16]
.Typical hard drives attempt to "remap" the data in a physical sector that is going bad to a spare physical sector—hopefully while the number of errors in that bad sector is still small enough that the ECC can completely recover the data without loss.^ A read error that the drive can correct by ECC recovery or by re-reading the data.

^ The chance for two hard drives to go bad at the same time is very small.
  • Hard Drive Installation Guides-How to Install HardDrive Installing Hard Drive Upgrade Guide Replace Tips-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 11 September 2009 6:10 UTC www.directron.com [Source type: General]

^ Bad drive sectors .
  • Electronic Musician�s feature on caring and fixing your computer hard drive for audio purposes 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC emusician.com [Source type: General]

.The S.M.A.R.T. system counts the total number of errors in the entire hard drive fixed by ECC, and the total number of remappings, in an attempt to predict hard drive failure.^ So, what can you do to prevent hard drive failure?
  • 4 Tools To Predict and Prevent Hard Drive Failure 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.makeuseof.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Worried about Hard drive failures?
  • Hard Disk Failure - HDDlife, Drive Health, DEKSI Hard Disk Manager - and Others 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC shareme.com [Source type: General]

^ Micro hard-disk drive system .
  • Microminiature hard disk drive - Google Patent Search 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.google.com [Source type: News]

Architecture

.
A hard disk drive with the platters and motor hub removed showing the copper colored stator coils surrounding a bearing at the center of the spindle motor.
^ The fundamental steps to removing a Hard Drive are: .
  • Data Recovery FAQ - Data Recovery Process - Data Recovery Help - Hard Drive Maintenance - Hard Disk Recovery FAQ 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.diskdrivedoctor.com [Source type: General]

^ It did not show another hard drive.
  • Replacing Hard Drive - Hardware Secrets Forums 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC forums.hardwaresecrets.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The motor that rotates the spindle and ultimately the disks.

.The orange stripe along the side of the arm is a thin printed-circuit cable.^ The orange stripe along the side of the arm is a thin printed-circuit cable.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rear disc brake caliper, left side, with parking brake cable bracket and actuator arm, 1979-1985 Eldorado/Riviera/Toronado or 1980-1985 Seville.
  • How To: Install Rear Disc Brakes on a Gen1 Blazer/Jimmy 16 September 2009 21:021 UTC home.pacbell.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If it is an EIDE cable , make sure that the red stripe that you see on one side of the cable is aligned properly with pin 1 on the disk.
  • Up-Link Internet's Computer Clinic 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.doublehammer.com [Source type: General]

The spindle bearing is in the center.
.A typical hard drive has two electric motors, one to spin the disks and one to position the read/write head assembly.^ Spin motor for a hard disk assembly .
  • Microminiature hard disk drive - Google Patent Search 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.google.com [Source type: News]

^ I have two drives, one main and one backup.
  • 4 Tools To Predict and Prevent Hard Drive Failure 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.makeuseof.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ External hard disk Hard Drives .
  • External hard disk Hard Drives at bizrate - Price Comparison and Consumer Reviews 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC www.bizrate.com [Source type: General]

.The disk motor has an external rotor attached to the platters; the stator windings are fixed in place.^ The disk motor has an external rotor attached to the platters; the stator windings are fixed in place.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A disk drive is made up of a disk that stores information, a motor that rotates the disk, a magnet, and an actuator with read/write heads attached to suspension arms that magnetically and electronically read and write information on the disk surface.
  • Up-Link Internet's Computer Clinic 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.doublehammer.com [Source type: General]

^ External hard disks that can be attached directly to a home network for use by multiple computers have been around for a few years now.
  • Network Hard Disk Offers Backup - WSJ.com 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: General]

.The actuator has a read-write head under the tip of its very end (near center); a thin printed-circuit cable connects the read-write head to the hub of the actuator.^ Also known as a read/write head.

^ Head Head often refered to as the read/write head.
  • Hard Disk Recovery Jargon - Glossary, Terms and Lingo 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC www.optimumrecovery.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The read-write head is dead?
  • Hard drive resurrection - Hack a Day 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC hackaday.com [Source type: General]

.A flexible, somewhat 'U'-shaped, ribbon cable, seen edge-on below and to the left of the actuator arm in the first image and more clearly in the second, continues the connection from the head to the controller board on the opposite side.^ A flexible, somewhat 'U'-shaped, ribbon cable, seen edge-on below and to the left of the actuator arm in the first image and more clearly in the second, continues the connection from the head to the controller board on the opposite side.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The ribbon cable goes from the controller to the drive.
  • Installing A Hard Drive – Step by Step | PCMech 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.pcmech.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This clearly reduces the dimension of the connecting cable.
  • Hard disk dive IDE and SATA 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ybet.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The head support arm is very light, but also rigid; in modern drives, acceleration at the head reaches 550 Gs.^ The head support arm is very light, but also rigid; in modern drives, acceleration at the head reaches 250 G s .
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A disk drive is made up of a disk that stores information, a motor that rotates the disk, a magnet, and an actuator with read/write heads attached to suspension arms that magnetically and electronically read and write information on the disk surface.
  • Up-Link Internet's Computer Clinic 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.doublehammer.com [Source type: General]

^ By patentman on 1/8/07 , Rating: 2 By patentman on 1/8/2007 7:54:05 AM , Rating: 2 If they go to 5.25" drives, they have to redesign everything from the read head/arm mechanism to the casing.
  • DailyTech - Seagate Confirms 1TB Hard Disk Drive 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

Opened hard drive with top magnet removed, showing copper head actuator coil (top right).
.The silver-colored structure at the upper left of the first image is the top plate of the permanent-magnet and moving coil motor that swings the heads to the desired position (it is shown removed in the second image).^ On top of the above, I even moved the position of the “heads”.
  • Hard drive resurrection - Hack a Day 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC hackaday.com [Source type: General]

^ The silver-colored structure at the upper left of the first image is the top plate of the permanent-magnet and moving coil motor that swings the heads to the desired position (it is shown removed in the second image).
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A flexible, somewhat 'U'-shaped, ribbon cable, seen edge-on below and to the left of the actuator arm in the first image and more clearly in the second, continues the connection from the head to the controller board on the opposite side.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The plate supports a thin neodymium-iron-boron (NIB) high-flux magnet.^ The plate supports a thin neodymium-iron-boron (NIB) high-flux magnet .
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Beneath this plate is the moving coil, often referred to as the voice coil by analogy to the coil in loudspeakers, which is attached to the actuator hub, and beneath that is a second NIB magnet, mounted on the bottom plate of the motor (some drives only have one magnet).^ Beneath this plate is the moving coil, often referred to as the voice coil by analogy to the coil in loudspeakers , which is attached to the actuator hub, and beneath that is a second NIB magnet, mounted on the bottom plate of the motor (some drives only have one magnet).
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The original hard drive voice coils are used to move the arms.
  • Top 5 Dead Hard Drive Projects - Hacked Gadgets - DIY Tech Blog 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC hackedgadgets.com [Source type: General]

^ Magnetic latch for disk drive actuator .
  • Microminiature hard disk drive - Google Patent Search 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.google.com [Source type: News]

.The voice coil, itself, is shaped rather like an arrowhead, and made of doubly-coated coppmagnet wire.^ The voice coil, itself, is shaped rather like an arrowhead, and made of doubly-coated copper magnet wire.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The cold temperature only delayed the clicking/clunk (it looks like that the voice coil actuator starts to work only when the platrers spin up to a certain velocity).
  • Hard drive resurrection - Hack a Day 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC hackaday.com [Source type: General]

^ The arm is moved by a voice-coil actuator that, like a loudspeaker, utilizes a coil and a magnetic field.
  • Electronic Musician�s feature on caring and fixing your computer hard drive for audio purposes 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC emusician.com [Source type: General]

.The inner layer is insulation, and the outer is thermoplastic, which bonds the coil together after it's wound on a form, making it self-supporting.^ The inner layer is insulation, and the outer is thermoplastic, which bonds the coil together after it's wound on a form, making it self-supporting.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Make sure “Self-test supported” appears in the “Offline data collection capabilities” section.
  • Monitoring Hard Drive Health on Linux with smartmontools | Random Bits 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC blog.shadypixel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Next, let’s make sure that the drive supports self-tests.
  • Monitoring Hard Drive Health on Linux with smartmontools | Random Bits 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC blog.shadypixel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The portions of the coil along the two sides of the arrowhead (which point to the actuator bearing center) interact with the magnetic field, developing a tangential force that rotates the actuator.^ The portions of the coil along the two sides of the arrowhead (which point to the actuator bearing center) interact with the magnetic field , developing a tangential force that rotates the actuator.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A disk drive is made up of a disk that stores information, a motor that rotates the disk, a magnet, and an actuator with read/write heads attached to suspension arms that magnetically and electronically read and write information on the disk surface.
  • Up-Link Internet's Computer Clinic 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.doublehammer.com [Source type: General]

^ Currents along the top and bottom of the coil produce radial forces that do not rotate the head.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Current flowing radially outward along one side of the arrowhead, and radially inward on the other produces the tangential force.^ Currents along the top and bottom of the coil produce radial forces that do not rotate the head.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Current flowing radially outward along one side of the arrowhead, and radially inward on the other produces the tangential force.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Therefore the surface of the magnet is half N pole, half S pole, with the radial dividing line in the middle, causing the two sides of the coil to see opposite magnetic fields and produce forces that add instead of canceling.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.(See magnetic field#Force on a charged particle.^ (See magnetic field#Force on a charged particle .
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Therefore the surface of the magnet is half N pole, half S pole, with the radial dividing line in the middle, causing the two sides of the coil to see opposite magnetic fields and produce forces that add instead of canceling.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the magnetic field were uniform, each side would generate opposing forces that would cancel each other out.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

) .If the magnetic field were uniform, each side would generate opposing forces that would cancel each other out.^ If the magnetic field were uniform, each side would generate opposing forces that would cancel each other out.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Therefore the surface of the magnet is half N pole, half S pole, with the radial dividing line in the middle, causing the two sides of the coil to see opposite magnetic fields and produce forces that add instead of canceling.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each magnetic region forms a magnetic dipole which generates a highly localized magnetic field nearby.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Therefore the surface of the magnet is half N pole, half S pole, with the radial dividing line in the middle, causing the two sides of the coil to see opposite magnetic fields and produce forces that add instead of canceling.^ You can’t do that if the magnets have two sets of poles.
  • Top 5 Dead Hard Drive Projects - Hacked Gadgets - DIY Tech Blog 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC hackedgadgets.com [Source type: General]

^ Therefore the surface of the magnet is half N pole, half S pole, with the radial dividing line in the middle, causing the two sides of the coil to see opposite magnetic fields and produce forces that add instead of canceling.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (See magnetic field#Force on a charged particle .
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Currents along the top and bottom of the coil produce radial forces that do not rotate the head.^ Currents along the top and bottom of the coil produce radial forces that do not rotate the head.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Therefore the surface of the magnet is half N pole, half S pole, with the radial dividing line in the middle, causing the two sides of the coil to see opposite magnetic fields and produce forces that add instead of canceling.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Opened hard drive with top magnet removed, showing copper head actuator coil (top right).
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Capacity and access speed

.
PC hard disk drive capacity (in GB) over time.
^ Micro hard-disk drive system .
  • Microminiature hard disk drive - Google Patent Search 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.google.com [Source type: News]
  • Micro hard-disk drive system (US4638383) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.delphion.com [Source type: Academic]

^ As of the time of this article, the largest desktop hard drive capacity is 500GB. .

^ Hard disk drives on StorageSearch.com .
  • Hard disk drives on StorageSearch.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.storagesearch.com [Source type: General]

The vertical axis is logarithmic, so the fit line corresponds to exponential growth.
.Using rigid disks and sealing the unit allows much tighter tolerances than in a floppy disk drive.^ Using rigid disks and sealing the unit allows much tighter tolerances than in a floppy disk drive .
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These stiff discs give hard drives their name (in the days of old, some discs were made of thin plastic; they were called Floppy Disks.
  • Hard Drive Technologies - Geek Speak 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC geekspeak.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The performance of Adaptive Battery Life Extender in most cases is equal to or better than the same drive using conventional power management.
  • Adaptive Power Management for Mobile Hard Drives 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.almaden.ibm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Consequently, hard disk drives can store much more data than floppy disk drives and can access and transmit them faster.^ Hard Disk Drives: data recovery and repair .
  • Locked Hard Drive : Hard Disk Drive Technology 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC forum.hddguru.com [Source type: General]

^ The strategies for minimizing hard disk drive failure and the consequent data loss are: .
  • Minimizing Hard Disk Drive Failure and Data Loss - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Micro hard-disk drive system .
  • Microminiature hard disk drive - Google Patent Search 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.google.com [Source type: News]

.
  • As of February 2010, the highest capacity consumer HDDs are 2 TB.^ As of April 2009 [update] , the highest capacity HDDs are 2 TB .
    • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Because of the smaller disks, mobile HDDs generally have lower capacity than the highest capacity desktop drives.
    • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [17]
  • .
  • A typical "desktop HDD" stores between 120 GB and 2 TB (although rarely above 500 GB of data based on US market data[18]), rotates at 5,400 to 15,000 rpm, and has a media transfer rate of 0.5 Gbit/s or higher.^ Data transfer rate (max) .
    • External Hard Drives - Cheap, Best External Hard Drive Reviews 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.externalharddrives.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Hard drive to hard drive data transfer Hard drive to hard drive data transfer You have a 40 GB drive and you want to transfer its content to a newly purchased disc with a...
    • Tips Hard Drive Disk - Problems, breakdowns and solutions 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC en.kioskea.net [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Most drives can be found on the same price range (USD 65 – USD 70), which the exception of the Hitachi models, which are cheaper, and Western Digital R2 – which is targeted to enterprise solutions and theoretically providing a higher transfer rate, plus higher reliability – and Western Digital VelociRaptor, which is was more expensive than the other models, since it is a high-end drive rotating at 10,000 rpm.
    • 320 GB Hard Disk Drive Round-Up | Hardware Secrets 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hardwaresecrets.com [Source type: General]

    .(1 GB = 109 Byte; 1 Gbit/s = 109 bit/s)
  • The fastest “enterprise” HDDs spin at 10,000 or 15,000 rpm, and can achieve sequential media transfer speeds above 1.6 Gbit/s.^ GB = 10 9 B; 1 Gbit/s = 10 9 bit/s) The fastest “enterprise” HDDs spin at 10,000 or 15,000 rpm, and can achieve sequential media transfer speeds above 1.6 Gbit/s.
    • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ It is faster than 10 000 rpm HDD from WD ;) .
    • Tip/Trick: Hard Drive Speed and Visual Studio Performance - ScottGu's Blog 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC weblogs.asp.net [Source type: General]

    ^ The enterprise-class 2.5-inch drives currently spin at 10,000 or 15,000 RPMs.
    • Hard Drive 101 | dpBestflow 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.dpbestflow.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [19] and a sustained transfer rate up to 1 Gbit/s.[19] .Drives running at 10,000 or 15,000 rpm use smaller platters to mitigate increased power requirements (as they have less air drag) and therefore generally have lower capacity than the highest capacity desktop drives.
  • "Mobile HDDs", i.e., laptop HDDs, which are physically smaller than their desktop and enterprise counterparts, tend to be slower and have lower capacity.^ Because of the smaller disks, mobile HDDs generally have lower capacity than the highest capacity desktop drives.
    • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Smaller form factor drives often use less power than larger drives.
    • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Don't assume 10,000 RPM hard drives are faster than 7200 RPM hard drives.
    • Tip/Trick: Hard Drive Speed and Visual Studio Performance - ScottGu's Blog 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC weblogs.asp.net [Source type: General]

    .A typical mobile HDD spins at either 4200rpm, 5400rpm, or 7200rpm, with 5400rpm being the most prominent.^ A typical mobile HDD spins at 5,400 rpm, with 7,200 rpm models available for a slight price premium.
    • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Average read times are most improved with the jump to 7200RPM, seeing a 26% increase over 5400RPM and 39% over 4200RPM. .
    • 2.5-inch Hard Disk Drive RPM Guide. - LaptopLogic.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC laptoplogic.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Can’t remember the site that did Hdd comparsons or what drives were used, but basically though the diference in speed between 5400rpm & 7200rpm were were not enough..
    • PS3 Hard-Drive Upgrade - SlashGear 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.slashgear.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .7200rpm drives tend to be more expensive and have smaller capacities, while 4200rpm models usually have very high storage capacities.^ They also tend to be very expensive for the capacity.

    ^ The faster a drive is, the more expensive it's going to be.

    ^ Apart from capacity differences, SSD flash-based storage is considered by most to be superior because it is usually faster and is more resistant to failure resulting from sudden movements (especially relevant for portable devices).
    • Hard Drive - Mac Guides 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC guides.macrumors.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Because of physically smaller platter(s), mobile HDDs generally have lower capacity than their larger desktop counterparts.
.The exponential increases in disk space and data access speeds of HDDs have enabled the commercial viability of consumer products that require large storage capacities, such as digital video recorders and digital audio players.^ Modular unitary disk file subsystem having increased data storage capacity .
  • Microminiature hard disk drive - Google Patent Search 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.google.com [Source type: News]

^ Capacity and access speed .
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ USB storage, HDD enclosure and media players products and so on.
  • Hard Disk Drive Exporters,Hard Disk Drive Manufacturers,Computer Hardware Directory International B2B 22 September 2009 20:44 UTC www.exportbureau.com [Source type: General]

[20] .In addition, the availability of vast amounts of cheap storage has made viable a variety of web-based services with extraordinary capacity requirements, such as free-of-charge web search, web archiving and video sharing (Google, Internet Archive, YouTube, etc.^ In addition, the availability of vast amounts of cheap storage has made viable a variety of web-based services with extraordinary capacity requirements, such as free-of-charge web search, web archiving and video sharing ( Google , Internet Archive , YouTube , etc.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The internet is favorable when it comes to free searches.

^ Western Digital's Special Edition hard drives are designed to maximize desktop computer performance for activities requiring high-performance storage such as computer gaming, digital video editing, and file server applications.
  • Western Digital Caviar Special Edition 160GB UDMA/100 7200RPM 8MB Hard Disk Drive (Retail) WESTERN DIGITAL TECH.INC WD1600JBRTL 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.geeks.com [Source type: General]

).
.The main way to decrease access time is to increase rotational speed, thus reducing rotational delay, while the main way to increase throughput and storage capacity is to increase areal density.^ Access times have not kept up with throughput increases, which themselves have not kept up with growth in storage capacity.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ There's two ways of increasing your access times, increasing the density, the above example, and increasing the speed of the platters.
  • Hard Disk Speed: Which Is Fast? - Thailand Forum 16 September 2009 23:12 UTC www.thaivisa.com [Source type: General]

^ The main way to decrease access time is to increase rotational speed, thus reducing rotational delay , while the main way to increase throughput and storage capacity is to increase areal density.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Based on historic trends, analysts predict a future growth in HDD bit density (and therefore capacity) of about 40% per year.^ Based on historic trends, analysts predict a future growth in HDD bit density (and therefore capacity) of about 40% per year.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, mobile hard drive capacity is increasing at over 60% per year, requiring a reduction in the W/GB of 60% per year just to meet a constant power budget.
  • Adaptive Power Management for Mobile Hard Drives 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.almaden.ibm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The facts are the HDDs will lead SSDs in price performance per GB of storage long into the future by an order of magnitude.
  • Inside the Box » Blog Archive » Solid State Hard Disk Drives 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC lenovoblogs.com [Source type: General]

[21] .Access times have not kept up with throughput increases, which themselves have not kept up with growth in storage capacity.^ Access times have not kept up with throughput increases, which themselves have not kept up with growth in storage capacity.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The main way to decrease access time is to increase rotational speed, thus reducing rotational delay , while the main way to increase throughput and storage capacity is to increase areal density.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is particularly applicable to consumers who require increasing amounts of storage, as they benefit most from the increased storage capacity.
  • Minimizing Hard Disk Drive Failure and Data Loss - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Reference]

.The expected random IOPS capability of any HDD can be calculated by dividing 1000 msecs by the sum of the average seek time and the average rotational latency.^ Average seek time .
  • External Hard Drives - Cheap, Best External Hard Drive Reviews 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.externalharddrives.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Include both seek time and rotational latency.

^ The average seek time is below 9 ms The spindle speed is at least 5400 rpm, although 7200 rpm is better Parallel (Ultra) ATA Disks .
  • Final Cut Pro: Choosing a Hard Disk 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC support.apple.com [Source type: General]

.The first 3.5″ HDD marketed as able to store 1 TB was the Hitachi Deskstar 7K1000. It contains five platters at approximately 200 GB each, providing 1 TB (935.5 GiB) of usable space;[22] note the difference between its capacity in decimal units (1 TB = 1012 bytes) and binary units (1 TiB = 1024 GiB = 240 bytes).^ The first 3.5″ HDD marketed as able to store 1 TB was the Hitachi Deskstar 7K1000.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It contains five platters at approximately 200 GB each, providing 935.5 GiB of usable space; [ 18 ] note the discrepancy between its capacity in decimal units (1 TB = 10 12 bytes) and binary units (1 TiB = 1024 GiB = 2 40 bytes).
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each platter's magnetic surface is logically divided into many small regions, each of which stores a binary unit of information.
  • Electronic Musician�s feature on caring and fixing your computer hard drive for audio purposes 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC emusician.com [Source type: General]

.Hitachi has since been joined by Samsung (Samsung SpinPoint F1, which has 3 × 334 GB platters), Seagate and Western Digital in the 1 TB drive market.^ Both hard drives are Western Digitals.
  • Atola Technology » Archive » Restoring Factory Hard Drive Capacity 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC blog.atola.com [Source type: General]

^ The Hitachi has 5 platters, whereas the Seagate will likely have 2-3(?
  • DailyTech - Seagate Confirms 1TB Hard Disk Drive 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

^ Hitachi has since been joined by Samsung (Samsung SpinPoint F1, which has 3 × 334 GB platters), Seagate and Western Digital in the 1 TB drive market.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[23][24]
.In September 2009, Showa Denko announced capacity improvements in platters that they manufacture for HDD makers.^ I highly doubt they would have to redesign the read-head, as this portion of a HDD is matched to the type of magnetic material used on the usrface of the platter, not platter size.
  • DailyTech - Seagate Confirms 1TB Hard Disk Drive 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

^ They are now stuck on that, and neither the ESTool, or the HDD Capacity Restore utility can fix them.
  • Atola Technology » Archive » Restoring Factory Hard Drive Capacity 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC blog.atola.com [Source type: General]

^ Big_Time24: The reason it shows 465 instead of 500 GB is the way the HDD manufacturer counts capacity VS the way the OS actually formats it.
  • How to upgrade your PlayStation 3 hard drive - Features at GameSpot 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.gamespot.com [Source type: General]

.A single 2.5" platter is able to hold 334 GB worth of data, and preliminary results for 3.5" indicate a 750 GB per platter capacity.^ As of December 2008 a single 3.5" platter is able to hold 500GB worth of data.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, mobile hard drive capacity is increasing at over 60% per year, requiring a reduction in the W/GB of 60% per year just to meet a constant power budget.
  • Adaptive Power Management for Mobile Hard Drives 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.almaden.ibm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Generally – platter swapping will NEVER work on current 3.5″ drives unless it’s a single platter (and REAL low capacity).
  • Hard drive resurrection - Hack a Day 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC hackaday.com [Source type: General]

[25]
Hard Disk Types Currently Being Developed
Form factor Width Largest capacity Platters (Max)
3.5″ 102 mm TB[26] (2009) 5
2.5″ 69.9 mm 1 TB[27] (2009) 3
1.8″ 54 mm 320 GB[28] (2009) 3
Hard Disk Types That Are No Longer Being Developed
Form factor Width Largest capacity Platters (Max)
5.25″ FH 146 mm 47 GB[29] (1998) 14
5.25″ HH 146 mm 19.3 GB[30] (1998) 4[31]
1.3″ 43 mm 40 GB[32] (2007) 1
1″ (CFII/ZIF/IDE-Flex) 42 mm 20 GB (2006) 1
0.85″ 24 mm 8 GB[33] (2004) 1

Capacity measurements

.
A disassembled and labeled 1997 hard drive.
^ A disassembled and labeled 1997 hard drive.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Did you find a “super magnet” when you disassembled the hard drive?
  • Take It Apart dot net » Hard Drive 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.takeitapart.net [Source type: General]

^ I disassembled a hard drive with a claw hammer once.
  • Take It Apart dot net » Hard Drive 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.takeitapart.net [Source type: General]

All major components were placed on a mirror, which created the symmetrical reflections.
.Raw unformatted capacity of a hard disk drive is usually quoted with SI prefixes (metric system prefixes), incrementing by powers of 1000; today that usually means gigabytes (GB) and terabytes (TB).^ The hard drive that the system boots from is usually the primary master.
  • Installing A Hard Drive – Step by Step | PCMech 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.pcmech.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Micro hard-disk drive system .
  • Microminiature hard disk drive - Google Patent Search 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.google.com [Source type: News]
  • Micro hard-disk drive system (US4638383) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.delphion.com [Source type: Academic]

^ For today's drives this corresponds to the hard disk without the PCB. .
  • Hard Disk Recovery Jargon - Glossary, Terms and Lingo 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC www.optimumrecovery.com [Source type: Reference]

.This is conventional for data speeds and memory sizes which are not inherently manufactured in power of two sizes, as RAM and Flash memory are.^ Reviews It has awesome power, memory, hard drive space, and easy to reach front USB connectors plus a flash card reader.
  • Harddrive - Shop Smarter.com 11 September 2009 6:10 UTC www.smarter.com [Source type: General]

^ As in the case of most of the portable drives, the larger the size of the data you transfer, the better is the speed of the drive.
  • External Hard Drives - Cheap, Best External Hard Drive Reviews 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.externalharddrives.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the case of computer memory, which is partitioned into sizes that are a power of two, a kilobyte is equal to 2 10 or 1024 bytes.

.Hard disks by contrast have no inherent binary size as capacity is determined by number of heads, tracks and sectors.^ Hard disks are laid out as any number of 512-byte sectors.
  • Procedures: Hard Disk Warfare 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC www.atarimagazines.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hard disk drive capacity .
  • External Hard Drives - Cheap, Best External Hard Drive Reviews 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.externalharddrives.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Hard Disk `s integrated controller works with various sensors to monitor various aspects of the drive`s / Disk `s performance and determines from this information if the Disk is behaving normally or not.
  • Hard Disk Failure - HDDlife, Drive Health, DEKSI Hard Disk Manager - and Others 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC shareme.com [Source type: General]

This can cause some confusion because some operating systems may report the formatted capacity of a hard drive using binary prefix units which increment by powers of 1024.
.A one terabyte (1 TB) disk drive would be expected to hold around 1 trillion bytes (1,000,000,000,000) or 1000 GB; and indeed most 1 TB hard drives will contain slightly more than this number.^ An adapter with the control electronics for one or more hard drives.

^ One hard disk can be divided into one or more partitions.
  • Hard Disk Recovery Jargon - Glossary, Terms and Lingo 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC www.optimumrecovery.com [Source type: Reference]

^ One of the most prevalent defects of Hard drives is bad sectors on a Disk surface.
  • Hard Disk Failure - HDDlife, Drive Health, DEKSI Hard Disk Manager - and Others 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC shareme.com [Source type: General]

.However some operating system utilities would report this as around 931 GB or 953,674 MB, whereas the correct units would be 931 GiB or 953,674 MiB. (The actual number for a formatted capacity will be somewhat smaller still, depending on the file system).^ The partition where the operating system files are stored.

^ Actually, both numbers are correct.
  • Seagate / 300GB / 7200 / 8MB / ATA-100 / EIDE / OEM / Hard Drive at TigerDirect.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.tigerdirect.com [Source type: General]

^ The files needed to run an operating system.

Following are the correct ways of reporting one Terabyte.
Formatted disk overhead
SI prefixes (Hard Drive) equivalent Binary prefixes (OS) equivalent
1 TB (Terabyte) 1 * 10004 B 0.9095 TiB (Tebibyte) 0.9095 * 10244 B
1000 GB (Gigabyte) 1000 * 10003 B 931.3 GiB (Gibibyte) 931.3 * 10243 B
1,000,000 MB (Megabyte) 1,000,000 * 10002 B 953,674.3 MiB (Mebibyte) 953,674.3 * 10242 B
1,000,000,000 KB (Kilobyte) 1,000,000,000 * 1000 B 976,562,500 KiB (Kibibyte) 976,562,500 * 1024 B
1,000,000,000,000 B (byte) - 1,000,000,000,000 B (byte) -
.Microsoft Windows reports disk capacity both in a decimal integer to 12 or more digits and in binary prefix units to three significant digits.^ For example, Microsoft Windows reports disk capacity both in a decimal integer to 12 or more digits and with binary-based units to three significant digits.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Disk arrived unformatted The LaCie Little disk was advertised as formatted in FAT-32 format, so that it can be read and written by both Mac and Windows.
  • Amazon.com: LaCie Little Disk 500 GB USB 2.0 Portable Hard Drive, Design by Sam Hecht 301841: Electronics 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ It contains five platters at approximately 200 GB each, providing 935.5 GiB of usable space; [ 18 ] note the discrepancy between its capacity in decimal units (1 TB = 10 12 bytes) and binary units (1 TiB = 1024 GiB = 2 40 bytes).
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The capacity of an HDD can be calculated by multiplying the number of cylinders by the number of heads by the number of sectors by the number of bytes/sector (most commonly 512).^ Hard disks are laid out as any number of 512-byte sectors.
  • Procedures: Hard Disk Warfare 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC www.atarimagazines.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Real capacity = sectors * capacity of sectors * cylinder * Nb Heads.
  • Hard disk dive IDE and SATA 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ybet.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The capacity of an HDD can be calculated by multiplying the number of cylinders by the number of heads by the number of sectors by the number of bytes/sector (most commonly 512).
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Drives with the ATA interface and a capacity of eight gigabytes or more behave as if they were structured into 16383 cylinders, 16 heads, and 63 sectors, for compatibility with older operating systems.^ The older the system the more limited is its performance.
  • Computer Dictionary-Glossary-Hard Drives-HardDrives-Hard Disc Drives-HDD-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 20 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.directron.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The drive is compatible with both Windows and Mac Operating Systems.
  • External Hard Drives - Cheap, Best External Hard Drive Reviews 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.externalharddrives.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Operating Systems compatibility : .
  • External Hard Drives - Cheap, Best External Hard Drive Reviews 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.externalharddrives.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Unlike in the 1980s, the cylinder, head, sector (C/H/S) counts reported to the CPU by a modern ATA drive are no longer actual physical parameters since the reported numbers are constrained by historic operating-system interfaces and with zone bit recording the actual number of sectors varies by zone.^ Disks with SCSI interface address each sector with a unique integer number; the operating system remains ignorant of their head or cylinder count.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sectors are numbered starting at 1, and the numbers are represented in 6 bits.
  • How a Linux Distro Saved Hard Disk Data 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC www.linuxjournal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It's actually just reporting what the drive reports.
  • Hard Drive Size Barriers, In Depth 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.dewassoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Disks with SCSI interface address each sector with a unique integer number; the operating system remains ignorant of their head or cylinder count.^ A method of referencing the sectors on a drive as a collection of unique cylinder, head and sector addresses.

^ Each block on the drive will have a unique cylinder, head and sector address.

^ Disks with SCSI interface address each sector with a unique integer number; the operating system remains ignorant of their head or cylinder count.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The old C/H/S scheme has been replaced by logical block addressing.^ The old C/H/S scheme has been replaced by logical block addressing .
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Addresses the sectors on the drive as a single group of logical block numbers instead of cylinder, head and sector addresses.

^ LBA (Logical Block Addressing) .

.In some cases, to try to "force-fit" the C/H/S scheme to large-capacity drives, the number of heads was given as 64, although no modern drive has anywhere near 32 platters.^ In some cases, to try to "force-fit" the C/H/S scheme to large-capacity drives, the number of heads was given as 64, although no modern drive has anywhere near 32 platters.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because there is no actuator arm and read/write head that must seek out data on a platter like on a hard disk drive (HDD), they are faster in reading and, in most cases, writing data.
  • Hard disk vs. solid-state drive | ITworld 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.itworld.com [Source type: General]

^ The utility that allows you to do some simple backup and restore operations is available in the drive itself and you are also given the flexibility to control when the drive goes to sleep mode.
  • External Hard Drives - Cheap, Best External Hard Drive Reviews 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.externalharddrives.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Formatted disk overhead
.For a formatted drive, the operating system's file system internal usage is another, although minor, reason why a computer hard drive or storage device's capacity may show its capacity as different from its theoretical capacity.^ The devices are similar to a data storage server without an operating system.
  • External HARD DRIVE DATA RECOVERY Service| Network Attached Storage Recovery (NAS) |External Drive 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC us-datarecovery.com [Source type: General]

^ Follows the formatting of the various hard drives follows.
  • Hard disk dive IDE and SATA 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ybet.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Boot the computer and see if it shows drives.
  • Hard drive resurrection - Hack a Day 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC hackaday.com [Source type: General]

.This would include storage for, as examples, a file allocation table (FAT) or inodes, as well as other operating system data structures.^ The devices are similar to a data storage server without an operating system.
  • External HARD DRIVE DATA RECOVERY Service| Network Attached Storage Recovery (NAS) |External Drive 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC us-datarecovery.com [Source type: General]

^ The partition where the operating system files are stored.

^ The files needed to run an operating system.

.This file system overhead is usually less than 1% on drives larger than 100 MB. For RAID drives, data integrity and fault-tolerance requirements also reduce the realized capacity.^ RAID DATA RECOVERY FROM Crashed hard Drives and Crashed Raid Array hard drives with the following file systems : .
  • External HARD DRIVE DATA RECOVERY Service| Network Attached Storage Recovery (NAS) |External Drive 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC us-datarecovery.com [Source type: General]

^ All Maxtor hard drives include a powerful proprietary ECC (Error Correction Code) to insure data integrity when writing to or reading from the drive.
  • Computer Dictionary-Glossary-Hard Drives-HardDrives-Hard Disc Drives-HDD-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 20 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.directron.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fault tolerance requires more than just the RAID you need a UPS, Twin PSUs, HOT Spare RAID controller, Dual ethernet cards, Virus protection, anti theft security, fire protection, user protection (i.e.
  • Top 5 Dead Hard Drive Projects - Hacked Gadgets - DIY Tech Blog 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC hackedgadgets.com [Source type: General]

.For example, a RAID1 drive will be about half the total capacity as a result of data mirroring.^ Ric Ford writes about lack of SMART data access in two eSATA drive docks.
  • Hard Drives 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.macintouch.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A particularly malicious or buggy virus can cause data loss, typically without any resultant physical damage to the underlying drive.
  • Minimizing Hard Disk Drive Failure and Data Loss - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Do I even need to worry about partitioning my external drive into a mac half and a pc half?
  • How to Format an External Hard Drive – Updated | TheLightroomLab.com | Written by David Marx 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thelightroomlab.com [Source type: General]

.For RAID5 drives with x drives you would lose 1/x of your space to parity.^ Can you tell me where you got your hard drive?
  • Upgrading iPod Hard Drives | Command-Tab 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.command-tab.com [Source type: General]

^ This may be the reason you can’t get 100% of your hard drive space.
  • Atola Technology » Archive » Restoring Factory Hard Drive Capacity 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC blog.atola.com [Source type: General]

^ You will have DELETED your hard drive!
  • Review: WD Passport Portable Hard Drive — PaulStamatiou.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC paulstamatiou.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.RAID drives are multiple drives that appear to be one drive to the user, but provides some fault-tolerance.^ Fault tolerance requires more than just the RAID you need a UPS, Twin PSUs, HOT Spare RAID controller, Dual ethernet cards, Virus protection, anti theft security, fire protection, user protection (i.e.
  • Top 5 Dead Hard Drive Projects - Hacked Gadgets - DIY Tech Blog 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC hackedgadgets.com [Source type: General]

^ In discussing some of these recent barriers, we have provided a brief summary of the reasons for each of the barriers, as well as the drive capacity generally associated with it.
  • Hard Drive Size Barriers, In Depth 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.dewassoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To allow for some flexibility in product lineups, Toshiba’s 1.8″ hard drives come in two thicknesses — the thinner has one physical storage platter inside, and the thicker has two.
  • Upgrading iPod Hard Drives | Command-Tab 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.command-tab.com [Source type: General]

.A general rule of thumb to quickly convert the manufacturer's hard disk capacity to the standard Microsoft Windows formatted capacity is 0.93*capacity of HDD from manufacturer for HDDs less than a terabyte and 0.91*capacity of HDD from manufacturer for HDDs equal to or greater than 1 terabyte.^ Capacity of a hard disk drive is usually quoted in gigabytes and terabytes .
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dozens of former HDD manufacturers have gone out of business, merged, or closed their HDD divisions; as capacities and demand for products increased, profits became hard to find, and the market underwent significant consolidation in the late 1980s and late 1990s.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hdd Choosing Between an Internal or External Hard Drive Rather than buying a whole new computer, a less expensive option is to add a second hard drive to your existing computer to increase your storage space.
  • Hard Drive - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 11 September 2009 6:10 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

Form factors

5¼″ full height 110 MB HDD,
2½″ (8.5 mm) 6495 MB HDD,
US/UK pennies for comparison.
Six hard drives with 8″, 5.25″, 3.5″, 2.5″, 1.8″, and 1″ disks, partially disassembled to show platters and read-write heads, with a ruler showing inches.
.Before the era of PCs and small computers, hard disks were of widely varying dimensions, typically in free standing cabinets the size of washing machines (e.g.^ It takes only 10MB size and runs on USB drive, CD or an internal hard disk drive, almost anywhere you want it to.
  • How To Rapidly Clean / Wipe Hard Disk Drive 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC blog.taragana.com [Source type: General]

^ It aims to provide an easy way to carry out admin tasks on your computer, such as creating and editing the partitions of the hard disk.
  • How To Rapidly Clean / Wipe Hard Disk Drive 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC blog.taragana.com [Source type: General]

^ This professional hard disk is both Mac and PC compatible, and comes with a quadruple interface: 2 x FireWire 800 ports, 1 x FireWire 400 port, 1 x Hi-Speed USB 2.0 port.
  • Super Secret Twitter Giveaway: LaCie d2 Quadra Hard Disk 500GB Hard Drive | PowerMax.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.powermax.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.DEC RP06 Disk Drive) or designed so that dimensions enabled placement in a 19" rack (e.g.^ Dec 19, 2009 Hardware > Hard Drive Disk > Partitionning .
  • Tips Hard Drive Disk - Problems, breakdowns and solutions 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC en.kioskea.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Specifically, when the controller 25 finds the individual information in the telephone directory data corresponding to the telephone number of the caller, the controller 25 reads the individual information of the caller from the telephone directory data in the hard disk drive 19.
  • In-vehicle device having hard disk drive and method for controlling the same - US20090088205 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.patents.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Large amounts of data can also be shared with trusted friends using a designated external hard disk drive.
  • Minimizing Hard Disk Drive Failure and Data Loss - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Reference]

.Diablo Model 31).^ Diablo Model 31 ).
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.With increasing sales of small computers having built in floppy-disk drives (FDDs), HDDs that would fit to the FDD mountings became desirable, and this led to the evolution of the market towards drives with certain Form factors, initially derived from the sizes of 8", 5.25" and 3.5" floppy disk drives.^ Hdd Choosing Between an Internal or External Hard Drive Rather than buying a whole new computer, a less expensive option is to add a second hard drive to your existing computer to increase your storage space.
  • Hard Drive - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 11 September 2009 6:10 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ Either of these technology changes would permit huge drive sizes.
  • Hard Drive Size Barriers, In Depth 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.dewassoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Have you tested these drives, or did you just find some drives that would fit in theory?
  • Upgrading iPod Hard Drives | Command-Tab 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.command-tab.com [Source type: General]

.Smaller sizes than 3.5" have emerged as popular in the marketplace and/or been decided by various industry groups.^ The included power adapter is a good size, much smaller than the brick for my external Seagate drive.
  • Review: Vantec NexStar 3 Hard Drive Enclosure — PaulStamatiou.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC paulstamatiou.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The size of the cluster (smaller possible information) varies according to the partition size, but also according to FAT type.
  • Hard disk dive IDE and SATA 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ybet.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.
  • 8 inch: 9.5 in × 4.624 in × 14.25 in (241.3 mm × 117.5 mm × 362 mm)
    In 1979, Shugart Associates' SA1000 was the first form factor compatible HDD, having the same dimensions and a compatible interface to the 8″ FDD.
  • 5.25 inch: 5.75 in × 1.63 in × 8 in (146.1 mm × 41.4 mm × 203 mm)
    This smaller form factor, first used in an HDD by Seagate in 1980, was the same size as full height 5¼-inch diameter FDD, i.e., 3.25 inches high.^ A conventional in-vehicle device having a hard disk drive (i.e., HDD) is suitably used for a car navigation device, in which the hard disk drive stores map data.
    • In-vehicle device having hard disk drive and method for controlling the same - US20090088205 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.patents.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ The peformance Index for the HDD in Windows 7, which has a range from 1.0 - 7.9 shows for : First WD = 5.6 second Seagate = 3.0 Third Hitachi = 6.0 The time for to install Windows 7 on each HDD was different from 22 min (WD and Hitachi) and 36 min (Seagate).
    • Hard Disk Speed: Which Is Fast? - Thailand Forum 16 September 2009 23:12 UTC www.thaivisa.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The other is the same size but a older model IBM. I purchased three identical drives of the first model(3 platters 5 heads) for practice.
    • Hard drive resurrection - Hack a Day 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC hackaday.com [Source type: General]

    .This is twice as high as "half height" commonly used today; i.e., 1.63 in (41.4 mm).^ For the iPod Classic Size and weight Height: 4.1 inches (103.5 mm) Width: 2.4 inches (61.8 mm) Depth: 0.41 inch (10.5 mm) Weight: 4.9 ounces (140 grams) .
    • Upgrading iPod Hard Drives | Command-Tab 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.command-tab.com [Source type: General]

    .Most desktop models of drives for optical 120 mm disks (DVD, CD) use the half height 5¼″ dimension, but it fell out of fashion for HDDs.^ Half-height drives measure 1.6-inches in height.

    ^ Half-height Drives .

    ^ Visits: 2317 VirtualDrive emulates your computer's CD/DVD-ROM drive, which enables you to run CD and DVD programs, such as games, music CDs, and DVD videos directly from your Hard drive without the use of the physical...
    • Download Hard Disc Cleaner Software: ABS DVD UNPROTECT AND RIP, Easy WMV/ASF/ASX To DVD Burner, Okoker Disk Cleaner, ... 20 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.filebuzz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The Quantum Bigfoot HDD was the last to use it in the late 1990s, with “low-profile” (≈25 mm) and “ultra-low-profile” (≈20 mm) high versions.
  • 3.5 inch: 4 in × 1 in × 5.75 in (101.6 mm × 25.4 mm × 146 mm) = 376.77344 cm³
    This smaller form factor, first used in an HDD by Rodime in 1984, was the same size as the "half height" 3½″ FDD, i.e., 1.63 inches high.^ This smaller form factor, first used in an HDD by Rodime in 1984, was the same size as the "half height" 3½″ FDD, i.e., 1.63 inches high.
    • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Low-profile hard drives measure 1.0-inches in height.

    ^ Today has been largely superseded by 1-inch high “slimline” or “low-profile” versions of this form factor which is used by most desktop HDDs.
    • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Today it has been largely superseded by 1-inch high “slimline” or “low-profile” versions of this form factor which is used by most desktop HDDs.
  • 2.5 inch: 2.75 in × 0.374–0.59 in × 3.945 in (69.85 mm × 7–15 mm × 100 mm) = 48.895–104.775 cm3
    This smaller form factor was introduced by PrairieTek in 1988; there is no corresponding FDD. It is widely used today for hard-disk drives in mobile devices (laptops, music players, etc.^ Because of the smaller disks, mobile HDDs generally have lower capacity than the highest capacity desktop drives.
    • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Smaller form factor drives often use less power than larger drives.
    • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ This smaller form factor, first used in an HDD by Rodime in 1984, was the same size as the "half height" 3½″ FDD, i.e., 1.63 inches high.
    • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ) and as of .2008 replacing 3.5 inch enterprise-class drives.^ Comment by ziki on June 10, 2008 9:24 am ziki: If you have checked the jumpers as described in the article, then I guess you can return the drive for a replacement.
    • Atola Technology » Archive » Restoring Factory Hard Drive Capacity 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC blog.atola.com [Source type: General]

    ^ July 28th, 2008 at 6:52 AM Is it possible to replace the iPod HD with a western digital HD? Or any other Portable hard drive?
    • Upgrading iPod Hard Drives | Command-Tab 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.command-tab.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Matthew July 2nd, 2008 at 6:30 PM I own a 30GB 5th Gen iPod and want to replace the HDD with a 8mm 80GB drive.
    • Upgrading iPod Hard Drives | Command-Tab 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.command-tab.com [Source type: General]

    .It is also used in the Xbox 360 and Playstation 3 video game consoles.^ Video games > Consoles > PSP .
    • Tips Hard Drive Disk - Problems, breakdowns and solutions 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC en.kioskea.net [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Video games > Consoles > Playstation .
    • Tips Hard Drive Disk - Problems, breakdowns and solutions 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC en.kioskea.net [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Video games > Consoles .
    • Tips Hard Drive Disk - Problems, breakdowns and solutions 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC en.kioskea.net [Source type: Reference]

    .Today, the dominant height of this form factor is 9.5 mm for laptop drives, but high capacity drives (750 GB and 1 TB) have a height of 12.5 mm.^ Drives in smaller form factors (e.g.
    • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Today, the dominant height of this form factor is 9.5 mm for laptop drives, but high capacity drives used to have a height of 12.5 mm.
    • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In 1979, Shugart Associates ' SA1000 was the first form factor compatible HDD, having the same dimensions and a compatible interface to the 8″ FDD. 5.25 inch: 5.75 in × 1.63 in × 8 in (146.1 mm × 41.4 mm × 203 mm) This smaller form factor, first used in an HDD by Seagate in 1980, was the same size as full height 5¼-inch diameter FDD, i.e., 3.25 inches high.
    • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Enterprise-class drives can have a height up to 15 mm.^ Enterprise-class drives can have a height up to 15 mm.
    • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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    ^ Pat Cosimano September 4, 2007 at 8:15 pm I love the drive, but I’m here to tell you all that Western Digital is one messed up company.
    • Review: WD Passport Portable Hard Drive — PaulStamatiou.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC paulstamatiou.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Today, the dominant height of this form factor is 9.5 mm for laptop drives, but high capacity drives used to have a height of 12.5 mm.
    • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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    [34] .Seagate has released a wafer-thin 7mm drive aimed at entry level laptops and high end netbooks in December 2009.[35]
  • 1.8 inch: 54 mm × 8 mm × 71 mm = 30.672 cm³
    This form factor, originally introduced by Integral Peripherals in 1993, has evolved into the ATA-7 LIF with dimensions as stated.^ This form factor, originally introduced by Integral Peripherals in 1993, has evolved into the ATA-7 LIF with dimensions as stated.
    • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Both are 3.5-inch in form factor.
    • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Today, the dominant height of this form factor is 9.5 mm for laptop drives, but high capacity drives used to have a height of 12.5 mm.
    • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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    .It is increasingly used in digital audio players and subnotebooks.^ It is increasingly used in digital audio players and subnotebooks .
    • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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    ^ This is not a big issue if you are using a digital audio sequencer that integrates hard-disk recording and sequencing.
    • Modular Hard Disk Recorders - Square One - Hard-Disk Recording 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC emusician.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Nokia N91 ), digital audio players , digital video players (e.g.
    • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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    .An original variant exists for 2–5 GB sized HDDs that fit directly into a PC card expansion slot.^ An original variant exists for 2–5 GB sized HDDs that fit directly into a PC card expansion slot.
    • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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    ^ SATA 2 & 1 e-SATA PCI Express Card Manufacturer: Cables Unlimited This easy to install and configure PCI Express card from Cables Unlimited adds one SATA II port and one e-SATA port to any newer PC, with an extra PCI Express slot.
    • Fantom Drives GreenDrive 1TB External eSATA/USB 2.0 Hard Drive GD1000EU 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.macmall.com [Source type: General]

    ^ I put my old ps3 80 gig drive into an external hdd enclosure and my pc would not see it.
    • How to upgrade your PlayStation 3 hard drive - Features at GameSpot 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.gamespot.com [Source type: General]

    .These became popular for their use in iPods and other HDD based MP3 players.
  • 1 inch: 42.8 mm × 5 mm × 36.4 mm
    This form factor was introduced in 1999 as IBM's Microdrive to fit inside a CF Type II slot.^ HDD MP3 players .
    • Hard Drive Manufacturers & Suppliers | Global Sources 11 September 2009 6:10 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: General]

    ^ These became popular for their use in iPods and other HDD based MP3 players.
    • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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    ^ Both are 3.5-inch in form factor.
    • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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    .Samsung calls the same form factor "1.3 inch" drive in its product literature.^ Samsung also makes 1.8″ drives called the N series.
    • Upgrading iPod Hard Drives | Command-Tab 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.command-tab.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Drives in smaller form factors (e.g.
    • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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    ^ Both are 3.5-inch in form factor.
    • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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    [36]
  • .
  • 0.85 inch: 24 mm × 5 mm × 32 mm
    Toshiba announced this form factor in January 2004[37] for use in mobile phones and similar applications, including SD/MMC slot compatible HDDs optimized for video storage on 4G handsets.^ Both are 3.5-inch in form factor.
    • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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    ^ Toshiba announced this form factor in January 2004 [ 32 ] for use in mobile phones and similar applications, including SD / MMC slot compatible HDDs optimized for video storage on 4G handsets.
    • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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    ^ A SATA HDD and an IDE HDD. Both are 2.5-inch in form factor.
    • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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    .Toshiba currently sells a 4 GB (MK4001MTD) and 8 GB (MK8003MTD) version [1] and holds the Guinness World Record for the smallest hard disk drive.^ Hard disk drives .
    • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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    ^ ATA Hard drive version .
    • Hard disk dive IDE and SATA 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ybet.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Toshiba currently sells a 4 GB (MK4001MTD) and 8 GB (MK8003MTD) version [6] and holds the Guinness World Record for the smallest hard disk drive.
    • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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    [38]
.3.5" and 2.5" hard disks currently dominate the market.^ If the hard disks of 1996 turned in 13 ms, the current standards arrive at less than 8 ms. .
  • Hard disk dive IDE and SATA 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ybet.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (Redirected from Minimizing hard disk drive failure and data loss ) Current revision (unreviewed) Jump to: navigation , search .
  • Minimizing Hard Disk Drive Failure and Data Loss - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Reference]

^ When the hard disk drives started handling the reduced write current management on their own, line 2 in the "Control" cable could be used for something else.
  • Tandy MFM Hard Disk Drive Reference 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC nemesis.lonestar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By 2009 all manufacturers had discontinued the development of new products for the 1.3-inch, 1-inch and 0.85-inch form factors due to falling prices of flash memory.^ Both are 3.5-inch in form factor.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By 2009 all manufacturers had discontinued the development of new products for the 1.3-inch, 1-inch and 0.85-inch form factors due to falling prices of flash memory , [ 34 ] [ 35 ] .
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Computer Accessories China is a major production hub for computer accessories, offering a range of USB flash drives, memory cards and readers, optical disc drives or ODDs...
  • Hard Drive Manufacturers & Suppliers | Global Sources 11 September 2009 6:10 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: General]

[39][40]
.The inch-based nickname of all these form factors usually do not indicate any actual product dimension (which are specified in millimeters for more recent form factors), but just roughly indicate a size relative to disk diameters, in the interest of historic continuity.^ I just needed these two sizes.
  • DIY: Replace your intel mac mini’s hard disk drive | soledad penadés 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC soledadpenades.com [Source type: General]

^ The inch-based nickname of all these form factors usually do not indicate any actual product dimension (which are specified in millimeters for more recent form factors), but just roughly indicate a size relative to disk diameters, in the interest of historic continuity.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ Both are 3.5-inch in form factor.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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Other characteristics

Data transfer rate

.As of 2008, a typical 7200rpm desktop hard drive has a sustained "disk-to-buffer" data transfer rate of about 70 megabytes per second.^ Hard drives have an increasing range of disk transfer rates from the inner diameter to the outer diameter of the disk.

^ Data transfer rate : As of 2008, a typical 7200rpm desktop hard drive has a sustained "disk-to-buffer" data transfer rate of about 70 megabytes per second.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ The transfer rate into the buffer RAM of the hard disk.

[41] .This rate depends on the track location, so it will be highest for data on the outer tracks (where there are more data sectors) and lower toward the inner tracks (where there are fewer data sectors); and is generally somewhat higher for 10,000rpm drives.^ This rate depends on the track location, so it will be highest for data on the outer tracks (where there are more data sectors) and lower toward the inner tracks (where there are fewer data sectors); and is generally somewhat higher for 10,000rpm drives.
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^ This type of recording affords more disk capacity because there can be more sectors on the larger outer tracks than would be possible if the number of sectors per track were constant for the whole drive.

^ But you seem to have a higher return rate for failures of the program we're going to be showing off the pair Western Digital drives chip created to.
  • Revision3 > Systm > Episode 85: Cheap and Easy Hard Drive Upgrade - Patrick Norton, david calkins, Roger Chang 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC revision3.com [Source type: General]

.A current widely-used standard for the "buffer-to-computer" interface is 3.0 Gbit/s SATA, which can send about 300 megabyte/s from the buffer to the computer, and thus is still comfortably ahead of today's disk-to-buffer transfer rates.^ The transfer rate into the buffer RAM of the hard disk.

^ A current widely-used standard for the "buffer-to-computer" interface is 3.0 Gbit/s SATA, which can send about 300 megabyte/s.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Disk interface families used in personal computers .
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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.Data transfer rate (read/write) can be measured by writing a large file to disk using special file generator tools, then reading back the file.^ This file format can be used for data...
  • Tips Hard Drive Disk - Problems, breakdowns and solutions 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC en.kioskea.net [Source type: Reference]

^ File transfer is file transfer whichever 2.5 hd i use.
  • Review: WD Passport Portable Hard Drive — PaulStamatiou.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC paulstamatiou.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Data transfer rate (max) .
  • External Hard Drives - Cheap, Best External Hard Drive Reviews 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.externalharddrives.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Transfer rate can be influenced by file system fragmentation and the layout of the files.^ Transfer rate can be influenced by the fragmentation of the drive and the layout of the files.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ File system fragmentation increases disk head movement, thus possibly decreasing the life of a drive.
  • Minimizing Hard Disk Drive Failure and Data Loss - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Additionally, file systems such as NTFS and most Unix and Linux file systems are designed to decrease the likelihood of fragmentation.
  • Minimizing Hard Disk Drive Failure and Data Loss - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Reference]

Seek time

.Seek time currently ranges from just under 2 ms for high-end server drives, to 15 ms for miniature drives, with the most common desktop type typically being around 9 ms.^ Seek time currently ranges from just under 2 ms for high-end server drives, to 15 ms for miniature drives, with the most common desktop type typically being around 9 ms. There has not been any significant improvement in this speed for some years.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One interesting development in this area is actively controlling the seek speed so that the head arrives at its destination only just in time to read the sector, rather than arriving as quickly as possible and then having to wait for the sector to come around (i.e.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It has a rotational speed of 7200 rpm and an average seek time of just 8.5 ms, which provides fast disk access.
  • Seagate Hard Drives at BizRate - Price Comparison and Consumer Reviews 11 September 2009 6:10 UTC www.bizrate.com [Source type: General]

.March 2008" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] There has not been any significant improvement in this speed for some years.^ March 16, 2008 at 4:41 am hi there… i have WD external hardrive and have stupidly forgotten my password….
  • Review: WD Passport Portable Hard Drive — PaulStamatiou.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC paulstamatiou.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kit April 6th, 2008 at 5:12 PM is there any way to upgrade an 5.5G 80GB white video iPod to an 160GB or bigger drive, please?
  • Upgrading iPod Hard Drives | Command-Tab 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.command-tab.com [Source type: General]

^ Seek time currently ranges from just under 2 ms for high-end server drives, to 15 ms for miniature drives, with the most common desktop type typically being around 9 ms. There has not been any significant improvement in this speed for some years.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some early PC drives used a stepper motor to move the heads, and as a result had access times as slow as 80–120 ms, but this was quickly improved by voice coil type actuation in the late 1980s, reducing access times to around 20 ms.^ The arm is moved using a voice coil actuator or in some older designs a stepper motor .
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ The original hard drive voice coils are used to move the arms.
  • Top 5 Dead Hard Drive Projects - Hacked Gadgets - DIY Tech Blog 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC hackedgadgets.com [Source type: General]

^ Some early PC drives used a stepper motor to move the heads, and as a result had access times as slow as 80–120 ms, but this was quickly improved by voice-coil type actuation in the late 1980s, reducing access times to around 20 ms. .
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Power consumption

.Power consumption has become increasingly important, not just in mobile devices such as laptops but also in server and desktop markets.^ Power consumption has become increasingly important, not just in mobile devices such as laptops but also in server and desktop markets.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Irrespective of the fact if the system is a desktop or laptop, the drive is recognised in just seconds and takes power directly from the USB port and so, there no need for any additional power supply.
  • External Hard Drives - Cheap, Best External Hard Drive Reviews 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.externalharddrives.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Shock resistance is especially important for mobile devices.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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.Increasing data center machine density has led to problems delivering sufficient power to devices (especially for spin up), and getting rid of the waste heat subsequently produced, as well as environmental and electrical cost concerns (see green computing).^ Increasing data center machine density has led to problems delivering sufficient power to devices, and getting rid of the waste heat subsequently produced, as well as environmental and electrical cost concerns (see green computing ).
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ Unmatched capacity of up to 300GB(1) in a 2.5″ form factor * Features best in class read/write power consumption at 1.6W * Mobile 2.5” series features high shock tolerance and low power consumption * Delivers outstanding reliability and durability * Engineered for audio/video computing as well as the high-end PC market .
  • PS3 Hard-Drive Upgrade - SlashGear 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.slashgear.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It doesn’t spin up and the computer bios doesn’t recognize the dead drive.
  • Hard drive resurrection - Hack a Day 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC hackaday.com [Source type: General]

.Similar issues exist for large companies with thousands of desktop PCs.^ Similar issues exist for large companies with thousands of desktop PCs.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I had a similar issue connecting my TrekStor 500gb external drive to my desktop PC (Dell Optiplex GX240).
  • Windows XP Won't Recognize WD Ext Hard Drive 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC en.kioskea.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Smaller form factor drives often use less power than larger drives.^ They also use a bit less power than ATA100.

^ Smaller form factor drives often use less power than larger drives.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Often drives can be had for less than $200 now.
  • Tip/Trick: Hard Drive Speed and Visual Studio Performance - ScottGu's Blog 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC weblogs.asp.net [Source type: General]

One interesting development in this area is actively controlling the seek speed so that the head arrives at its destination only just in time to read the sector, rather than arriving as quickly as possible and then having to wait for the sector to come around (i.e. the rotational latency). Many of the hard drive companies are now producing Green Drives that require much less power and cooling. .Many of these 'Green Drives' spin slower (<5400 RPM compared to 7200 RPM, 10,000 RPM, and 15,000 RPM) and also generate less waste heat.^ Don't assume 10,000 RPM hard drives are faster than 7200 RPM hard drives.
  • Tip/Trick: Hard Drive Speed and Visual Studio Performance - ScottGu's Blog 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC weblogs.asp.net [Source type: General]

^ Most drives come in a 5400 RPM and 7200 RPM speed.
  • How to Format an External Hard Drive – Updated | TheLightroomLab.com | Written by David Marx 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thelightroomlab.com [Source type: General]

^ I prefer the 7200 RPM drives when I can get them.
  • How to Format an External Hard Drive – Updated | TheLightroomLab.com | Written by David Marx 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC thelightroomlab.com [Source type: General]

.Also in Server and Workstation systems where there might be multiple hard disk drives, there are various ways of controlling when the hard drives spin up (highest power draw).^ Is there a way to swap out the power source to the drive or what else is there I can do..
  • Hard drive resurrection - Hack a Day 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC hackaday.com [Source type: General]

^ Has somebody opened your hard disk drive up?
  • Hard Disk Data Recovery - Data Recovery - Data Recovery Sydney 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC www.payam.com.au [Source type: General]

^ If I have the eSATA cable plugged in the drive won’t spin up on power on.
  • Review: Vantec NexStar 3 Hard Drive Enclosure — PaulStamatiou.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC paulstamatiou.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On SCSI hard disk drives, the SCSI controller can directly control spin up and spin down of the drives.^ Has somebody opened your hard disk drive up?
  • Hard Disk Data Recovery - Data Recovery - Data Recovery Sydney 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC www.payam.com.au [Source type: General]

^ It immediately gave up and spinned-down.
  • Upgrading iPod Hard Drives | Command-Tab 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.command-tab.com [Source type: General]

^ Hard drive was also clicking when trying to spin.
  • Upgrading iPod Hard Drives | Command-Tab 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.command-tab.com [Source type: General]

.On Parallel ATA (aka PATA) and SATA hard disk drives, some support Power-up in standby or PUIS. The hard disk drive will not spin up until the controller or system BIOS issues a specific command to do so.^ Has somebody opened your hard disk drive up?
  • Hard Disk Data Recovery - Data Recovery - Data Recovery Sydney 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC www.payam.com.au [Source type: General]

^ It doesn’t spin up and the computer bios doesn’t recognize the dead drive.
  • Hard drive resurrection - Hack a Day 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC hackaday.com [Source type: General]

^ If I have the eSATA cable plugged in the drive won’t spin up on power on.
  • Review: Vantec NexStar 3 Hard Drive Enclosure — PaulStamatiou.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC paulstamatiou.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This limits the power draw or consumption upon power on.
.On newer SATA hard disk drives, there is Staggered Spin Up feature.^ Has somebody opened your hard disk drive up?
  • Hard Disk Data Recovery - Data Recovery - Data Recovery Sydney 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC www.payam.com.au [Source type: General]

^ A hard disk drive consists of: .
  • Hard disk dive IDE and SATA 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ybet.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hard disk drive .
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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.The hard disk drive will not spin up until the SATA Phy comes ready (communications with the host controller starts).^ Has somebody opened your hard disk drive up?
  • Hard Disk Data Recovery - Data Recovery - Data Recovery Sydney 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC www.payam.com.au [Source type: General]

^ (See also disk drive controller and interface controller).

^ You literally can't start up the ST with the hard disk attached.
  • Procedures: Hard Disk Warfare 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC www.atarimagazines.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]
.To further control or reduce power draw and consumption, the hard disk drive can be spun down to reduce its power consumption.^ (See also disk drive controller and interface controller).

^ Hard disk drives .
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (See disk controller and disk drive controller.

Audible noise

.Measured in dBA, audible noise is significant for certain applications, such as PVRs, digital audio recording and quiet computers.^ Audible noise (measured in dBA ) is significant for certain applications, such as PVRs , digital audio recording and quiet computers .
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The exponential increases in disk space and data access speeds of HDDs have enabled the commercial viability of consumer products that require large storage capacities, such as digital video recorders and digital audio players .
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ The series of computers employed largely in high-volume and multi-user environments such as servers or networking applications; may include single-user workstations required in demanding design, engineering and audio/visual applications.

.Low noise disks typically use fluid bearings, slower rotational speeds (usually 5,400 rpm) and reduce the seek speed under load (AAM) to reduce audible clicks and crunching sounds.^ Low noise disks typically use fluid bearings , slower rotational speeds (usually 5,400 rpm) and reduce the seek speed under load ( AAM ) to reduce audible clicks and crunching sounds.
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^ The sound is usually due to a mechanical failure that causes the head actuator to click as the drive attempts to recalibrate.
  • Electronic Musician�s feature on caring and fixing your computer hard drive for audio purposes 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC emusician.com [Source type: General]

^ Naturally, your floppy disks must be formatted using Twister techniques (Not using Twister itself, for reasons I will mention shortly), which boosts their speed to the maximum.
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.Drives in smaller form factors (e.g.^ Drives in smaller form factors (e.g.
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^ The drive has a rectangular form factor with elegant curves in its facia which sports the attractive logo of Seagate and also a small LED light to indicate the activity of the drive .
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^ This smaller form factor, first used in an HDD by Rodime in 1984, was the same size as the "half height" 3½″ FDD, i.e., 1.63 inches high.
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.2.5 inch) are often quieter than larger drives .^ Often drives can be had for less than $200 now.
  • Tip/Trick: Hard Drive Speed and Visual Studio Performance - ScottGu's Blog 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC weblogs.asp.net [Source type: General]

^ W/R/T the comments early in your article about Windows 2000 not supporting drives larger than 137 GB, I’d like to issue a warning.
  • Atola Technology » Archive » Restoring Factory Hard Drive Capacity 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC blog.atola.com [Source type: General]

^ A system BIOS that allows access to EIDE drives larger than 528 MB. U .

Shock resistance

.Shock resistance is especially important for mobile devices.^ Shock resistance is especially important for mobile devices.
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^ Power consumption has become increasingly important, not just in mobile devices such as laptops but also in server and desktop markets.
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.Some laptops now include active hard drive protection that parks the disk heads if the machine is dropped, hopefully before impact, to offer the greatest possible chance of survival in such an event.^ Hard disk drives .
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^ It write protects the hard disk.
  • Procedures: Hard Disk Warfare 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC www.atarimagazines.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some desktop machine hard drive recommendations .
  • Tip/Trick: Hard Drive Speed and Visual Studio Performance - ScottGu's Blog 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC weblogs.asp.net [Source type: General]

.Maximum shock tolerance to date is 350 Gs for operating and 1000 Gs for non-operating.^ Maximum shock tolerance to date is 350 Gs for operating and 900 Gs for non-operating.
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^ Each has a list of advantages and drawbacks in terms of loss of storage area on the disk, relative difficulty of mechanical tolerance control, non-operating shock robustness, cost of implementation, etc.
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[42]

Access and interfaces

.Hard disk drives are accessed over one of a number of bus types, including parallel ATA (P-ATA, also called IDE or EIDE), Serial ATA (SATA), SCSI, Serial Attached SCSI (SAS), and Fibre Channel.^ The hard disks of type Serial ATA were announced in May 2001.
  • Hard disk dive IDE and SATA 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ybet.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ SCSI hard drive Hard disks for servers: SCSI, RAID...
  • Hard disk dive IDE and SATA 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ybet.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Serial ATA is a new manager (controller) of hard disks of type IDE. The internal technology of the hard disk is thus similar with that of the parallel hard disks.
  • Hard disk dive IDE and SATA 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ybet.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Bridge circuitry is sometimes used to connect hard disk drives to buses that they cannot communicate with natively, such as IEEE 1394, USB and SCSI.^ Bridge circuitry is sometimes used to connect hard disk drives to buses that they cannot communicate with natively, such as IEEE 1394 , USB and SCSI .
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^ SCSI hard drive Hard disks for servers: SCSI, RAID...
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^ USB casing for my 60g hard drive and use that as my portable hard drive.
  • PS3 Hard-Drive Upgrade - SlashGear 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.slashgear.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For the ST-506 interface, the data encoding scheme as written to the disk surface was also important.^ Back in the days of the ST-506 interface, the data encoding scheme was also important.
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^ The number of tracks written within each inch of the disk's surfaces, used to measure how closely the tracks are packed on a disk surface.

^ This is the smallest amount of data that can be read or written to the drive from the host interface.

.The first ST-506 disks used Modified Frequency Modulation (MFM) encoding, and transferred data at a rate of 5 megabits per second.^ Later on, controllers using 2,7 RLL (or just "RLL") encoding increased the transfer rate by 50%, to 7.5 megabits per second; this also increased disk capacity by fifty percent.
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^ ST506 used MFM (Modified Frequency Modulation) for the data encoding method.
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^ Data transfer rate (max) .
  • External Hard Drives - Cheap, Best External Hard Drive Reviews 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.externalharddrives.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Later controllers using 2,7 RLL (or just "RLL") encoding caused 50% more data to appear under the heads compared to one rotation of an MFM drive, increasing data storage and data transfer rate by 50%, to 7.5 megabits per second.^ The rate at which the hard drive sends and receives data from the controller.

^ An adapter with the control electronics for one or more hard drives.

^ Data transfer rate (max) .
  • External Hard Drives - Cheap, Best External Hard Drive Reviews 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.externalharddrives.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many ST-506 interface disk drives were only specified by the manufacturer to run at the 1/3rd lower MFM data transfer rate compared to RLL, while other drive models (usually more expensive versions of the same drive) were specified to run at the higher RLL data transfer rate.^ Other drives run as high as 2.6 watts.
  • External Hard Drives - Cheap, Best External Hard Drive Reviews 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.externalharddrives.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In some cases, a disk drive had sufficient margin to allow the MFM specified model to run at the faster RLL data rate; however, this was often unreliable and was not recommended.
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^ Data transfer rate (max) .
  • External Hard Drives - Cheap, Best External Hard Drive Reviews 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.externalharddrives.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In some cases, a drive had sufficient margin to allow the MFM specified model to run at the denser/faster RLL data transfer rate (not recommended nor guaranteed by manufacturers).^ In some cases, a disk drive had sufficient margin to allow the MFM specified model to run at the faster RLL data rate; however, this was often unreliable and was not recommended.
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^ Some laptop hard drive recommendations .
  • Tip/Trick: Hard Drive Speed and Visual Studio Performance - ScottGu's Blog 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC weblogs.asp.net [Source type: General]

^ Data transfer rate (max) .
  • External Hard Drives - Cheap, Best External Hard Drive Reviews 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.externalharddrives.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Also, any RLL-certified drive could run on any MFM controller, but with 1/3 less data capacity and as much as 1/3rd less data transfer rate compared to its RLL specifications.^ The rate at which the hard drive sends and receives data from the controller.

^ This command is specific for MFM and RLL hard drives.
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^ Data transfer rate (max) .
  • External Hard Drives - Cheap, Best External Hard Drive Reviews 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.externalharddrives.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Enhanced Small Disk Interface (ESDI) also supported multiple data rates (ESDI disks always used 2,7 RLL, but at 10, 15 or 20 megabits per second), but this was usually negotiated automatically by the disk drive and controller; most of the time, however, 15 or 20 megabit ESDI disk drives weren't downward compatible (i.e. a 15 or 20 megabit disk drive wouldn't run on a 10 megabit controller). .ESDI disk drives typically also had jumpers to set the number of sectors per track and (in some cases) sector size.^ ESDI disk drives typically also had jumpers to set the number of sectors per track and (in some cases) sector size.
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^ If we seek to the new track on a 10-sector disk, going from sector 10 of the previous track to sector 1 of the new track, we have about 10 milliseconds, maximum, of head settling time before sector 1 spins by.
  • Procedures: Hard Disk Warfare 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC www.atarimagazines.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Additional information on other tape drives: there were also some tape drives (9-track) used with the PERQ's GPIB port and for a MultiBus.
  • FAQ for PERQ Graphics Workstations 20 September 2009 15:015 UTC vonhagen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Modern hard drives present a consistent interface to the rest of the computer, no matter what data encoding scheme is used internally.^ Hard drive is main device in computer.
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^ The amount of data that can be stored on a hard drive.

^ Modern hard drives present a consistent interface to the rest of the computer, no matter what data encoding scheme is used internally.
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.Typically a DSP in the electronics inside the hard drive takes the raw analog voltages from the read head and uses PRML and Reed–Solomon error correction[43] to decode the sector boundaries and sector data, then sends that data out the standard interface.^ Modern drives also make extensive use of Error Correcting Codes (ECCs), particularly Reed–Solomon error correction .
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^ Typically a DSP in the electronics inside the hard drive takes the raw analog voltages from the read head and uses PRML and Reed–Solomon error correction [ 37 ] to decode the sector boundaries and sector data, then sends that data out the standard interface.
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^ You're in Hard Drives .
  • Hard Drives: HP, IBM and Seagate Hard Drives at BizRate. Compare Prices and Read Consumer Reviews 11 September 2009 6:10 UTC www.bizrate.com [Source type: General]

.That DSP also watches the error rate detected by error detection and correction, and performs bad sector remapping, data collection for Self-Monitoring, Analysis, and Reporting Technology, and other internal tasks.^ That DSP also watches the error rate detected by error detection and correction , and performs bad sector remapping, data collection for Self-Monitoring, Analysis, and Reporting Technology , and other internal tasks.
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^ A mathematical algorithm that detects and corrects errors in a data field.

^ Typically a DSP in the electronics inside the hard drive takes the raw analog voltages from the read head and uses PRML and Reed–Solomon error correction [ 37 ] to decode the sector boundaries and sector data, then sends that data out the standard interface.
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.SCSI originally had just one signaling frequency of 5 MHz for a maximum data rate of 5 megabytes/second over 8 parallel conductors, but later this was increased dramatically.^ SCSI originally had just one signaling frequency of 5 MHz for a maximum data rate of 5 megabytes /second over 8 parallel conductors, but later this was increased dramatically.
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^ Originally SCSI data cables used single ended data transmission, but server class SCSI could use differential transmission, either low voltage differential (LVD) or high voltage differential (HVD).
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^ Each DC-300 (or DC-300XL) tape will hold a maximum of about 20 megabytes of data, no matter what the length of the tape is.
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.The SCSI bus speed had no bearing on the disk's internal speed because of buffering between the SCSI bus and the disk drive's internal data bus; however, many early disk drives had very small buffers, and thus had to be reformatted to a different interleave (just like ST-506 disks) when used on slow computers, such as early Commodore Amiga, IBM PC compatibles and Apple Macintoshes.^ The SCSI bus speed had no bearing on the disk's internal speed because of buffering between the SCSI bus and the disk drive's internal data bus; however, many early disk drives had very small buffers, and thus had to be reformatted to a different interleave (just like ST-506 disks) when used on slow computers, such as early Commodore Amiga , IBM PC compatibles and Apple Macintoshes .
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^ High speed RAM used to buffer data transfer from the host to the hard drive.

^ The speed of transferring data to or from the buffer.

.ATA disks have typically had no problems with interleave or data rate, due to their controller design, but many early models were incompatible with each other and couldn't run with two devices on the same physical cable in a master/slave setup.^ ATA disks have typically had no problems with interleave or data rate, due to their controller design, but many early models were incompatible with each other and couldn't run with two devices on the same physical cable in a master/slave setup.
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^ Master/Slave designation is based on the position of the drives relative to the cable.

^ Note: If a donor drive to use for spare parts is hard to locate or your hard disk has other problems this process can take longer.
  • Hard Disk Data Recovery - Data Recovery - Data Recovery Sydney 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC www.payam.com.au [Source type: General]

.This was mostly remedied by the mid-1990s, when ATA's specification was standardized and the details began to be cleaned up, but still causes problems occasionally (especially with CD-ROM and DVD-ROM disks, and when mixing Ultra DMA and non-UDMA devices).^ This was mostly remedied by the mid-1990s, when ATA's specification was standardised and the details began to be cleaned up, but still causes problems occasionally (especially with CD-ROM and DVD-ROM disks, and when mixing Ultra DMA and non-UDMA devices).
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^ The UDMA-66 or Ultra ATA 66 .
  • Hard disk dive IDE and SATA 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ybet.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This standard should not be introduced in the near future for the readers CD - DVD and engravers who do not require for performances since the rate of transfer is initially limited by the speed of read/write on CD, even if Philips introduced recently an engraver of DVD S-ATA. .
  • Hard disk dive IDE and SATA 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ybet.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Serial ATA does away with master/slave setups entirely, placing each disk on its own channel (with its own set of I/O ports) instead.^ Serial ATA does away with master/slave setups entirely, placing each disk on its own channel (with its own set of I/O ports) instead.
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^ With the difference of the preceding standards, hard disks S-ATA use a connection series on 7 pins (for 40 in the case of connections ATA parallels).
  • Hard disk dive IDE and SATA 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ybet.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ ATA disks have typically had no problems with interleave or data rate, due to their controller design, but many early models were incompatible with each other and couldn't run with two devices on the same physical cable in a master/slave setup.
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.FireWire/IEEE 1394 and USB(1.0/2.0) HDDs are external units containing generally ATA or SCSI disks with ports on the back allowing very simple and effective expansion and mobility.^ FireWire/IEEE 1394 and USB(1.0/2.0) HDDs are external units containing generally ATA or SCSI disks with ports on the back allowing very simple and effective expansion and mobility.
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^ Host adapter (on PCs often integrated into motherboard ) via one of: PATA ( IDE ) interface SATA interface SAS interface SCSI interface (popular on servers ) FC interface (almost exclusively found on servers) EIDE interface USB interface (for external/portable hard drives) IEEE 1394 interface (for external/portable hard drives) .
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^ HDD Capacity Restore Tool was able to fix my “only 33gb with a 1tb hdd” problem in minutes, and allowed me to recover all my data, thanks very much.
  • Atola Technology » Archive » Restoring Factory Hard Drive Capacity 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC blog.atola.com [Source type: General]

.Most FireWire/IEEE 1394 models are able to daisy-chain in order to continue adding peripherals without requiring additional ports on the computer itself.^ Most FireWire/IEEE 1394 models are able to daisy-chain in order to continue adding peripherals without requiring additional ports on the computer itself.
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^ With two FireWire ports, it can connect to your computer and to another device like a camcorder or camera.
  • Hard Drives: HP, IBM and Seagate Hard Drives at BizRate. Compare Prices and Read Consumer Reviews 11 September 2009 6:10 UTC www.bizrate.com [Source type: General]

^ For most people the threat model is "stolen hardware" / "regulatory requirment" so for this the drive is just fine and dandy (provided it does not bootup without autherisation).
  • Schneier on Security: Hard Drive Encryption Specification 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.schneier.com [Source type: General]

.USB however, is a point to point network and doesn't allow for daisy-chaining.^ USB however, is a point to point network and doesn't allow for daisy-chaining.
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^ Daisy chain cable: This is a flat straight-through connected cable; doesn't get "twisted" like the daisy chain cable for PC's.
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.USB hubs are used to increase the number of available ports and are used for devices that don't require charging since the current supplied by hubs is typically lower than what's available from the built-in USB ports.^ USB hubs are used to increase the number of available ports and are used for devices that don't require charging since the current supplied by hubs is typically lower than what's available from the built-in USB ports.
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^ Increases the number of sectors on the outer tracks of the drive since the circumference of the outside tracks is greater.

^ I don’t think so since it isn’t a typical DC motor.
  • Top 5 Dead Hard Drive Projects - Hacked Gadgets - DIY Tech Blog 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC hackedgadgets.com [Source type: General]

Disk interface families used in personal computers

Notable families of disk interfaces include:
.
  • Historical bit serial interfaces — connect a hard disk drive (HDD) to a hard disk controller (HDC) with two cables, one for control and one for data.^ The rate at which the hard drive sends and receives data from the controller.

    ^ An adapter with the control electronics for one or more hard drives.

    ^ (See also disk drive controller and interface controller).

    .(Each drive also has an additional cable for power, usually connecting it directly to the power supply unit).^ I also connected a power cable.
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    ^ Irrespective of the fact if the system is a desktop or laptop, the drive is recognised in just seconds and takes power directly from the USB port and so, there no need for any additional power supply.
    • External Hard Drives - Cheap, Best External Hard Drive Reviews 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.externalharddrives.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The drive is available in two versions with UK power supply and Europe Power supply.
    • External Hard Drives - Cheap, Best External Hard Drive Reviews 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.externalharddrives.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The HDC provided significant functions such as serial/parallel conversion, data separation, and track formatting, and required matching to the drive (after formatting) in order to assure reliability.^ That requires that data be transmitted serially.
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    ^ The HDD controller provided significant functions such as serial to parallel conversion, data separation and track formatting, and required matching to the drive in order to assure reliability.
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    ^ February 16th, 2009 at 4:04 am question for all… will formatting to fat32 cause me to lose my current data on my external hard drive?
    • How to format external hard drive to FAT32 in Windows 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.online-tech-tips.com [Source type: General]

    .Each control cable could serve two or more drives, while a dedicated (and smaller) data cable served each drive.^ The rate at which the hard drive sends and receives data from the controller.

    ^ Originally SCSI data cables used single ended data transmission, but server class SCSI could use differential transmission, either low voltage differential (LVD) or high voltage differential (HVD).
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    ^ For all Radio Shack configurations, the "Data" cable must be terminated on all drives.
    • Tandy MFM Hard Disk Drive Reference 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC nemesis.lonestar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .
    • ST506 used MFM (Modified Frequency Modulation) for the data encoding method.
    • ST412 was available in either MFM or RLL (Run Length Limited) encoding variants.
    • Enhanced Small Disk Interface (ESDI) was an interface developed by Maxtor to allow faster communication between the processor and the disk than MFM or RLL.
  • Modern bit serial interfaces — connect a hard disk drive to a host bus interface adapter (today typically integrated into the "south bridge") with one data/control cable.^ The rate at which the hard drive sends and receives data from the controller.

    ^ An adapter with the control electronics for one or more hard drives.

    ^ A 50 pin vertical header connector is used on this controller for the host interface cable.
    • Tandy MFM Hard Disk Drive Reference 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC nemesis.lonestar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .(As for historical bit serial interfaces above, each drive also has an additional power cable, usually direct to the power supply unit.^ Historical bit serial interfaces — connected to a hard disk drive controller with three cables, one for data, one for control and one for power.
    • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Fujitsu HandyDrive comes with an USB 2.0 interface in order to plug in the device to your system and the drive powers itself.
    • External Hard Drives - Cheap, Best External Hard Drive Reviews 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.externalharddrives.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Irrespective of the fact if the system is a desktop or laptop, the drive is recognised in just seconds and takes power directly from the USB port and so, there no need for any additional power supply.
    • External Hard Drives - Cheap, Best External Hard Drive Reviews 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.externalharddrives.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ) .
    • Fibre Channel (FC), is a successor to parallel SCSI interface on enterprise market.^ Fibre Channel (FC), is a successor to parallel SCSI interface on enterprise market.
      • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
      • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Hitachi Ultrastar 146Z10 73GB FC-AL-2 10,000RPM 8MB Fibre Channel Hard Drive Part # 07N9360-NDW-R .
      • Hard Drives, External Hard Drives, Computer Hard Drives, Cheap Hard Drives at Geeks.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.geeks.com [Source type: General]

      ^ Typically enterprise drives (all enterprise drives, including SCSI, SAS, enterprise SATA and FC) experience between 0.70%-0.78% annual failure rates from the total installed drives.
      • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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      It is a serial protocol. .In disk drives usually the Fibre Channel Arbitrated Loop (FC-AL) connection topology is used.^ Fibre channel supports three topologies: point-to-point, arbitrated loop, and fabric.

      ^ In disk drives usually the Fibre Channel Arbitrated Loop (FC-AL) connection topology is used.
      • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
      • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ SCSI, SAS and FC drives are typically more expensive and are traditionally used in servers and disk arrays , whereas inexpensive ATA and SATA drives evolved in the home computer market and were perceived to be less reliable.
      • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
      • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      .FC has much broader usage than mere disk interfaces, and it is the cornerstone of storage area networks (SANs).^ FC has much broader usage than mere disk interfaces, it is the cornerstone of storage area networks (SANs).
      • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
      • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ I would think that a USB2 external hard drive would be so much slower than the internal interface that it would outweigh any performance advantage from having less disk contention.
      • Tip/Trick: Hard Drive Speed and Visual Studio Performance - ScottGu's Blog 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC weblogs.asp.net [Source type: General]

      ^ I would expect that disk encryption built into the disk drive would cost much less than a 3rd party software add on.
      • Schneier on Security: Hard Drive Encryption Specification 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.schneier.com [Source type: General]

      .Recently other protocols for this field, like iSCSI and ATA over Ethernet have been developed as well.^ Recently other protocols for this field, like iSCSI and ATA over Ethernet have been developed as well.
      • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
      • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      .Confusingly, drives usually use copper twisted-pair cables for Fibre Channel, not fibre optics.^ Confusingly, drives usually use copper twisted-pair cables for Fibre Channel, not fibre optics.
      • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
      • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Logical drives are usually used to group directories and files.

      ^ Proper use of EFDs in an Oracle environment can deliver increased performance compared to fibre channel drives.
      • Performance showdown: Flash drives versus hard disk drives 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC www.computerworld.com [Source type: General]

      .The latter are traditionally reserved for larger devices, such as servers or disk array controllers.
    • Serial ATA (SATA).^ The latter are traditionally reserved for larger devices, such as servers or disk array controllers .
      • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
      • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ SCSI, SAS and FC drives are typically more expensive and are traditionally used in servers and disk arrays , whereas inexpensive ATA and SATA drives evolved in the home computer market and were perceived to be less reliable.
      • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
      • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Serial ATA does away with master/slave setups entirely, placing each disk on its own channel (with its own set of I/O ports) instead.
      • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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      .The SATA data cable has one data pair for differential transmission of data to the device, and one pair for differential receiving from the device, just like EIA-422.^ The SATA data cable has one data pair for differential transmission of data to the device, and one pair for differential receiving from the device, just like EIA-422 .
      • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
      • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Originally SCSI data cables used single ended data transmission, but server class SCSI could use differential transmission, either low voltage differential (LVD) or high voltage differential (HVD).
      • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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      ^ Transmission in which the sending and receiving devices operate continuously at the same frequency and are held in a desired phase relationship by a correction device.

      .That requires that data be transmitted serially.^ That requires that data be transmitted serially.
      • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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      .Similar differential signaling system is used in RS485, LocalTalk, USB, Firewire, and differential SCSI.
    • Serial Attached SCSI (SAS).^ Similar differential signaling system is used in RS485 , LocalTalk , USB , Firewire , and differential SCSI .
      • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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      ^ Reconizes WD 320 fine using USB. I got tired of slow USB2 tranfer rate, so wanted to use firewire.
      • Windows XP Won't Recognize WD Ext Hard Drive 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC en.kioskea.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Originally SCSI data cables used single ended data transmission, but server class SCSI could use differential transmission, either low voltage differential (LVD) or high voltage differential (HVD).
      • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
      • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      .The SAS is a new generation serial communication protocol for devices designed to allow for much higher speed data transfers and is compatible with SATA. SAS uses a mechanically identical data and power connector to standard 3.5" SATA1/SATA2 HDDs, and many server-oriented SAS RAID controllers are also capable of addressing SATA hard drives.^ The rate at which the hard drive sends and receives data from the controller.

      ^ A new hard drive .
      • DIY: Replace your intel mac mini’s hard disk drive | soledad penadés 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC soledadpenades.com [Source type: General]

      ^ The drive has its maximum data transfer speed to be 480Mbps .
      • External Hard Drives - Cheap, Best External Hard Drive Reviews 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.externalharddrives.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      .SAS uses serial communication instead of the parallel method found in traditional SCSI devices but still uses SCSI commands.
  • Word serial interfaces — connect a hard disk drive to a host bus adapter (today typically integrated into the "south bridge") with one cable for combined data/control.^ The rate at which the hard drive sends and receives data from the controller.

    ^ An adapter with the control electronics for one or more hard drives.

    ^ (See also disk drive controller and interface controller).

    .(As for all bit serial interfaces above, each drive also has an additional power cable, usually direct to the power supply unit.^ So as a headsup to people, if you get an error that it can’t fix the drive, run the program again and when the “restore capacity” button appears, disconnect the power or SATA cables from the drive, reconnect, and try again.
    • Atola Technology » Archive » Restoring Factory Hard Drive Capacity 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC blog.atola.com [Source type: General]

    ^ I screwed with all four of my 750GB samsung drives LBA48 settings, and the samsung ES tool does not work to turn the LBA48 bit back on :(.
    • Atola Technology » Archive » Restoring Factory Hard Drive Capacity 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC blog.atola.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The Fujitsu HandyDrive comes with an USB 2.0 interface in order to plug in the device to your system and the drive powers itself.
    • External Hard Drives - Cheap, Best External Hard Drive Reviews 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.externalharddrives.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ) .The earliest versions of these interfaces typically had a 8 bit parallel data transfer to/from the drive, but 16 bit versions became much more common, and there are 32 bit versions.^ The earliest versions of these interfaces typically had a 16 bit parallel data transfer to/from the drive and there are 8 and 32 bit variants.
    • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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    ^ Modern versions have serial data transfer.
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    ^ By 1998, IDE had been pretty much superseded by an enhanced version, EIDE. EIDE enhanced integrated drive electronics An improvement of the PC platform's IDE drive interface that increases the previous maximum disk capacity from 528 megabytes to 8.4 gigabytes, speeds up the data transfer rate to more than twice what IDE was capable of, and increases to four the number of drives that one PC can utilize, compared to IDE's ability to handle two drives in one computer.
    • Cost of Hard Drive Space 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.alts.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Modern variants have serial data transfer.^ Modern versions have serial data transfer.
    • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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    ^ The earliest versions of these interfaces typically had a 16 bit parallel data transfer to/from the drive and there are 8 and 32 bit variants.
    • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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    .The word nature of data transfer makes the design of a host bus adapter significantly simpler than that of the precursor HDD controller.^ The word nature of data transfer makes the design of a host bus adapter significantly simpler than that of the precursor HDD controller.
    • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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    ^ Enhanced Small Disk Interface (ESDI) was an interface developed by Maxtor to allow faster communication between the PC and the disk than MFM or RLL. Modern bit serial interfaces — connect to a host bus adapter (today typically integrated into the " south bridge ") with two cables, one for data/control and one for power.
    • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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    ^ High speed RAM used to buffer data transfer from the host to the hard drive.

    .
    • Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE), later renamed to ATA, with the alias P-ATA ("parallel ATA") retroactively added upon introduction of the new variant Serial ATA.^ Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE), later renamed to ATA, and then later to P-ATA ("parallel ATA", to distinguish it from the new Serial ATA ).
      • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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      ^ Do you (or anyone else reading) know if the drive inside this enclosure is a parallel ATA (standard IDE) drive or a newer serial ATA drive?
      • Review: WD Passport Portable Hard Drive — PaulStamatiou.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC paulstamatiou.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ The drive cage is accessible via a panel on one side, and contains a 2.5-inch serial ATA model commonly found in notebooks, the Seagate Momentus 5400.2.
      • PS3 Hard-Drive Upgrade - SlashGear 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.slashgear.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      .The original name reflected the innovative integration of HDD controller with HDD itself, which was not found in earlier disks.^ The original name reflected the innovative integration of HDD controller with HDD itself, which was not found in earlier disks.
      • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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      ^ Successor to ST-412/506/ESDI by integrating the disk controller completely onto the device.
      • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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      ^ Moving the HDD controller from the interface card to the disk drive helped to standardize interfaces, and to reduce the cost and complexity.
      • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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      .Moving the HDD controller from the interface card to the disk drive helped to standardize interfaces, and to reduce the cost and complexity.^ (See also disk drive controller and interface controller).

      ^ (See disk controller and disk drive controller.

      ^ Moving the HDD controller from the interface card to the disk drive helped to standardize interfaces, and to reduce the cost and complexity.
      • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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      .The 40 pin IDE/ATA connection transfers 16 bits of data at a time on the data cable.^ The 40 pin IDE/ATA connection of PATA transfers 16 bits of data at a time on the data cable.
      • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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      ^ Therefore, when referring to the IDE/ATA standard, 2 ^16 or 65,536 cylinders are supported.
      • Hard Drive Size Barriers, In Depth 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.dewassoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ The data cable was originally 40 conductor, but later higher speed requirements for data transfer to and from the hard drive led to an "ultra DMA" mode, known as UDMA .
      • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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      .The data cable was originally 40 conductor, but later higher speed requirements for data transfer to and from the hard drive led to an "ultra DMA" mode, known as UDMA.^ High speed RAM used to buffer data transfer from the host to the hard drive.

      ^ The speed of transferring data to or from the buffer.

      ^ The data cable was originally 40 conductor, but later higher speed requirements for data transfer to and from the hard drive led to an "ultra DMA" mode, known as UDMA .
      • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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      .Progressively faster versions of this standard ultimately added the requirement for an 80 conductor variant of the same cable; where half of the conductors provides grounding necessary for enhanced high-speed signal quality by reducing cross talk.^ Progressively faster versions of this standard ultimately added the requirement for an 80 conductor variant of the same cable; where half of the conductors provides grounding necessary for enhanced high-speed signal quality by reducing cross talk .
      • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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      ^ This smaller form factor, first used in an HDD by Rodime in 1984, was the same size as the "half height" 3½″ FDD, i.e., 1.63 inches high.
      • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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      ^ The data cable was originally 40 conductor, but later higher speed requirements for data transfer to and from the hard drive led to an "ultra DMA" mode, known as UDMA .
      • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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      .The interface for 80 conductor only has 39 pins, the missing pin acting as a key to prevent incorrect insertion of the connector to an incompatible socket, a common cause of disk and controller damage.
    • EIDE was an unofficial update (by Western Digital) to the original IDE standard, with the key improvement being the use of direct memory access (DMA) to transfer data between the disk and the computer without the involvement of the CPU, an improvement later adopted by the official ATA standards.^ Processor Input/Output (PIO) modes and Direct Memory Access (DMA) modes are defined in the ATA-4 industry specifications for the EIDE interface.

      ^ (See also disk drive controller and interface controller).

      ^ The interface for 80 conductor only has 39 pins, the missing pin acting as a key to prevent incorrect insertion of the connector to an incompatible socket, a common cause of disk and controller damage.
      • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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      .By directly transferring data between memory and disk, DMA eliminates the need for the CPU to copy byte per byte, therefore allowing it to process other tasks while the data transfer occurs.
    • Small Computer System Interface (SCSI), originally named SASI for Shugart Associates System Interface, was an early competitor of ESDI. SCSI disks were standard on servers, workstations, Commodore Amiga and Apple Macintosh computers through the mid-90s, by which time most models had been transitioned to IDE (and later, SATA) family disks.^ Small Computer System Interface (SCSI), originally named SASI for Shugart Associates System Interface, was an early competitor of ESDI. SCSI disks were standard on servers, workstations, Commodore Amiga and Apple Macintosh computers through the mid-90s, by which time most models had been transitioned to IDE (and later, SATA) family disks.
      • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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      ^ An interface between a computer and peripheral controllers.

      ^ No more DMA access so the controller can transfer the data directly into memory, 2.
      • Schneier on Security: Hard Drive Encryption Specification 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.schneier.com [Source type: General]

      .Only in 2005 did the capacity of SCSI disks fall behind IDE disk technology, though the highest-performance disks are still available in SCSI and Fibre Channel only.^ Only in 2005 did the capacity of SCSI disks fall behind IDE disk technology, though the highest-performance disks are still available in SCSI and Fibre Channel only.
      • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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      ^ Because of the smaller disks, mobile HDDs generally have lower capacity than the highest capacity desktop drives.
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      ^ Former code name for an early IBM hard disk model, sometimes still used to refer to the technology and design of most traditional hard drives.

      .The length limitations of the data cable allows for external SCSI devices.^ The length limitations of the data cable allows for external SCSI devices.
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      ^ Originally SCSI data cables used single ended data transmission, but server class SCSI could use differential transmission, either low voltage differential (LVD) or high voltage differential (HVD).
      • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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      ^ A hardware or software protocol that handles the exchange of data between the device and the computer; the most common ones are AT (also known as IDE) and SCSI. (See AT and SCSI.) Interface controller .

      .Originally SCSI data cables used single ended (common mode) data transmission, but server class SCSI could use differential transmission, either low voltage differential (LVD) or high voltage differential (HVD).^ Originally SCSI data cables used single ended data transmission, but server class SCSI could use differential transmission, either low voltage differential (LVD) or high voltage differential (HVD).
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      ^ Another issue, I could not get in to the BIOS (using either F1 or Del key) Please inform if there is another way that I don’t know.
      • Resolving "Setup did not find any hard disk drives" during Windows XP Installation - the How-To Geek 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC www.howtogeek.com [Source type: General]

      ^ The data cable was originally 40 conductor, but later higher speed requirements for data transfer to and from the hard drive led to an "ultra DMA" mode, known as UDMA .
      • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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      .("Low" and "High" voltages for differential SCSI are relative to SCSI standards and do not meet the meaning of low voltage and high voltage as used in general electrical engineering contexts, as apply e.g.^ Originally SCSI data cables used single ended data transmission, but server class SCSI could use differential transmission, either low voltage differential (LVD) or high voltage differential (HVD).
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      ^ The standard electrical interface for SCSI. Single-ended means an interface with one signal and one corresponding ground line for each SCSI signal.

      ^ In order to use an IDE/ATA hard disk with a standard BIOS disk routine, the limitations of both standards must be observed, which means that only the smaller of each geometry number can be used.
      • Hard Drive Size Barriers, In Depth 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.dewassoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      to statutory electrical codes; both .LVD and HVD use low voltage signals (3.3 V and 5 V respectively) in general terminology.^ Originally SCSI data cables used single ended data transmission, but server class SCSI could use differential transmission, either low voltage differential (LVD) or high voltage differential (HVD).
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      )
Acronym or abbreviation Meaning Description
SASI Shugart Associates System Interface Historical predecessor to SCSI.
SCSI Small Computer System Interface .Bus oriented that handles concurrent operations.^ Bus oriented that handles concurrent operations.
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SAS Serial Attached SCSI Improvement of SCSI, uses serial communication instead of parallel.
ST-506 Seagate Technology Historical Seagate interface.
ST-412 Seagate Technology Historical Seagate interface (minor improvement over ST-506).
ESDI Enhanced Small Disk Interface Historical; backwards compatible with ST-412/506, but faster and more integrated.
ATA Advanced Technology Attachment .Successor to ST-412/506/ESDI by integrating the disk controller completely onto the device.^ Successor to ST-412/506/ESDI by integrating the disk controller completely onto the device.
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^ The original name reflected the innovative integration of HDD controller with HDD itself, which was not found in earlier disks.
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  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These are all MFM, ST-506 type hard discs (with the exception of one ST-412 that requires a different controller board).
  • FAQ for PERQ Graphics Workstations 20 September 2009 15:015 UTC vonhagen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Incapable of concurrent operations.^ Incapable of concurrent operations.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

SATA Serial ATA Modification of ATA, uses serial communication instead of parallel.

Integrity

.
An IBM HDD head resting on a disk platter.
^ An IBM HDD head resting on a disk platter.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hard disk (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Close-up of a hard disk head resting on a disk platter, and its suspension.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ Because there is no actuator arm and read/write head that must seek out data on a platter like on a hard disk drive (HDD), they are faster in reading and, in most cases, writing data.
  • Review: Hard disk vs. solid-state drive -- is an SSD worth the money? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.computerworld.com [Source type: General]
  • Hard disk vs. solid-state drive | ITworld 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.itworld.com [Source type: General]

Since the drive is not in operation, the head is simply pressed against the disk by the suspension.
.
Close-up of a hard disk head resting on a disk platter.
^ Because there is no actuator arm and read/write head that must seek out data on a platter like on a hard disk drive (HDD), they are faster in reading and, in most cases, writing data.
  • Review: Hard disk vs. solid-state drive -- is an SSD worth the money? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.computerworld.com [Source type: General]
  • Hard disk vs. solid-state drive | ITworld 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.itworld.com [Source type: General]

^ I have seen the question come up a number of times with no answer, How do you get the heads back on the platters.
  • Hard drive resurrection - Hack a Day 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC hackaday.com [Source type: General]

^ There was a torx screw to release the head mechanism, but the heads wont come up without the platters.
  • Hard drive resurrection - Hack a Day 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC hackaday.com [Source type: General]

A reflection of the head and its suspension is visible on the mirror-like disk.
.Due to the extremely close spacing between the heads and the disk surface, any contamination of the read-write heads or platters can lead to a head crash — a failure of the disk in which the head scrapes across the platter surface, often grinding away the thin magnetic film and causing data loss.^ The process of modifying data patterns prior to writing them on the disk surface.

^ Failure to do so will lead to the loss of data.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ Also known as a read/write head.

.Head crashes can be caused by electronic failure, a sudden power failure, physical shock, wear and tear, corrosion, or poorly manufactured platters and heads.^ Turning off the drive power causes the drive to move the read/write heads to a safe non-data landing zone and lock them in place.

^ I thought you have to have a special super clean environment to do that and if a small piece of something gets inside the hard drive, it can cause a head crash.
  • Hard drive resurrection - Hack a Day 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC hackaday.com [Source type: General]

^ A head crash might be caused by severe shock, dust, fingerprints, or smoke, and can cause damage to the surface of the disk and/or the head.

.The HDD's spindle system relies on air pressure inside the disk enclosure to support the heads at their proper flying height while the disk rotates.^ The motor that rotates the spindle and ultimately the disks.

^ The HDD's spindle system relies on air pressure inside the enclosure to support the heads at their proper flying height while the disk rotates.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ A typical HDD design consists of a spindle which holds one or more flat circular disks called platters , onto which the data are recorded.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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.Hard disk drives require a certain range of air pressures in order to operate properly.^ Hard disk drives .
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ Hard disk drives require a certain range of air pressures in order to operate properly.
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^ Hard disk drive .
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.The connection to the external environment and pressure occurs through a small hole in the enclosure (about 0.5 mm in diameter), usually with a filter on the inside (the breather filter).^ The connection to the external environment and pressure occurs through a small hole in the enclosure (about 0.5 mm in diameter), usually with a carbon filter on the inside (the breather filter ).
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ Many laptops can be outfitted with e-Sata through an expansion card which coupled with a 3.5 inch sata external drive and enclosure will be less expensive and faster than an internal 7200 laptop drive.
  • Tip/Trick: Hard Drive Speed and Visual Studio Performance - ScottGu's Blog 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC weblogs.asp.net [Source type: General]

^ This helped me to format an external 2.5″ drive in an enclosure, which I plan to connect to my PS3 as a media drive.
  • How to format external hard drive to FAT32 in Windows 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.online-tech-tips.com [Source type: General]

[44] .If the air pressure is too low, then there is not enough lift for the flying head, so the head gets too close to the disk, and there is a risk of head crashes and data loss.^ Because there is no actuator arm and read/write head that must seek out data on a platter like on a hard disk drive (HDD), they are faster in reading and, in most cases, writing data.
  • Review: Hard disk vs. solid-state drive -- is an SSD worth the money? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.computerworld.com [Source type: General]

^ I thought you have to have a special super clean environment to do that and if a small piece of something gets inside the hard drive, it can cause a head crash.
  • Hard drive resurrection - Hack a Day 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC hackaday.com [Source type: General]

^ Is there any way to get the drive letter to show up again without INITIALIZE DISK? I’m afraid I’d lose my data.
  • Atola Technology » Archive » Restoring Factory Hard Drive Capacity 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC blog.atola.com [Source type: General]

.Specially manufactured sealed and pressurized disks are needed for reliable high-altitude operation, above about 3,000 m (10,000 feet).^ Specially manufactured sealed and pressurized disks are needed for reliable high-altitude operation, above about 3,000 m (10,000 feet).
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ This results in a discrepancy between the disk manufacturer's stated capacity and the apparent capacity of the drive when examined through most operating-system tools.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ Seagate Technology bought Control Data 's high-end disk business, as part of CDC's exit from hardware manufacturing.
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[45] .Modern disks include temperature sensors and adjust their operation to the operating environment.^ Modern disks include temperature sensors and adjust their operation to the operating environment.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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.Breather holes can be seen on all disk drives — they usually have a sticker next to them, warning the user not to cover the holes.^ Just by chance, none of the virus writer wants users to loose the content of their hard disk within the next few seconds - until now.
  • Schneier on Security: Hard Drive Encryption Specification 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.schneier.com [Source type: General]

^ In the last few years, I’ve seen more these drives fail, than all of the other drives combined over my career.
  • Hard drive resurrection - Hack a Day 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC hackaday.com [Source type: General]

^ At one Nasa facility they did the disk wiping and the destroying of the drives.
  • Revision3 > Systm > Episode 74: Stop Scammers: Nuke, Grind or Melt Your Hard Drive - Patrick Norton, Systm, hard drive 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC revision3.com [Source type: General]

.The air inside the operating drive is constantly moving too, being swept in motion by friction with the spinning platters.^ Then moved the platter to a good drive.
  • Hard drive resurrection - Hack a Day 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC hackaday.com [Source type: General]

^ The air inside the operating drive is constantly moving too, being swept in motion by friction with the spinning platters.
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^ History: Scsi from 93 (out of a mac lcIII), ceased working after a move in the car–the drive simply no longer worked (it spins up and down, unreadable).
  • Hard drive resurrection - Hack a Day 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC hackaday.com [Source type: General]

.This air passes through an internal recirculation (or "recirc") filter to remove any leftover contaminants from manufacture, any particles or chemicals that may have somehow entered the enclosure, and any particles or outgassing generated internally in normal operation.^ This air passes through an internal recirculation (or "recirc") filter to remove any leftover contaminants from manufacture, any particles or chemicals that may have somehow entered the enclosure, and any particles or outgassing generated internally in normal operation.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ Many laptops can be outfitted with e-Sata through an expansion card which coupled with a 3.5 inch sata external drive and enclosure will be less expensive and faster than an internal 7200 laptop drive.
  • Tip/Trick: Hard Drive Speed and Visual Studio Performance - ScottGu's Blog 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC weblogs.asp.net [Source type: General]

^ Early HDDs had removable media; however, an HDD today is typically a sealed unit (except for a filtered vent hole to equalize air pressure) with fixed media.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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.Very high humidity for extended periods can corrode the heads and platters.^ The platters are spun at very high speeds.
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^ Very high humidity for extended periods can corrode the heads and platters.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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.For giant magnetoresistive (GMR) heads in particular, a minor head crash from contamination (that does not remove the magnetic surface of the disk) still results in the head temporarily overheating, due to friction with the disk surface, and can render the data unreadable for a short period until the head temperature stabilizes (so called "thermal asperity", a problem which can partially be dealt with by proper electronic filtering of the read signal).^ For giant magnetoresistive (GMR) heads in particular, a minor head crash from contamination (that does not remove the magnetic surface of the disk) still results in the head temporarily overheating, due to friction with the disk surface, and can render the data unreadable for a short period until the head temperature stabilizes (so called "thermal asperity", a problem which can partially be dealt with by proper electronic filtering of the read signal).
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ The era of giant magnetoresistive heads" .
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^ The read element has a magnetically sensitive material that detects data recorded on the magnetic disk surface.

Actuation of moving arm

.The hard drive's electronics control the movement of the actuator and the rotation of the disk, and perform reads and writes on demand from the disk controller.^ An adapter with the control electronics for one or more hard drives.

^ (See also disk drive controller and interface controller).

^ Hard disk drives .
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Feedback of the drive electronics is accomplished by means of special segments of the disk dedicated to servo feedback. .These are either complete concentric circles (in the case of dedicated servo technology), or segments interspersed with real data (in the case of embedded servo technology).^ These are either complete concentric circles (in the case of dedicated servo technology), or segments interspersed with real data (in the case of embedded servo technology).
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ Provides positioning information to the actuator arm, found at equal intervals on each disk surface (embedded servo) or on an entire surface (dedicated servo).

^ On the other hand, embedded servo is nice – I was playing with old drives and found platters can be put on completely out of alignment, and still, everything will work.
  • Hard drive resurrection - Hack a Day 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC hackaday.com [Source type: General]

.The servo feedback optimizes the signal to noise ratio of the GMR sensors by adjusting the voice-coil of the actuated arm.^ The servo feedback optimizes the signal to noise ratio of the GMR sensors by adjusting the voice-coil of the actuated arm.
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^ The arm is moved using a voice coil actuator or in some older designs a stepper motor .
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^ Then both the stability of the data and signal-to-noise ratio will be sabotaged.
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The spinning of the disk also uses a servo motor. .Modern disk firmware is capable of scheduling reads and writes efficiently on the platter surfaces and remapping sectors of the media which have failed.^ Modern disk firmware is capable of scheduling reads and writes efficiently on the platter surfaces and remapping sectors of the media which have failed.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ When you turned the platter over, it presented the HD with a new area for the format software to write a new Boot and FAT table to a hopefully undamaged sector.
  • Hard drive resurrection - Hack a Day 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC hackaday.com [Source type: General]

^ Often (well, in my experience at least) the internal platters, read/write heads, motor, and solenoids etc.
  • Hard drive resurrection - Hack a Day 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC hackaday.com [Source type: General]

Landing zones and load/unload technology

.
A read/write head from a circa-1998 Fujitsu 3.5" hard disk.
^ The mechanism that reads and writes data on a hard disk .

^ The read-write head is dead?
  • Hard drive resurrection - Hack a Day 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC hackaday.com [Source type: General]

^ All the read/write heads are attached to a single access arm so that they cannot move independently.

The area pictured is approximately 2.0 mm x 3.0mm.
.
Microphotograph of an older generation hard disk head and slider (1990s).
^ Microphotograph of an older generation hard disk head and slider (1990s).
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^ Hard disk drives (HDDs) for PCs generally have seek times of about 12 milliseconds or less.

^ A typical hard drive has two electric motors, one to spin the disks and one to position the read/write head assembly.
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.The size of the front face (which is the "trailing face" of the slider) is about 0.3 mm × 1.0 mm.^ The size of the front face (which is the "trailing face" of the slider) is about 0.3 mm × 1.0 mm.
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^ The not visible bottom face of the slider is about 1.0 mm × 1.25 mm (so called "nano" size) and faces the platter.
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.It is the location of the actual 'head' (magnetic sensors).^ It is the location of the actual 'head' (magnetic sensors).
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.The non-visible bottom face of the slider is about 1.0 mm × 1.25 mm (so-called "nano" size) and faces the platter.^ The not visible bottom face of the slider is about 1.0 mm × 1.25 mm (so called "nano" size) and faces the platter.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ The size of the front face (which is the "trailing face" of the slider) is about 0.3 mm × 1.0 mm.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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.It contains the lithographically micro-machined air bearing surface (ABS) that allows the slider to fly in a highly controlled fashion.^ It contains the lithographically micro-machined air bearing surface (ABS) that allows the slider to fly in a highly controlled fashion.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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.One functional part of the head is the round, orange structure visible in the middle - the lithographically defined copper coil of the write transducer.^ One functional part of the head is the round, orange structure visible in the middle - the lithographically defined copper coil of the write transducer .
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ Each platter requires two read/write heads , one for each side.

^ Opened hard drive with top magnet removed, showing copper head actuator coil (top right).
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Also note the electric connections by wires bonded to gold-plated pads.
.Modern HDDs prevent power interruptions or other malfunctions from landing its heads in the data zone by parking the heads either in a landing zone or by unloading (i.e., load/unload) the heads.^ No data storage occurs in the head loading zone.

^ Modern HDDs prevent power interruptions or other malfunctions from landing its heads in the data zone by parking the heads either in a landing zone or by unloading (i.e., load/unload ) the heads.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ Landing zones and load/unload technology .
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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.Some early PC HDDs did not park the heads automatically and they would land on data.^ Turning off the drive power causes the drive to move the read/write heads to a safe non-data landing zone and lock them in place.

^ Some people here wrote, that they get their capacity + all Data back !
  • Atola Technology » Archive » Restoring Factory Hard Drive Capacity 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC blog.atola.com [Source type: General]

^ Length of time it takes the drive to move the read/write heads to a safe non-data landing zone and lock them in place.

.In some other early units the user manually parked the heads by running a program to park the HDD's heads.^ It can run in an Accent window alongside other Accent programs, as well as alongside the SPICE LISP environment.
  • FAQ for PERQ Graphics Workstations 20 September 2009 15:015 UTC vonhagen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Please try to run this program on another platform” -which I did, as well as on others of the four drives… No progress.
  • Atola Technology » Archive » Restoring Factory Hard Drive Capacity 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC blog.atola.com [Source type: General]

^ Also, once I try to run the program for a HDD installed in the machine, the utility wants me to manually remove the device from Device Manager, which prompts a restart.
  • Atola Technology » Archive » Restoring Factory Hard Drive Capacity 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC blog.atola.com [Source type: General]

.A landing zone is an area of the platter usually near its inner diameter (ID), where no data are stored.^ User data is not stored in this area of the disk.

^ A landing zone is an area of the platter usually near its inner diameter (ID), where no data is stored.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ Motherboard can create a so-called “Host protected area” on your hard drive to store its data.
  • Atola Technology » Archive » Restoring Factory Hard Drive Capacity 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC blog.atola.com [Source type: General]

.This area is called the Contact Start/Stop (CSS) zone.^ This area is called the Contact Start/Stop (CSS) zone.
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.Disks are designed such that either a spring or, more recently, rotational inertia in the platters is used to park the heads in the case of unexpected power loss.^ Disks are designed such that either a spring or, more recently, rotational inertia in the platters is used to park the heads in the case of unexpected power loss.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ Some laptops now include a motion sensor that parks the disk heads if the machine is dropped, hopefully before impact, to offer the greatest possible chance of survival in such an event.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ I agree with Bruce that in normal use this isn't really an issue, but it is noticeable on disk intensive operations such as database startup.
  • Schneier on Security: Hard Drive Encryption Specification 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.schneier.com [Source type: General]

.In this case, the spindle motor temporarily acts as a generator, providing power to the actuator.^ In this case, the spindle motor temporarily acts as a generator , providing power to the actuator.
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^ The mechanical components of a hard drive, including the disks, heads, spindle motor and actuator.

^ Either way, the screws that hold the platter bobbin and spindle motor to the case are found under the platters, and necessitate their removal (with consequential misallignment).
  • Hard drive resurrection - Hack a Day 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC hackaday.com [Source type: General]

.Spring tension from the head mounting constantly pushes the heads towards the platter.^ Spring tension from the head mounting constantly pushes the heads towards the platter.
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^ The record and playback head are mounted on a block called a slider, and the surface next to the platter is shaped to keep it just barely out of contact.
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^ Disks are designed such that either a spring or, more recently, rotational inertia in the platters is used to park the heads in the case of unexpected power loss.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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.While the disk is spinning, the heads are supported by an air bearing and experience no physical contact or wear.^ While the disk is spinning, the heads are supported by an air bearing and experience no physical contact or wear.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ HD heads are kept from contacting the platter surface by the air that is extremely close to the platter; that air moves at, or close to, the platter speed.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ A typical hard drive has two electric motors, one to spin the disks and one to position the read/write head assembly.
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.In CSS drives the sliders carrying the head sensors (often also just called heads) are designed to survive a number of landings and takeoffs from the media surface, though wear and tear on these microscopic components eventually takes its toll.^ In CSS drives the sliders carrying the head sensors (often also just called heads ) are designed to survive a number of landings and takeoffs from the media surface, though wear and tear on these microscopic components eventually takes its toll.
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^ Addresses the sectors on the drive as a single group of logical block numbers instead of cylinder, head and sector addresses.

^ Turning off the drive power causes the drive to move the read/write heads to a safe non-data landing zone and lock them in place.

.Most manufacturers design the sliders to survive 50,000 contact cycles before the chance of damage on startup rises above 50%.^ Most manufacturers design the sliders to survive 50,000 contact cycles before the chance of damage on startup rises above 50%.
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.However, the decay rate is not linear: when a disk is younger and has had fewer start-stop cycles, it has a better chance of surviving the next startup than an older, higher-mileage disk (as the head literally drags along the disk's surface until the air bearing is established).^ Just by chance, none of the virus writer wants users to loose the content of their hard disk within the next few seconds - until now.
  • Schneier on Security: Hard Drive Encryption Specification 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.schneier.com [Source type: General]

^ When removing the platers from the disk, how do you stop the head from touching / scratching the disk.
  • Hard drive resurrection - Hack a Day 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC hackaday.com [Source type: General]

^ The 80gb Toshiba MK8007GAH listed on this site states it will work for this model, however, it has a higher start power consumption rating of 1.8 watts vs 1.2 watts of the other models I mentioned.
  • Upgrading iPod Hard Drives | Command-Tab 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.command-tab.com [Source type: General]

.For example, the Seagate Barracuda 7200.10 series of desktop hard disks are rated to 50,000 start-stop cycles, in other words no failures attributed to the head-platter interface were seen before at least 50,000 start-stop cycles during testing.^ For example, the Seagate Barracuda 7200.10 series of desktop hard disks are rated to 50,000 start-stop cycles, in other words no failures attributed to the head-platter interface were seen before at least 50,000 start-stop cycles during testing.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ Hard disk interface .
  • External Hard Drives - Cheap, Best External Hard Drive Reviews 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.externalharddrives.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Close-up of a hard disk head resting on a disk platter, and its suspension.
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[46]
.Around 1995 IBM pioneered a technology where a landing zone on the disk is made by a precision laser process (Laser Zone Texture = LZT) producing an array of smooth nanometer-scale "bumps" in a landing zone,[47] thus vastly improving stiction and wear performance.^ Landing zones and load/unload technology .
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^ Around 1995 IBM pioneered a technology where a landing zone on the disk is made by a precision laser process ( Laser Zone Texture = LZT) producing an array of smooth nanometer-scale "bumps" in a landing zone, [ 39 ] thus vastly improving stiction and wear performance.
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^ Laser textured disks minimize the wear and friction on a hard drive.

.This technology is still largely in use today (2008), predominantly in desktop and enterprise (3.5 inch) drives.^ This technology is still largely in use today (2008), predominantly in desktop and enterprise (3.5 inch) drives.
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^ But AFAIK you should at least have a drive 160GB < before large drives is a problem with older controllers – especially if the controllers can use 80gb large drives.
  • Upgrading iPod Hard Drives | Command-Tab 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.command-tab.com [Source type: General]

^ Former code name for an early IBM hard disk model, sometimes still used to refer to the technology and design of most traditional hard drives.

.In general, CSS technology can be prone to increased stiction (the tendency for the heads to stick to the platter surface), e.g.^ How do you remove the platters, without damaging the surface and the platter heads?
  • Hard drive resurrection - Hack a Day 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC hackaday.com [Source type: General]

^ What do you think would happen to your alignment if there was the tiniest piece of dust that impacted the head, that microns above the surface of the platter.
  • Hard drive resurrection - Hack a Day 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC hackaday.com [Source type: General]

^ As technology advances, the capacity of each surface increases while the dimensions remain fixed for easy interchange-ability.
  • Upgrading iPod Hard Drives | Command-Tab 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.command-tab.com [Source type: General]

as a consequence of increased humidity. .Excessive stiction can cause physical damage to the platter and slider or spindle motor.^ Excessive stiction can cause physical damage to the platter and slider or spindle motor.
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^ The errors don't seem to be caused by physical damage.
  • Why I'm done with portable hard drives - Computerworld Blogs 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC blogs.computerworld.com [Source type: General]

^ A hard disk drive with the platters and spindle motor hub removed showing the copper colored stator coils surrounding a bearing at the center of the spindle motor.
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.Load/Unload technology relies on the heads being lifted off the platters into a safe location, thus eliminating the risks of wear and stiction altogether.^ Load/Unload technology relies on the heads being lifted off the platters into a safe location, thus eliminating the risks of wear and stiction altogether.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ Landing zones and load/unload technology .
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^ Turning off the drive power causes the drive to move the read/write heads to a safe non-data landing zone and lock them in place.

.The first HDD RAMAC and most early disk drives used complex mechanisms to load and unload the heads.^ The first HDD RAMAC and most early disk drives used complex mechanisms to load and unload the heads.
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^ Hard disk drives (HDDs) for PCs generally have seek times of about 12 milliseconds or less.

^ Hard disk drives are sometimes called Winchester drives, Winchester being the name of one of the first popular hard disk drive technologies developed by IBM in 1973.

.Modern HDDs use ramp loading, first introduced by Memorex in 1967,[48] to load/unload onto plastic "ramps" near the outer disk edge.^ Modern HDDs use ramp loading, first introduced by Memorex in 1967, [ 40 ] to load/unload onto plastic "ramps" near the outer disk edge.
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^ This smaller form factor, first used in an HDD by Rodime in 1984, was the same size as the "half height" 3½″ FDD, i.e., 1.63 inches high.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ Note on my end, I had to use Disk Management to first remove the 31.4 gig partition, so it’s completely unallocated.
  • Atola Technology » Archive » Restoring Factory Hard Drive Capacity 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC blog.atola.com [Source type: General]

.All HDDs today still use one of these two technologies listed above.^ All HDDs today still use one of these two technologies listed above.
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^ Former code name for an early IBM hard disk model, sometimes still used to refer to the technology and design of most traditional hard drives.

^ These are all MFM, ST-506 type hard discs (with the exception of one ST-412 that requires a different controller board).
  • FAQ for PERQ Graphics Workstations 20 September 2009 15:015 UTC vonhagen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Each has a list of advantages and drawbacks in terms of loss of storage area on the disk, relative difficulty of mechanical tolerance control, non-operating shock robustness, cost of implementation, etc.^ The casing enclosure is a glossy black plastic and the 2.5” hard disk inside it is protected using a shock endurance mechanism.
  • External Hard Drives - Cheap, Best External Hard Drive Reviews 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.externalharddrives.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Addressing shock robustness, IBM also created a technology for their ThinkPad line of laptop computers called the Active Protection System.^ Addressing shock robustness, IBM also created a technology for their ThinkPad line of laptop computers called the Active Protection System .
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ Hard disk drives are sometimes called Winchester drives, Winchester being the name of one of the first popular hard disk drive technologies developed by IBM in 1973.

^ Motherboard can create a so-called “Host protected area” on your hard drive to store its data.
  • Atola Technology » Archive » Restoring Factory Hard Drive Capacity 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC blog.atola.com [Source type: General]

.When a sudden, sharp movement is detected by the built-in accelerometer in the Thinkpad, internal hard disk heads automatically unload themselves to reduce the risk of any potential data loss or scratch defects.^ When removing the platers from the disk, how do you stop the head from touching / scratching the disk.
  • Hard drive resurrection - Hack a Day 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC hackaday.com [Source type: General]

^ GMR hard disk JBOD SCA scratch disk spin valve superparamagnetism TCQ Von Neumann machine .

^ We need to restore the data from the external into the internal disk, but the internal is not showing because it hasn’t been formatted.
  • DIY: Replace your intel mac mini’s hard disk drive | soledad penadés 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC soledadpenades.com [Source type: General]

Apple later also utilized this technology in their PowerBook, iBook, MacBook Pro, and MacBook line, known as the Sudden Motion Sensor. .Sony,[49] HP with their HP 3D DriveGuard[50] and Toshiba[51] have released similar technology in their notebook computers.^ Sony , [ 41 ] HP with their HP 3D DriveGuard [ 42 ] and Toshiba [ 43 ] have released similar technology in their notebook computers.
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.This accelerometer based shock sensor has also been used for building cheap earthquake sensor networks.^ This accelerometer based shock sensor has also been used for building cheap earthquake sensor networks.
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[52]

Disk failures and their metrics

.Most major hard disk and motherboard vendors now support S.M.A.R.T. (Self-Monitoring, Analysis, and Reporting Technology), which measures drive characteristics such as operating temperature, spin-up time, data error rates, etc.^ Most major hard disk and motherboard vendors now support S.M.A.R.T. (Self-Monitoring, Analysis, and Reporting Technology), which measures drive characteristics such as temperature, spin-up time, data error rates, etc.
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^ Do i have to back up the data on another hard drive?
  • How to format external hard drive to FAT32 in Windows 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.online-tech-tips.com [Source type: General]

^ Most time I have been able to reset the drives but only after considerable trial and error.
  • Atola Technology » Archive » Restoring Factory Hard Drive Capacity 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC blog.atola.com [Source type: General]

.Certain trends and sudden changes in these parameters are thought to be associated with increased likelihood of drive failure and data loss.^ Failure to do so will lead to the loss of data.
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^ Certain trends and sudden changes in these parameters are thought to be associated with increased likelihood of drive failure and data loss.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ Had a blu-ray drive failure and needed to back up my data.
  • How to format external hard drive to FAT32 in Windows 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.online-tech-tips.com [Source type: General]

.However, not all failures are predictable.^ However, not all failures are predictable.
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.Normal use eventually can lead to a breakdown in the inherently fragile device, which makes it essential for the user to periodically back up the data onto a separate storage device.^ Back your data up.
  • Hard drive resurrection - Hack a Day 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC hackaday.com [Source type: General]

^ Normal use eventually can lead to a breakdown in the inherently fragile device, which makes it essential for the user to periodically back up the data onto a separate storage device.
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^ Had a blu-ray drive failure and needed to back up my data.
  • How to format external hard drive to FAT32 in Windows 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.online-tech-tips.com [Source type: General]

.Failure to do so can lead to the loss of data.^ Failure to do so will lead to the loss of data.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ Certain trends and sudden changes in these parameters are thought to be associated with increased likelihood of drive failure and data loss.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ Wikibooks has a book on the topic of Minimizing hard disk drive failure and data loss .
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.While it may sometimes be possible to recover lost information, it is normally an extremely costly procedure, and it is not possible to guarantee success.^ While it may sometimes be possible to recover lost information, it is normally an extremely costly procedure, and it is not possible to guarantee success.
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.A 2007 study published by Google suggested very little correlation between failure rates and either high temperature or activity level; however, the correlation between manufacturer/model and failure rate was relatively strong.^ A 2007 study published by Google suggested very little correlation between failure rates and either high temperature or activity level; however, the correlation between manufacturer/model and failure rate was relatively strong.
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^ The reason is that, the grains are very small and close to each other, so the coupling between each grains are very strong.
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^ The 80gb Toshiba MK8007GAH listed on this site states it will work for this model, however, it has a higher start power consumption rating of 1.8 watts vs 1.2 watts of the other models I mentioned.
  • Upgrading iPod Hard Drives | Command-Tab 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.command-tab.com [Source type: General]

Statistics in this matter is kept highly secret by most entities. .Google did not publish the manufacturer's names along with their respective failure rates,[53] though they have since revealed that they use Hitachi Deskstar drives in some of their servers.^ Google did not publish the manufacturer's names along with their respective failure rates, [ 45 ] though they have since revealed that they use Hitachi Deskstar drives in some of their servers.
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^ Have you tested these drives, or did you just find some drives that would fit in theory?
  • Upgrading iPod Hard Drives | Command-Tab 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.command-tab.com [Source type: General]

^ But you seem to have a higher return rate for failures of the program we're going to be showing off the pair Western Digital drives chip created to.
  • Revision3 > Systm > Episode 85: Cheap and Easy Hard Drive Upgrade - Patrick Norton, david calkins, Roger Chang 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC revision3.com [Source type: General]

[54] .While several S.M.A.R.T. parameters have an impact on failure probability, a large fraction of failed drives do not produce predictive S.M.A.R.T. parameters.^ I had a large Maxtor drive with a very important document on it (worth 25,000 usd) fail.
  • Hard drive resurrection - Hack a Day 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC hackaday.com [Source type: General]

^ Failure Trends in a Large Disk Drive Population " in 5th USENIX Conference on File and Storage Technologies (FAST 2007) .
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^ S.M.A.R.T. parameters alone may not be useful for predicting individual drive failures.
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[53] .S.M.A.R.T. parameters alone may not be useful for predicting individual drive failures.^ S.M.A.R.T. parameters alone may not be useful for predicting individual drive failures.
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^ A technology to assist the user in preventing possible system down time due to hard drive failure by attempting to predict imminent hard drive failure before it occurs.

^ You may try to find a software that does SCSI formatting or use your SCSI card BIOS to format the drive.
  • Atola Technology » Archive » Restoring Factory Hard Drive Capacity 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC blog.atola.com [Source type: General]

[53]
.A common misconception is that a colder hard drive will last longer than a hotter hard drive.^ In the last few years, I’ve seen more these drives fail, than all of the other drives combined over my career.
  • Hard drive resurrection - Hack a Day 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC hackaday.com [Source type: General]

^ Could it be something other than the hard drive?
  • Upgrading iPod Hard Drives | Command-Tab 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.command-tab.com [Source type: General]

^ There are several common reasons of why your hard drive might lose some megabytes or even gigabytes: .
  • Atola Technology » Archive » Restoring Factory Hard Drive Capacity 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC blog.atola.com [Source type: General]

.The Google study seems to imply the reverse—"lower temperatures are associated with higher failure rates". Hard drives with S.M.A.R.T.-reported average temperatures below 27 °C (80.6 °F) had higher failure rates than hard drives with the highest reported average temperature of 50 °C (122 °F), failure rates at least twice as high as the optimum S.M.A.R.T.-reported temperature range of 36 °C (96.8 °F) to 47 °C (116.6 °F).^ Hard drives with S.M.A.R.T.-reported average temperatures below 27 °C had failure rates worse than hard drives with the highest reported average temperature of 50 °C, failure rates at least twice as high as the optimum S.M.A.R.T.-reported temperature range of 36 °C to 47 °C. [ 45 ] .
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^ Seemed the connector was higher than its mate on the drive.
  • DIY: Replace your intel mac mini’s hard disk drive | soledad penadés 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC soledadpenades.com [Source type: General]

^ The Google study seems to imply the reverse -- "lower temperatures are associated with higher failure rates".
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[53]
.SCSI, SAS and FC drives are typically more expensive and are traditionally used in servers and disk arrays, whereas inexpensive ATA and SATA drives evolved in the home computer market and were perceived to be less reliable.^ SCSI, SAS and FC drives are typically more expensive and are traditionally used in servers and disk arrays , whereas inexpensive ATA and SATA drives evolved in the home computer market and were perceived to be less reliable.
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^ Small Computer System Interface (SCSI), originally named SASI for Shugart Associates System Interface, was an early competitor of ESDI. SCSI disks were standard on servers, workstations, Commodore Amiga and Apple Macintosh computers through the mid-90s, by which time most models had been transitioned to IDE (and later, SATA) family disks.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ Designed for corporate use, the same master password can be used on all computers owned by the company while each employee gets assigned their own user password.  Employees only know their user-level hard disk password, but someone from the home office, who knows the master password, can get into any hard disk.
  • Hard disk passwords offer great security for free - Computerworld Blogs 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC blogs.computerworld.com [Source type: General]

.This distinction is now becoming blurred.^ This distinction is now becoming blurred.
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.The mean time between failures (MTBF) of SATA drives is usually about 600,000 hours (some drives such as Western Digital Raptor have rated 1.2 million hours MTBF), while SCSI drives are rated for upwards of 1.5 million hours.^ The mean time between failures (MTBF) of SATA drives is usually about 600,000 hours (some drives such as Western Digital Raptor have rated 1.2 million hours MTBF), while SCSI drives are rated for upwards of 1.5 million hours.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ I have a western digital 320GB hard drive.
  • How to format external hard drive to FAT32 in Windows 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.online-tech-tips.com [Source type: General]

^ Both hard drives are Western Digitals.
  • Atola Technology » Archive » Restoring Factory Hard Drive Capacity 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC blog.atola.com [Source type: General]

.July 2007" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] However, independent research indicates that MTBF is not a reliable estimate of a drive's longevity.^ However, independent research indicates that MTBF is not a reliable estimate of a drive's longevity.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ SAS drives are comparable to SCSI drives, with high MTBF and high [ citation needed ] reliability.
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ Once the drive product is in production, the more valid [ citation needed ] metric is annualized failure rate (AFR).
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[55] .MTBF is conducted in laboratory environments in test chambers and is an important metric to determine the quality of a disk drive before it enters high volume production.^ MTBF is conducted in laboratory environments in test chambers and is an important metric to determine the quality of a disk drive before it enters high volume production.
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^ A high-level format must be performed (with EZ-Drive or the Format command) on your new Western Digital hard drive before you can use it.

^ The time required to begin producing a new product in sufficiently high volume to fill commercial requirements.

.Once the drive product is in production, the more valid metric is annualized failure rate (AFR).^ But you seem to have a higher return rate for failures of the program we're going to be showing off the pair Western Digital drives chip created to.
  • Revision3 > Systm > Episode 85: Cheap and Easy Hard Drive Upgrade - Patrick Norton, david calkins, Roger Chang 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC revision3.com [Source type: General]

^ Annualized Failure Rate.

.October 2007" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] AFR is the percentage of real-world drive failures after shipping.^ AFR is the percentage of real-world drive failures after shipping.
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^ Had a blu-ray drive failure and needed to back up my data.
  • How to format external hard drive to FAT32 in Windows 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.online-tech-tips.com [Source type: General]

^ Thursday, November 01, 2007 8:23 AM by jayson knight I can attest to just how much faster a 10k RPM desktop drive really is.
  • Tip/Trick: Hard Drive Speed and Visual Studio Performance - ScottGu's Blog 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC weblogs.asp.net [Source type: General]

.SAS drives are comparable to SCSI drives, with high MTBF and high reliability.^ SAS drives are comparable to SCSI drives, with high MTBF and high [ citation needed ] reliability.
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^ SCSI, SAS and FC drives are typically more expensive and are traditionally used in servers and disk arrays , whereas inexpensive ATA and SATA drives evolved in the home computer market and were perceived to be less reliable.
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^ However, independent research indicates that MTBF is not a reliable estimate of a drive's longevity.
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[citation needed]
.Enterprise S-ATA drives designed and produced for enterprise markets, unlike standard S-ATA drives, have reliability comparable to other enterprise class drives.^ Enterprise S-ATA drives designed and produced for enterprise markets, unlike standard S-ATA drives, have reliability comparable to other enterprise class drives.
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^ SCSI, SAS and FC drives are typically more expensive and are traditionally used in servers and disk arrays , whereas inexpensive ATA and SATA drives evolved in the home computer market and were perceived to be less reliable.
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^ Do you (or anyone else reading) know if the drive inside this enclosure is a parallel ATA (standard IDE) drive or a newer serial ATA drive?
  • Review: WD Passport Portable Hard Drive — PaulStamatiou.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC paulstamatiou.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[56][57]
.Typically enterprise drives (all enterprise drives, including SCSI, SAS, enterprise SATA and FC) experience between 0.70%-0.78% annual failure rates from the total installed drives.^ Processing, head switches, and seeks are all figured into the transfer rate in order to accurately portray drive performance.

^ This way, once the new drive is installed, it’s all ready to go with no extra data steps.
  • DIY: Replace your intel mac mini’s hard disk drive | soledad penadés 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC soledadpenades.com [Source type: General]

^ I installed new WD 5400rpm 320GB drive and new 2GB memory modules in total of 30 min.
  • DIY: Replace your intel mac mini’s hard disk drive | soledad penadés 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC soledadpenades.com [Source type: General]

[citation needed]
.Eventually all mechanical hard disk drives fail.^ Hard disk drives .
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^ Eventually all mechanical hard disc drives fail.
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^ Hard disk drive .
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.And thus the strategy to mitigate loss of data is to have redundancy in some form, like RAID and backup.^ I have sympathy for somebody who may have lost some new data since their last backup.
  • Hard drive resurrection - Hack a Day 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC hackaday.com [Source type: General]

.RAID should never be relied on as backup, because a localized event such as a power-surge or a fire could destroy several drives at once.^ When it comes to storing your data reliably, you should definitely spring for the 3.5-inch based external hard drives if possible.
  • Review: WD Passport Portable Hard Drive — PaulStamatiou.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC paulstamatiou.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I hope not because it could compromise my 10.3 system on the internal drive.
  • Install Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard With An External Hard Drive | Live Slick 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC liveslick.com [Source type: General]

^ RAID should never be relied on as backup, as RAID controllers also break down, making the disks inaccessible.
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.Following a backup strategy; for example, daily differential and weekly full backups, is the only sure way to prevent data loss.^ Following a backup strategy, like daily differential and weekly full backups, is the only sure way to prevent data loss.
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^ And thus the strategy to mitigate loss of data is to have redundancy in some form, like RAID and backup .
  • Hard drive (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ Re: data loss You said: “after a powerloss i got only 38 Mb” –> The power loss event may have also damaged the drive.
  • Atola Technology » Archive » Restoring Factory Hard Drive Capacity 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC blog.atola.com [Source type: General]

Manufacturers

A Western Digital 3.5 inch 250 GB SATA HDD. This specific model features both SATA and Molex power inputs.
Seagate's hard disk drives being manufactured in a factory in Wuxi, China
See also List of defunct hard disk manufacturers
The technological resources and know-how required for modern drive development and production mean that as of 2010, virtually all of the world's HDDs are manufactured by just five large companies: Seagate, Western Digital, Hitachi, Samsung, and Toshiba.
.Dozens of former HDD manufacturers have gone out of business, merged, or closed their HDD divisions; as capacities and demand for products increased, profits became hard to find, and the market underwent significant consolidation in the late 1980s and late 1990s.^ Dozens of former HDD manufacturers have gone out of business, merged, or closed their HDD divisions; as capacities and demand for products increased, profits became hard to find, and the market underwent significant consolidation in the late 1980s and late 1990s.
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^ Closed platform threat model, this is the DRM issue, in that you are locked out from the content of the hard drive by the system it works within.
  • Schneier on Security: Hard Drive Encryption Specification 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.schneier.com [Source type: General]

^ I was thinking if I was going to open up my iPod for the battery, I might look into increasing the hard drive to max it out.
  • Upgrading iPod Hard Drives | Command-Tab 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.command-tab.com [Source type: General]

The first notable casualty of the business in the PC era was Computer Memories Inc. or CMI; after an incident with faulty 20 MB AT disks in 1985,[58] CMI's reputation never recovered, and they exited the HDD business in 1987. Another notable failure was MiniScribe, who went bankrupt in 1990 after it was found that they had engaged in accounting fraud and inflated sales numbers for several years. .Many other smaller companies (like Kalok, Microscience, LaPine, Areal, Priam and PrairieTek) also did not survive the shakeout, and had disappeared by 1993; Micropolis was able to hold on until 1997, and JTS, a relative latecomer to the scene, lasted only a few years and was gone by 1999, after attempting to manufacture HDDs in India.^ Many other smaller companies (like Kalok , Microscience , LaPine, Areal, Priam and PrairieTek) also did not survive the shakeout , and had disappeared by 1993; Micropolis was able to hold on until 1997, and JTS , a relative latecomer to the scene, lasted only a few years and was gone by 1999, after attempting to manufacture HDDs in India.
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^ I only had music and a few pictures so I just did a backup and did a fresh install.
  • Install Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard With An External Hard Drive | Live Slick 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC liveslick.com [Source type: General]

^ After trying a few other “recovery” software to no avail, your program brought the drive back to life will allfiles intacted and working like normal.
  • Atola Technology » Archive » Restoring Factory Hard Drive Capacity 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC blog.atola.com [Source type: General]

.Their claim to fame was creating a new 3″ form factor drive for use in laptops.^ Their claim to fame was creating a new 3″ form factor drive for use in laptops.
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^ Drives in smaller form factors (e.g.
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^ I have the new WD320 hard drive for laptops.
  • Atola Technology » Archive » Restoring Factory Hard Drive Capacity 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC blog.atola.com [Source type: General]

.Quantum and Integral also invested in the 3″ form factor; but eventually ceased support as this form factor failed to catch on.^ Quantum and Integral also invested in the 3″ form factor; but eventually ceased support as this form factor failed to catch on.
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^ This form factor, originally introduced by Integral Peripherals in 1993, has evolved into the ATA-7 LIF with dimensions as stated.
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.Rodime was also an important manufacturer during the 1980s, but stopped making disks in the early 1990s amid the shakeout and now concentrates on technology licensing; they hold a number of patents related to 3.5-inch form factor HDDs.^ Both are 3.5-inch in form factor.
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^ A SATA HDD and an IDE HDD. Both are 2.5-inch in form factor.
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^ Rodime was also an important manufacturer during the 1980s, but stopped making disks in the early 1990s amid the shakeout and now concentrates on technology licensing; they hold a number of patents related to 3.5-inch form factor HDDs.
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The following is the genealogy of the current HDD Companies
.
  • 1967: Hitachi enters the HDD business.
  • 1967: Toshiba enters the HDD business.
  • 1979: Seagate Technology is founded by a group of ex-IBM and ex-Memorex persons.
  • 1988: Western Digital (WDC), then a well-known controller designer enters the HDD business by acquiring Tandon Corporation's disk manufacturing division.^ Tandon Corporation sold its disk manufacturing division to Western Digital (WDC), which was then a well-known controller designer.
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    ^ Dozens of former HDD manufacturers have gone out of business, merged, or closed their HDD divisions; as capacities and demand for products increased, profits became hard to find, and the market underwent significant consolidation in the late 1980s and late 1990s.
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    ^ Seagate 's hard disk drives being manufactured in a factory in Wuxi , China See also List of defunct hard disk manufacturers The technological resources and know-how required for modern drive development and production mean that as of 2009, virtually all of the world's HDDs are manufactured by just five large companies: Seagate , Western Digital , Samsung , Hitachi (which owns the former disk manufacturing division of IBM ) and Toshiba .
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    [59]
  • 1989: Seagate Technology purchases Control Data's HDD business.
  • 1990: Maxtor purchases MiniScribe out of bankruptcy, making it the core of its low-end HDDs.
  • 1994: Quantum purchases DEC's storage division, giving it a high-end disk range to go with its more consumer-oriented ProDrive range.
  • 1996: Seagate acquires Conner Peripherals in a merger.
  • 2000: Maxtor acquires Quantum's HDD business; Quantum remains in the tape business.
  • 2003: Hitachi acquires the majority of IBMs disk division, who renamed it Hitachi Global Storage Technologies (HGST).
  • 2006: Seagate acquires Maxtor.
  • 2009: Toshiba acquires Fujitsu's HDD division[60]

Sales

.In the year 2007 516.2 million hard disks were sold .^ In the year 2007 516.2 million hard disks were sold .
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^ November 9, 2007 2:59 am christopher omebo hot do i fix a system that does not detect any hard disk drive?
  • Resolving "Setup did not find any hard disk drives" during Windows XP Installation - the How-To Geek 14 January 2010 16:14 UTC www.howtogeek.com [Source type: General]

^ Comment by Dmitry Postrigan on September 24, 2007 1:53 pm I had two 160GB sata hard disks (Samsung and Hitachi).
  • Atola Technology » Archive » Restoring Factory Hard Drive Capacity 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC blog.atola.com [Source type: General]

[61]

See also

References

  1. ^ This is the original filing date of the application which led to US Patent 3,503,060, generally accepted as the definitive disk drive patent; see, Kean, David W., "IBM San Jose, A Quarter Century Of Innovation”, 1977.
  2. ^ Other terms use to describe hard disk drives include disk drive , disk file, DASD (Direct Access Storage Device), fixed disk, CKD disk and Winchester Disk Drive (after the IBM 3340).
  3. ^ Webopedia.com
  4. ^ Techtarget.com
  5. ^ How Hard Disks Work, howstuffworks.com
  6. ^ In the 1990s there was a partial return to the use of removable hard disks, such as the Iomega Jaz and Rev drives and disks and the SyQuest SyJet and Sparq drives and disks, and the Castlewood Orb drive and disk, among other models, but as of 2009 these are mostly defunct.
  7. ^ IBM.com IBM 350 disk storage unit
  8. ^ "Thickness of a Piece of Paper", HyperTextbook.com
  9. ^ "IBM OEM MR Head | Technology | The era of giant magnetoresistive heads". Hitachigst.com. 2001-08-27. http://www.hitachigst.com/hdd/technolo/gmr/gmr.htm. Retrieved 2009-03-13. 
  10. ^ Brian Hayes, Terabyte Territory, American Scientist, Vol 90 No 3 (May-June 2002) p. 212
  11. ^ "Press Releases December 14, 2004". Toshiba. http://www.toshiba.co.jp/about/press/2004_12/pr1401.htm. Retrieved 2009-03-13. 
  12. ^ "Seagate Momentus 2½" HDDs per webpage Jan 2008". Seagate.com. 2008-10-24. http://www.seagate.com/www/en-us/products/laptops/momentus/. Retrieved 2009-03-13. 
  13. ^ "Seagate Baracuda 3½" HDDs per webpage January 2008". Seagate.com. http://www.seagate.com/www/en-us/products/desktops/barracuda_hard_drives/. Retrieved 2009-03-13. 
  14. ^ "Western Digital Scorpio 2½" and Greenpower 3½" HDDs per quarterly conference, July 2007". Wdc.com. http://www.wdc.com/en/company/investor/q108remarks.asp. Retrieved 2009-03-13. 
  15. ^ Storage Review - Error Correcting Code
  16. ^ Hitachi - "Iterative Detection Read Channel Technology in Hard Disk Drives"
  17. ^ "Western Digital Caviar Green 2TB Internal SATA 3Gb/s Hard Drive". Pricewatch.com. http://www.pricewatch.com/hard_removable_drives/. Retrieved 2010-02-25. 
  18. ^ PC Magazine comparison of 136 desktops shows 60 in this HDD capacity range with 50 larger and 26 smaller capacities), PCMag.com
  19. ^ a b Seagate Cheetah 15K.5
  20. ^ Walter, Chip (July 25, 2005). "Kryder's Law". Scientific American (Verlagsgruppe Georg von Holtzbrinck GmbH). http://www.sciam.com/article.cfm?articleID=000B0C22-0805-12D8-BDFD83414B7F0000&ref=sciam&chanID=sa006. Retrieved 2006-10-29. 
  21. ^ "Seagate Outlines the Future of Storage :: Articles :: www.hardwarezone.com". www.hardwarezone.com<!. 2006-01-27. http://www.hardwarezone.com/articles/view.php?cid=1&id=1805&pg=2. Retrieved 2009-03-13. 
  22. ^ "Hitachi's 7K1000 Terabyte Hard Drive". Tomshardware.com. http://www.tomshardware.com/2007/04/17/hitachi_7k1000_terabyte_hard_drive/. Retrieved 2009-03-13. 
  23. ^ "Seagate, Samsung Begin to Ship 1 TB Desktop Hard Drives". Dailytech.com. http://www.dailytech.com/Article.aspx?newsid=7740. Retrieved 2009-03-13. 
  24. ^ "WD Caviar GP: The "Green" 1 TB Drive". Tomshardware.com. http://www.tomshardware.com/2007/10/11/wd_caviar_gp/. Retrieved 2009-03-13. 
  25. ^ "SDK Starts Shipments of 2.5-Inch 334 GB HD Media". http://www.sdk.co.jp/aa/english/news/2009/aanw_09_1152.html. Retrieved 2009-09-15. 
  26. ^ Murphy, David. "Western Digital Launches World-First 2TB Hard Drive". PC World. http://www.pcworld.com/article/158374/Western_Digital_Launches_WorldFirst_2TB_Hard_Drive.html?tk=rss_news. Retrieved 2009-01-27. 
  27. ^ "WD ships industry's first 2.5-inch 1TB hard drive". http://www.engadget.com/2009/07/27/wd-ships-industrys-first-2-5-inch-1tb-hard-drive/. 
  28. ^ "Toshiba Storage Solutions - MK3233GSG". http://www.toshiba.co.jp/about/press/2009_11/pr0501.htm. 
  29. ^ Seagate Elite 47, shipped 12/97 per 1998 Disk/Trend Report - Rigid Disk Drives
  30. ^ Quantum Bigfoot TS, shipped 10/98 per 1999 Disk/Trend Report - Rigid Disk Drives
  31. ^ The Quantum Bigfoot TS used a maximum of 3 platters, other earlier and lower capacity product used up to 4 platters in a 5.25″ HH form factor, e.g. Microscience HH1090 circa 1989.
  32. ^ "SDK Starts Shipments of 1.3-Inch PMR-Technology-Based HD Media". Sdk.co.jp. 2008-01-10. http://www.sdk.co.jp/aa/english/news/2008/aanw_08_0812.html. Retrieved 2009-03-13. 
  33. ^ "Toshiba's World Smallest Hard Disk Drive". Toshibastorage.com. http://www.toshibastorage.com/main.aspx?Path=StorageSolutions/0.85-inchHardDiskDrives/MK4001MTD/MK4001MTDSpecifications. Retrieved 2009-03-13. 
  34. ^ "One Drive, Multiple Applications - Tom's Hardware : WD's New Raptor Drive Is a Bird of Prey!". Tomshardware.com. 2008-04-21. http://www.tomshardware.com/reviews/HDD-SATA-VelociRaptor,1914-6.html. Retrieved 2009-03-13. 
  35. ^ "Seagate Unveils World's Thinnest 2.5-Inch Hard Drive For Slim Laptop Computers". physorg.com. 2009-12-15. http://www.physorg.com/news180118264.html. Retrieved 2009-12-15. 
  36. ^ 1.3″ HDD Product Specification, Samsung, 2008
  37. ^ Toshiba's 0.85-inch HDD is set to bring multi-gigabyte capacities to small, powerful digital products, Toshiba press release, January 8, 2004
  38. ^ Toshiba enters Guinness World Records Book with the world's smallest hard disk drive, Toshiba press release, March 16, 2004
  39. ^ Flash price fall shakes HDD market, EETimes Asia, August 1, 2007.
  40. ^ In 2008 Samsung introduced the 1.3-inch SpinPoint A1 HDD but by March 2009 the family was listed as End Of Life Products and new new 1.3-inch models were not available in this size.
  41. ^ "WD Caviar Blue: Drive Specifications (250–750 GB SATA)" (PDF). Document Library. Western Digital. June 2008. p. 2. http://wdc.com/en/library/sata/2879-701277.pdf. Retrieved 2009-06-27. 
  42. ^ Momentus 5400.5 SATA 3Gb/s 320-GB Hard Drive
  43. ^ "Reed Solomon Codes - Introduction"
  44. ^ Micro House PC Hardware Library Volume I: Hard Drives, Scott Mueler, Macmillan Computer Publishing
  45. ^ Waea.org, Ruggedized Disk Drives for Commercial Airborne Computer Systems
  46. ^ Barracuda 7200.10 Serial ATA Product Manual
  47. ^ IEEE.org, IEEE Trans. Magn.
  48. ^ Pugh et al.; "IBM's 360 and Early 370 Systems"; MIT Press, 1991, pp.270
  49. ^ "Sony | For Business | VAIO SMB". B2b.sony.com. http://b2b.sony.com/Solutions/lpage.do?page=/vaio_smb/index.html&name=VAIO%20SMB. Retrieved 2009-03-13. 
  50. ^ HP.com
  51. ^ Toshiba HDD Protection measures.
  52. ^ "Quake-Catcher Network". http://qcn.stanford.edu/.  090128 qcn.stanford.edu
  53. ^ a b c d Eduardo Pinheiro, Wolf-Dietrich Weber and Luiz André Barroso (February 2007). "Failure Trends in a Large Disk Drive Population". USENIX Conference on File and Storage Technologies. 5th USENIX Conference on File and Storage Technologies (FAST 2007). http://labs.google.com/papers/disk_failures.html. Retrieved 2008-09-15. 
  54. ^ CNet.com
  55. ^ "Everything You Know About Disks Is Wrong". StorageMojo. February 20, 2007. http://storagemojo.com/?p=383. Retrieved 2007-08-29. 
  56. ^ "Differences between an Enterprise-Class HDD and a Desktop-Class HDD". Synology.com. 2008-09-04. http://www.synology.com/wiki/index.php/Differences_between_an_Enterprise-Class_HDD_and_a_Desktop-Class_HDD. Retrieved 2009-03-13. 
  57. ^ Intel Whitepaper on Enterprise-class versus Desktop-class Hard Drives
  58. ^ Apparently the CMI disks suffered from a higher soft error rate than IBM's other suppliers (Seagate and MiniScribe) but the bugs in Microsoft's DOS Operating system may have turned these recoverable errors into hard failures. At some point, possibly MS-DOS 3.0, soft errors were reported as disk hard errors and a subsequent Microsoft patch turned soft errors into corrupted memory with unpredictable results ("crashes"). MS-DOS 3.3 apparently resolved this series of problems but by that time it was too late for CMI. See also, "IBM and CMI in Joint Effort to Rehab AT Hard-Disk Rejects", PC Week, v.2 n.11, p.1, March 19, 1985
  59. ^ "Company News; Tandon Sells Disk Drive Unit". The New York Times. 1988-03-09. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=940DE7DC1139F93AA35750C0A96E948260. Retrieved 2008-02-22. 
  60. ^ "Fujitsu to Split Off HDD Business in Reorganization". http://www.fujitsu.com/downloads/IR/news/20090521-04.pdf. Retrieved 2009-06-02. 
  61. ^ Hard drive industry shrugs off economic concerns, posts double digit growth rates, accessed January 11, 2009

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