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Hardcore punk
Stylistic origins Punk rock
Cultural origins Late 1970s, United States, United Kingdom
Typical instruments vocals - guitar - bass - drums
Mainstream popularity Low to mid depending on subgenre
Derivative forms Alternative rock, post-hardcore
Subgenres
Christian hardcore - D-beat - Emo - Melodic hardcore - Nardcore - Powerviolence - Skate punk - Thrashcore - Youth crew
(complete list)
Fusion genres
Crossover thrash - Deathcore - Grindcore - Crust punk - Digital Hardcore - Funkcore - Punk jazz - Horror punk - Metalcore - Rapcore - Grunge - Skacore - Sludge metal - Thrash metal
Regional scenes
Australia - Brazil - Japan - Canada
Europe: Italy - Scandinavia: Umeå
USA: DC - California - Chicago - Detroit - Minneapolis - New Jersey - New York - Indiana - Boston - Philadelphia - Phoenix
Other topics
Hardcore dancing - Straight edge - Street punk - DIY punk ethic - List of hardcore bands - List of hardcore genres

Hardcore punk, often referred to as simply hardcore, is a subgenre of punk rock that originated primarily in North America (though, early examples could be found throughout the world) in the late 1970s. The new sound was generally faster, thicker, and heavier than earlier punk rock. Early hardcore has a quick tempo with drums and vocals in time, whereas modern hardcore punk has drums and vocals which may not be on beat with the tempo.[1]

Hardcore spawned several fusion genres and subgenres, some of which experienced mainstream success, such as melodic hardcore, metalcore, and post-hardcore.

In the United States, the music genre that became known as hardcore punk originated in different areas in the early 1980s, with notable centers of activity in California, Washington, D.C., New York City, Michigan, and Boston.

The origin of the term hardcore punk is uncertain. The Vancouver-based band D.O.A. may have helped to popularize the term with the title of their 1981 album, Hardcore '81.[2][3][4] Until about 1983, the term hardcore was used sparingly, and mainly as a descriptive term. (i.e., a band would be called a "hardcore band" and a concert would be a "hardcore show").[5] American teenagers who were fans of hardcore punk simply considered themselves fans of punk – although they were not necessarily interested in the original punk rock sound of the mid-late 1970s (e.g., Ramones, Sex Pistols, The Clash, or The Damned). In many circles, hardcore was an in-group term, meaning music by people like us. Since most bands had little access to any means of production, hardcore lauded a do-it-yourself (DIY) approach. In most cities the hardcore scene relied on inexpensively-made DIY recordings created on four-track recorders and sold at concerts or by mail. Concerts were promoted by photocopied zines, community radio shows, and affixing posters to walls and telephone poles. Hardcore punk fans adopted a dressed-down style of T-shirts, jeans, and crewcut-style haircuts. While 1977-era punk had used DIY clothing as well, such as torn pants held together with safety pins, the dressed-down style of the 1980s hardcore scene contrasted with the more elaborate and provocative fashion styles of late 1970s punk rockers, which included make-up, elaborate hairdos and avant-garde clothing experiments.

During the same period, there was a parallel development in the United Kingdom of a British form of hardcore punk or street punk.[6] British hardcore bands such as Discharge and Chaos UK took the existing late 1970s punk sound and added the incessant, heavy drumbeats and distorted guitar sound of New Wave of British Heavy Metal (NWOBHM) bands such as Motörhead and Iron Maiden. This contributed to the development of the thrash metal sound of the 1980s but also the crust punk/d-beat sound.

Contents

History

Pioneers

Michael Azerrad's book Our Band Could Be Your Life and Steven Blush's book and documentary film American Hardcore describe three bands — Black Flag, Bad Brains, and Minor Threat — as the most important and influential in the genre. A major influence on hardcore punk was The Damned's album Damned Damned Damned because of its fast tempos, strange timing and riffs. Azerrad calls Black Flag the genre’s "godfathers"; credits Bad Brains, formed in Washington, D.C. in 1977, with introducing "light speed tempos" to hardcore; and describes Minor Threat as the "definitive" hardcore punk band.

Black Flag, formed by guitarist and songwriter Greg Ginn in Los Angeles in 1976, had a major impact on the Los Angeles scene – and later the wider North American scene – with their raw, confrontational sound and DIY approach. Tours in 1980 and 1981 brought Black Flag in contact with developing hardcore scenes in many parts of North America, and blazed trails followed by other touring bands.[7][8][9] Bad Brains, formed in Washington, DC in 1977, incorporated elements of heavy metal and reggae, and their early work often emphasized some of the fastest tempos in rock music.[10]. Singer H.R. claims that the mixture of hardcore and reggae was an "approach that everyone could relate to", as quoted in American Hardcore. Minor Threat, formed in Washington D.C. in 1980, played an aggressive, fast style directly influenced by Bad Brains. Minor Threat became a direct influence on what is now referred to as "modern hardcore", incorporating off-beat notes and vocals, faster rhythms, and far more aggressive riffs. The band inspired the straight edge movement with their song, "Straight Edge", as a somewhat speech against alcohol and drugs.

Other bands in scenes across the country were developing and experimenting with the "hardcore" sound before these pioneers. An example is The Germs crossover appeal between old school punk rock and hardcore punk.

Other early notable bands

Problems listening to this file? See media help.

According to Brendan Mullen, founder of the Los Angeles punk club The Masque, the first U.S. tour of The Damned in 1977 found them favoring very fast tempos, causing a "sensation" among fans and musicians, and helping inspire the first wave of U.S. west coast hardcore punk.[11]

San Francisco's Dead Kennedys formed in 1978 and released their first single "California Über Alles" in 1979. By the time they released the In God We Trust, Inc. EP in 1981, Dead Kennedys were playing very fast tempos. The Misfits (of New Jersey) were a 1977-style punk band involved in New York’s Max's Kansas City scene. Their horror film aesthetic was popular among early hardcore fans. In 1981, the Misfits integrated high-speed thrash songs into their set. Bridgeport CT was another enclave of hardcore with the opening of a punk club, Pogo's by Brad Morrison.This venue hosted early shows by Lost Generation, 76% Uncertain, Vatican Commandos and Boston's Gang Green. Hüsker Dü was formed in Saint Paul, Minnesota in 1979 as a post-punk/New Wave band, but soon became a loud and fast hard punk band. Hüsker Dü released the 1982 live album Land Speed Record, which has been called a "breakneck force like no other... Not for the faint of heart."[12] By 1985, the band morphed into one of the seminal alternative rock bands.[13] In 1982, Bad Religion released How Could Hell Be Any Worse?, which is considered a benchmark hardcore album, and which secured them as one of the most enduring outfits of the early 1980s hardcore scene.

By 1981, many more hardcore punk bands began to perform and release recordings, including 7 Seconds of Reno, Nevada who formed in 1979; M.I.A of Las Vegas, Nevada; Negative Approach[14] and Degenerates[15] of Detroit; The Meatmen of Lansing, Michigan; The Necros of Maumee, Ohio; The Effigies of Chicago; SS Decontrol, DYS, Negative FX, Jerry's Kids, and Gang Green of Boston; The Mob and Agnostic Front of New York City. The Beastie Boys, more widely known for their later hip hop music, were one of the first recorded hardcore bands in New York City. Negative FX, perhaps the most popular hardcore band in Boston around early 1982, did not appear on record while they were together. They were largely unknown outside their own area until a posthumous album was released in 1984.

Notable early hardcore punk records include The Angry Samoans’ first LP, the Big Boys/The Dicks Live at Raul's Club split LP, the Boston-area compilation This Is Boston, Not L.A., Minor Threat's 7" EPs, JFA's Blatant Localism EP, the New York–area compilations New York Thrash and The Big Apple Rotten To The Core, Agnostic Front's United Blood 7", Negative Approach's eponymous EP and the DC-area compilation record Flex Your Head.[14]

Early media support and criticism

An influential radio show in the Los Angeles area was Rodney on the ROQ, which started airing on the commercial station KROQ in 1976. DJ Rodney Bingenheimer played many styles of music and helped popularize what was called Beach Punk, a rowdy suburban style played by mostly teenage bands in the Huntington Beach area and in conservative Orange County. Early radio support in New Jersey came from Pat Duncan, who hosted live punk and hardcore bands weekly on WFMU since 1979.[16]Bridgeport, CT had an early show that featured Hardcore called Capital Radio, hosted by Brad Morrison on WPKN beginning in February 1979 and continuing weekly until late 1983. In New York City, Tim Sommer hosted Noise The Show on WNYU.[17] In 1982 and 1983, MTV put the hardcore punk band Kraut on mild rotation.[18] College radio was the main media outlet for hardcore punk in most of North America. The Berkeley, California public radio station KPFA featured the Maximum RocknRoll radio show with DJs Tim Yohannan and Jeff Bale, who played the younger Northern California bands. Several zines, such as Flipside and Maximum RocknRoll, also helped spread the new punk style. A few college stations faced FCC action due to the broadcasting of indecent lyrics associated with hardcore songs.

Concerts in the early hardcore scene increasingly became sites of violent battles between police and concertgoers, especially in Los Angeles. Reputed violence at hardcore concerts was featured in episodes of the popular television shows CHiPs and Quincy, M.E., in which Los Angeles hardcore punks were depicted as being involved in murder and mayhem.[19]

The hardcore punk scene in Los Angeles was the subject of a 1981 documentary featuring interviews of musicians and fans by Penelope Spheeris entitled "The Decline of Western Civilization".[20]

Early history in Europe

The Netherlands, Finland, Sweden, and Germany have had notably active hardcore scenes. In the United Kingdom, street punk (also known as UK hardcore or UK82) bands occupied the cultural space that American-style hardcore did elsewhere. These UK bands at times showed a musical similarity to American hardcore, often including quick tempos and chord changes, and they generally had similar political and social sensibilities. However, they represented a case of parallel evolution, having been musically inspired by oi! bands and the speed metal band Motörhead. UK band Discharge played a huge role in influencing early Swedish hardcore bands, and many hardcore bands from that region still have a strong Discharge and Motörhead influence. British anarcho-punk bands shared an uncompromising political philosophy and an abrasive aesthetic with American hardcore.

American hardcore bands that visited the UK (such as Black Flag and U.S. Chaos in 1981–1982) encountered ambivalent attitudes, but European hardcore bands suffered no such prejudice in the United States.

In the more underground part of the UK punk scene, a new hardcore sound and scene developed, inspired by continental European, Scandinavian, Japanese and American bands. Their sound – only heard at concerts and on demo tapes and compilations in the mid 1980s – evolved into metal bands such as Heresy, Napalm Death and Extreme Noise Terror. There were many 1980s bands that could be described as sounding like something in between the styles of the dominating UK and US bands. The Stupids (a UK band influenced by US hardcore) gained brief but widespread college-radio airplay in the US. Examples of European bands that continued to play the original style of hardcore in the 1990s include Voorhees, Totalitär, Disfear and Sin Dios.

After the fall of the Iron Curtain in eastern Europe, many hardcore bands were created or became more publicly known (after hiding in garages and being known only by small circles of underground fans).

Mid 1980s

By 1985, most of the early hardcore bands had broken up or were on their way out. The New York hardcore scene became an epicenter for the hardcore movement, and was the birthplace of the youth crew subgenre. Young bands formed by teenagers in New York City between 1986 and 1987 found huge followings in hardcore scenes around the world.

1990s

By the end of the 1980s, hardcore became more diverse, branching off into two sounds: one traditionally punk-based, referred to as old school hardcore and the other evolving into something heavier, faster, more technical and more intense, influenced by heavy metal, known as new school hardcore, metalcore or metallic hardcore.[21][22] Sick of It All's second studio album, Just Look Around (1991) is illustrative of this style. Earth Crisis, Biohazard, Hatebreed, Snapcase, 108, Strife, Integrity, Damnation A.D. and World's Collide were some of the earliest bands to feature an amalgamation of deep, hoarse vocals (though rarely as deep or guttural as death metal); downtuned guitars and thrashy drum rhythms inspired by earlier hardcore bands; and slow, staccato low-end musical breaks, known as breakdowns. Thrash metal and melodic death metal elements are common in melodic metalcore.[23][24]

By the middle of the 90's, a new found interest in old school and youth crew hardcore had developed and the scene experienced a major revival of these styles with many bands adopting the sound of late 80's New York hardcore bands such as Gorilla Biscuits and Youth of Today. For this reason, many of these bands were credited as playing "'88 style hardcore" or being part of the "'88 hardcore revival" [25]. Bands that were an integral and prominent part of this movement were Battery [26], Better Than A Thousand [27], Ten Yard Fight[28], In My Eyes[29], Speak 714 [30], Floorpunch[31] and Good Clean Fun[32].

An important aspect of the this old school revival was its stripped down and back to basics sound which stood in stark comparison to the more technical and complex style of new school hardcore and metalcore that had developed earlier in the decade. Ray Cappo, the singer of Better Than A Thousand, who had sung originally with Youth of Today in the late 80's but then founded the new school style krishna core band Shelter in the early 90's, explained in an interview his return to the rudimentaries of hardcore in the late 90's. "I was sick of going into the studio for 3 months to record a CD. With Better Than A Thousand we wanted to capture something spontaneous and raw on tape. Get rid of all the flashiness and gloss of expensive studios and just get in there and pour out your heart. We erected a studio in Ken Olden's bedroom and whipped off a completely crunchy and emotional CD that completely captured the essence of what this band was about." [27]

Towards the end of the 90's and into the beginning of the next century many hardcore bands, such as Botch [33] and Dillinger Escape Plan[34] began incorporating elements of power violence and grindcore into their style such as blast beats, extremely fast and chaotic guitar riffs and unintelligible vocals that were either shrill and screamed or deep and guttural. This style is generally referred to as a form of metalcore entitled mathcore.

Influence on other genres

Some hardcore bands began experimenting with other styles as their careers progressed in the 1980s, becoming known as alternative rock.[35] Bands such as Minutemen, Meat Puppets, Hüsker Dü, and The Replacements drew from hardcore but broke away from its loud and fast formula. Critic Joe S. Harrington suggested that the latter two "paraded as Hardcore until it was deemed permissible to do otherwise".[36]

In the mid-1980s, Washington State bands such as Melvins and Green River developed a sludgy, "aggressive sound that melded the slower tempos of heavy metal with the intensity of hardcore", creating what became known as grunge music.[37] Melvins, aside from their influence on grunge, helped create what would be known as sludge metal, which is also a combination between Black Sabbath-style music and hardcore punk.[38] This genre developed during the early 1990s, in the Southern United States (particularly in the New Orleans metal scene).[39][40][41] Some of the pioneering bands of sludge metal were: Eyehategod,[38] Crowbar,[42] Down,[43] Buzzov*en,[40] Acid Bath[44] and Corrosion of Conformity.[41] Later, bands such as Isis and Neurosis,[45] with similar influences, created a style that relies mostly on ambience and atmosphere[46] that would eventually be named atmospheric sludge metal or post-metal.[47]

The San Francisco-based thrash metal bands Metallica and Slayer incorporated the compositional structure and technical proficiency of heavy metal with the speed and aggression of hardcore. The new heavy metal genre became known as thrash metal. Slayer are also known for their love of hardcore punk, and have released an album of hardcore cover versions called Undisputed Attitude. In 1985, New York's Stormtroopers of Death, an Anthrax side project, released the album Speak English or Die that bore similarities to thrash metal – with a bass-heavy guitar, fast tempos and quick chord changes. However, the album was distinguished from thrash metal by its lack of guitar solos and heavy use of crunchy chord breakdowns (a New York hardcore technique) known as mosh parts. Bands such as Suicidal Tendencies and Dirty Rotten Imbeciles (DRI), switched from hardcore to a similar metallic style, which came to be known as crossover thrash.

The later 1980s and early 1990s saw the development of post-hardcore, which took the hardcore style in a more artistic and complex direction, much as the bands of the post-punk era did for classic punk rock. Washington DC, in particular the community surrounding Dischord Records, became a hotbed for post-hardcore, producing bands such as Hoover, Nation of Ulysses, Jawbox and Fugazi, who helped define the scene and included Dischord founder and former Minor Threat frontman Ian MacKaye. Post-hardcore included and influenced other styles, such as emo and math rock. Early emo bands were influenced by hardcore bands like Rites of Spring, Embrace, Minor Threat, and Black Flag. Emo bands are heavily influenced by hardcore punk's powerful lyrics, song structure and emotion. Sunny Day Real Estate are sometimes called the "first true emo band."[48]

Politics and social issues

Punks burning United States flag

Many bands took strong political stances against Republican US President Ronald Reagan, who served in office from 1981 to 1989. Reagan's policies, including Reaganomics and social conservatism, were common subjects for these bands.[49][50] Dead Kennedys, Reagan Youth, and MDC promoted anarchist views. However, a minority of hardcore bands were relatively conservative, such as The FU's, The Undead, and Antiseen.

Ebullition Records, founded in 1990 by Kent McClard in Santa Barbara, California, often released albums by bands that criticized the American political and economic system, paying less attention to personal issues. Anarchist ethics seeped their way into the work of many hardcore punk bands, most notably Aus-Rotten, who were also popular in the crust punk genre. On the east coast of the United States, bands such as Rorschach and Born Against also played a similar left-wing form of metallic hardcore.

The straight edge philosophy of no smoking, drinking or doing drugs was rooted in a faction of hardcore particularly popular on the east coast of the United States and started by Minor Threat. Hare Krishna bands like 108 and Shelter typified this movement, taking it even a step further. Hardcore also put a great emphasis on the DIY punk ethic, which inspired other types of bands to make their own records, flyers and other items, and to book their own tours through an informal network of like-minded people.

Hardcore dancing

The early 1980s hardcore punk scene developed slam dancing and stage diving. A performance by Fear on the 1981 Halloween episode of Saturday Night Live was cut short when slam dancers, including John Belushi and members of other hardcore bands, invaded the stage, damaged studio equipment and engaged in some profanity.[51][52] These slam dancers included John Joseph of The Cro-Mags.[53]

In the second half of the 1980s, the thrash metal scene adopted this form of dancing, with bands such as Anthrax popularizing the term mosh with the metal scene.[54][55]

Notes

  1. ^ Blush, Stephen (November 9, 2001). American Hardcore: A Tribal History. Feral House. ISBN 0922915717. 
  2. ^ ""Hardcore Punk music history"". Silver Dragon Records. 2003. http://www.silver-dragon-records.com/hardcore_punk.htm. Retrieved 2006-12-22. 
  3. ^ ""D.O.A. To Rock Toronto International Film Festival"". PunkOiUK. http://www.punkoiuk.co.uk/news/details.asp?newID=1267. Retrieved 2006-12-22. 
  4. ^ ""D.O.A."". punknews.org. http://www.punknews.org/bands/doa. Retrieved 2006-12-22. 
  5. ^ However, in New York City, as early as the middle of 1982 (if not earlier) the punk scene was overwhelmingly represented by "hardcore" bands. Many of these bands, like their fans, comprised a new generation of teens and young adults -- i.e., people too young to have participated in the late-70s scene. There was a clearly articulated consciousness of "hardcore" as the contemporary (early 80s) phase in the ongoing evolution of punk. Also by 1982 (if not earlier) the slogan "New York Hardcore" was adopted by these young fans, who congregated at clubs such as CBGB and the newer, more exclusively hardcore venue called A-7.
  6. ^ UK82.com
  7. ^ Black Flag
  8. ^ Britannica.com
  9. ^ VH1 - Black Flag
  10. ^ Bad Brains
  11. ^ see Mullen's comments in the Don Letts directed documentary Punk: Attitude.
  12. ^ allmusic (((Everything Falls Apart and More > Overview)))
  13. ^ http://www.deadkennedys.com][http://www.deadkennedys.com/history.htm
  14. ^ a b Rettman, Tony (2008). "Michigan hardcore pioneers Violent Apathy reunite for shows". Swindle (issue 12). http://swindlemagazine.com/issue12/detroit-hardcore/. 
  15. ^ Nelson, Jason."Degenerates (Online Band Profile / Biography)". stereokiller.com (website).
  16. ^ ""Playlists and Archives for Pat Duncan"". WFMU. http://www.wfmu.org/playlists/PD. Retrieved 2006-12-22. 
  17. ^ ""Tim Sommer"". Beastiemania.com. http://www.beastiemania.com/whois/sommer_tim/. Retrieved 2006-12-22. 
  18. ^ ""A short history of Kraut"". Liner Notes from Complete Studio Recordings 1982–1986. http://homepages.nyu.edu/~cch223/usa/info/kraut_liner.html. Retrieved 2006-12-22. 
  19. ^ Battle of the Bands - CHiPs Wiki
  20. ^ Allmusic The Decline of Western Civilization
  21. ^ "EXCLUSIVE INTERVIEW WITH SHAI HULUD GUITARIST MATT FOX". http://www.metalsucks.net/?p=5504. Retrieved 2008-10-09. ""When we used to joke with the term, it was just a clever (or not so clever) way of describing a metallic hardcore, metal-influenced hardcore, or hardcore-influenced metal band."" 
  22. ^ J. Bennett, "Converge's Jane Doe," Revolver, June 2008
  23. ^ Allmusic Review, Atreyu, Suicide Notes and Butterfly Kisses [1] Access date: June 24, 2008
  24. ^ Metal Injection, August 28, 2007 [2] Access date: June 24, 2008
  25. ^ Ink 19. Music Reviews: Speak 714, "The Scum Also Rises".[3]Retrieved 2009-08-30
  26. ^ Revelation Records. Bands: Battery.[4] Retrieved 2009-08-30
  27. ^ a b Epitaph Records. Artist Info: Better Than A Thousand.[5]Retrieved 2009-08-30
  28. ^ Insound. MP3: Ten Yard Fight, "Hardcore Pride".[6]Retrieved 2009-08-30
  29. ^ Last FM. Artist: In My Eyes.[7] Retrieved 2009-08-30
  30. ^ Ink 19. Music Reviews: Speak 714, "The Scum Also Rises".[8] Retrieved 2009-08-30
  31. ^ Sputnik Music. Punk: Floorpunch, "Fast Times At The Jersey Shore".[9] Retrieved 2009-08-30
  32. ^ SAVEYOURSCENE.COM. Interviews: Good Clean Fun.[10] Retrieved 2009-08-30
  33. ^ Facebook. Fan Page: Botch
  34. ^ Donnelly, Justin. "The Dillinger Escape Plan Feature Interview". Blistering. pp. 2. http://www.blistering.com/fastpage/fpengine.php/link/1/templateid/6841/tempidx/5/menuid/3. Retrieved 8 September 2009. 
  35. ^ Reynolds, Simon (2005). Rip It Up and Start Again: Post Punk 1978–1984 (London and New York: Faber and Faber). ISBN 0-571-21569-6, pp. 460–467
  36. ^ Harrington, Joe S. (2002). Sonic Cool: The Life & Death of Rock 'n' Roll (Milwaukee, Wisc.: Hal Leonard). ISBN 0-634-02861-8, p. 388
  37. ^ Azerrad, Michael (2001). Our Band Could Be Your Life (New York: Little, Brown). ISBN 0-316-78753-1, p. 419
  38. ^ a b Huey, Steve. "Eyehategod". Allmusic. http://www.allmusicguide.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=11:fzfixqu5ldse~T1. Retrieved 2008-07-22. 
  39. ^ "Doom metal". Allmusic. http://allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=77:11956. Retrieved 2008-07-22. 
  40. ^ a b York, William. "Buzzov*en". Allmusic. http://allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=11:kzfoxqy5ldse~T1. Retrieved 2008-06-21. 
  41. ^ a b Huey, Steve. "Corrosion of Conformity". Allmusic. http://allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=11:0ifyxqw5ldte~T1. Retrieved 2008-06-21. 
  42. ^ Huey, Steve. "Crowbar". Allmusic. http://allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=11:j9fexqq5ldse~T1. Retrieved 2008-06-22. 
  43. ^ Prato, Greg. "Down". Allmusic. http://allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=11:avfpxqugldje~T1. Retrieved 2008-06-21. 
  44. ^ York, William. "Acid Bath". Allmusic. http://allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=11:gxfyxqe5ldfe~T1. Retrieved 2008-06-21. 
  45. ^ Burgess, Aaron (2006-05-23). "The loveliest album to crush our skull in months". Alternative Press. http://altpress.com/reviews/173.htm. Retrieved 2008-06-22. 
  46. ^ Downey, Ryan J.. "Isis". Allmusic. http://allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=11:gbfuxqqkldhe~T1. Retrieved 2008-06-21. 
  47. ^ Karan, Tim (2007-02-02). "Post-metal titans sniff, jump into the ether.". Alternative Press. http://altpress.com/reviews/430.htm. Retrieved 2008-06-21. 
  48. ^ Greenwald, Andy. "Nothing Feels Good: Punk Rock, Teenagers, and Emo." pages 9–33 and 37-39.
  49. ^ Reagan
  50. ^ www.house.gov/jec/growth/taxpol/taxpol.htm
  51. ^ Allmusic Fear bio
  52. ^ Fear on SNL and Ian MacKaye culturebully.com March 1, 2006
  53. ^ http://markprindle.com/stix-i.htm
  54. ^ (2001) "Moshpit", ISBN 0711987440, 9780711987449, p.38: Alternatively the term may have been coined by Anthrax or SOD (Storm troopers Of Death), an Anthrax affiliated project whose 'Milano Mosh' was an influential track"
  55. ^ "Mosh" and "moshing" were in local use on the New York Hardcore scene as early as 1982, and so the coinage and usage of these terms has its origins in the early eighties hardcore scene.

References

  • Going Underground: American Punk 1979–1992 (George Hurchalla, Zuo Press, 2005)
  • Smash the State: A Discography of Canadian Punk, 1977-92 (Frank Manley, No Exit, 1993), ISBN 0-9696631-0-2


Hardcore punk
Stylistic origins Punk rock
Cultural origins Late 1970s, United States
Typical instruments Vocals, guitar, bass, drums
Mainstream popularity Low with some exceptions
Derivative forms Thrash metal, crossover thrash, metalcore, rapcore, post-hardcore
Subgenres
Christian hardcore, d-beat, emo, melodic hardcore, nardcore, powerviolence, skate punk, thrashcore
(complete list)
Fusion genres
Grindcore, crust punk, crossover thrash, digital hardcore, punk jazz, horror punk, metalcore, rapcore, sludge metal, grunge, skacore
Regional scenes
Australia - Brazil - Japan - Canada
Europe: Italy - Scandinavia: Umeå
USA: Washington DC - California - Chicago - Detroit - Minneapolis - New Jersey - New York - Indiana - Boston - Philadelphia
Other topics
Hardcore dancing, straight edge, youth crew, street punk, DIY punk ethic, list of hardcore punk bands, list of hardcore genres

Hardcore punk is an underground music genre that originated in the late 1970s, following the mainstream success of punk rock. Hardcore is generally faster, thicker, and heavier than earlier punk rock.[1] The origin of the term hardcore punk is uncertain. The Vancouver-based band D.O.A. may have helped to popularize the term with the title of their 1981 album, Hardcore '81.[2][3][4]

Hardcore has spawned the straight edge movement and its associated submovements, hardline and youth crew. Hardcore was heavily involved with the rise of the independent record labels in the 1980s, and with the do it yourself (DIY) ethos in underground music scenes. It has influenced several music genres which have experienced mainstream success, such as: metalcore, grunge, thrash metal, emo and post-hardcore.

Hardcore sprouted underground scenes across the United States in the early 1980s — particularly in Washington, D.C., California, New York/New Jersey, and Boston — as well as in the United Kingdom.

While traditional hardcore has never experienced mainstream commercial success, some of its early pioneers have garnered appreciation over time. Black Flag's album Damaged was included in Rolling Stone magazine's 2003 list of the 500 greatest albums of all time,[5] and the Dead Kennedys have seen one of their albums reach gold status over a period of 25 years.[6] More recently, bands such as Hatebreed, Gallows and Rise Against have achieved commercial success on major record labels.

Although the music started in English-speaking western countries, large hardcore scenes proliferate today in Brazil, Japan, Eastern Europe,[7] The Middle East,[8] and Malaysia.

Contents

Music and clothing style

The musical style of hardcore has evolved and branched out into countless separate sub-genres over the years. While the exact origins of each style are debatable, early hardcore bands had definitive similar elements of the sound. It differed from the traditional punk rock style drastically. Most early punk rock songs were played with mid-tempo rock beats using simple guitar barre chords in major keys. However, hardcore broke from this format. Like punk, many of the players lacked musical training(with a few exceptions). The DIY aesthetic of shows being held in small venues on the floors of basements, halls, schools, etc, played into the sound. Much of the style evolved to add to the energy of the live show. Experimentation was the norm. Early recordings were of poor quality, though not by design but by budget constraints, and bands such as The Circle Jerks, Reagan Youth, Flipper, Naked Raygun, and Minor Threat recorded only as a means to promote the live show and document the sounds they were making.

Most bands followed the traditional singer/guitar/bass/drum format. The songwriting had more emphasis on rhythm rather than melody. Hardcore vocalists screamed, rapped, chanted and used spoken word poetry. Drummers would play fast D beat one moment and then drop tempo into elaborate musical breakdowns the next. Guitarists were not afraid to play solos, octave leads, and grooves as well as tapping into the various feedback and harmonic noises available to them. The guitar sound was almost always distorted and amplified. With two minutes being considered a lengthy hardcore song, most of the songs were short and rushed.

In critic Steven Blush's description, "The Sex Pistols were still rock'n'roll...like the craziest version of Chuck Berry. Hardcore was a radical departure from that. It wasn't verse-chorus rock. It dispelled any notion of what songwriting is supposed to be. It's its own form."[9]

This distillation of punk was further emphasized through dress. Hardcore punk fans adopted a dressed-down style of T-shirts, jeans, and crewcut-style haircuts. The style of the 1980s hardcore scene contrasted with the more provocative fashion styles of late 1970s punk rockers(elaborate hairdos, torn clothes, patches, safety pins, studs, spikes, etc). Keith Morris, "the...punk scene was basically based on English fashion. But we had nothing to do with that. Black Flag and the Circle Jerks were so far from that. We looked like the kid who worked at the gas station or submarine shop."[10]

History

1970s and mid 1980s

Los Angeles

performing live in 1984]]

Michael Azerrad, author of Our Band Could Be Your Life, credits Black Flag as being the "godfathers" of hardcore punk.[11] Black Flag was formed in Hermosa Beach, California by guitarist and lyricist Greg Ginn, they played their first show in December 1977. Originally called "Panic" they became known as Black Flag in 1978, and made a name for themselves in the Los Angeles hardcore scene.[12]

By 1979, multiple Los Angeles-area bands were playing hardcore punk in addition to Black Flag, including Fear, The Germs, and the Circle Jerks, which featured Black Flag's original singer, Keith Morris. This group of bands was featured in Penelope Spheeris' 1981 documentary film about the Los Angeles punk scene, The Decline of Western Civilization.[13] By the time the film was released, new hardcore bands had formed in the area, including The Adolescents, Social Distortion, Angry Samoans, Bad Religion, Dr. Know, Ill Repute, Minutemen, Suicidal Tendencies, TSOL, Wasted Youth, The Descendents, and Youth Brigade.

While popular traditional punk bands like the Ramones, The Clash, and Sex Pistols were on major record labels, the hardcore punk bands were not (Black Flag was briefly signed to MCA subsidiary Unicorn Records but were dropped because an executive considered their music "Anti-Parent).[14] Instead of trying to be courted by the major labels, hardcore bands started their own labels and distributed their records themselves. Greg Ginn started SST Records which released Black Flag's first EP Nervous Breakdown in 1979. SST went on to release a number of albums by other hardcore artists, and was described by Michael Azerrad as "easily the most influential and popular underground indie of the Eighties".[11] SST was followed by a number of other successful artist-run labels — including BYO Records (started by Shawn and Mark Stern of Youth Brigade), Epitaph Records (started by Brett Gurewitz of Bad Religion), New Alliance Records (started by the Minutemen's D. Boon) — as well as fan-run labels like Frontier Records and Slash Records.

Bands also funded and organized their own tours. Black Flag's tours in 1980 and 1981 brought them in contact with developing hardcore scenes in many parts of North America, and blazed trails that were followed by other touring bands.[15][16][17] Youth Brigade would also be one of the first bands to tour, chronicling it in the 1984 documentary "Another State of Mind".[18]

The Another State Of Mind tour was funded by "Youth Movement '82" a show organized by BYO at the Hollywood Palladium that in addition to Youth Brigade featured, TSOL, The Adolescents, Wasted Youth, Social Distortion, and Blades. The show was one of the largest punk shows ever held at the time attracting over 3,500 people.[19]

Concerts in the early Los Angeles hardcore scene increasingly became sites of violent battles between police and concertgoers. Reputed violence at hardcore concerts was featured in episodes of the popular television shows CHiPs and Quincy, M.E., in which Los Angeles hardcore punks were depicted as being involved in murder and mayhem.[20]

San Francisco

Shortly after Black Flag debuted in Los Angeles, the Dead Kennedys were formed in San Francisco. While the bands early releases were played in a style closer to traditional punk rock, 1981's In God We Trust, Inc. marked a shift into what is conventionally seen as hardcore. Like Black Flag and Youth Brigade, the Dead Kennedys released their albums on their own label Alternative Tentacles. In addition to Dead Kennedys albums, Alternative Tentacles was responsible for releasing the seminal Hardcore punk compilation Let Them Eat Jellybeans!

While not as large as the scene in Los Angeles, the San Francisco Bay Area hardcore scene of the 80s included a number of noteworthy bands in addition to the Dead Kennedys including, Blast, Crucifix, Flipper, Kwik Way, and Whipping Boy. Additionally, during this time seminal Texas based bands, The Dicks and MDC, relocated from Austin to San Francisco.


This scene was helped in particular by the San Francisco club Mabuhay Gardens, whose promoter, Dirk Dirksen, became known as "The Pope of Punk".[21] Another important local institution was Tim Yohannan's fanzine, Maximumrocknroll, as well as his show on Berkeley, California public radio station KPFA Maximum RocknRoll Radio Show which played the younger Northern California bands.

Washington, D.C.

The first hardcore band to form on the East Coast was Washington, D.C.'s Bad Brains. Formed in 1977, and consisting of all African-American members, their early work often featured some of the fastest tempos in rock music.[22] The band would release its first single Pay To Cum in 1980, and it would appear on the Alternative Tentacles "Let Them Eat Jellybeans!" compilation.

Bad Brains would prove influential in establishing a D.C. Hardcore scene. Inspired by them, Ian MacKaye and Jeff Nelson started Teen Idles in 1979. They broke up in 1980 and formed the highly influential Minor Threat. Minor Threat played an aggressive, fast music style that was directly influenced by Bad Brains. They became a direct influence on hardcore, incorporating off-beat notes and vocals, faster rhythms, and more aggressive riffs, as well as inspiring the straight edge movement with their song, "Straight Edge", which spoke out against alcohol and drugs.

Like many of the artists in California, MacKaye and Nelson ran their own record label Dischord Records. Dischord would release albums for fellow D.C. hardcore artists such as The Faith, Iron Cross, Scream, State of Alert (which featured future Black Flag singer Henry Rollins), Government Issue, Void, and Youth Brigade (not to be confused with the similarly named Los Angeles band).

Washington was home to one of the most famous punk houses the "Dischord House" where Dischord Records was run out of. The house is featured in the "Another State Of Mind" documentary when Youth Brigade and Social Distortion get stranded in Washington.

Boston

Many of the first wave of Boston area Hardcore bands where influenced by D.C.'s straight edge scene. Members of seminal bands like DYS, Negative FX, Slapshot, SS Decontrol, would form a more militant straight edge crew known as the "Boston Crew". The more militant straight edgers would beat up kids who they saw drinking or doing drugs, bringing violence into the scene. In the late 80s Elgin James would become involved in the militant faction of Boston straight edge, which would influence him to later help found Friends Stand United.

While many of the band espoused straight edge values in their music, others embraced traditional themed hardcore and partook in drugs and alcohol. Gang Green, who were formed in 1980 before the straight edge movement, reacted against the movement by having album covers with their name written in cocaine as well as ones based on the Budweiser logo.[23][24]

In 1982 This Is Boston, Not L.A., a seminal compilation of the Boston scene was released by Modern Method Records. The album included songs by The Groinoids, Decadence, The Proletariat, The Freeze, The F.U.'s, Jerry's Kids, and Gang Green. In addition to Modern Method, another fan run label, Curtis Casella's Taang! Records was pivotal in releasing material by bands from this era.

New York

The New York hardcore scene emerged in 1981 when Bad Brains moved to the city from Washington, DC.[25][26] Starting in 1981, there was an influx of new hardcore bands in the city, including: Heart Attack, Kraut, Beastie Boys, Urban Waste, Agnostic Front, Reagan Youth, No Thanks, Nihilistics, The Icemen, Crumbsuckers, Murphy's Law, Cro-Mags, and Warzone.

New York's hardcore scene was centered around CBGB, a club that first came to prominence in the mid 70's for booking early New York punk bands like the Ramones and Blondie. CBGB owner Hilly Kristal embraced hardcore punk, and for several years CBGB held weekly hardcore matinees on Sundays. This stopped in 1990 when violence both in and out of the scene led Kristal to refuse to book hardcore shows.

Additionally a number of bands associated with New York City existed in nearby New Jersey, most famously the Misfits. Others included Adrenalin OD, Mucky Pup, and The Undead.

Early radio support in New York's surrounding Tri state area came from Pat Duncan, who hosted live punk and hardcore bands weekly on WFMU since 1979.[27] Bridgeport, Connecticut had an early show that featured hardcore called Capital Radio, hosted by Brad Morrison on WPKN, beginning in February 1979 and continuing weekly until late 1983. In New York City, Tim Sommer hosted Noise The Show on WNYU.[28]

Other North American regions

Minneapolis hardcore consisted of bands like Hüsker Dü and The Replacements, while Chicago had Articles of Faith, Big Black, and Naked Raygun. The Detroit area was home to Crucifucks, The Meatmen, Negative Approach, Spite and Violent Apathy. JFA and Meat Puppets were both from Phoenix, Arizona, 7 Seconds from Reno, Nevada, while Butthole Surfers, Big Boys, The Dicks, DRI, Really Red, and MDC were from Texas. Hardcore bands in Washington state included The Accüsed, The Fartz, Melvins, and 10 Minute Warning. Also in Cleveland, Ohio Integrity was leading the hardcore scene.

D.O.A. formed in Vancouver, British Columbia in 1978 and were one of the first bands to refer to their style as hardcore, with the release of their album Hardcore '81. Other early hardcore bands from British Columbia included Dayglo Abortions and The Skulls.

Europe

In the United Kingdom where the original punk rock scene had flourished, a hardcore scene eventually cropped up. Referred to under a number of names including "U.K. Hardcore", "UK 82", "second wave punk",[29] "real punk",[30] and "No Future punk",[31] it took the previous punk sound and added the incessant, heavy drumbeats and distorted guitar sound of New Wave of British Heavy Metal bands, especially Motörhead.[32]

Formed in 1977 in Stoke-on-Trent, Discharge played a huge role in influencing other European hardcore bands. Their style of hardcore punk was coined as D-beat, a term a number of 1980s by imitators of Discharge associated with.[33] Another U.K. band, The Varukers, were one of the original D-beat bands,[34] and Sweden in particular produced a number of D-beat bands during this time period including Anti-Cimex, Disfear, and Totalitär.

Scottish band The Exploited were also influential, with the term "UK 82" being taken from one of their songs. They contrasted with early American hardcore bands by placing an emphasis on appearance with frontman Walter 'Wattie' Buchan's giant red mohawk, and the bands continuance of wearing swastikas a la Sid Vicious. Because of this they were labeled by others in the scene as "cartoon punks".[35]

Other U.K. hardcore bands from this period included Broken Bones, Chaos UK, Charged GBH, Dogsflesh, Disorder, English Dogs, and Napalm Death

Late 1980s and 1990s

By the mid to late 1980s, many of the most prominent hardcore punk bands had broken up. Others continued to perform but changed their sound to embrace other genres. Both of the big Minneapolis bands, Hüsker Dü and The Replacements, evolved into alternative rock bands, Bad Religion made a progressive rock album with Into the Unknown,[36] the Beastie Boys gained fame by playing hip hop, while Suicidal Tendencies also gained fame by going thrash metal, and Bad Brains incorporated more reggae into their music, such as in their 1989 album Quickness.[37] Social Distortion took a hiatus after their first album was released, due to Mike Ness's drug problems, and returned with a sound based more on country music which was referred to as Cowpunk.[38] Dischord Records and most of the Washington D.C. scene, gave up hardcore and embraced what was known at the time as emo or post-hardcore.

Youth Crew

While hardcore punk was declining in many American cities, New York City was becoming an even bigger epicenter for hardcore, and in particular the youth crew movement. Youth of Today spearheaded the movement, which went further than straight edge by lyrically expressing views against drugs, alcohol and promiscuous sex, and views in favor of vegetarianism or veganism.[39] In the late 1980s, other New York bands associated with youth crew included Bold and Gorilla Biscuits. Shelter, a more metal-based hardcore band featuring former Youth of Today frontman Ray Cappo, led the youth crew movement after Youth of Today broke up in 1990. Cappo's views led him to became a Hare Krishna. Fellow members of the New York scene, John Joseph and Harley Flanagan of the Cro-Mags also converted, as would new bands embracing youth crew.[40] Youth crew spread beyond New York to Southern California bands like Chain of Strength and Strife.

Genre heads in two directions

Youth crew, and hardcore in general, branched into two distinct directions. Many newer bands either embraced a traditional style, referred to as old-school hardcore, or incorporated heavy metal influences with a heavier and more technical style, which eventually developed into the subgenre metalcore.[41][42]

New York hardcore bands like Earth Crisis, Hatebreed, 108, and Snapcase featured hoarse vocals; downtuned guitars and thrashy drum rhythms inspired by earlier hardcore bands; and slow, staccato, low-end musical sections known as breakdowns. While these bands embraced straight edge or youth crew, there were some prominent metal-based New York hardcore bands from this era who did not. Among them were Biohazard, Madball, and Sick Of It All. As a reaction against this, a new-found interest in old-school hardcore had developed, and the scene experienced a revival of bands adopting the sound influenced more by Gorilla Biscuits and Youth of Today.[43] Bands that were a prominent part of this movement were Washington D.C.'s Battery[44] and Good Clean Fun,[45] as well as Boston's Ten Yard Fight.[46] Around this time, Ray Cappo formed Better Than A Thousand, which marked his return to the rudimentaries of hardcore.[47]

2000s

Mainstream

With the increased popularity of punk rock in the mid-1990s and the 2000s, hardcore bands started signed to major record labels. The first was New York's H2O, who released their 2001 album Go for MCA. Despite an extensive tour and an appearance on Late Night with Conan O'Brien, the album was not commercially successful, and the band was dropped from the label. In 2002, California's AFI signed to DreamWorks Records and changed their sound considerably for their successful major label debut Sing the Sorrow. Chicago's Rise Against got signed by Geffen Records, and three of their releases on the label were certified Platinum by the RIAA.[48] Rise Against would gradually diminish hardcore elements from their music, culminating with 2008's Appeal to Reason, which lacked the intensity found in their earlier albums in favor of a more accessible sound.[49][50]

United Kingdom band Gallows were signed to Warner Bros. Records for £1 million.[51] Their major label debut Grey Britain was described as being even more aggressive than their previous material, and the band was subsequently dropped from the label.[52] Los Angeles band The Bronx briefly appeared on Island Def Jam Music Group for the release of their 2006 self-titled album which was named one of the Top 40 albums of the year by Spin magazine.[53] They appeared in the Darby Crash biopic What We Do Is Secret, playing the members of Black Flag.

In 2007, Toronto's Fucked Up appeared on MTV Live Canada, where they were introduced as "Effed Up".[54] During their performance of their song "Baiting The Public", the majority of the audience were moshing, which caused $2000 in damages to the set.[55]

Underground

However with the aforementioned exceptions most Hardcore music still exists outside of the mainstream in regional scenes. The Boston scene has continued to produce a number of modern bands like Death Before Dishonor, Embrace Today, Give Up the Ghost, Have Heart, The Hope Conspiracy, No Trigger, and Reach the Sky. New York has also stayed active with bands like Awkward Thought, Full Blown Chaos, Most Precious Blood, and This Is Hell.

The East Coast United States hardcore scenes continued to attract attention due to violence, often associated with Friends Stand United, a militant crew that has been classified as a gang.[56] Members of FSU were involved in releasing the "Boston Beatdown" DVDs, which document fights inside and outside of gigs.[57] FSU was featured in profiles on National Geographic, the History Channel's Gangland series and in a Rolling Stone article which referred to it as a "Punk Rock Fight Club".[58]

Influence on other genres

Alternative rock

Some hardcore bands began experimenting with other styles as their careers progressed in the 1980s, becoming known as alternative rock.[59] Bands such as Minutemen, Meat Puppets, Hüsker Dü, and The Replacements drew from hardcore but broke away from its loud and fast formula. Critic Joe S. Harrington suggested that the latter two "paraded as Hardcore until it was deemed permissible to do otherwise".[60]

In the mid-1980s, Washington State bands such as Melvins and Green River developed a sludgy, "aggressive sound that melded the slower tempos of heavy metal with the intensity of hardcore", creating an alternative rock subgenre known as grunge music.[61] One of the most popular grunge bands Nirvana was particularly influenced by a number of hardcore bands, with band members Dave Grohl and Pat Smear being recruited from Scream and The Germs, and singer Kurt Cobain listing numerous hardcore albums among his top 50 favorites.[62]

Emo and post-hardcore

The late 1980s saw the development of post-hardcore, which took the hardcore style in a more complex and dynamic direction, with a focus on singing rather than screaming. The post-hardcore style took shape, in Washington, DC within the community of bands on Ian MacKaye's Dischord Records with bands like Fugazi, Nation of Ulysses, and Jawbox.[63]

Similarly emo's origins also trace back to lates 80s Washington, D.C. Minor Threat fan Guy Picciotto formed Rites of Spring in 1984, breaking free of hardcore's self-imposed boundaries in favor of melodic guitars, varied rhythms, and deeply personal, impassioned lyrics dealing with nostalgia, romantic bitterness, and poetic desperation.[64] Other D.C. bands such as Gray Matter, Beefeater, Fire Party, Dag Nasty, also became connected to this movement.[65][66] The style was dubbed "emo" or "emo-core".[67]

Metal

The Melvins, aside from their influence on grunge, helped create what would be known as sludge metal, which is also a combination between Black Sabbath-style music and hardcore punk.[68] This genre developed during the early 1990s, in the Southern United States (particularly in the New Orleans metal scene).[69][70][71] Some of the pioneering bands of sludge metal were: Eyehategod,[68] Crowbar,[72] Down,[73] Buzzov*en,[70] Acid Bath[74] and Corrosion of Conformity.[71] Later, bands such as Isis and Neurosis,[75] with similar influences, created a style that relies mostly on ambience and atmosphere[76] that would eventually be named atmospheric sludge metal or post-metal.[77]

Metalcore is another metal-based fusion genre which combines hardcore ethics and heavier hardcore music with heavy metal influences. It has been used to refer to bands that weren't purely hardcore and weren't purely metal such as Earth Crisis, Deadguy and Integrity.[78]

Metallica and Slayer, pioneers of the heavy metal subgenre thrash metal, were influenced by a number of hardcore bands. Metallica's cover album Garage Inc. included covers of two Discharge and three Misfits songs, while Slayer's cover album Undisputed Attitude consisted of covers of predominately hardcore punk bands. In turn, hardcore bands such as Corrosion of Conformity, Suicidal Tendencies, and Dirty Rotten Imbeciles, started to incorporate thrash metal into their own music to create a style that DRI coined as crossover thrash.[79]

Thrashcore

Often confused with crossover thrash and sometimes thrash metal, is Thrashcore.[80][81] Thrashcore (also known as fastcore[82]) is a subgenre of hardcore punk that emerged in the early 1980s.[83] It is essentially sped-up hardcore punk, with bands often using blast beats.[82]

Thrashcore spun off into Powerviolence, another raw and dissonant subgenre of hardcore punk.[81][84]

Politics

File:Punks burning a
Punks burning a United States flag.

Many bands took left wing political stances and were vocally against Republican US President Ronald Reagan, who served in office from 1981 to 1989. Reagan's policies, including Reaganomics and social conservatism, were common subjects for these bands.[85][86] Shortly after Reagan's death in 2004, the Maximumrocknroll Radio Show composed an episode made up of anti-Reagan songs from the 80s including material by Dead Kennedys, Government Issue, DRI, Youth Brigade, Crucifucks, Wasted Youth, Dayglo Abortions, Reagan Youth, TSOL, The Fartz and others.[87]

Similarly during the 2001–2009 presidency of George W. Bush, a number of bands actively espoused anti-Bush stances. During the 2004 United States presidential election artists and bands including Brian Baker, Jello Biafra, Mike Watt, Bad Religion, Circle Jerks, Ensign, Rise Against, Sick Of It All, The Unseen, Western Addiction, and Youth Brigade, involved themselves with the anti-Bush political activist group punk voter.[88]

A minority of hardcore bands were relatively conservative, such as The FU's, The Undead, and Antiseen.[citation needed]

Ebullition Records, founded in 1990 by Kent McClard in Santa Barbara, California, often released albums by bands that criticized the American political and economic system, paying less attention to personal issues. Anarchist ethics seeped their way into the work of many hardcore punk bands, most notably Aus-Rotten, who were also popular in the crust punk genre. On the east coast of the United States, bands such as Rorschach and Born Against also played a similar left-wing form of metallic hardcore.[citation needed]

Hardcore dancing

The early 1980s hardcore punk scene developed slam dancing and stage diving. A performance by Fear on the 1981 Halloween episode of Saturday Night Live was cut short when slam dancers, including John Belushi and members of other hardcore bands, invaded the stage, damaged studio equipment and engaged in some profanity.[89][90] These slam dancers included John Joseph of The Cro-Mags.[91]

In the second half of the 1980s, the thrash metal scene adopted this form of dancing, with bands such as Anthrax popularizing the term mosh with the metal scene.[92]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Blush, Stephen (November 9, 2001). American Hardcore: A Tribal History. Feral House. ISBN 0922915717. 
  2. ^ ""Hardcore Punk music history"". Silver Dragon Records. 2003. http://www.silver-dragon-records.com/hardcore_punk.htm. Retrieved 2006-12-22. 
  3. ^ ""D.O.A. To Rock Toronto International Film Festival"". PunkOiUK. http://www.punkoiuk.co.uk/news/details.asp?newID=1267. Retrieved 2006-12-22. 
  4. ^ ""D.O.A."". punknews.org. http://www.punknews.org/bands/doa. Retrieved 2006-12-22. 
  5. ^ "The RS 500 Greatest Albums of All Time". Rolling Stone. Wenner Media. 18 November 2003. http://www.rollingstone.com/news/story/5938174/the_rs_500_greatest_albums_of_all_time/4. Retrieved 24 October 2009. 
  6. ^ http://riaa.com/goldandplatinumdata.php?table=SEARCH
  7. ^ http://rateyourmusic.com/list/Kovo/eastern_european_punk_rock__oi__and_hardcore
  8. ^ http://taqwacore.wordpress.com/2009/10/29/middle-eastern-punk-bands/
  9. ^ Blush, Steven, "Move Over My Chemical Romance: The Dynamic Beginnings of US Punk", Uncut, January 2007.
  10. ^ http://www.citizinemag.com/music/music-0303_kmorris.htm
  11. ^ a b Azerrad, Michael, Our Band Could Be Your Life: Scenes from the American Indie Underground, 1981-1991(Underground Music) ISBN 0-316-78753-1
  12. ^ ^ a b c Grad, David. "Fade to Black." Spin. July 1997
  13. ^ http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0082252/
  14. ^ "Black Flag". Sounds magazine. http://www.micksinclair.com/sounds/bf.html. Retrieved May 27, 2006. 
  15. ^ Black Flag
  16. ^ Britannica.com
  17. ^ VH1 - Black Flag
  18. ^ http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0198307/
  19. ^ http://www.byorecords.com/index.php?page=one_band&aid=17
  20. ^ Battle of the Bands – CHiPs Wiki
  21. ^ Selvin, Joel (2006-11-22). "KEN GARCIA – S.F. Punk – Those Were The Days / Mabuhay Gardens featured likes of Switchblades, Devo". The San Francisco Chronicle. http://articles.sfgate.com/2006-11-22/bay-area/17321473_1_dirk-dirksen-mabuhay-gardens-dead-kennedys. 
  22. ^ Bad Brains
  23. ^ http://www.interpunk.com/item.cfm?Item=39322&
  24. ^ http://www.interpunk.com/item.cfm?Item=151291&
  25. ^ Andersen, Mark and Jenkins, Mark (2001). Dance of Days: Two Decades of Punk in the Nation's Capital. (New York: Soft Skull Press). ISBN 1-887128-49-2
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  28. ^ ""Tim Sommer"". Beastiemania.com. http://www.beastiemania.com/whois/sommer_tim/. Retrieved 2006-12-22. 
  29. ^ Glasper 2004, p. 8-9
  30. ^ Liner notes, Discharge, Hear Nothing See Nothing Say Nothing, Castle, 2003
  31. ^ Glasper 2004, p. 384.
  32. ^ Glasper 2004, p. 47
  33. ^ "I just wanna be remembered for coming up with that f-ckin' D-beat in the first place! And inspiring all those f-ckin' great Discore bands around the world!" - Terry "Tez" Roberts, Glasper 2004, p. 175.
  34. ^ Glasper 2004, p. 65.
  35. ^ Glasper 2004, p. 360
  36. ^ http://www.ocweekly.com/2010-03-25/music/bad-religion-house-of-blues-anaheim/
  37. ^ Darryl Jenifer Of Bad Brains: 'I Want To Be The Soldier Of My Music' | Interviews @ Ultimate-Guitar.Com
  38. ^ http://www.pittsburghcitypaper.ws/gyrobase/Content?oid=oid%3A69440
  39. ^ http://members.fortunecity.com/youthoftoday/Interviews/interv4.htm
  40. ^ Punkbands: 108 review
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  42. ^ J. Bennett, "Converge's Jane Doe," Revolver, June 2008
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  56. ^ http://chicago.fbi.gov/dojpressrel/pressrel09/cg071409.htm
  57. ^ http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0471105/
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  63. ^ http://www.allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=77:12962
  64. ^ Greenwald, p. 12-13.
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  66. ^ Greenwald, p. 14.
  67. ^ Azerrad, Michael (2001). Our Band Could Be Your Life: Scenes from the American Indie Underground 1981–1991. New York: Little, Brown and Company. p. 380. ISBN 0316787531. 
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  85. ^ Reagan
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  92. ^ (2001) "Moshpit", ISBN 0-7119-8744-0, 9780711987449, p.38: Alternatively the term may have been coined by Anthrax or SOD (Storm troopers Of Death), an Anthrax affiliated project whose 'Milano Mosh' was an influential track"

References

  • Hurchalla, George, Going Underground: American Punk 1979–1992 (Zuo Press, 2005)
  • Manley, Frank, Smash the State: A Discography of Canadian Punk, 1977-92 (No Exit, 1993), ISBN 0-9696631-0-2


Simple English

Hardcore punk (or hardcore) is a style of punk music that usually sounds louder, faster and more angry than earlier punk rock music from the 1970s. Hardcore began in the 1980s in North America. Some of the important bands of the genre are Bad Brains [1], Black Flag, D.O.A, Minor Threat, Cro-Mags and other important youth crew and hardcore bands, such as Gorilla Biscuits and Youth Of Today. Hardcore songs often have more political lyrics (words) than songs from 1970s punk rock.

How it sounds

Hardcore band singers often sing by shouting the words of the song. Hardcore songs often sound like the singer is angry. Hardcore bands use electric guitars, electric bass guitar, drums, and a singer. The electric guitars in hardcore bands are distorted and noisy because the people in the band have changed the guitar strings so they play notes that are lower than those a normal guitar can play.

Popular Hardcore Bands

Websites used








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