Harold Alexander, 1st Earl Alexander of Tunis: Wikis

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Field Marshal The Right Honourable
 The Earl Alexander of Tunis
 KG, GCB, OM, GCMG, CSI, DSO, MC, CD, PC, PC, LLD(hc) Harv, LLD(hc) Prin


In office
12 April 1946 – 28 February 1952
Monarch George VI
Elizabeth II
Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King
Louis St. Laurent
Preceded by Alexander Cambridge, Earl of Athlone
Succeeded by Vincent Massey


Born 10 December 1891(1891-12-10)
London, United Kingdom
Died 16 June 1969 (aged 77)
Slough, United Kingdom
Spouse(s) Margaret Alexander, Countess Alexander of Tunis
Profession Soldier
Religion Anglican
Signature
Military service
Allegiance  United Kingdom
Service/branch Flag of the British Army.svg British Army
Years of service 1911 – 1946[1]
Rank Field Marshal
Commands See below...
Battles/wars World War I
Latvian War of Independence
World War II
Awards See below...

Field Marshal Harold Rupert Leofric George Alexander, 1st Earl Alexander of Tunis KG GCB OM GCMG CSI DSO MC CD PC PC (10 December 1891 – 16 June 1969) was a British military commander and field marshal of Anglo-Irish descent who served with distinction in both world wars, and between 1946 and 1952 served as the 17th Governor General of Canada. He was born in London, United Kingdom, to parents of noble heritage, and was educated at English public schools before moving on to Sandhurst for training as an army officer. He rose to prominence through his service in the First World War, receiving numerous honours and decorations, and continued his military career through various British campaigns across Europe and Asia. In the Second World War, Alexander acted as a high ranking commander in North Africa and Italy, eventually being promoted as the Supreme Allied Commander Mediterranean.

On the recommendation of then Canadian Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King, Alexander was appointed by George VI, the king of Canada, as the Canadian viceroy, succeeding in that role Alexander Cambridge, Earl of Athlone.[2] Alexander proved to be enthusiastic about the Canadian wilderness, as well as a popular governor general with the Canadian people, and he would be the last non-Canadian-born governor general before the appointment of Adrienne Clarkson in 1999. After the end of his viceregal tenure, Alexander was sworn into the King's Privy Council for Canada,[3] and thereafter into the King's British Privy Council in order to serve as the British Minister of Defence in the Cabinet of Winston Churchill. Alexander retired in 1954 and died 15 years later, when he was interred at Ridge, Hertfordshire.

Contents

Early life

Alexander was born in London, United Kingdom, the third son of James Alexander, Earl of Caledon, and Elizabeth Alexander, Countess of Caledon, a daughter of Hector Graham-Toler, Earl of Norbury. Alexander was educated at Hawtreys and Harrow School  – where, at the latter, he participated as the 11th batsman in the notorious Fowler's Match against Eton College in 1910[4]  – before moving on to the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst.

World War I

From Sandhurst, Alexander was commissioned in September 1911 as a second lieutenant in the Irish Guards,[5] which, when the First World War erupted only three years later, formed part of the original British Expeditionary Force (BEF). Alexander was by then a 22-year-old lieutenant (having been promoted in December 1912)[6] and platoon commander, until February 1915, when he was promoted to the rank of captain,[7] and, in February 1917, to major.[8] However, during certain periods, Alexander acted in higher ranking capacities, notably for three months in 1917 when he was an acting lieutenant-colonel while still only a substantive captain,[9][10] as well as for nearly all the time between November 1917 and the end of the war, when he acted in the same rank in command of a battalion.[11] In October 1918, Alexander was further charged with the command of a corps infantry school as an acting lieutenant-colonel.[12]

During his service on the Western Front, Alexander was wounded twice in four years of fighting. For his bravery and sacrifice, he received in January 1916 the Military Cross,[13] and in October of the same year was appointed to the Distinguished Service Order,[14] the citation for which read: "For conspicuous gallantry in action. He was the life and soul of the attack, and throughout the day led forward not only his own men but men of all regiments. He held the trenches gained in spite of heavy machine gun fire."[14] In the same month Alexander was also inducted into the French Légion d'honneur.[2]

Rudyard Kipling, who wrote a history of the Irish Guards, in which his own son fought and was killed, noted that, "it is undeniable that Colonel Alexander had the gift of handling the men on the lines to which they most readily responded... His subordinates loved him, even when he fell upon them blisteringly for their shortcomings; and his men were all his own."[citation needed]

The inter-war years

In 1919 and 1920, as a temporary lieutenant-colonel,[15] Alexander led the Baltic German Landeswehr in the Latvian War of Independence, commanding units loyal to the Republic of Latvia in the successful drive to eject the Bolsheviks from Latgale.[16] After later serving in Turkey and Gibraltar, in 1922 Alexander's temporary rank was made substantive when he was appointed to command the 1st battalion of his regiment,[17] and in January 1926 he was released from that role to attend Staff College, Camberley.[18] Alexander was then promoted to colonel in February 1928,[19] and was the next month appointed as commandant of the Irish Guards and its regimental district,[20] a post he held until January 1930, when he again returned to school, to attend the Imperial Defence College for one year.[21][22]

After the completion of his courses, on 14 October 1931, Alexander married Lady Margaret Bingham, the daughter of George Bingham, Earl of Lucan, and with whom Alexander would have two sons and two daughters, one of which was adopted during Alexander's time as Governor General of Canada.[2] Alexander then held staff appointments as GSO2 and GSO1,[23][24] before being made, in October 1934, a temporary brigadier and given command of the Nowshera Brigade, on the Northwest Frontier in India.[25][26] For his service there, and in particular for his actions in the Loe-Agra operations on the northwest frontier between February and April 1936, Alexander was in 1936 made a Companion of the Order of the Star of India,[27] and was mentioned in despatches.[28] He was mentioned once more for his service during operations in Mohamad Province during August and October of the same year.[29]

In March 1937, Alexander was appointed as one of the aides-de-camp to the recently acceded King George VI,[30] and returned to the United Kingdom to take part in this capacity in the state procession through London during the King's coronation in May.[31] Alexander would have been seen in this event by two of his Canadian viceregal successors: Vincent Massey, who was then the Canadian High Commissioner to the United Kingdom, and his secretary, Georges Vanier, who watched the procession from the roof of Canada House, on Trafalgar Square.[32] Following the coronation celebration, Alexander returned to India, where he was made the Honorary Colonel of the 3rd Battalion 2nd Punjab Regiment,[33] and then promoted to the rank of major-general in October 1937,[34] then the youngest general in the British Army.[2] Alexander relinquished command of his brigade in January 1938,[35] and returned to the United Kingdom to take command of the 1st Infantry Division in February.[36]

Second World War

Following the outbreak of the Second World War in September 1939, Alexander brought the 1st Infantry Division to France, where, in late May 1940, he successfully led the division's withdrawal to Dunkirk. Shortly after Bernard Montgomery had been appointed to command II Corps, Alexander was, while still on the beachhead, placed in command of I Corps, and left the beach on 3 June after ensuring that all British troops had been evacuated.[37][38] In recognition of his services in the field from March to June 1940, Alexander was again mentioned in despatches.[39]

Having been confirmed as a lieutenant-general in July 1940,[40] Alexander returned to the UK to be made the General Officer Commanding-in-Chief (GOC-in-C) of the Southern Command, which was responsible for the defence of south-west England.[41][42] On 1 January 1942 he was knighted and appointed a Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath,[43] and in February, after the Japanese invasion of Burma, was sent to India to become GOC-in-C Burma as a full general.[44][45] While he commanded what would later be the Fourteenth Army, Alexander left the tactical conduct of the campaign to his corps commander, Bill Slim, while Alexander himself handled the more political aspects of relations with Joe Stillwell, the nominal commander of the Chinese forces.[46]

Major-General Arso Jovanović, Major-General Fitzroy MacLean, Field Marshal Harold Alexander, and Major-General Lyman Lemnitzer in Belgrade, February 1945.

By July 1942, the British and Indian forces in Burma had completed their fighting retreat back into India, and Alexander, having yet again been mentioned in despatches for his Burma service,[47] was recalled to the United Kingdom. He was at first selected to command the First Army, which was to take part in Operation Torch, the invasion of North Africa. However, following a visit in early August to Egypt by British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and the Chief of the Imperial General Staff, General Alan Brooke, Alexander flew to Cairo on 8 August to replace Claude Auchinleck as the Commander-in-Chief of Middle East Command, the post responsible for the overall conduct of the campaign in the desert of North Africa. At the same time, Lieutenant-General Bernard Montgomery replaced Auchinleck as the General Officer Commanding the Eighth Army.[46] Alexander presided over Montgomery's victory at the Second Battle of El Alamein and the advance of the Eighth Army to Tripoli, for which Alexander was elevated to a Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath,[48] and, after the Anglo-American forces from Operation Torch and the Eighth Army converged in Tunisia in February 1943, they were brought under the unified command of a newly-formed 18th Army Group headquarters, commanded by Alexander and reporting to Dwight D. Eisenhower, the Supreme Allied Commander in the Mediterranean at the Allied Forces Headquarters.[49]

The Axis forces in Tunisia surrendered in May 1943, and Alexander's command became the 15th Army Group, which was, under Eisenhower, responsible for mounting the Allied invasion of Sicily in July, again seeing Alexander controlling two armies: Montgomery's Eighth Army and George S. Patton's Seventh United States Army. After Sicily, and in preparation for the allied invasion of Italy, the Seventh Army headquarters were replaced by those of the Fifth United States Army, lead by Mark Clark.[49]

When Eisenhower was appointed Supreme Allied Commander for the planned Normandy Landings he suggested that Alexander become ground forces commander, as he was popular with both British and US officers. Brooke, however, applied pressure to keep Alexander in Italy, considering him unfit for the assignment in France.[50] Thus, Alexander remained in command of the 15th Army Group, and, with the support of numerous allied commanders, controversially authorised the bombing of the historic abbey at Cassino, which resulted in little advance on the German Winter Line defences. It was not until the fourth attempt that the Winter Line was breached by the Allies, and Alexander's forces moved on to capture Rome in June 1944, thereby achieving one of the strategic goals of the Italian campaign. However, US Fifth Army forces at Anzio, under Clark's orders, failed to follow their original breakout plan that would have trapped the German forces escaping northwards in the aftermath of the Battle of Monte Cassino, instead favouring an early and highly publicised entry into Rome two days before the Allied landings in Normandy.[51]

Alexander remained in command of 15th Army Group, as well as its successor, the Allied Armies in Italy, for most of the Italian Campaign, until December 1944, when he relinquished his command to Clark and took over as the Supreme Commander of the Allied Forces Headquarters, responsible for all military operations in the Mediterranean Theatre. Alexander was concurrently promoted to the rank of field marshal,[51] though this was backdated to the fall of Rome on 4 June 1944,[52] so that Alexander would once again be senior to Montgomery, who had himself been made a field marshal on 1 September 1944, after the end of the Battle of Normandy. Alexander then received the German surrender in Italy, on 29 April 1945. Further, as a reward for his leadership in North Africa and Italy, Alexander, along with a number of other prominent British Second World War military leaders, was elevated to the peerage on 1 March 1946 by King George VI; he was created Viscount Alexander of Tunis and Errigal in the county of Donegal.[53]

Governor generalship

The Viscount and Viscountess Alexander of Tunis are greeted by Prime Minister of Canada William Lyon Mackenzie King upon the viceregal couple's arrival in Ottawa, 12 April 1946.
In the Governor General's study at Rideau Hall, Alexander (centre) receives for his signature the bill finalising the union of Newfoundland and Canada, 31 March 1949.[N 1]

With the cessation of hostilities, Alexander was under serious consideration for appointment to the post of Chief of the Imperial General Staff, the British Army's most senior position beneath the sovereign, but he was invited by Canadian Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King to be his recommendation to the King for the post of goveror general of Canada. Alexander thus chose to retire from the army and take up the new position, and, in preparation for his viceregal posting, was on 26 January 1946 appointed Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George.[54]

It was announced from the Office of the Prime Minister of Canada on 21 March 1946 that George VI had, by commission under the royal sign-manual and signet, approved the recommendation of his prime minister, Mackenzie King, to appoint Alexander as his representative. He was subsequently sworn-in during a ceremony in the Senate chamber on 12 April that year. Alexander took his duties as the viceroy quite seriously, feeling that as Governor General he acted as a connection between Canadians and their king, and spent considerable time traveling Canada during his term; he eventually logged no less than 294,500 km (184,000 mi) during his five years as governor general. On these trips, he sought to engage with Canadians through various ceremonies and events; he was keenly interested in his role as Chief Scout of Canada, and, in preparation for his kicking of the opening ball in the 1946 Grey Cup final, practiced frequently on the grounds of the royal and viceroyal residence, Rideau Hall. Also, in commemoration of Alexander being named the first non-aboriginal chief of the Kwakiutl tribe, he was gifted a totem pole on 13 July 1946; crafted by Mungo Martin, it remains on the grounds of Rideau Hall today.[2] By the end of the year, Alexander was also distinguished with his induction as a Knight of the Order of the Garter.[55]

In 1947, the King issued letters patent granting his Canadian governor general permission to exercise all those powers belonging to the monarch in respect of Canada, and, at the Imperial Conference of 1949, the decision was reached to use the term "member of the Commonwealth" instead of "Dominion" to refer to the non-British member states of the Commonwealth of Nations. That same year, Alexander oversaw the admission of the British Crown colony of Newfoundland into Canadian Confederation, and toured the new province that summer. Then, during a later visit to Alberta, the Governor General was admitted to the Blackfoot First Nations tribe as Chief Eagle Head. However, though the post-war period saw a boom in prosperity for Canada, the country was again at war by 1950, with Alexander, in his role as Commander-in-Chief of the Canadian Forces, deploying to the Korean War soldiers, sailors, and airmen, whom he would visit prior to their departure for south-east Asia.[2]

While the Viscount travelled abroad on official trips – in 1947 visiting US President Harry S. Truman, and in June 1948 Brazilian President Eurico Gaspar Dutra – as well as hosting a number of dignitaries, the Alexanders led a relatively informal lifestyle at Rideau Hall. For the visit of Princess Elizabeth and her husband, Philip Mountbatten, Duke of Edinburgh, who toured Canada in 1951, less than two years before the Princess acceded to the throne as Queen Elizabeth II, the Viscount and Viscountess hosted a square dance in the palace's ballroom. Alexander painted – creating a personal studio in the former dairy at Rideau Hall and mounting classes in art at the National Gallery of Canada[2] – partook in a number of sports, including golf, ice hockey, and rugby, and enjoyed the outdoors – particularly during Ontario and Quebec's maple syrup harvest, himself overseeing the process on Rideau Hall's grounds.[2] The Viscount was known to escape from official duties to partake in his most favourite pastime of fishing, once departing from the 1951 royal tour of Princess Elizabeth to take in a day's fishing at Griffin Island, in Georgian Bay, and granting a day off for students in the town of Drayton, Ontario, where his train briefly stopped.[56]

Amongst Canadians, Alexander proved to be a popular viceroy, despite the calls for a Canadian-born governor general that had preceded his appointment.[50] Not only did Alexander have a much praised military reputation – he was considered to be the best military strategest since Arthur Wellesley, Duke of Wellington[56] – but he was also a charismatic figure with an easy ability to communicate with people.[2] Others, however, did not fully approve of Alexander; editor Hugh Templin from Fergus, Ontario, met with Alexander during Templin's time as a special correspondent with the Canadian Press during the Second World War, and he said of the encounter: "Lord Alexander impressed us considerably, if not too favourably. He was an aristocratic type, who didn't like newspaper men."[56]

Post-viceregal life

Alexander departed the Office of Governor General in early 1952, after Churchill asked him to return to London to take the post of Minister of Defence in the British government,[50] as the ageing Churchill, had found it increasingly difficult to cope with holding that portfolio concurrently with that of prime minister. Soon after, George VI died on the night of 5-6 February, and Alexander departed quietly, in respect of the King's mourning, for the United Kingdom, leaving Chief Justice of Canada Thibaudeau Rinfret as Administrator of the Government in his place. After his return to the UK, Alexander was elevated in the peerage by the new queen on 14 March 1952, becoming Earl Alexander of Tunis, Baron Rideau of Ottawa and Castle Derg.[57] He was also appointed to the organising committee for the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II,[58] and was charged with carrying the Sovereign's Orb in the state procession on that occasion in 1953.[59]

The Earl served as the British Minister of Defence until 1954, when he retired from politics, and, in 1959, the Queen appointed Alexander to the Order of Merit.[60] Canada remained a favourite second home for the Alexanders, and they returned frequently to visit family and friends, until Alexander died on 16 June 1969 of a perforated aorta.[1] His funeral was held on 24 June 1969 at St. Georges Chapel, in Windsor Castle, and his remains are buried in the churchyard of Ridge, near Tyttenhanger, his family's Hertfordshire home.[2]

Titles, styles, honours, and arms

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Styles

Viceregal styles of
Harold Alexander, 1st Earl Alexander of Tunis
Crest of the Governor-General of Canada.svg
Reference style His Excellency The Right Honourable
Son Excellence le très honorable
Spoken style Your Excellency
Votre Excellence
Alternative style Sir
Monsieur
United Kingdom United Kingdom
  • 10 December 1891 – September 1911: The Honourable Harold Alexander
  • September 1911 – February 1915: Lieutenant The Honourable Harold Alexander
  • February 1915 – February 1917: Captain The Honourable Harold Alexander
  • February 1917 – 1928: Major The Honourable Harold Alexander
  • 1928 – February 1936: Colonel The Honourable Harold Alexander
  • February 1936 – October 1937: Colonel The Honourable Harold Alexander, CSI
  • October 1937 – 1938: Major-General The Honourable Harold Alexander, CSI
  • 1938 – July 1940: Major-General The Honourable Harold Alexander, CB, CSI
  • July 1940 – 1 January 1942: Lieutenant-General The Honourable Harold Alexander, CB, CSI
  • 1 January 1942 – 11 November 1942: General The Honourable Sir Harold Alexander, KCB, CSI
  • 11 November 1942 – 12 December 1944: General The Honourable Sir Harold Alexander, GCB, CSI
  • 12 December 1944 – 20 January 1946: Field Marshal The Honourable Sir Harold Alexander, GCB, CSI
  • 20 January 1946 – 1 March 1946: Field Marshal The Honourable Sir Harold Alexander, GCB, GCMG, CSI
  • 1 March 1946 – 3 December 1946: Field Marshal The Right Honourable The Viscount Alexander of Tunis, GCB, GCMG, CSI
  • 3 December 1946 – 29 January 1952: Field Marshal The Right Honourable The Viscount Alexander of Tunis, KG, GCB, GCMG, CSI
  • 29 January 1952 – 14 March 1952: Field Marshal The Right Honourable The Viscount Alexander of Tunis, KG, GCB, GCMG, CSI, PC (Can.)
  • 14 March 1952 – 1 January 1959: Field Marshal The Right Honourable The Earl Alexander of Tunis, KG, GCB, GCMG, CSI, PC, PC (Can.)
  • 1 January 1959 – 16 June 1969: Field Marshal The Right Honourable The Earl Alexander of Tunis, KG, GCB, OM, GCMG, CSI, PC, PC (Can.)
Canada Canada
  • 12 April 1946 – 1 October 1947: His Excellency Field Marshal The Right Honourable The Viscount Alexander of Tunis, Governor General and Commander-in-Chief of the Militia and Naval and Air Forces of Canada
  • 1 October 1947 – 28 February 1952: His Excellency Field Marshal The Right Honourable The Viscount Alexander of Tunis, Governor General and Commander-in-Chief in and over Canada

Alexander's style and title as Governor General was, in full, and in English: His Excellency Field Marshal The Right Honourable Sir Harold Rupert Leofric George Alexander, Viscount Alexander of Tunis and Errigal, Knight of the Most Noble Order of the Garter, Knight Grand Cross of the Most Honourable Order of the Bath, Knight Grand Cross of the Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George, Companion of the Order of the Star of India, Companion of the Distinguished Service Order, Legionnaire Fifth Class of the Légion d'honneur, Member Second Class with Swords of the Order of St. Anna, Member First Class of the Order of Suvorov, Member Grand Cross of the Royal Order of George I, Member Fifth Class of the Order Virtuti Militari, Governor General and Commander-in-Chief in and over Canada, Field Marshal of the Militia of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and in French: Son Excellence le très honorable Sir Harold Rupert Leofric George Alexander, vicomte Alexander de Tunis et Errigal, chevalier de le nobilissime ordre de la Jarretière, chevalier grand-croix de le très honorable ordre du Bain, chevalier grand-croix de le très distingué ordre de Saint-Michel et Saint-George, compagnon de l'ordre de l'Étoile des Indes, compagnon de l'ordre du service distingué, légionnaire cinquieme classe de le Légion d'honneur, membre deuxieme classe avec épées de l'ordre de Sainte-Anne, membre premier classe de l'ordre de Souvorov, membre grand-croix de l'ordre royale du George I, membre cinqiemme classe de l'ordre militaire de Virtuti Militari, gouverneur générale et commandant en chef du Canada, Field-Marshal de la milice du Royaume-Uni de Grande-Bretagne et d'Irlande du Norde. It should be noted that, for Alexander, Commander-in-Chief was strictly a title, and not a position that he held; the actual commander-in-chief (who can also be, and is, called such) is perpetually the monarch of Canada.[61]

In his post-viceregal life, Alexander's style and title was: Field Marshal The Right Honourable Sir Harold Rupert Leofric George Alexander, Earl Alexander of Tunis, Baron Rideau of Ottawa and Castle Derg, Viscount Alexander of Tunis and Errigal, Knight of the Most Noble Order of the Garter, Knight Grand Cross of the Most Honourable Order of the Bath, Grand Master of the Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George, Companion of the Order of the Star of India, Companion of the Distinguished Service Order, Member of the Order of Merit, Legionnaire Fifth Class of the Légion d'honneur, Member Second Class with Swords of the Order of St. Anna, Member First Class of the Order of Suvorov, Member Grand Cross of the Royal Order of George I, Member Fifth Class of the Order Virtuti Militari, Field Marshal of the Militia of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

Unofficial

Canada Alberta
  • Chief Eagle Head

Honours

Appointments
Decorations
Awards
  • United Kingdom 4 January 1917: Mentioned in Despatches[69]
  • United Kingdom 27 December 1918: Mentioned in Despatches
  • United Kingdom 8 July 1919: Mentioned in Despatches
  • United Kingdom 3 February 1920: Mentioned in Despatches
  • United Kingdom 7 February 1936: Mentioned in Despatches[28]
  • United Kingdom 8 May 1936: Mentioned in Despatches[29]
  • United Kingdom 20 December 1940: Mentioned in Despatches[39]
  • United Kingdom 28 October 1942: Mentioned in Despatches[47]
Foreign honours and decorations

Honorary military appointments

Honorary degrees

Honorific eponyms

Schools

Arms

Commands

List of works

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The other figures present are (left to right) Leader of the Government in the Senate Wishart McLea Robertson, Prime Minister Louis St. Laurent, Speaker of the House of Commons Gaspard Fauteux, and Speaker of the Senate James Horace King.
  2. ^ It was on 16 September 1946 that the Canadian priory of the Order of Saint John was created, and Alexander became the first prior and chief officer in Canada. He relinquished this status on 28 February 1952 to his viceregal successor, thus returning to holding solely the rank of knight of justice in the British priory of the order.[63]

Citations

  1. ^ a b Houterman, Hans; Koppes, Jeroen. "World War II unit histories and officers". http://www.unithistories.com/officers/Army_officers_A05.html. Retrieved 19 June 2008. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Office of the Governor General of Canada. "Governor General > Former Governors General > Field Marshal the Earl Alexander of Tunis". Queen's Printer for Canada. http://www.gg.ca/gg/fgg/bios/01/alexander_e.asp. Retrieved 20 March 2009. 
  3. ^ Privy Council Office (30 October 2008). "Information Resources > Historical Alphabetical List since 1867 of Members of the Queen's Privy Council for Canada > A". Queen's Printer for Canada. http://www.pco-bcp.gc.ca/index.asp?lang=eng&page=information&sub=council-conseil&doc=members-membres/hist/A-E-eng.htm#A. Retrieved 20 March 2009. 
  4. ^ Williamson, Martin (9 April 2005). "Fowler's Match". Cricinfo Magazine (London: Entertainment and Sports Programming Network). http://content-usa.cricinfo.com/columns/content/story/143944.html. Retrieved 21 March 2009. 
  5. ^ London Gazette: no. 28533, p. 6950, 22 September 1911. Retrieved on 18 June 2008.
  6. ^ London Gazette: no. 28688, p. 961, 7 February 1913. Retrieved on 25 March 2009.
  7. ^ London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 29160, p. 4625, 12 May 1915. Retrieved on 18 June 2008.
  8. ^ London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 30253, p. 8860, 24 August 1917. Retrieved on 18 June 2008.
  9. ^ London Gazette: no. 30027, p. 3738, 17 April 1917. Retrieved on 18 June 2008.
  10. ^ London Gazette: no. 30179, p. 6971, 10 July 1917. Retrieved on 18 June 2008.
  11. ^ London Gazette: no. 30385, p. 11905, 16 November 1917. Retrieved on 18 June 2008.
  12. ^ London Gazette: no. 31048, p. 14396, 3 December 1918. Retrieved on 18 June 2008.
  13. ^ a b London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 29438, p. 576, 14 January 1916. Retrieved on 18 June 2008.
  14. ^ a b c London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 29793, p. 10169, 20 October 1916. Retrieved on 18 June 2008.
  15. ^ London Gazette: no. 31958, p. 7072, 29 June 1920. Retrieved on 18 June 2008.
  16. ^ Keegan 1991, pp. 107–108 & 128
  17. ^ London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 32702, p. 3854, 16 May 1922. Retrieved on 18 June 2008.
  18. ^ London Gazette: no. 33126, p. 536, 22 January 1926. Retrieved on 25 March 2009.
  19. ^ London Gazette: no. 33356, p. 1050, 14 February 1928. Retrieved on 18 June 2008.
  20. ^ London Gazette: no. 33371, p. 2341, 30 March 1928. Retrieved on 18 June 2008.
  21. ^ London Gazette: no. 33572, p. 427, 21 January 1930. Retrieved on 18 June 2008.
  22. ^ London Gazette: no. 33573, p. 500, 24 January 1930. Retrieved on 18 June 2008.
  23. ^ London Gazette: no. 33687, p. 832, 6 February 1931. Retrieved on 18 June 2008.
  24. ^ London Gazette: no. 33806, p. 1605, 8 March 1932. Retrieved on 18 June 2008.
  25. ^ London Gazette: no. 34123, p. 301, 11 January 1935. Retrieved on 18 June 2008.
  26. ^ London Gazette: no. 34112, p. 7929, 7 December 1934. Retrieved on 18 June 2008.
  27. ^ a b London Gazette: no. 34253, p. 811, 7 February 1936. Retrieved on 18 June 2008.
  28. ^ a b London Gazette: no. 34253, p. 818, 7 February 1936. Retrieved on 18 June 2008.
  29. ^ a b London Gazette: no. 34282, p. 2979, 8 May 1936. Retrieved on 18 June 2008.
  30. ^ a b London Gazette: no. 34264, p. 1657, 13 March 1937. Retrieved on 18 June 2008.
  31. ^ London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 34453, p. 7034, 9 November 1937. Retrieved on 18 June 2008.
  32. ^ Renzetti, Elizabeth (26 December 2008). "'Vulnerability brings us together'". The Globe and Mail. http://www.theglobeandmail.com/servlet/story/RTGAM.20081225.wnbvanier1227/BNStory/nationbuilder2008/home?pageRequested=all&print=true. Retrieved 17 March 2009. 
  33. ^ a b London Gazette: no. 34414, p. 4254, 2 July 1937. Retrieved on 18 June 2008.
  34. ^ London Gazette: no. 34444, p. 6372, 15 October 1937. Retrieved on 18 June 2008.
  35. ^ London Gazette: no. 34492, p. 1673, 11 March 1938. Retrieved on 25 March 2009.
  36. ^ London Gazette: no. 34487, p. 1261, 25 February 1938. Retrieved on 18 June 2008.
  37. ^ Mead 2007, pp. 41–42
  38. ^ "After the Auk". Time Magazine (31 August 1942). http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,849992,00.html?iid=chix-sphere. Retrieved 1 March 2008. 
  39. ^ a b London Gazette: no. 35020, p. 7175, 20 December 1940. Retrieved on 18 June 2008.
  40. ^ London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 34899, p. 4415, 16 July 1940. Retrieved on 18 June 2008.
  41. ^ Mead 2007, p. 42
  42. ^ London Gazette: no. 35503, p. 1399, 27 March 1942. Retrieved on 18 June 2008.
  43. ^ a b London Gazette: no. 35399, p. 3, 1 January 1942. Retrieved on 23 April 2009.
  44. ^ London Gazette: no. 35503, p. 1399, 27 March 1942. Retrieved on 25 March 2009.
  45. ^ London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 35509, p. 1497, 31 March 1942. Retrieved on 18 June 2008.
  46. ^ a b Mead 2007, p. 43
  47. ^ a b London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 35763, p. 4689, 27 October 1942. Retrieved on 18 June 2008.
  48. ^ a b London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 35782, p. 4917, 10 November 1942. Retrieved on 19 June 2008.
  49. ^ a b Mead 2007, p. 44
  50. ^ a b c Mead 2007, p. 46
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References

  • Jackson, General W.G.F. & with Gleave, Group Captain T.P. (2004) [1st. pub. HMSO 1987]. The Mediterranean and Middle East, Volume VI: Part II - June to October 1944. History of the Second World War United Kingdom Military Series. Uckfield, UK: Naval & Military Press. ISBN 1-845740-71-8. 
  • Keegan (ed), John; Reid, Brian Holden (1991). Churchill's Generals. London: Cassell Military. ISBN 0-304-36712-5. 
  • Mead, Richard (2007). Churchill's Lions: A biographical guide to the key British generals of World War II. Stroud: Spellmount. ISBN 978-1-86227-431-0. 
  • Molony, Brigadier C.J.C.; with Flynn R.N., Captain F.C.; Davies, Major-General H.L. & Gleave, Group Captain T.P. (2004) [1st. pub. HMSO 1973]. Butler, J.R.M. ed. The Mediterranean and Middle East, Volume V: The Campaign in Sicily 1943 and The Campaign in Italy 3rd September 1943 to 31st March 1944. History of the Second World War United Kingdom Military Series. Uckfield, UK: Naval & Military Press. ISBN 1-845740-69-6. 
  • Playfair, I.S.O.; Flynn, F.C.; Molony, C.J.C. & Gleave, T.P. (2004) [1st. pub. HMSO 1960]. Butler, J.R.M. ed. The Mediterranean and Middle East, Volume III: British Fortunes reach their Lowest Ebb (September 1941 to September 1942). History of the Second World War United Kingdom Military Series. Naval & Military Press. ISBN 1-845740-67-X. 
  • Playfair, Major-General I.S.O.; and Molony, Brigadier C.J.C.; with Flynn R.N., Captain F.C. & Gleave, Group Captain T.P. (2004) [1st. pub. HMSO 1966]. Butler, J.R.M. ed. The Mediterranean and Middle East, Volume IV: The Destruction of the Axis Forces in Africa. History of the Second World War United Kingdom Military Series. Uckfield, UK: Naval & Military Press. ISBN 1-84574-068-8. 
  • Wilson, John S. (1959). Scouting Round the World (1st ed.). Poole: Blandford Press. OCLC 58863729. 

External links

Military offices
Preceded by
Michael Barker
GOC I Corps
1940
Succeeded by
Laurence Carr
Preceded by
Sir Claude Auchinleck
GOC-in-C Southern Command
1940–1942
Succeeded by
Sir Henry Loyd
Preceded by
Sir Claude Auchinleck
Commander-in Chief Middle East Command
1942 – 1943
Succeeded by
Sir Henry Wilson
Preceded by
New title
Deputy Commander of the Allied Forces Headquarters
1943 – 1944
Succeeded by
Unknown
Preceded by
Sir Henry Maitland Wilson
Supreme Commander of the Allied Forces Headquarters
1944 – 1945
Succeeded by
Title abolished
Political offices
Preceded by
Winston Churchill
Minister of Defence
1952 – 1954
Succeeded by
Harold Macmillan
Honorary titles
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The Viscount Alanbrooke
Lord Lieutenant of the County of London
1956 – 1965
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Title abolished
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The Earl of Halifax
Grand Master
of the Most Distinguished Order
of Saint Michael and Saint George

1959 – 1967
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The Duke of Kent
Preceded by
The Baron Wilson
Constable of the Tower of London
1960 – 1965
Succeeded by
Sir Gerald Templer
New title Lord Lieutenant of Greater London
1965 – 1966
Succeeded by
Sir Gerald Templer
Peerage of the United Kingdom
New title Viscount Alexander of Tunis
1946 – 1969
Succeeded by
Shane Alexander
Earl Alexander of Tunis
1952 – 1969

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