Harry Crosby: Wikis


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Harry Crosby
Born July 4, 1898(1898-07-04)
Boston, Massachusetts
Died December 10, 1929 (aged 31)
New York, New York
Cause of death suicide
Nationality American
Occupation Publisher, poet, writer
Notable works Red Skeletons (1927)
Chariot of the Sun (1928)
Transit of Venus (1928)
Known for Founder, Black Sun Press
Spouse(s) Polly Peabody, later Caresse Crosby, neé Mary Phelps Jacob
(L-R) Philip ('the Vulture") Shepley, Harry Crosby, George Richmond ("Tote") Fearing, and Stuart Kaiser shortly after Armistice Day, 1919, displaying their decorations.

Harry Crosby (June 4, 1898 – December 10, 1929) was an American heir, a bon vivant, poet, and for some, an exemplar of the Lost Generation in American literature. He was the son of one of the richest banking families in New England and the nephew of the son of financier J.P. Morgan. As such, he was heir to a substantial family fortune. He served in the American Field Service during World War I, and later in the U.S. Ambulance Corps. He narrowly escaped with his life, and vowed to live life on his own terms after the war ended.

Profoundly affected by his experiences as a volunteer ambulance driver in World War I, Crosby abandoned all pretense of living the expected life of a privileged Bostonian. He had his father's eye for women[1] and in 1920 met Mrs. Richard Peabody (neé Mary Phelps Jacob), six years his senior. They made love within two weeks and were the source of scandal and gossip among blue blood Boston.

Mary (or Polly as she was called) divorced her alcoholic husband and to her family's dismay married Harry. Two days later they left for Europe, where they devoted themselves to art and poetry. Both enjoyed a decadent lifestyle, drinking, smoking opium regularly, traveling frequently, and having an open marriage. Harry maintained a coterie of young ladies that he frequently bed, and wrote and published poetry that dwelled on the symbolism of the sun and explored themes of death and suicide.

Harry's life in Paris were at the crossroads of early 20th century literary and cultural life. He numbered among his friends some of the most famous individuals of the early 20th century, including Salvador Dali, Ernest Hemingway, and Henri Cartier-Bresson. In 1927 Caresse and Harry founded the Black Sun Press. It became one of the first publishers to print some of the early works of struggling authors including James Joyce, Kay Boyle, Ernest Hemingway, Hart Crane, D. H. Lawrence, Rene Crevel, T. S. Eliot, and Ezra Pound. Harry died scandalously at age 31 as one-half of a murder-suicide, or joint suicide, no one could ever be sure.


Early life

Born Henry Sturgis Crosby (his parents later changed his middle name to "Grew") in Boston's exclusive Back Bay neighborhood. He was the product of generations of blue-blood Americans, descended from the Van Rensselaers, Morgans, and Grews. His father's mother was the great-granddaughter of Alexander Hamilton. Also among Harry's ancestors were Revolutionary War General Philip Schuyler and William Floyd, a signer of the Declaration of Independence.[1]:12

He had one sibling, a sister, Katherine Schuyler Crosby, nicknamed Kitsa, who was born in 1901. They move shortly afterward to a home with a dance floor that could accommodate 150 people. His parents instilled in him a love for poetry. He would toss water bombs off the upper stories of the house onto unsuspecting guests. The family spent its summers on the North Shore at Manchester, about 25 miles (40 km) from Boston.[1]:13

As a child, he attended the exclusive Noble and Greenough's School. In 1917, when he was 13 years old, his parents decided it was time to send him to St. Mark’s Prep School.

World War I

Harry tired of the rigidity of everyday life in Boston. He said he wanted to escape "the horrors of Boston and particularly of Boston virgins." Like many young men of upper-crust American society, he volunteered to serve in World War I with the American Field Service in France.[1]:14 A number of writers he would later publish also served in the ambulance corps, including e. e. cummings, Malcolm Cowley, and Hart Crane.

During the Battle of the Somme he was a driver in the dangerous ambulance service. On November 22, 1917, as Crosby drove several wounded soldiers to a medical aid station, among them his best friend, "Spud" Spaulding, his ambulance was destroyed by an artillery shell that sent shrapnel ripping through his ambulance.[1]:298 Miraculously, Crosby was unhurt, and was able to save his friend Spud. Harry declared later that that was the night he changed from a boy to a man. From that moment on he never feared death.[2]

When America officially entered the War, he enlisted with the U. S. Army Ambulance Corps and served at the Second Battle of Verdun. After the battle, his section (the 29th Infantry Division, attached to the 120th French Division) was cited for bravery, and in 1919 Crosby became one of the youngest Americans[1]:95 to be awarded the Croix de Guerre.[3]

Meets Mrs. Richard Peabody

After returning from World War I, Harry attended Harvard under an accelerated program for veterans and met the buxom Mrs. Richard Rogers Peabody (Mary Phelps Jacob) at a picnic on July 4, 1920. At the invitation of Harry's mother, Polly chaperoned Harry and some of his friends to a party, including dinner and a trip to the amusement park at Nantasket Beach. Harry never spoke to the girl on his left. By some accounts, Harry fell in love with the older and Mrs. Peabody in about two hours. He confessed his love for her in the Tunnel of Love at the amusement park.[4] Two weeks later they went to church together in Manchester-by-the-Sea, and spent the night together.[1] Their scandalous courtship was the gossip of blue-blood Boston.

She was 28, six years older than Harry, with two small children, and married. No matter what Harry tried, Polly would not divorce Richard and marry him. Harry took a job in Boston at the Shawmut National Bank, a job he disliked, and took the train to visit Polly in New York. In May 1921, when Polly would not respond to his ardor, Harry threatened suicide if Polly did not marry him.[1][5]:2 Polly's husband Richard Peabody was in and out of sanitariums several times fighting alcoholism. In June 1921, she formally separated from him. Later that winter, Polly accepted weekend visits from Harry, who would take the midnight train home to Boston afterward.[1] In December, Polly's husband Richard offered to divorce her, and in February 1922, the marriage was legally ended.

The RMS Aquitania in 1914.

After eight months at the Shawmut National Bank, Harry resigned from on March 14, 1922.[1] Polly intervened with her brother-in-law, J.P. Morgan, who agreed to provide a position for Harry in Paris at Morgan, Harjes et Cie.[1] He moved to Paris in May. In September, 1922, Harry proposed to Polly via Transatlantic Cable, and the next day bribed his way aboard the Aquitania for New York.[1][5]:2


Polly and Harry marry

Harry and Polly Crosby shortly after their marriage in Paris during September 1922.

On 9 September 1922 Harry and Polly were married in the Municipal Building in New York City, and two days later they re-boarded the Aquitania and moved with her children to Paris, France. There they joined the Lost Generation of expatriate Americans disillusioned by the restrictive atmosphere of 1920s America. Harry continued his work at Morgan, Harjes et Cie, the Morgan family’s bank in Paris. Moving repeatedly, they finally settled in an apartment, and Polly would don her bathing suit and row Harry down the Quai d'Orleans to the Place de la Concorde where he would walk the last few blocks to the bank. After the first year, her son Billy was shipped off to one elite boarding school after another.[5]:5 At the end of 1923, Harry quit Morgan, Harjes et Cie and and devoted himself to the life of a poet, and later, publisher.[6]

Life as expatriates

Both of them were attracted to the bohemian lifestyle of the artists gathering in Montparnasse. Even by the wild standards of Paris in the 1920s, Harry was in a league of his own. The couple lived a hedonistic and decadent life, including an open marriage and numerous affairs.[7][8] Harry was a gambler, a womanizer, drank "oceans of champagne,"[7] and used opium, cocaine, and hashish.[1][7] They wrote a mutual suicide pact, and carried cremation instructions with them.[5]

His inheritance, multiplied by the favorable exchange rate the American dollar enjoyed in postwar Europe, allowed them to indulge in an extravagant expatriate lifestyle. Harry's trust fund provided them with USD$12,000 a year[9] (or $152,421 in today's dollars). Still, Harry repeatedly overdrew his account at State Street Trust in Boston and at Morgan, Harjes, in Paris, which in blue-blood Boston was like writing graffiti on the front door of a church. He would wire his father to put more money from his inheritance into his account. His father complied but not without rebuking his son for his spendthrift ways.[1]:144

In 1929, Harry sent a drunken cable home to his father, an investment banker, which did not please his father:[1]


Polly and Harry purchased their first race horse in June 1924, and then two more in April 1925.[1] At the end of 1924, Harry persuaded Polly to formally change her first name to Caresse, as he felt Polly was too prim and proper for his wife. Her name formed an acrostic with his name, with the 'r' in Caresse intersecting the the first 'r' in Harry's name.

In 1924, they rented an apartment for six months from Princess Marthe Bibesco, a friend of Harry's cousin Walter Berry, for fifty thousand francs (the equivalent of USD$2,200, about $27,998 in today's dollars. When they moved in, they brought with them "two maids and a cook, a governess, and a chauffeur."[1]:145


Harry and Polly rented a fashionable apartment on Rue de Lille and refurbished a medieval mill outside of Paris in Ermenonville, France, for living quarters, which they named "Le Moulin du Soleil" ("The Mill of the Sun"). There they hosted wild parties, including drunken polo on donkeys, and entertained famous guests like Salvador Dali.[7] They became known for hosting small dinner parties from their giant bed, and afterward for everyone to enjoy their huge bathtub together, taking advantage of iced bottles of champagne near at hand.[6]

They took extended traveling tours. In January 1925 they traveled to North Africa where they first smoked opium, a habit to which they would return again and again.[3] Harry had crosses tattooed on the soles of his feet. They traveled to Egypt in 1928.[1]:132

Harry developed a obsessive fascination with imagery centering on the sun. Harry's poetry and journals often focused on the sun, a symbol to him of perfection, enthusiasm, freedom, heat, and destruction.[10][5] Crosby claimed to be a "sun worshiper in love with death."[11]{{r[|235}} He often added a doodle of a "black sun" to his signature which also included an arrow, jutting upward from the "y" in Crosby’s last name and aiming toward the center of the sun’s circle: "a phallic thrust received by a welcoming erogenous zone."[3] He would spend hours sunbathing naked atop the mill's turret.[6] Contrary to fashion of the day, he would not wear a hat. He often wore a black carnation in his lapel, and was known to color his finger and toenails.[6]

Harry experimented with photography and saw the medium as a viable art form before it was widely accepted as such. He and Henri Cartier-Bresson worked together early in Carter-Bresson's career, taking pictures at Crosby's home, Le Moulin du Soleil.[6]

Harry learned to fly solo in November, 1929 when the aeroplane was so new that its spelling hadn't even been agreed upon.[12]

Open marriage

In 1923, shortly after their arrival in Paris, Caresse introduced Harry to her friend Constance Coolidge, and they immediately began an open sexual relationship. In Morocco during one of their trips to North Africa, Harry and Caresse took a 13-year-old dancing girl named Zora to bed with them.[13] His seductive abilities became legendary in some social circles in Paris, and he engaged in a series of ongoing affairs,[3] maintaining relationships with a variety of beautiful and doting young women.[10]

In July 1925, he met a fourteen year old girl named "Nubile." He slept with a 13-year-old Berber girl in North Africa and a young Arab boy in Jerusalem. His wildness was in full flower during the drunken orgies of the annual Four Arts Balls (Bal des Quatz' Arts). One year, Caresse showed up topless wearing a turquoise wig. The motif for the ball that year was Inca, and Harry dressed for the occasion, covering himself in red ocher and wearing nothing but a loincloth and a necklace of dead pigeons.[7]

Black Sun Press

In April 1927 he and wife Caresse founded a book publishing company, originally named Éditions Narcisse, after their dog. They later renamed it the Black Sun Press. By 1928, Harry Crosby had gained some recognition as a poet after they published Red Skeletons, a volume of poetry said to be heavily indebted to Charles Baudelaire and Edgar Allan Poe.

Harry occasionally spent time with one of their authors, Ernest Hemingway, and in July 1927, they visited Pamplona for the running of the bulls. Harry often drank to excess when with Hemingway.[1]:182 The Black Sun Press first published The Escaped Cock by D. H. Lawrence as a limited edition in September 1929. Lawrence later wrote the introduction to Harry Crosby's volume of poetry, Chariot of the Sun.[14] The Black Sun Press also published the poetry of Archibald MacLeish, who like Harry had overturned the normal expectations of society, rejecting a career as a lawyer with one of Boston's best law firms and lecturing at Harvard, to become a writer. Harry offered to publish MacLeish's long poem Einstein in a deluxe edition, and paid MacLeish USD$200 for his work. They printed 150 copies which were quickly sold.[1]:183 They also published early works by newly emerging writers including D. H. Lawrence, James Joyce, Kay Boyle, and Hart Crane.[15][3] They became close friends with some of the authors they worked with. When Harry visited New York in 1928, he cashed in some stock dividends to help Boyle pay for an abortion.[16]

In 1928, Harry's cousin Walter Berry died, leaving a considerable collection of over 8,000 mostly rare books. In his will he left "all the rest of my books...except such books which Edith Wharton may desire to take...I give and bequeath to my cousin, Harry Grew Crosby."[17]:638 Harry eagerly campaigned to persuade Berry's long-time friend Edith Wharton to give him a great many of the books, and in the end she kept less than 100. Harry prized the collection at first but he became enamored of the idea of reducing the things around him. "We had talked to a wise man in Egypt in 1928 who said, 'My wealth I measure by the things I do without,' and Harry believed the books weighed him down."[1]:132 Every morning he would leave with a satchel full of rare books, which he would give to waiters, barmen, cab drivers, sometimes even sneaking them into antiquarian bookshops that lined the Seine with ridiculously low prices penciled into them.[10][5]

In 1929, they published Crosby's volume of verse, Mad Queen, which showed the influence of Surrealism that includes withering attacks on Bostonian tradition. Later that year they published two volumes of Harry Crosby's poetry, Chariot of the Sun and Transit of Venus. He dedicated the latter volume to his lover, Josephine Rotch Bigelow. Apart from his obsession with the sun, his writing increasingly contained references to dissolution and suicide.[5]

Affair and suicide

On July 9, 1928, Harry met 20 year old Josephine Noyes Rotch, ten years his junior, while she was shopping in Venice at the Lido for her wedding trousseau. She had left Bryn Mawr after only two years because she planned to marry Albert Smith Bigelow. "She was dark and intense... since the season of her coming out in 1926-7, she had been known around Boston as fast, a 'bad egg'...with a good deal of sex appeal."[18]:C1

They met for sex as often as her eight days in Venice would allow. He would later call her the "Youngest Princess of the Sun" and the "Fire Princess." She was also from a prominent Boston family that first settled in Provincetown on Cape Cod in 1690. Josephine would inspire Crosby's next collection of poems which he dedicated to her, titled Transit of Venus. In a letter to his mother, dated July 24, 1928, Crosby detailed the affair to his mother, who he had always confided in:

I am having an affair with a girl I met (not introduced) at the Lido. She is twenty and has charm and is called Josephine. I like girls when they are very young before they have any minds.[5][4]

Josephine and Harry had an ongoing affair until June 21, 1929, when she married Albert Smith Bigelow. Their affair ended briefly until August, when Josephine contacted Crosby and they rekindled the affair as her husband became a first year graduate student of architecture at Harvard. Unlike his wife Caresse, Josephine was quarrelsome and prone to fits of jealousy.[1]:6 She bombarded Harry with half incoherent cables and letters, anxious to set the date for their next tryst.[19]

Visit to United States

In December 1929, the Crosbys returned to the United States for a visit and the Harvard-Yale football game.[20]. Harry and Josephine met and traveled to Detroit where they checked into the expensive, USD$12 a day Book-Cadillac Hotel as Mr. and Mrs Harry Crane.[18] For four days they took meals in their room, smoked opium, and made love.[5] On December 7, 1929, the lovers returned to New York where Josephine said she was going to return to Boston and her husband. On the evening of December 7, Crosby's friend Hart Crane threw a party to celebrate his completion of his seven-year poem, The Bridge, which was to be published by the Black Sun Press, and to bid Harry and Caresse bon voyage, since they were due to sail back to France the next week. Among the guests present were Margaret Robson, Malcolm Cowley, Walker Evans,[21] e. e. cummings, and William Carlos Williams.[9] Harry and Caresse made plans to see Crane again on December 10 to see the play Berkeley Square before they left for Europe.

But on December 9 Josephine, who instead of returning to Boston had stayed with one of her bridesmaids in New York,[18] sent a 36-line poem to Crosby who was staying with Caresse at the Savoy-Plaza Hotel. The last line of the poem read:

Death is our marriage.

On the same day, Harry Crosby wrote his final entry in his journal:

One is not in love unless one desires to die with one's beloved. There is only one happiness it is to love and to be loved.

Lovers found dead

On the evening of the play, on December 10, 1929, Harry's mother, Caresse, and Hart Crane met for dinner before the play, but Harry was a no-show. It was unlike him to worry Caresse needlessly. She called their friend Stanley Mortimer at his mother's apartment, whose studio Harry was know to use for his trysts. He agreed to check his studio and found Harry and Josephine's bodies. In an apparent suicide pact, Harry was found in bed with a .25 caliber bullet hole in his right temple next to Josephine, who had a matching hole in her left temple. Harry was still clutching the Belgian automatic pistol in one hand, Josephine in the other.[1]:9

The steamship tickets he had bought that morning for the return to Europe with Caresse were in his pocket. The coroner also found in his pocket a cable from Josephine addressed to Harry on the Mauretania before they arrived in New York: "CABLE GEORGE WHEN YOU ARRIVE AND WHERE I CAN TELEPHONE YOU IMMEDIATELY. I AM IMPATIENT." A second cable from another girl simply said, "YES." A picture of Zora, the 13 year old girl he had sex with in Egypt, was reportedly found in his wallet.[22] The coroner reported that Harry's toenails were painted red, and that he had a Christian cross tattooed on the sole of one foot and a pagan icon representing the sun on the other.[7]

Harry's wedding ring was found crushed on the floor, not on his finger as he always promised Caresse it would remain.[19]:172 Caresse refused to witness the carnage and begged Archibald MacLeish, who was in town from his farm, to take charge.[1]:11 Harry's suicide was cited by later writers as emblematic of the lost generation. Hart Crane committed suicide less than two years later.)

Scandal follows

The next day the headlines revealed all: Tragedy and Disgrace. The Coroner said the Josephine had died at least two hours before Harry. They left no suicide note, and newspapers of the day ran articles for many days speculating about the murder or suicide pact.[1] The New York Times front page blared, "COUPLE SHOT DEAD IN ARTISTS' HOTEL; Suicide Compact Is Indicated Between Henry Grew Crosby and Harvard Man's Wife. BUT MOTIVE IS UNKNOWN He Was Socially Prominent in Boston--Bodies Found in Friend's Suite."[23] The New York newspapers decided it was a murder-suicide.[18]

Gretchen Powell had lunch with Harry the day of his death. Her memory of the luncheon supported the notion that Josephine was one of Harry's many passing fancies. She related that Harry had told her "the Rotch girl was pestering him; he was exasperated; she had threatened to kill herself in the lobby of the Savoy-Plaza if he didn't meet her at once."[1]:11

Their deaths polarized the several prominent families affected. The Rotch family considered Josephine's death murder. Josephine's erstwhile husband Albert Bigelow blamed Harry for "seducing his wife and murdering her because he couldn't have her."[18]

Harry's poetry possibly gave the best clue to his motives. Death was "the hand that opens the door to our cage the home we instinctively fly to."[1]:12

It was an infamous, humiliating death that mortified proper society. Harry's biographer Wolff wrote,

He had meant to do it; it was no mistake; it was not a joke. If anything of Harry Crosby commands respects, perhaps even awe, it was the unswerving character of his intention. He killed himself not from weariness or despair, but from conviction, and however irrational, or even ignoble, this conviction may have been, he held fast to it as to a principle. He killed himself on behalf of the idea of killing himself.

Some Crosby scholars maintain that Harry shot Josephine and several hours later shot himself. Others suggest that Josephine shot herself first, leaving Crosby little choice but to follow suit.[citation needed] Regardless of the exact details, Crosby's death, particularly the macabre circumstances under which it occurred, scandalized Boston's Back Bay society.


After Harry Crosby's suicide, Caresse kept the Black Sun Press going. She also established, with Jacques Porel, a side venture, Crosby Continental Editions, that published paperback books by Ernest Hemingway, William Faulkner, Dorothy Parker, among others. Her paperback books did not sell well, and the press closed in 1933. The Black Sun Press, however, continued publishing into the 1950s.[5]

The Black Sun Press produced finely crafted books in small editions, including works by, among others, D. H. Lawrence, Archibald MacLeish, James Joyce, Kay Boyle, and Hart Crane.

After Harry's death in 1931, She also published Torchbearer, a collection of his poetry with an afterward by Ezra Pound, and Aphrodite in Flight, a seventy-five paragraph-long prose-poem and how-to manual for lovers that compared flying planes to making love to a woman. Caresse published a boxed set of Harry's work title Collected poems of Harry Crosby containing Chariot of the Sun with D. H. Lawrence's intro, Transit of Venus with T. S. Eliot's intro, Sleeping Together with Stuart Gilbert's intro and Torchbearer in 1931. Hand-set in dorique type, only 50 copies were printed. [24]

Following her husband's suicide, Caresse Crosby edited his papers and continued the work of the Black Sun Press. She published and translated some of the works of Ernest Hemingway, William Faulkner, Dorothy Parker and others, as well as volumes of poetry (Crosses of Gold (Léon Pichon, 1925), Painted Shores (Black Sun Press, 1927), Poems for Harry Crosby (Black Sun Press, 1931)). Alvin Redman published her autobiography, Passionate Years, in 1955.

Books printed by the Black Sun Press are valued by collectors. Each book was hand-designed, beautifully printed, and illustrated with elegant typeface. A rare volume of Hart Crane's book-length poem The Bridge, including photos by Walker Evans, was sold by Christie's in 2009 for USD$21,250.[7]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa Geoffrey Wolff (2003). Black Sun: The Brief Transit and Violent Eclipse of Harry Crosby. New York Review of Books. http://books.google.com/books?id=RpVaAAAAMAAJ&pgis=1. 
  2. ^ Craddock, John (August 15, 1976). "The Book Corner". The News and Courier Charleston Evening Post. http://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=2506&dat=19760813&id=2wM1AAAAIBAJ&sjid=Bk8KAAAAIBAJ&pg=3217,2988625. Retrieved 16 March 2010. 
  3. ^ a b c d e Brunner, Edward. "Harry Crosby Biography". http://www.english.illinois.edu/maps/poets/a_f/crosby/bio.htm. Retrieved 13 March 2010. 
  4. ^ a b "Caresse Crosby, Infield". Cosmic Baseball Association. 1998. http://www.cosmicbaseball.com/caresse8.html. Retrieved December 2003. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Conover, Anne (1989). "Caresse Crosby: From Black Sun to Roccasinibalda". Capra Press. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0595159281/techpros. 
  6. ^ a b c d e "Harry Crosby". November 27, 2002. http://www.litkicks.com/HarryCrosby/. Retrieved 18 March 2010. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g Allis, Sam (February 22, 2009). "Black Sun rises again". http://www.boston.com/news/local/massachusetts/articles/2009/02/22/black_sun_rises_again/. Retrieved 16 March 2010. 
  8. ^ Schlueter, Paul (2008). "The Cramoisy Queen: A Life of Caresse Crosby". http://www.britannica.com/bps/additionalcontent/18/31195285/The-Cramoisy-Queen-A-Life-of-Caresse-Crosby. Retrieved 1-11-2010. 
  9. ^ a b Fisher, Clive (2002) (in p397). Hart Crane: a Life. Yale University Press. ISBN 030009061. http://books.google.com/books?id=1EMt14zIDvEC. 
  10. ^ a b c Hallewell, Tom. "Harry Grew Crosby Biography". http://www.banger.com/crosby/bio.html. Retrieved 14 March 2010. 
  11. ^ Fitch, Noel Riley. "Sylvia Beach and the Lost Generation: A History of Literary Paris in the Twenties and Thirties". http://books.google.com/books?id=Zpu5_c2o-2IC. Retrieved 19 March 2010. 
  12. ^ Brunner, Edward (Issue 3, Fall/Winter, 2001). "Biography Extending Harry Crosby’s “Brief Transit”". Post Road Magazine. http://www.postroadmag.com/Issue_3/Etcetera3/Etcetera.html. Retrieved 18 March 2010. 
  13. ^ Lyle, Peter (19 Jun 2009). "The Crosbys: literature's most scandalous couple". http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/5549090/The-Crosbys-literatures-most-scandlous-couple.html. 
  14. ^ "Introduction to Chariot to the Sun". Scandicci. May 1, 1928.. http://www.fascicle.com/issue03/essays/lawrence1.htm. Retrieved 18 March 2010. 
  15. ^ "Harry Crosby Biography". PoemHunter.com. http://www.poemhunter.com/harry-crosby/biography/. Retrieved 18 March 2010. 
  16. ^ "Remembering Harry Crosby: Kay Boyle, John Wheelwright". http://www.english.illinois.edu/Maps/poets/a_f/crosby/remembering.htm. Retrieved 18 March 2010. 
  17. ^ Crosby, Caresse (1968). The Passionate Years. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press. 
  18. ^ a b c d e Slosberg, Steven (May 2, 2002). "Sex, society and suicide make for great scandal". The Day. http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=pPcgAAAAIBAJ&sjid=lHMFAAAAIBAJ&pg=1233,955221&dq=caresse+crosby&hl=en. Retrieved 19 March 2010. 
  19. ^ a b Hamalian, Linda (2005). The Cramoisy Queen: A Life of Caresse Crosby. Southern Illinois University. ISBN 0809318652. :68
  20. ^ "The Milwaukee Journal". Special Collections Research Center, Morris Library, Southern Illinois University Carbondale. April 26, 1953. http://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=1499&dat=19530426&id=fD4aAAAAIBAJ&sjid=eSMEAAAAIBAJ&pg=6871,5795007. Retrieved 16 March 2010. 
  21. ^ "Hart Crane - Life Stories, Books, and Links". Today in Literature. http://www.todayinliterature.com/biography/hart.crane.asp. Retrieved 19 March 2010. 
  22. ^ "Zora (Photograph Owned by Harry Crosby)". 1920s. http://collections.carli.illinois.edu/cdm4/item_viewer.php?CISOROOT=/sic_scrcgen&CISOPTR=5695&CISOBOX=1&REC=1. 
  23. ^ "Couple Shot Dead in Artists Hotel". December 11, 1929. pp. 1. http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F60613FF3F5D117A93C3A81789D95F4D8285F9&scp=7&sq=harry%20crosby&st=cse. Retrieved 19 March 2010. 
  24. ^ "Collected poems of Harry Crosby". http://openlibrary.org/b/OL17460511M/Collected_poems_of_Harry_Crosby.. Retrieved 18 March 2010. 


  • Wolff, Geoffrey: Black Sun: The Brief Transit and Violent Eclipse of Harry Crosby (Random House, 1976) ISBN 0-394-47450-3; (repr. New York Review of Books, 2003) ISBN 1-59017-066-0
  • Minkoff, George Robert. A Bibliography of the Black Sun Press ... With an introduction by Caresse Crosby. (Great Neck, N.Y.: G. R. Minkoff, 1970)

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