The Full Wiki

Harry Potter: Wikis


Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Did you know ...

More interesting facts on Harry Potter

Include this on your site/blog:


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Harry Potter
Complete set of the seven books of the "Harry Potter" series
Complete set of the seven books
of the "Harry Potter" series.
Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone
Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets
Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban
Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire
Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix
Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince
Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows
Author J. K. Rowling
Country United Kingdom
Language English
Genre Fantasy, Young-adult fiction,
Mystery, Thriller
Publisher Bloomsbury Publishing (UK)
Arthur A. Levine Books (US) Raincoast Books (CAN)
Published 30 June 1997 – 21 July 2007
Media type Print (hardcover and paperback)

Harry Potter is a series of seven fantasy novels written by the English author J. K. Rowling. The books chronicle the adventures of the adolescent wizard Harry Potter and his best friends Ron Weasley and Hermione Granger, all of whom are students at Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry. The central story arc concerns Harry's struggle against the evil wizard Lord Voldemort, who killed Harry's parents in his quest to conquer the wizarding world and subjugate non-magical people (Muggles).

Since the 1997 release of the first novel Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone, which was retitled Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone in the United States, the books have gained immense popularity, critical acclaim and commercial success worldwide.[1] As of June 2008, the book series has sold more than 400 million copies and has been translated into 67 languages,[2][3] and the last four books have consecutively set records as the fastest-selling books in history.

English-language versions of the books are published by Bloomsbury in the United Kingdom, Scholastic Press in the United States, Allen & Unwin in Australia, and Raincoast Books in Canada. Thus far, the first six books have been made into a series of motion pictures by Warner Bros., which are the highest grossing film series of all time when not adjusted for inflation. The seventh book is being made into two films currently scheduled to be released nearly eight months apart: part one in November 2010 and the movie series finale in July 2011. The series also originated much tie-in merchandise, making the Harry Potter brand worth £15 billion.[4]


Coat of arms of Hogwarts.

The novels revolve around Harry Potter, an orphan who discovers at the age of eleven that he is a wizard.[5] Wizard ability is inborn, but children are sent to wizarding school to learn the magical skills necessary to succeed in the wizarding world.[6] Harry is invited to attend the boarding school called Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry. Each book chronicles one year in Harry's life, and most of the events take place at Hogwarts.[7] As he struggles through adolescence, Harry learns to overcome many magical, social and emotional hurdles.[8]

The main narrative of the novels is set in the years 1991-7[9], with significant memories from the year 1976 (Harry's parents' O.W.L. year) and memories from various determinable and undeterminable periods after 1945; though little reference is made to features of any period.

Wizarding world

Flashbacks throughout the series reveal that when Harry was a baby he witnessed his parents' murder by Lord Voldemort who was a dark wizard obsessed with racial purity.[10] For reasons not immediately revealed, Voldemort's attempt to kill Harry rebounds.[10] Voldemort is seemingly killed and Harry survives with only a lightning-shaped mark on his forehead as a memento of the attack.[10] As its inadvertent saviour from Voldemort's reign of terror, Harry becomes a living legend in the wizard world. However, at the orders of his patron, the wizard Albus Dumbledore, the orphaned Harry is placed in the home of his unpleasant Muggle (non-wizard) relatives, who keep him safe but completely ignorant of his true heritage.[10]

The first novel in the series, Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone, begins near Harry's 11th birthday. Half-giant Rubeus Hagrid reveals Harry's history and introduces him to the wizarding world.[10] The world J. K. Rowling created is both completely separate from and yet intimately connected to the real world. While the fantasy world of Narnia is an alternative universe and the Lord of the RingsMiddle-earth a mythic past, the Wizarding world of Harry Potter exists alongside that of the real world and contains magical elements similar to things in the non-magical world. Many of its institutions and locations are in places that are recognisable in the real world, such as London.[11] It comprises a fragmented collection of hidden streets, overlooked and ancient pubs, lonely country manors and secluded castles that remain invisible to the non-magical population of Muggles.[6]

With Hagrid's help, Harry prepares for and undertakes his first year of study at Hogwarts. As Harry begins to explore the magical world, the reader is introduced to many of the primary locations used throughout the series. Harry meets most of the main characters and gains his two closest friends: Ron Weasley, a fun-loving member of an ancient, large, happy, but hard-up wizarding family, and Hermione Granger, an obsessively bookish witch of non-magical parentage.[10][12] Harry also encounters the school's potions master, Severus Snape, who displays a deep and abiding dislike for him. The plot concludes with Harry's second confrontation with Lord Voldemort, who in his quest for immortality, yearns to gain the power of the Philosopher's Stone.[10]

The series continues with Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets describing Harry's second year at Hogwarts. He and his friends investigate a 50-year-old mystery that appears tied to recent sinister events at the school. The novel delves into the history of Hogwarts and a legend revolving around the "Chamber of Secrets", the underground lair of an ancient evil. For the first time, Harry realises that racial prejudice exists in the wizarding world, and he learns that Voldemort's reign of terror was often directed at wizards who were descended from Muggles. Harry is also shocked to learn that he can speak Parseltongue, the language of snakes; this rare ability is often equated with the dark arts. The novel ends after Harry saves the life of Ron's younger sister, Ginny Weasley, by destroying a Basilisk and the diary in which Voldemort saved a piece of his soul (although Harry does not realise this until later in the series). The concept of storing part of one's soul inside of an object in order to prevent death is officially introduced in the sixth novel under the term "horcrux".[10]

The third novel, Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban, follows Harry in his third year of magical education. It is the only book in the series which does not feature Voldemort. Instead, Harry must deal with the knowledge that he has been targeted by Sirius Black, an escaped murderer believed to have assisted in the deaths of Harry's parents. As Harry struggles with his reaction to the dementors—dark creatures with the power to devour a human soul—which are ostensibly protecting the school, he reaches out to Remus Lupin, a Defence Against the Dark Arts teacher with a dark secret. Lupin teaches Harry defensive measures which are well above the level of magic generally shown by people his age. Harry learns that both Lupin and Black were close friends of his father and that Black was framed by their fourth friend, Peter Pettigrew.[13]

Voldemort returns

"The Elephant House" – Café in Edinburgh in which Rowling wrote the first part of Harry Potter

During Harry's fourth year of school, detailed in Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire, Harry unwillingly participates in the Triwizard Tournament, a dangerous magical contest with the young foreign witches and wizards of visiting schools.[14] Harry attempts to discover who has forced him to compete in the tournament, and why.[15] An anxious Harry is guided through the tournament by Professor Alastor Moody, who is the Defence Against the Dark Arts teacher. The point at which the mystery is unravelled marks the series' shift from foreboding and uncertainty into open conflict as the children are growing up. The novel ends with the resurgence of Voldemort and the death of a student (Cedric Diggory)

In the fifth book, Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, Harry must confront the newly resurfaced Voldemort. In response to Voldemort's reappearance, Dumbledore re-activates the Order of the Phoenix, a secret society which works from Sirius Black's dark family home to defeat Voldemort's minions and protect Voldemort's targets, including Harry. The Order includes many of the adults Harry trusts, including Remus Lupin, Sirius Black, and members of the Weasley family, but also some surprising members. Good and the dark characters are not so obvious. Despite Harry's description of Voldemort's recent activities, the Ministry of Magic and many others in the magical world refuse to believe that Voldemort has returned.[16]

In an attempt to counter and eventually discredit Dumbledore, who along with Harry is the most prominent voice in the Wizarding World attempting to warn of the Dark Lord's return, the Ministry appoints Dolores Umbridge as the High Inquisitor of Hogwarts. She transforms the school by a dictatorial regime and refuses to allow the students to learn ways to defend themselves against dark magic.[16] Harry forms a secret study group to teach his classmates the higher-level skills of Defense Against the Dark Arts that he has learned. The novel introduces Harry to Luna Lovegood, an airy young witch with a tendency to believe in oddball conspiracy theories. An important prophecy concerning Harry and Voldemort is revealed,[17] and Harry discovers that he and Voldemort have a painful connection, allowing Harry to view some of Voldemort's actions telepathically. In the novel's climax, Harry and his school friends face off against Voldemort's Death Eaters, who include the rich and arrogant Malfoy family. The timely arrival of members of the Order of the Phoenix saves the children's lives and allows many of the Death Eaters to be captured and imprisoned.[16]

In their sixth year, in Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince, the protagonists have passed their OWL-levels and start on their specialist NEWT courses. Voldemort is leading another wizarding war, which has become so violent that even Muggles have noticed some of its effects. Although Harry and friends are relatively protected from that danger at Hogwarts, they are subject to all the difficulties of adolescence. At the beginning of the novel, he stumbles upon an old potions textbook filled with annotations and recommendations signed by a mysterious writer, the Half-Blood Prince.[18] While the shortcuts written in the book help Harry to excel at potions, he eventually learns to mistrust the anonymous writer's spells. Harry also takes private tutoring with Albus Dumbledore, who shows him various memories concerning the early life of Voldemort. These reveal that Voldemort's soul is splintered into a series of horcruxes, evil enchanted items hidden in various locations.[18] Harry's snobbish adversary, Draco Malfoy, attempts to attack Dumbledore, and the book culminates in the killing of Dumbledore by Professor Snape.

Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, the last book in the series, begins directly after the events of the sixth book. Voldemort has completed his ascension to power and gains control of the Ministry of Magic. Harry, Ron, and Hermione drop out of school so that they can find and destroy Voldemort's remaining horcruxes. To ensure their own safety as well as that of their family and friends, they are forced to isolate themselves. As they search for the horcruxes, the trio learn details about Dumbledore's past, as well as Snape's true motives.

The book culminates in the Battle of Hogwarts. Harry, Ron, and Hermione, in conjunction with members of the Order of the Phoenix and many of the teachers and students, defend Hogwarts from Voldemort, his Death Eaters, and various magical creatures. Several major characters are killed in the first wave of the battle and Voldemort resumes his intention to kill Harry. In an effort to save the survivors, Harry surrenders himself but the battle resumes as the parents of many Hogwarts students, residents of the nearby village Hogsmeade and other magical creatures arrive to reinforce the Order of the Phoenix. With the last horcrux destroyed, Harry finally faces Voldemort. Harry offers the Dark Lord a chance at remorse, but Voldemort ignores this and attempts to kill Harry one final time; resulting in Voldemort's death by his own hand. An epilogue describes the lives of the surviving characters and the effects on the wizarding world.

Supplementary works

Rowling has expanded the Harry Potter universe with several short books produced for various charities.[19][20] In 2001, she released Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them (a purported Hogwarts textbook) and Quidditch Through the Ages (a book Harry read for fun). Proceeds from the sale of these two books benefitted the charity Comic Relief.[21] In 2007, Rowling composed seven handwritten copies of The Tales of Beedle the Bard, a collection of fairy tales that is featured in the final novel, one of which was auctioned to raise money for the Children's High Level Group, a fund for mentally disabled children in poor countries. The book was published internationally on 4 December 2008.[22][23][24] Rowling also wrote an 800-word prequel in 2008 as part of a fundraiser organised by the bookseller Waterstones.[25]

Structure and genre

The Harry Potter novels fall within the genre of fantasy literature; however, in many respects they are also bildungsromans, or coming of age novels.[26] They can be considered part of the British children's boarding school genre, which includes Enid Blyton's Malory Towers, St. Clare's and the Naughtiest Girl series, and Frank Richards's Billy Bunter novels.[27] The Harry Potter books are predominantly set in Hogwarts, a fictional British boarding school for wizards, where the curriculum includes the use of magic.[27] In this sense they are "in a direct line of descent from Thomas Hughes's Tom Brown's School Days and other Victorian and Edwardian novels of British public school life".[28][29] They are also, in the words of Stephen King, "shrewd mystery tales",[30] and each book is constructed in the manner of a Sherlock Holmes-style mystery adventure. The stories are told from a third person limited point of view with very few exceptions (such as the opening chapters of Philosopher's Stone and Deathly Hallows and the first two chapters of Half-Blood Prince).

In the middle of each book, Harry struggles with the problems he encounters, and dealing with them often involves the need to violate some school rules—the penalties, in case of being caught out, being disciplinary punishments set out in the Hogwarts regulations (in which the Harry Potter books follow many precedents in the boarding school sub-genre).[27] However, the stories reach their climax in the summer term, near or just after final exams, when events escalate far beyond in-school squabbles and struggles, and Harry must confront either Voldemort or one of his followers, the Death Eaters, with the stakes a matter of life and death–a point underlined, as the series progresses, by one or more characters being killed in each of the final four books.[31][32] In the aftermath, he learns important lessons through exposition and discussions with head teacher and mentor Albus Dumbledore.

In the final novel, Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, Harry and his friends spend most of their time away from Hogwarts, and only return there to face Voldemort at the dénouement.[31] Completing the bildungsroman format, in this part Harry must grow up prematurely, losing the chance of a last year as a pupil in a school and needing to act as an adult, on whose decisions everybody else depends—the grown-ups included.[33]


According to Rowling, a major theme in the series is death: "My books are largely about death. They open with the death of Harry's parents. There is Voldemort's obsession with conquering death and his quest for immortality at any price, the goal of anyone with magic. I so understand why Voldemort wants to conquer death. We're all frightened of it."[34]

Academics and journalists have developed many other interpretations of themes in the books, some more complex than others, and some including political subtexts. Themes such as normality, oppression, survival, and overcoming imposing odds have all been considered as prevalent throughout the series.[35] Similarly, the theme of making one's way through adolescence and "going over one's most harrowing ordeals—and thus coming to terms with them" has also been considered.[36] Rowling has stated that the books comprise "a prolonged argument for tolerance, a prolonged plea for an end to bigotry" and that also pass on a message to "question authority and... not assume that the establishment or the press tells you all of the truth".[37][38]

While the books could be said to comprise many other themes, such as power/abuse of power, love, prejudice, and free choice, they are, as J. K. Rowling states, "deeply entrenched in the whole plot"; the writer prefers to let themes "grow organically", rather than sitting down and consciously attempting to impart such ideas to her readers.[39] Along the same lines is the ever-present theme of adolescence, in whose depiction Rowling has been purposeful in acknowledging her characters' sexualities and not leaving Harry, as she put it, "stuck in a state of permanent pre-pubescence".[40] Rowling said that, to her, the moral significance of the tales seems "blindingly obvious". The key for her was the choice between what is right and what is easy, "because that ... is how tyranny is started, with people being apathetic and taking the easy route and suddenly finding themselves in deep trouble."[41]

Origins and publishing history

The original novelist, J. K. Rowling.

In 1990, J. K. Rowling was on a crowded train from Manchester to London when the idea for Harry suddenly "fell into her head". Rowling gives an account of the experience on her website saying:[42]

"I had been writing almost continuously since the age of six but I had never been so excited about an idea before. I simply sat and thought, for four (delayed train) hours, and all the details bubbled up in my brain, and this scrawny, black-haired, bespectacled boy who did not know he was a wizard became more and more real to me."

Rowling completed Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone in 1995 and the manuscript was sent off to several prospective agents.[43] The second agent she tried, Christopher Little, offered to represent her and sent the manuscript to Bloomsbury. After eight other publishers had rejected Philosopher's Stone, Bloomsbury offered Rowling a £2,500 advance for its publication.[44][45] Despite Rowling's statement that she did not have any particular age group in mind when beginning to write the Harry Potter books, the publishers initially targeted children aged nine to eleven.[46] On the eve of publishing, Rowling was asked by her publishers to adopt a more gender-neutral pen name in order to appeal to the male members of this age group, fearing that they would not be interested in reading a novel they knew to be written by a woman. She elected to use J. K. Rowling (Joanne Kathleen Rowling), using her grandmother's name as her second name because she has no middle name.[45][47]

Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone was published by Bloomsbury, the publisher of all Harry Potter books in the United Kingdom, on 30 June 1997.[48] It was released in the United States on 1 September 1998 by Scholastic—the American publisher of the books—as Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone,[49] after Rowling had received US$105,000 for the American rights—an unprecedented amount for a children's book by a then-unknown author.[50] Fearing that American readers would not associate the word "philosopher" with a magical theme (although the Philosopher's Stone is alchemy-related), Scholastic insisted that the book be given the title Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone for the American market.

The second book, Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets was originally published in the UK on 2 July 1998 and in the US on 2 June 1999.[51][52] Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban was then published a year later in the UK on 8 July 1999 and in the US on 8 September 1999.[51][52] Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire was published on 8 July 2000 at the same time by Bloomsbury and Scholastic.[53] Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix is the longest book in the series at 766 pages in the UK version and 870 pages in the US version.[54] It was published worldwide in English on 21 June 2003.[55] Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince was published on 16 July 2005, and it sold 9 million copies in the first 24 hours of its worldwide release.[56][57] The seventh and final novel, Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, was published 21 July 2007.[58] The book sold 11 million copies in the first 24 hours of release, breaking down to 2.7 million copies in the UK and 8.3 million in the US.[59]


The series has been translated into 67 languages,[2][60] placing Rowling among the most translated authors in history.[61] The first translation was into American English, as many words and concepts used by the characters in the novels may have been misleading to a young American audience.[62] Subsequently, the books have seen translations to diverse languages such as Ukrainian, Arabic, Urdu, Hindi, Bengali, Welsh, Afrikaans, Latvian and Vietnamese. The first volume has been translated into Latin and even Ancient Greek,[63] making it the longest published work in Ancient Greek since the novels of Heliodorus of Emesa in the 3rd century AD.[64]

Some of the translators hired to work on the books were quite well-known before their work on Harry Potter, such as Viktor Golyshev, who oversaw the Russian translation of the series' fifth book. The Turkish translation of books two to seven was undertaken by Sevin Okyay, a popular literary critic and cultural commentator.[65] For reasons of secrecy, translation can only start when the books are released in English; thus there is a lag of several months before the translations are available. This has led to more and more copies of the English editions being sold to impatient fans in non-English speaking countries. Such was the clamour to read the fifth book that its English language edition became the first English-language book ever to top the bestseller list in France.[66]

Completion of the series

In December 2005, Rowling stated on her web site, "2006 will be the year when I write the final book in the Harry Potter series."[67] Updates then followed in her online diary chronicling the progress of Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, with the release date of 21 July 2007. The book itself was finished on 11 January 2007 in the Balmoral Hotel, Edinburgh, where she scrawled a message on the back of a bust of Hermes. It read: "J. K. Rowling finished writing Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows in this room (652) on 11 January 2007."[68]

Rowling herself has stated that the last chapter of the final book (in fact, the epilogue) was completed "in something like 1990".[69][70] In June 2006, Rowling, on an appearance on the British talk show Richard & Judy, announced that the chapter had been modified as one character "got a reprieve" and two others who previously survived the story had in fact been killed. On 28 March 2007, the cover art for the Bloomsbury Adult and Child versions and the Scholastic version were released.[71][72]


Crowds wait outside a Borders store in Newark, Delaware for the midnight release of Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince.

Cultural impact

Fans of the series were so eager for the latest instalment that bookstores around the world began holding events to coincide with the midnight release of the books, beginning with the 2000 publication of Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire. The events, commonly featuring mock sorting, games, face painting, and other live entertainment have achieved popularity with Potter fans and have been highly successful in attracting fans and selling books with nearly nine million of the 10.8 million initial print copies of Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince sold in the first 24 hours.[73][74]. The final book in the series, Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows became the fastest selling book in history, moving 11 million units in the first twenty-four hours of release [75]. The series has also gathered adult fans, leading to the release of two editions of each Harry Potter book, identical in text but with one edition's cover artwork aimed at children and the other aimed at adults.[76] Besides meeting online through blogs, podcasts, and fansites, Harry Potter super-fans can also meet at Harry Potter symposia. The word Muggle has spread beyond its Harry Potter origins, becoming one of few pop culture words to land in the Oxford English Dictionary.[77] The Harry Potter fandom has embraced podcasts as a regular, often weekly, insight to the latest discussion in the fandom. Both MuggleCast and PotterCast[78] have reached the top spot of iTunes podcast rankings and have been polled one of the top 50 favourite podcasts.[79]

Awards and honours

The Harry Potter series have been the recipients of a host of awards since the initial publication of Philosopher's Stone including four Whitaker Platinum Book Awards (all of which were awarded in 2001),[80] three Nestlé Smarties Book Prizes (1997–1999),[81] two Scottish Arts Council Book Awards (1999 and 2001),[82] the inaugural Whitbread children's book of the year award (1999),[83] the WHSmith book of the year (2006),[84] among others. In 2000, Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban was nominated for Best Novel in the Hugo Awards while in 2001, Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire won said award.[85] Honours include a commendation for the Carnegie Medal (1997),[86] a short listing for the Guardian Children's Award (1998), and numerous listings on the notable books, editors' Choices, and best books lists of the American Library Association, The New York Times, Chicago Public Library, and Publishers Weekly.[87]

Commercial success

The popularity of the Harry Potter series has translated into substantial financial success for Rowling, her publishers, and other Harry Potter related license holders. This success has made Rowling the first and thus far only billionaire author.[88] The books have sold more than 400 million copies worldwide and have also given rise to the popular film adaptations produced by Warner Bros., all of which have been highly successful in their own right with the first, Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone, ranking number five on the inflation-unadjusted list of all-time highest grossing films and four others ranking in the top 15, while all six films released, so far, place in the top 25.[3][89] The films have in turn spawned eight video games and have led to the licensing of more than 400 additional Harry Potter products (including an iPod) that have, as of 2005, made the Harry Potter brand worth US$4 billion and J. K. Rowling worth $1 billion[90] making her, by some reports, richer than Queen Elizabeth II.[91][92] However, Rowling has stated that this is false.[93]

The great demand for Harry Potter books motivated the New York Times to create a separate bestseller list for children's literature in 2000, just before the release of Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire. By 24 June 2000, Rowling's novels had been on the list for 79 straight weeks; the first three novels were each on the hardcover bestseller list.[94] On 12 April 2007, Barnes & Noble declared that Deathly Hallows had broken its pre-order record, with more than 500,000 copies pre-ordered through its site.[95] For the release of Goblet of Fire, 9,000 FedEx trucks were used with no other purpose than to deliver the book.[96] Together, and Barnes & Noble pre-sold more than 700,000 copies of the book.[96] In the United States, the book's initial printing run was 3.8 million copies.[96] This record statistic was broken by Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, with 8.5 million, which was then shattered by Half-Blood Prince with 10.8 million copies.[97] 6.9 million copies of Prince were sold in the U.S. within the first 24 hours of its release; in the United Kingdom more than two million copies were sold on the first day.[98] The initial U.S. print run for Deathly Hallows was 12 million copies, and more than a million were pre-ordered through Amazon and Barnes & Noble.[99]

Criticism, praise, and controversy

Literary criticism

British editions of the seven Harry Potter books.

Early in its history, Harry Potter received positive reviews. On publication, the first volume, Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone, attracted attention from the Scottish newspapers, such as The Scotsman, which said it had "all the makings of a classic",[100] and The Glasgow Herald, which called it "Magic stuff".[100] Soon the English newspapers joined in, with more than one comparing it to Roald Dahl's work: The Mail on Sunday rated it as "the most imaginative debut since Roald Dahl",[100] a view echoed by The Sunday Times ("comparisons to Dahl are, this time, justified"),[100] while The Guardian called it "a richly textured novel given lift-off by an inventive wit".[100]

By the time of the release of the fifth volume, Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, the books began to receive strong criticism from a number of literary scholars. Yale professor, literary scholar and critic Harold Bloom raised criticisms of the books' literary merits, saying, "Rowling's mind is so governed by clichés and dead metaphors that she has no other style of writing."[101] A. S. Byatt authored a New York Times op-ed article calling Rowling's universe a "secondary world, made up of patchworked derivative motifs from all sorts of children's literature ... written for people whose imaginative lives are confined to TV cartoons, and the exaggerated (more exciting, not threatening) mirror-worlds of soaps, reality TV and celebrity gossip".[102]

The critic Anthony Holden wrote in The Observer on his experience of judging Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban for the 1999 Whitbread Awards. His overall view of the series was negative—"the Potter saga was essentially patronising, conservative, highly derivative, dispiritingly nostalgic for a bygone Britain", and he speaks of "pedestrian, ungrammatical prose style".[103] Ursula Le Guin said, "I have no great opinion of it. When so many adult critics were carrying on about the 'incredible originality' of the first Harry Potter book, I read it to find out what the fuss was about, and remained somewhat puzzled; it seemed a lively kid's fantasy crossed with a "school novel", good fare for its age group, but stylistically ordinary, imaginatively derivative, and ethically rather mean-spirited." [104]

By contrast, author Fay Weldon, while admitting that the series is "not what the poets hoped for", nevertheless goes on to say, "but this is not poetry, it is readable, saleable, everyday, useful prose".[105] The literary critic A. N. Wilson praised the Harry Potter series in The Times, stating: "There are not many writers who have JK’s Dickensian ability to make us turn the pages, to weep—openly, with tears splashing—and a few pages later to laugh, at invariably good jokes ... We have lived through a decade in which we have followed the publication of the liveliest, funniest, scariest and most moving children’s stories ever written".[106] Charles Taylor of, who is primarily a movie critic,[107] took issue with Byatt's criticisms in particular. While he conceded that she may have "a valid cultural point—a teeny one—about the impulses that drive us to reassuring pop trash and away from the troubling complexities of art",[108] he rejected her claims that the series is lacking in serious literary merit and that it owes its success merely to the childhood reassurances it offers. Taylor stressed the progressively darker tone of the books, shown by the murder of a classmate and close friend and the psychological wounds and social isolation each causes. Taylor also argued that Philosopher's Stone, said to be the most lighthearted of the seven published books, disrupts the childhood reassurances that Byatt claims spur the series' success: the book opens with news of a double murder, for example.[108]

Stephen King called the series "a feat of which only a superior imagination is capable", and declared "Rowling's punning, one-eyebrow-cocked sense of humour" to be "remarkable". However, he wrote that despite the story being "a good one", he is "a little tired of discovering Harry at home with his horrible aunt and uncle", the formulaic beginning of all seven books.[30] King has also joked that "Rowling's never met an adverb she did not like!" He does however predict that Harry Potter "will indeed stand time's test and wind up on a shelf where only the best are kept; I think Harry will take his place with Alice, Huck, Frodo, and Dorothy and this is one series not just for the decade, but for the ages".[109]

Social impacts

Although Time magazine named Rowling as a runner-up for its 2007 Person of the Year award, noting the social, moral, and political inspiration she has given her fandom,[110] cultural comments on the series have been mixed. Washington Post book critic Ron Charles opined in July 2007 that the large numbers of adults reading the Potter series but few other books may represent a "bad case of cultural infantilism", and that the straightforward "good vs. evil" theme of the series is "childish". He also argued "through no fault of Rowling's", the cultural and marketing "hysteria" marked by the publication of the later books "trains children and adults to expect the roar of the coliseum, a mass-media experience that no other novel can possibly provide".[111]

Librarian Nancy Knapp pointed out the books' potential to improve literacy by motivating children to read much more than they otherwise would.[112] Agreeing about the motivating effects, Diane Penrod also praised the books' blending of simple entertainment with "the qualities of highbrow literary fiction", but expressed concern about the distracting effect of the prolific merchandising that accompanies the book launches.[113]

Jennifer Conn used Snape's and Quidditch coach Madam Hooch's teaching methods as examples of what to avoid and what to emulate in clinical teaching,[114] and Joyce Fields wrote that the books illustrate four of the five main topics in a typical first-year sociology class: "sociological concepts including culture, society, and socialisation; stratification and social inequality; social institutions; and social theory".[115]

Jenny Sawyer wrote in the 25 July 2007 Christian Science Monitor that the books represent a "disturbing trend in commercial storytelling and Western society" in that stories "moral center have all but vanished from much of today's pop culture ... after 10 years, 4,195 pages, and over 375 million copies, J. K. Rowling's towering achievement lacks the cornerstone of almost all great children's literature: the hero's moral journey". Harry Potter, Sawyer argues, neither faces a "moral struggle" nor undergoes any ethical growth, and is thus "no guide in circumstances in which right and wrong are anything less than black and white".[116] On the other hand Emily Griesinger described Harry's first passage through to Platform 9¾ as an application of faith and hope, and his encounter with the Sorting Hat as the first of many in which Harry is shaped by the choices he makes. She also noted the "deeper magic" by which the self-sacrifice of Harry's mother protects the boy throughout the series, and which the power-hungry Voldemort fails to understand.[117]

In an 8 November 2002 Slate Magazine article, Chris Suellentrop likened Potter to a "trust-fund kid whose success at school is largely attributable to the gifts his friends and relatives lavish upon him". Noting that in Rowling's fiction, magical ability potential is "something you are born to, not something you can achieve", Suellentrop wrote that Dumbledore's maxim that "It is our choices that show what we truly are, far more than our abilities" is hypocritical, as "the school that Dumbledore runs values native gifts above all else".[118] In a 12 August 2007 New York Times review of The Deathly Hallows, however, Christopher Hitchens praised Rowling for "unmooring" her "English school story" from literary precedents "bound up with dreams of wealth and class and snobbery", arguing that she had instead created "a world of youthful democracy and diversity".[119]


The books have been the subject of a number of legal proceedings, stemming either from claims by American Christian groups that the magic in the books promotes witchcraft among children, or from various conflicts over copyright and trademark infringements. The popularity and high market value of the series has led Rowling, her publishers, and film distributor Warner Bros. to take legal measures to protect their copyright, which have included banning the sale of Harry Potter imitations, targeting the owners of websites over the "Harry Potter" domain name, and suing author Nancy Stouffer to counter her accusations that Rowling had plagiarised her work.[120][121][122] Various religious conservatives have claimed that the books promote witchcraft and are therefore unsuitable for children,[123] while a number of critics have criticised the books for promoting various political agendas.[124][125]

The books also aroused controversies in the literary and publishing worlds. In 1997 to 1998 Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone won almost all the UK awards judged by children, but none of the children's book awards judged by adults,[126] and Sandra Beckett suggested the reason was intellectual snobbery towards books that were popular among children.[127] In 1999 the winner of the Whitbread Book of the Year Award children's division was entered for the first time on the shortlist for the main award, and one judge threatened to resign if Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban was declared the overall winner; it finished second, very close behind the winner of the poetry prize, Seamus Heaney's translation of the Anglo-Saxon epic Beowulf.[127]

In 2000, shortly before the publication of Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire, the previous three Harry Potter books topped the New York Times fiction best-seller list and a third of the entries were children's books. The newspaper created a new children's section cover splits children's sections, including both fiction and non-fiction, and initially counting only hardback sales. The move was supported by publishers and booksellers.[128] In 2004 The New York Times further split the children's list, which was still dominated by Harry Potter books into sections for series and individual books, and removed the Harry Potter books from the section for individual books.[129] The split in 2000 attracted condemnation, praise and some comments that presented both benefits and disadvantages of the move.[130] Time suggested that, on the same principle, Billboard should have created a separate "mop-tops" list in 1964 when the Beatles held the top five places in its list, and Nielsen should have created a separate game-show list when Who Wants to Be a Millionaire? dominated the ratings.[131]


The train used as "The Hogwarts Express" in the film.

In 1998,[132] Rowling sold the film rights of the first four Harry Potter books to Warner Bros. for a reported £1 million ($1,982,900).[133] Rowling demanded the principal cast be kept strictly British, nonetheless allowing for the inclusion of many Irish actors such as the late Richard Harris as Dumbledore, and for casting of French and Eastern European actors in Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire where characters from the book are specified as such.[134] After many directors including Steven Spielberg, Terry Gilliam, Jonathan Demme, and Alan Parker were considered, Chris Columbus was appointed on 28 March 2000 as director for Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone (titled "Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone" in the United States), with Warner Bros. citing his work on other family films such as Home Alone and Mrs. Doubtfire as influences for their decision.[135] After extensive casting,[136] filming began in October 2000 at Leavesden Film Studios and in London itself, with production ending in July 2001.[137] Philosopher's Stone was released on 14 November 2001. Just three days after Philosopher's Stone's release, production for Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets, also directed by Columbus began, finishing in summer 2002. The film was released on 15 November 2002.[138]

Chris Columbus declined to direct Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban, only acting as producer. Mexican director Alfonso Cuarón took over the job, and after shooting in 2003, the film was released on 4 June 2004. Due to the fourth film beginning its production before the third's release, Mike Newell was chosen as the director for Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire,[139] released on 18 November 2005. Newell declined to direct the next movie, and British television director David Yates was chosen for Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, which began production on January 2006,[140] and was released on 11 July 2007. Yates also directed Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince,[141] which was released on 15 July 2009.[142][143]

In March 2008, Warner Bros. announced that the final installment of the series, Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, would be released in two film segments, part one in November, 2010 and part two in July, 2011. Production of both parts is underway, with Yates returning to direct.[144] The Harry Potter films have been top-rank box office hits, with all six current releases on the list of 25 highest-grossing films worldwide.[145]

Opinions of the films are generally divided among fans, with one group preferring the more faithful approach of the first two films, and another group preferring the more stylised character-driven approach of the later films.[146] Rowling has been constantly supportive of the films,[147][148][149] and evaluated Order of the Phoenix as "the best one yet" in the series. She wrote on her web site of the changes in the book-to-film transition, "It is simply impossible to incorporate every one of my storylines into a film that has to be kept under four hours long. Obviously films have restrictions novels do not have, constraints of time and budget; I can create dazzling effects relying on nothing but the interaction of my own and my readers’ imaginations".[150]


The Harry Potter books have all been released on unabridged audiobook. The UK versions are read by Stephen Fry and the US versions are read by Jim Dale. Dale is also the narrator for the special features disc on the DVDs.

Theme park

After the success of the films and books, in Fall 2009 Universal announced it would create "Harry Potter and the Forbidden Journey", which will be a hi-tech ride at the "Wizarding World of Harry Potter". The Wizarding World of Harry Potter would be a new theme park area opening in spring 2010 at Universal Orlando Resort, Florida.[151]

The entrance will be through a recreated version of the Hogsmeade station,[152] leading to a recreated Hogwarts castle. Rides are set to include a twin high-speed rollercoaster named the 'Dragon Challenge' and a family roller coaster called 'Flight of the Hippogriff'. Every shop and restaurant will be themed – Honeydukes will sell chocolate frogs and 'Bertie Bott's Every-Flavour Beans', Ollivander's will sell magic wands, Zonko's joke shop will sell Sneakoscopes, and the Three Broomsticks pours Butterbeer.[153]


  1. ^ Allsobrook, Dr. Marian (18 June 2003). "Potter's place in the literary canon". BBC. Retrieved 15 October 2007. 
  2. ^ a b "Rowling 'makes £5 every second'". British Broadcasting Corporation. 3 October 2008. Retrieved 17 October 2008. 
  3. ^ a b "All Time Worldwide Box Office Grosses". Box Office Mojo, LLC.. 1998–2008. Retrieved 29 July 2008. 
  4. ^ "Business big shot: Harry Potter author JK Rowling". London. Retrieved 14 July 2009. 
  5. ^ "Review: Gladly drinking from Rowling's 'Goblet of Fire'". CNN. 14 July 2000. Retrieved 28 September 2008. 
  6. ^ a b "A Muggle's guide to Harry Potter". BBC. 28 May 2004. Retrieved 22 August 2008. 
  7. ^ Frauenfelder, David (17 July 2007). "Harry Potter, Hogwarts and Home". The News & Observer Publishing Company. Retrieved 29 September 2008. 
  8. ^ Hajela, Deepti (14 July 2005). "Plot summaries for the first five Potter books".,0,6711375.story. Retrieved 29 September 2008. 
  9. ^ Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows by J.K. Rowling
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h "The Harry Potter stories so far: A quick CliffsNotes review". USA Today. Retrieved 28 September 2008. 
  11. ^ "Harry Potter and the parallel universe". Retrieved 28 September 2008. 
  12. ^ "J K Rowling at the Edinburgh Book Festival". J.K. 15 August 2004. Retrieved 27 September 2008. 
  13. ^ Maguire, Gregory (5 September 1999). "Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban". The New York Times. Retrieved 28 September 2008. 
  14. ^ King, Stephen (23 July 2000). "Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire". The New York Times. Retrieved 28 September 2008. 
  15. ^ King, Stephen (23 July 2000). "Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire 2". The New York Times. Retrieved 28 September 2008. 
  16. ^ a b c "Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix’". The New York Times. 13 July 2003. Retrieved 28 September 2008. 
  17. ^ A. Whited, Lana. (2004). The Ivory Tower and Harry Potter: Perspectives on a Literary Phenomenon. University of Missouri Press. p. 371. ISBN 9780826215499. 
  18. ^ a b Kakutani, Michiko (16 July 2005). "Harry Potter Works His Magic Again in a Far Darker Tale". The New York Times. Retrieved 28 September 2008. 
  19. ^ "How Rowling conjured up millions". BBC. 19 July 2007. Retrieved 7 September 2008. 
  20. ^ "Comic Relief : Quidditch through the ages". Albris. Retrieved 7 September 2008. 
  21. ^ "The Money". Comic Relief. Retrieved 25 October 2007. 
  22. ^ "JK Rowling Fairy Tales To Go On Sale For Charity". ANI. 2008. Retrieved 2 August 2008. 
  23. ^ "JK Rowling book fetches £2 m". BBC. 13 December 2007. Retrieved 13 December 2007. 
  24. ^ "Amazon purchase book". Inc. Retrieved 14 December 2007. 
  25. ^ Williams, Rachel (2008). "Rowling pens Potter prequel for charities". The Guardian.  Retrieved on 31 May 2008.
  26. ^ Anne Le Lievre, Kerrie (2003). "Wizards and wainscots: generic structures and genre themes in the Harry Potter series". CNET Networks, Inc., a CBS Company. Retrieved 1 September 2008. 
  27. ^ a b c "Harry Potter makes boarding fashionable". BBC. 13 December 1999. Retrieved 1 September 2008. 
  28. ^ Ellen Jones, Leslie (2003). J.R.R. Tolkien: A Biography. Greenwood Press. p. 16. ISBN 978-0313323409. 
  29. ^ A. Whited, Lana. (2004). The Ivory Tower and Harry Potter: Perspectives on a Literary Phenomenon. University of Missouri Press. p. 28. ISBN 9780826215499. 
  30. ^ a b "Wild About Harry". The New York Times. 23 July 2000. 
  31. ^ a b Grossman, Lev. "Harry Potter's Last Adventure". Time Inc.,28804,1637886_1637891,00.html. Retrieved 1 September 2008. 
  32. ^ "Two characters to die in last 'Harry Potter' book: J.K. Rowling". CBC. 2006. Retrieved 1 September 2008. 
  33. ^ "Press views: The Deathly Hallows". Bloomsbury Publishing. 21 July 2007. Retrieved 22 August 2008. 
  34. ^ Geordie Greig (11 January 2006). "'There would be so much to tell her...'". Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 4 April 2007. 
  35. ^ Greenwald, Janey; Greenwald, J (Fall 2005). "Understanding Harry Potter: Parallels to the Deaf World" (Free full text). The Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education 10 (4): 442–450. doi:10.1093/deafed/eni041. ISSN 1081-4159. PMID 16000691. 
  36. ^ Duffy, Edward (2002). "Sentences in Harry Potter, Students in Future Writing Classes". Rhetoric Review 21 (2): 177. doi:10.1207/S15327981RR2102_03. 
  37. ^ "J. K. Rowling at Carnegie Hall". The Leaky Cauldron. The Leaky Cauldron. 2007. Retrieved 21 October 2007. 
  38. ^ "JK Rowling outs Dumbledore as gay". BBC News (BBC). 21 October 2007. Retrieved 21 October 2007. 
  39. ^ "Mzimba, Lizo, moderator. Interview with Steve Kloves and J.K. Rowling". Quick Quotes Quill. February, 2003. Retrieved 28 July 2008. 
  40. ^ "About the Books: transcript of J.K. Rowling's live interview on". Quick-Quote-Quill. 16 February 1999. Retrieved 28 July 2008. 
  41. ^ Max, Wyman (26 October 2000). ""You can lead a fool to a book but you cannot make them think": Author has frank words for the religious right". The Vancouver Sun (British Columbia). Retrieved 28 July 2008. 
  42. ^ Rowling, J. K. (2006). "Biography". Retrieved 21 May 2006. 
  43. ^ "Final Harry Potter book set for release". Euskal Telebista. 15 July 2007. Retrieved 21 August 2008. 
  44. ^ Lawless, John (2005). "Nigel Newton". The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc.. Retrieved 9 September 2006. 
  45. ^ a b A. Whited, Lana. (2004). The Ivory Tower and Harry Potter: Perspectives on a Literary Phenomenon. University of Missouri Press. p. 351. ISBN 9780826215499. 
  46. ^ Huler, Scott. "The magic years". The News & Observer Publishing Company. Retrieved 28 September 2008. 
  47. ^ Savill, Richard (21 June 2001). "Harry Potter and the mystery of J K's lost initial". Retrieved 27 September 2008. 
  48. ^ "The Potter phenomenon". BBC. 18 February 2003. Retrieved 27 September 2008. 
  49. ^ "Wild about Harry". NYP Holdings, Inc.. Retrieved 27 September 2008. 
  50. ^ Rozhon, Tracie (21 April 2007). "A Brief Walk Through Time at Scholastic". The New York Times. p. C3. Retrieved 21 April 2007. 
  51. ^ a b "A Potter timeline for muggles". Toronto Star. 14 July 2007. Retrieved 27 September 2008. 
  52. ^ a b "Harry Potter: Meet J.K. Rowling". Scholastic Inc. Retrieved 27 September 2008. 
  53. ^ "Speed-reading after lights out". Guardian News and Media Limited. 19 July 2000. Retrieved 27 September 2008. 
  54. ^ "Harry Potter and the Internet Pirates". The New York Times. Retrieved 21 August 2008. 
  55. ^ Cassy, John (16 January 2003). "Harry Potter and the hottest day of summer". Guardian News and Media Limited. Retrieved 27 September 2008. 
  56. ^ "July date for Harry Potter book". BBC. 21 December 2004. Retrieved 27 September 2008. 
  57. ^ "Harry Potter finale sales hit 11 m". BBC News. 23 July 2007. Retrieved 21 August 2008. 
  58. ^ "Rowling unveils last Potter date". BBC. 1 February 2007. Retrieved 27 September 2008. 
  59. ^ "Harry Potter finale sales hit 11 m". BBC. 23 July 2007. Retrieved 20 August 2008. 
  60. ^ "Harry Potter breaks 400m in sales". Guardian News and Media Limited. 18 June 2008. Retrieved 17 October 2008. 
  61. ^ KMaul (2005). "Guinness World Records: L. Ron Hubbard Is the Most Translated Author". The Book Standard. Retrieved 19 July 2007. 
  62. ^ "Differences in the UK and US Versions of Four Harry Potter Books". FAST US-1. 21 January 2008. Retrieved 17 August 2008. 
  63. ^ Wilson, Andrew (2006). "Harry Potter in Greek". Andrew Wilson. Retrieved 28 July 2008. 
  64. ^ Castle, Tim (2 December 2004). "Harry Potter? It's All Greek to Me". Reuters. Retrieved 28 July 2008. 
  65. ^ Güler, Emrah (2005). "Not lost in translation: Harry Potter in Turkish". The Turkish Daily News. Retrieved 9 May 2007. 
  66. ^ Staff Writer (1 July 2003). "OOTP is best seller in France — in English!". BBC. Retrieved 28 July 2008. 
  67. ^ "Rowling gearing up for final 'Potter'". CNN. 27 December 2005. Retrieved 28 September 2008. 
  68. ^ "Potter author signs off in style". BBC. 2 February 2007. Retrieved 5 January 2010. 
  69. ^ ""Rowling to kill two in final book"". BBC. 27 June 2006. Retrieved 25 July 2007. 
  70. ^ ""Harry Potter and Me"". BBC News. 28 December 2001. Retrieved 12 September 2007. 
  71. ^ "Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows at Bloomsbury Publishing". Bloomsbury Publishing. Retrieved 28 September 2008. 
  72. ^ "Cover Art: Harry Potter 7". Scholastic. Retrieved 28 September 2008. 
  73. ^ Freeman, Simon (18 July 2005). "Harry Potter casts spell at checkouts". London: Times Online. Retrieved 29 July 2008. 
  74. ^ "Potter book smashes sales records". BBC. 18 July 2005. Retrieved 29 July 2008. 
  75. ^
  76. ^ "Harry Potter at Bloomsbury Publishing — Adult and Children Covers". Bloomsbury Publishing. Retrieved 18 August 2008. 
  77. ^ McCaffrey, Meg (1 May 2003). "'Muggle' Redux in the Oxford English Dictionary". School Library Journal. Retrieved 1 May 2007. 
  78. ^ "Book corner: Secrets of Podcasting". Apple Inc.. 8 September 2005. Retrieved 31 January 2007. 
  79. ^ " Taps Limelight's Magic for Podcast Delivery of Harry Potter Content". PR Newswire. 8 November 2005. Retrieved 31 January 2007. 
  80. ^ "Book honour for Harry Potter author". BBC. 21 September 2001. Retrieved 28 September 2008. 
  81. ^ "JK Rowling: From rags to riches". BBC. 20 September 2008. Retrieved 28 September 2008. 
  82. ^ "Book 'Oscar' for Potter author". BBC. 30 May 2001. Retrieved 28 September 2008. 
  83. ^ "Harry Potter casts a spell on the world". CNN. 18 July 1999. Retrieved 28 September 2008. 
  84. ^ "Meet J.K. Rowling". Scholastic. Retrieved 28 September 2008. 
  85. ^ "Moviegoers get wound up over ‘Watchmen’". MSNBC. 22 July 2008. Retrieved 28 September 2008. 
  86. ^ "Harry Potter beaten to top award". BBC. 7 July 2000. Retrieved 28 September 2008. 
  87. ^ Levine, Arthur (2001–2005). "Awards". Arthur A. Levine Books. Retrieved 21 May 2006. 
  88. ^ Watson, Julie (26 February 2004). "J. K. Rowling And The Billion-Dollar Empire". Forbes. Retrieved 3 December 2007. 
  89. ^ "J.K. Rowling publishes Harry Potter spin-off". London: 1 November 2007. Retrieved 28 September 2008. 
  90. ^ "The World's Billionaires:#891 Joanne (JK) Rowling". Forbes. 8 March 2007. Retrieved 29 July 2008. 
  91. ^ "J. K. Rowling Richer than the Queen". BBC. 27 April 2003. Retrieved 29 July 2008. 
  92. ^ "Harry Potter Brand Wizard". Business Week. 21 July 2005. Retrieved 29 July 2008. 
  93. ^ "Rowling joins Forbes billionaires". BBC. 27 February 2004. Retrieved 9 September 2008. 
  94. ^ Smith, Dinitia (24 June 2000). "The Times Plans a Children's Best-Seller List". The New York Times. Retrieved 30 September 2008. 
  95. ^ "New Harry Potter breaks pre-order record". RTÉ.ie Entertainment. 13 April 2007. Retrieved 23 April 2007. 
  96. ^ a b c Fierman, Daniel (31 August 2005). "Wild About Harry". Entertainment Weekly.,,276735_2,00.html. Retrieved 4 March 2007. "When I buy the books for my grandchildren, I have them all gift wrapped but one...that's for me. And I have not been 12 for over 50 years." 
  97. ^ "Harry Potter hits midnight frenzy". CNN. 15 July 2005. Retrieved 15 January 2007. 
  98. ^ "Worksheet: Half-Blood Prince sets UK record". BBC. 20 July 2005. Retrieved 19 January 2007. 
  99. ^ "Record print run for final Potter". BBC. 15 March 2007. Retrieved 22 May 2007. 
  100. ^ a b c d e Eccleshare, Julia (2002). A Guide to the Harry Potter Novels. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 10. ISBN 9780826453174. 
  101. ^ Bloom, Harold (24 September 2003). "Dumbing down American readers". The Boston Globe. Retrieved 20 June 2006. 
  102. ^ Byatt, A. S. (7 July 2003). "Harry Potter and the Childish Adult". The New York Times. Retrieved 1 August 2008. 
  103. ^ Holden, Anthony (25 June 2000). "Why Harry Potter does not cast a spell over me". The Observer. Retrieved 1 August 2008. 
  104. ^ "Chronicles of Earthsea". Retrieved 2 October 2009. 
  105. ^ Allison, Rebecca (11 July 2003). "Rowling books 'for people with stunted imaginations'". The Guardian. Retrieved 1 August 2008. 
  106. ^ Wilson, A. N. (29 July 2007). "Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows by JK Rowling". London: Times Online. Retrieved 28 September 2008. 
  107. ^ "Salon Columnist". 2000. Retrieved 3 August 2008. 
  108. ^ a b Taylor, Charles (8 July 2003). "A. S. Byatt and the goblet of bile". Retrieved 3 August 2008. 
  109. ^ Fox, Killian (31 December 2006). "JK Rowling:The mistress of all she surveys". Guardian Unlimited. Retrieved 10 February 2007. 
  110. ^ "Person of the Year 2007 Runners-Up: J. K. Rowling". Time magazine. 23 December 2007.,28804,1690753_1695388_1695436,00.html. Retrieved 23 December 2007. 
  111. ^ Charles, Ron (15 July 2007). "Harry Potter and the Death of Reading". The Washington Post. Retrieved 16 April 2008. 
  112. ^ Knapp, N.F. (2003). "In Defense of Harry Potter: An Apologia". School Libraries Worldwide (International Association of School Librarianship) 9 (1): 78–91. Retrieved 14 May 2009. 
  113. ^ Penrod, D (December 2001). "The Trouble with Harry: A Reason for Teaching Media Literacy to Young Adults". The Writing Instructor (Professional Writing Program at Purdue University). Retrieved 16 May 2009. 
  114. ^ Conn, J.J. (2002). "What can clinical teachers learn from Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone?". Medical Education 36 (12): 1176–1181. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2923.2002.01376.x. PMID 12472752. 
  115. ^ Fields, J.W. (2007). "Harry Potter, Benjamin Bloom, and the Sociological Imagination". International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education 19 (2). ISSN 1812-9129. Retrieved 15 May 2009. 
  116. ^ Sawyer, Jenny (25 July 2007). "Missing from 'Harry Potter" – a real moral struggle". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 16 April 2008. 
  117. ^ Griesinger, E. (2002). "Harry Potter and the "deeper magic": narrating hope in children's literature". Christianity and Literature 51 (3): 455–480. Retrieved 15 May 2009. 
  118. ^ Suellentrop, Chris (8 November 2002). "Harry Potter: Fraud". Slate Magazine. Retrieved 16 April 2008. 
  119. ^ Hitchens, Christopher (12 August 2007). "The Boy Who Lived". The New York Times. p. 2. Retrieved 1 April 2008. 
  120. ^ "SScholastic Inc, J.K. Rowling and Time Warner Entertainment Company, L.P, Plaintiffs/Counterclaim Defendants, -against- Nancy Stouffer: United States District Court for the Southern District of New York". ICQ. 17 September 2002. Retrieved 12 June 2007. 
  121. ^ McCarthy, Kieren (2000). "Warner Brothers bullying ruins Field family Xmas". The Register. Retrieved 3 May 2007. 
  122. ^ "Fake Harry Potter novel hits China". BBC. 4 July 2002. Retrieved 11 March 2007. 
  123. ^ Olsen, Ted. "Opinion Roundup: Positive About Potter". Retrieved 6 July 2007. 
  124. ^ Bonta, Steve (28 January 2002). "Tolkien's Timeless Tale". The New American 18 (2). 
  125. ^ Liddle, Rod (21 July 2007). "Hogwarts is a winner because boys will be sexist neocon boys". London: The Times. Retrieved 17 August 2008. 
  126. ^ Eccleshare, J. (2002). "The Publishing of a Phenomenon". A guide to the Harry Potter novels. Continuum International. pp. 7–14. ISBN 0826453171.,M1. Retrieved 15 May 2009. 
  127. ^ a b Beckett, S.L. (2008). "Child-to-Adult Crossover Fiction". Crossover Fiction. Taylor & Francis. pp. 112–115. ISBN 041598033X.,M1. Retrieved 16 May 2009. 
  128. ^ Smith, D. (24 June 2000). "The Times Plans a Children's Best-Seller List". The New York Times Book. Retrieved 16 May 2009. 
  129. ^ Garner, D. (1 May 2008). "Ten Years Later, Harry Potter Vanishes From the Best-Seller List". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 May 2009. 
  130. ^ Bolonik, K. (16 August 2000). "A list of their own". Retrieved 16 May 2009. 
  131. ^ Corliss, R. (July. 21, 2000). "Why 'Harry Potter' Did a Harry Houdini". Time.,8599,50554,00.html. Retrieved 16 May 2009. 
  132. ^ "Books: Cover Stories At the Frankfurt Book Fair". The Independent. 10 October 1998. Retrieved 18 July 2009. 
  133. ^ "WiGBPd About Harry". The Australian Financial Review. 19 July 2000. Retrieved 26 May 2007. 
  134. ^ "Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone". Guardian Unlimited. 16 November 2001. Retrieved 26 May 2007. 
  135. ^ Linder, Bran (28 March 2000). "Chris Columbus to Direct Harry Potter". IGN. Retrieved 8 July 2007. 
  136. ^ "Daniel Radcliffe, Rupert Grint and Emma Watson bring Harry, Ron and Hermione to life for Warner Bros. Pictures: Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone"". Warner Brothers. 21 August 2000. Retrieved 26 May 2007. 
  137. ^ Schmitz, Greg Dean. "Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone (2001)". Yahoo!. Retrieved 30 May 2007. 
  138. ^ "Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets (2002)". Yahoo! Inc. Retrieved 18 August 2008. 
  139. ^ "Goblet Helmer Confirmed". IGN. 11 August 2003. Retrieved 29 July 2007. 
  140. ^ Daly, Steve (6 April 2007). "'Phoenix' Rising". Entertainment Weekly. p. 28.,,20016352,00.html. Retrieved 1 April 2007. 
  141. ^ Spelling, Ian (3 May 2007). "Yates Confirmed For Potter VI". Sci Fi Wire. Retrieved 3 May 2007. 
  142. ^ "Coming Sooner: Harry Potter Changes Release Date". Retrieved 15 April 2009. 
  143. ^ "Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince". Market Watch. 14 August 2008.{F4F52B7F-D1B1-4DC0-BF8A-AD0D9252BE7A}&dist=hppr. Retrieved 17 August 2008. 
  144. ^ "Final 'Harry Potter' book will be split into two movies". Los Angeles Times. 13 March 2008.,1,5626063.story. Retrieved 13 March 2008. 
  145. ^ "All Time Worldwide Box Office Grosses". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved 29 July 2007. 
  146. ^ "Harry Potter: Books vs films". Retrieved 7 September 2008. 
  147. ^ "Potter Power!". Time For Kids.,12405,184807,00.html. Retrieved 31 May 2007. 
  148. ^ Puig, Claudia (27 May 2004). "New 'Potter' movie sneaks in spoilers for upcoming books". USA Today. Retrieved 31 May 2007. 
  149. ^ "JK 'loves' Goblet Of Fire movie". BBC Newsround. 7 November 2005. Retrieved 31 May 2007. 
  150. ^ Rowling, J. K.. "How did you feel about the POA filmmakers leaving the Marauder’s Map’s background out of the story? (A Mugglenet/Lexicon question)". J. K. Rowling. Retrieved 6 September 2008. 
  151. ^ By Travis Reed, Associated Press "Universal reveals details of new Harry Potter park". 15 September 2009.
  152. ^ By Daily Mail "Hogwarts opens in Florida: Amazing new Harry Potter theme park to cast its spell over British tourists." 19 September 2009.
  153. ^ By Daily Telegraph "Harry Potter theme park to open next year". 16 September 2009.

External links


Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Harry Potter (series) article)

From Wikiquote

For quotes from the film series, see Harry Potter (films)

Harry Potter is a series of novels by J.K. Rowling. It is about a young boy named Harry Potter and his adventures as he attends Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry, learns how to perform magic and comes face to face with his arch enemy, Lord Voldemort.



Companion books

Quidditch Through the Ages (2001)

Irma Pince: If you rip, tear, shred, bend, fold, deface, disfigure, smear, smudge, throw, drop, or in any other manner damage, mistreat, or show lack of respect towards this book, the consequences will be as awful as it is within my power to make them.
Kennilworthy Whisp: [about the Starfish and Stick maneuver] Keeper defense; the Keeper holds the broom horizontally with one hand and one foot curled around the handle, while keeping all limbs outstretched. The Starfish without stick should never be attempted.

Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them (2001)

This book is designed to resemble an actual Hogwarts textbook, complete with wear-and-tear and has notes "written" in the margins by Harry/Ron/Hermione

Harry: This book belongs to Harry Potter.
Ron: Shared by Ron Weasley, because his fell apart.
Hermione: Why don't you buy a new one then?
Ron: Write on your own book, Hermione.
Hermione: You bought all those dungbombs on Saturday. You could have bought a new book instead.
Ron: Dungbombs rule.

Ron: Harry loves Moaning Myrtle

Harry: Write a decent team in my book for a change, Weasley.

Text: [describing billywig stings] ...and are rumoured to be a component in the popular sweet Fizzing Whizbees.
Harry: Last time I eat them then.
Harry Potter
Film series
Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone book film
Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets book film
Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban book film
Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire book film
Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix book film
Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince book film
Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows book

This is a disambiguation page; that is, one that points to other pages that might otherwise have the same name. If you followed a link here, you might want to go back and fix that link to point to the appropriate specific page.


Up to date as of January 23, 2010
(Redirected to Muggles' Guide to Harry Potter article)

From Wikibooks, the open-content textbooks collection

Muggles' Guide to Harry Potter
Cover | Introduction | Contents | Books | Characters | Places | Major Events | Magic | Timeline | Index

Welcome to the wiki-based annotated text and analysis Wikibook for the highly popular Harry Potter books by J.K. Rowling. It is organized to limit the accidental revealing of spoiler information and strives to provide an extensive detailing of the Harry Potter universe.

Book Contents

Please see the Contents page for a full list and organizational overview of the book. If you wish to browse the entire Muggles' Guide, use this page to move through the book. A PDF of the book is also available.

Where To Start

This book is built to handle several different levels of readers of the Harry Potter series. Therefore, the book has several pages available that detail suggested reading guides for specific levels of reading:

  • Beginner - Readers who are new to the Harry Potter series in general. This page should be used by readers who have read only a small amount of the Harry Potter books or are just interested in a general overview of the storyline and biographical information.
  • Intermediate - Readers who have read most of the Harry Potter series and are clued in to many of the principal characters and places. Analysis for characters, places, and events and detailed summaries of the books.
  • Advanced - Readers who have read the entire series and are looking to develop detailed knowledge of the books' content and realize the greater picture. A slight step up from the intermediate level, almost every topic in the book is covered, providing a comprehensive view of the series.

All text is available to anyone who happens to want to read it; we do not "turn off" text if you are not at the proper level. Also, the level warnings mark the end of specific levels: beginners who do not want their reading experience spoiled should read up to the "Beginner warning" or "Spoiler warning" tag; intermediate readers similarly should read only up to the "Intermediate warning" tag. Advanced readers presumably have already read the entire series, and are fully aware of the various facts in the series, so they cannot have their enjoyment of the series damaged by anything in this book. Thus, there is no tag for Advanced readers, as there is no place where they should stop reading.

For those who want to avoid spoilers, we should add one word of caution. Particularly on the Character pages, and to a lesser extent the Magic pages, there are places where analysis requires that we cover things that the reader may not have yet seen in his reading. In particular, several characters are suddenly seen in a new light in the last two books. In as much as it is possible, we mark sections where these appear with the name of the book or chapter to which they apply. In a character Analysis section, therefore, there might be a heading "Deathly Hallows"; this is an indication that the following section should not be read until you have read Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, to avoid spoilers.

This book is a study guide meant to accompany the reading of the Harry Potter series in a course context; it is not meant to replace the books. This book does not contain the full text of the series; to include the full text of the series in that manner would be violation of copyright. We strongly recommend that if you do not already own a copy of the Harry Potter series, a very good place to start, even before looking any further at this Guide, is to obtain copies of the seven books in the series.

Major Sections

Wikibook Development Stages
Sparse text 00%.svg Developing text 25%.svg Maturing text 50%.svg Developed text 75%.svg Comprehensive text: 100%.svg
  • Books - Chapter by chapter guides to the individual books Development stage: 100% (as of 13 Feb 2008)
  • Characters - Descriptions and analyses of the major and minor characters Development stage: 75% (as of 13 Feb 2008)
  • Places - Explanations of where the characters go and what is discovered Development stage: 50% (as of 13 Feb 2008)
  • Major Events - Analysis of important events that stand out Development stage: 50% (as of 13 Feb 2008)
  • Magic - Details and implications related to the use of various magical devices, creatures, spells, and even miscellaneous terms used in the books Development stage: 75% (as of 13 Feb 2008)
  • Timeline - Chronological overview of actions and events occurring before, during, and after Harry's years at Hogwarts Development stage: 100% (as of 13 Feb 2008)

Book Goals

  • Provide an extensive detailing of all the Harry Potter series books, characters, places, events, and magic
  • Offer critical commentary and analysis of the books and characters presented to help others better understand detailed situations
  • Develop a comprehensive index which allows for easy lookup of information for reference readers
  • Minimize unnecessary spoilers through a structured set of pages that allow the reader to explore storyline content as deep as he/she wishes to go

Strategy wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010
(Redirected to Category:Harry Potter article)

From StrategyWiki, the free strategy guide and walkthrough wiki


This series is a stub. Help us expand it with details as well as an {{infobox}}. Reliable information can be researched on Wikipedia or you can just search for "Harry Potter" on Google. Do this and you get a cookie.

The Harry Potter video games are based on the movie series of the same name.

Simple English

File:Hp british books!.jpg
A set of all seven UK Edition Harry Potter novels.

The Harry Potter books are a popular series of fantasy books by J. K. Rowling. The character Harry Potter is the hero in the stories.

In the books, the fantasy is about magic. Harry Potter is born with the power to do magic, as he is a wizard. He soon discovers that there are a lot of magic people, other wizard and witches, in the world, living unknown to most non-magical people (known as "muggles"). When he is eleven, he gets a letter inviting him to go to a boarding school called Hogwarts for young witches and wizards. Each book tells about one year of his life at school, about the people that he meets there, the things that he learns, and his adventures.

There are seven books total in the series. A series of movies about the first six books has been made by Warner Bros. They started making the movies in 2001. The sixth one, Harry Potter and the Half Blood Prince, was released on July 7, 2009. The first half of the final movie Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows was released in late November, 2010. Part 2 of Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows will be released in July, 2011.



  1. Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone (1997) (United States version: Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone)
  2. Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets (1998)
  3. Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban (1999)
  4. Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire (2000)
  5. Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix (2003)
  6. Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince (2005)
  7. Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows (2007)


  1. Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone (November 4, 2001)
  2. Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets (November 3, 2002)
  3. Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban (May 31, 2004)
  4. Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire (November 18, 2005)
  5. Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix (July 11, 2007)
  6. Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince (July 7, 2009)
  7. Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows (Part 1 - November 19, 2010)
  8. Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows (Part 2 - July, 2011)

Characters and actors of the movies

Main characters

  • Harry Potter (Daniel Radcliffe): The hero of the stories. Harry is an atypical young wizard. Harry's parents, James and Lily Potter, were killed by Lord Voldemort when he was just a baby. Due to this, he lives and was raised by his Aunt Petunia, his mother's sister, and Uncle Vernon, along with their son Dudley.
  • Ron Weasley (Rupert Grint): Harry's best friend. Ron comes from a large magical family, with 5 brothers and 1 sister.
  • Hermione Granger (Emma Watson): Harry's other best friend. Hermione's parents are not wizards, but "Muggles" (non-magical people).
  • Albus Dumbledore: Headmaster at Hogwarts. He is a very powerful wizard. Voldemort fears him. Dumbledore was played by Richard Harris in the first two movies. After Richard Harris's death, Michael Gambon took over the role.
  • Rubeus Hagrid (Robbie Coltrane): Teacher and Groundskeeper at Hogwarts, friend of Harry, Ron,and Hermione, and a brother of the "half-giant."
  • Lord Voldemort: The main villain of the series. He is feared throughout the wizarding world, and is often referred to as "He Who Must Not Be Named", or as "You Know Who". Prior to his infamy he was known as Tom Marvolo Riddle. The part was played in different movies by Richard Bremmer, Christian Coulson, and Ralph Fiennes.
  • Sirius Black: (Gary Oldman) James Potter's best friend. He was charged for a murder that he did not do, and then broke out of Azkaban. He is Harry Potter's godfather.
  • Severus Snape (Alan Rickman): the Potions master at Hogwarts. Harry and his friends do not like Snape, and not many of the other characters in the books do as well.
  • Draco Malfoy (Tom Felton): Slytherin student and one of Harry's main enemies. He is ordered to kill Dumbledore but fails.

The Weasleys

Arthur Weasley Father Mark Williams Works for the Ministry of Magic
Molly Weasley Mother Julie Walters Busy mother of seven children
Bill Weasley eldest son Richard Fish Cursebreaker for Gringotts Bank
Charlie Weasley second eldest son Alex Crockford Works as a Dragon-tamer
Percy Weasley third oldest son Chris Rankin Works for the Ministry of Magic
Fred Weasley Fourth son
Older Weasley twin
James Phelps Owns the wizarding joke shop, left Hogwarts in the fifth book, "Order of the Phoenix."
George Weasley Fifth son
Younger Weasley twin
Oliver Phelps Owns the wizarding joke shop, left Hogwarts in the fifth book, "Order of the Phoenix."
Ronald Weasley Sixth son
Rupert Grint One of Harry's two closest friends
Ginny Weasley Daughter, youngest Bonnie Wright The youngest of seven. Harry's girlfriend from the sixth book on.

Teachers at Hogwarts

Minerva MacGonagall
 (Head of Gryffindor house)
Maggie Smith Transfiguration
(changing something into something else)
Severus Snape
 (Head of Slytherin house)
Alan Rickman Potions
(brewing magical mixtures)
Horace Slughorn Jim Broadbent
Filius Flitwick
 (Head of Ravenclaw house)
Warwick Davis Charms
(making things happen)
Pomona Sprout
 (Head of Hufflepuff house)
Miriam Margoyles Herbology
(caring for magical plants)
Madame Hooch Zoe Wannamaker Flying on broomsticks
also: referee and teacher for Quidditch
Quirinus Quirrel Ian Hart Defence Against the Dark Arts
(defensive magic)
Gilderoy Lockhart Kenneth Branagh
Remus Lupin David Thewlis
Alecto Carrow Suzanne Toase
Alastor Moody (impersonated in Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire by Barty Crouch, Jr. Brendan Gleeson
Dolores Umbridge Imelda Staunton
Severus Snape Alan Rickman

Other students

Cho Chang Ravenclaw Katie Leung Dated Harry. Former girlfriend of Cedric Diggory. Member of "Dumbledore's Army".
Vincent Crabbe Slytherin Jamie Waylett Draco's friend
Cedric Diggory Hufflepuff Robert Pattinson Captain of the Hufflepuff Quidditch team. Took part in the Triwizard Tournament. Took Cho Chang to the Yule Ball. Killed by Voldemort's "Avada Kedavra" curse.
Gregory Goyle Slytherin Joshua Herdman Draco's friend
Neville Longbottom Gryffindor Matthew Lewis Harry's friend. Member of "Dumbledore's Army." Has a pet toad. Great in Herbology. Killed Voldemort's snake, Nagini, the sixth horcux, in the Final Battle, making it possible for Harry to finally kill Voldemort.
Luna Lovegood Ravenclaw Evanna Lynch Harry's friend. The strange, yet wise one. Member of "Dumbledore's Army".
Susan Bones Hufflepuff Eleanor Columbus She is a student we see in the first movie of Harry Potter. She is in Hufflepuff. Her grandparents have been killed by Voldemort.

Other characters

  • Dobby is a house-elf who used to belong to the Malfoy family. Unlike other house-elves, Dobby wishes to be free.
  • Merope is the descendant of Salazar Slytherin and is also the mother of Lord Voldermort
  • Michael Corner is Ginny's boyfriend to make Harry jealous
  • Madame Rosmerta is the owner of 'The Three Broomsticks', the pub where butterbeer is often served
  • Madame Malkins is the owner of the wizard robes shop
  • Mr Ollivander Wandmaker, owner of Ollivanders, was taken away by the death eaters, but is broken out of his cell by Dobby and Harry Potter
  • Rita Skeeter Reporter for the Daily Prophet, author of The Life and Lies of Albus Dumbledore, Animagus
  • Lucius Malfoy is the father of Draco Malfoy. He is a pure-blood wizard and a Death Eater.
  • Narcissa Malfoy is the wife of Lucius and mother of Draco. In order to save her son, she helps Harry defeat Voldemort.
  • Bellatrix Lestrange is the sister of Narcissa Malfoy. She is a devoted follower of Voldemort and responsible for the death of Sirius Black.

Other websites

Official sites

Other resources

koi:Гарри Поттер (роман лёдз)

Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address