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Harry S Truman Building

The Harry S Truman Building, as seen from The George Washington University's School of International Affairs
Building
Former names Main State Building
Alternate names State Department building
Architectural style Modern Movement
Stripped Classicism[1]
Location 2201 C Street, NW
Washington, D.C.
United States
Owner U.S. federal government
Current tenants U.S. State Department
Coordinates 38°53′40″N 77°02′54″W / 38.8944°N 77.0484°W / 38.8944; -77.0484Coordinates: 38°53′40″N 77°02′54″W / 38.8944°N 77.0484°W / 38.8944; -77.0484
Construction
Started 1939
Completed 1941
Renovated 1960s, 2000s
Floor area 1,500,000 square feet (139,000 m2)
Design team
Architect Louis A. Simon[1]
Other designers William Dewey Foster
Gilbert Stanley Underwood[1]

The Harry S Truman Building is the headquarters of the United States Department of State. It is located in the national capital of Washington, D.C., and is the third-largest federal building in the D.C. metropolitan area, after The Pentagon and Ronald Reagan Building.

The Truman Building is located in the Foggy Bottom neighborhood at 2201 C Street, NW, bounded by C Street to the south, E Street, D Street, and Virginia Avenue to the north, 21st Street to the east, and 23rd Street to the west. It is located to the west of Edward J. Kelly Park and north of the National Academy of Sciences building and the National Mall.

The Truman Building houses the office of the United States Secretary of State, a post currently held by Hillary Rodham Clinton.[2]

Contents

History

The building was constructed between 1939 and 1941[3] to house the Department of War, now known as the Department of Defense. However, the Department of War never occupied the building since, by the time construction was complete, the Department had already outgrown the building. Instead, the structure was used for the Department of State.

East entrance to the Truman Building

A large addition was completed in the early 1960s, after which the original building was informally called "Old State" with the addition identified as "New State." Currently, more than 8,000 employees work in the Truman Building. The building houses over 1,500,000 square feet (139,000 m2) of usable space, the corridors take up over 267,000 square feet (24,800 m2), and the roof area is about 7 acres (28,000 m2). There are 43 elevators, over 4,000 windows, and about 34,000 fluorescent light fixtures that provide interior illumination.

In September 2000, the State Department building (previously called the Main State Building, and often called by metonymy "Foggy Bottom") was named in honor of President Harry S. Truman.[4]

The building is currently being renovated under a 12 year plan to modernize the structure.[3]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c "District of Columbia - Inventory of Historic Sites". District of Columbia: Office of Planning. Government of the District of Columbia. September 1, 2004. http://www.planning.dc.gov/planning/frames.asp?doc=/planning/lib/planning/preservation/hp_inventory/inventory_narrative_sep_2004.pdf. Retrieved August 8, 2009.  
  2. ^ "Hillary Rodham Clinton - Biography". United States Department of State. state.gov. http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/biog/115321.htm. Retrieved August 8, 2009.  
  3. ^ a b "Renovated State Department 'world class' space". Congressional and Public Affairs Office, GSA, National Capital Region, Public Buildings Service (Washington Business Journal). 2003-09-12. http://www.bizjournals.com/washington/stories/2003/09/15/focus10.html. Retrieved 2008-10-19.  
  4. ^ "State Department headquarters named for Harry S. Truman". Associated Press. CNN.com. September 22, 2000. http://web.archive.org/web/20041208101632/http://archives.cnn.com/2000/ALLPOLITICS/stories/09/22/truman.building.ap/index.html. Retrieved August 8, 2009.  

External links

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Harry S. Truman Building
Coordinates 38°53′40″N 77°02′54″W / 38.8944°N 77.0484°W / 38.8944; -77.0484Coordinates: 38°53′40″N 77°02′54″W / 38.8944°N 77.0484°W / 38.8944; -77.0484
Former names Main State Building
Alternate names State Department building
Architectural style Modern Movement
Stripped Classicism[1]
Location 2201 C Street, NW
Washington, D.C.
United States
Owner U.S. federal government
Current tenants U.S. State Department
Started 1939
Completed 1941
Renovated 1960s, 2000s
Floor area 1,500,000 square feet (139,000 m2)
Architect Louis A. Simon[1]
Other designers William Dewey Foster
Gilbert Stanley Underwood[1]

The Harry S. Truman Building is the headquarters of the United States Department of State. It is located in the national capital of Washington, D.C..

The Truman Building is located in the Foggy Bottom neighborhood at 2201 C Street, NW, bounded by C Street to the south, E Street, D Street, and Virginia Avenue to the north, 21st Street to the east, and 23rd Street to the west. It is located to the west of Edward J. Kelly Park and north of the National Academy of Sciences building and the National Mall.

The Truman Building houses the office of the United States Secretary of State, a post currently held by Hillary Rodham Clinton.[2]

Contents

History

During the early 1930s, the National Capital Park and Planning Commission sought to develop the section of the District of Columbia known as Foggy Bottom, located between C, E, Eighteenth, and Twenty-third streets. Leading up to World War II, the expanding Department of War, now known as the Department of Defense, occupied several different buildings on the mall, making the need for a new building to consolidate operations a high priority. It was always intended to construct the building in two phases, and the Foggy Bottom site was chosen because it was large enough to accommodate both.

Gilbert Stanley Underwood and William Dewey Foster won the contract for the War Department building. They designed the building during 1938-1939 and construction began in 1940. The Public Buildings Administration of the Federal Works Agency, which inherited oversight responsibility for the federal buildings program from the U.S. Treasury Department in 1939, completed the first phase of the building in 1941.[3]

During the design process, several agencies expressed concern that the War Department had already expanded beyond the capacity of the building. These concerns turned out to be correct; while some offices of the War Department moved into the building for a few years, the building never became the War Department headquarters. By the time construction was complete, the War Department had already outgrown the building. Congress appropriated funds for construction of the Pentagon early in 1941, the same year the first phase of the building was completed. Instead, the structure was used for the Department of State.

Although the original portion of the building is still commonly referred to as the War Department Building, it became home to the State Department by the late 1940s. World War II spurred the growth of this department as well. However, the planned expansion was delayed until Congress allocated funds for the addition in 1955.

File:United States Department of State
East entrance to the Truman Building

Harley, Probst Associates, a joint venture between Harley, Ellington, and Day of Detroit and Graham, Anderson, Probst, and White of Chicago, won the contract for the design in 1956. The addition, known as the State Department Extension, was completed in 1960 and dedicated in 1961. The original building was informally called "Old State" with the addition identified as "New State".

In September 2000, the State Department building (previously called the Main State Building, and often called by metonymy "Foggy Bottom") was named in honor of President Harry S. Truman.[4]

Currently, more than 8,000 employees work in the Truman Building. The building houses over 1,500,000 square feet (139,000 m2) of usable space, the corridors take up over 267,000 square feet (24,800 m2), and the roof area is about 7 acres (28,000 m2). There are 43 elevators, over 4,000 windows, and about 34,000 fluorescent light fixtures that provide interior illumination.

The building is currently being renovated under a 12 year plan to modernize the structure.[3]

Architecture

The original portion of the building, known as the War Department Building, is an example of the Stripped Classical architectural style with Art Moderne elements. The steel-framed building is clad in limestone and rises eight stories above the basement and sub-basement. Because it was designed to be expanded at a later date, it was deliberately asymmetrical. A central spine connects a U-shaped configuration to the east with an E-shaped configuration to the west.

The horizontal delineations of the facade reflect the classical precedents of the architectural style. Cornices and pink granite stringcourses create a base-shaft-capital system. The wings create a series of interior courtyards. The interior courtyard walls are clad in dark granite, emphasizing the transition from base to shaft.

The construction of the State Department Extension, completed in 1960, is reinforced concrete and was designed in the International style. Buff colored limestone cladding helps to create a cohesive combination of the two buildings. With the completion of the extension, the building became second to the Pentagon in the number of offices that it houses. Since its completion, access to the main ceremonial entrance and lobby is via the south elevation. The entrance is located off-center toward the west end of the building and is set back to frame a forecourt. The court is paved with a combination of gray and red granite. At either side of the forecourt, a limestone belt course runs the full width of the elevation above the basement and second stories. Limestone piers span the first and second stories.

The East Lobby of the original building is a two-story rectangular space surrounded by a screen of paired piers. Four large pendant lights, which are original, are the primary light source. The floors are terrazzo and the walls are travertine. Above the security barriers at the rear of the lobby is a mural by Kindred McLeary entitled The Defense of Human Freedoms, which depicts the five freedoms flanked at either end of the mural by their defenders, the American military. Access to the auditorium is via the second floor. The Dean Acheson Auditorium extends upward from the first through the third stories. The stage spans the full east wall of the room. The walls on either side are clad in burled California redwood paneling. The Loy Henderson Conference Room is two stories tall. The walls are Verde Antique marble with brass and bronze accents. A speakers' platform, stepped up at the center, is set along the west wall.

In the lobby of the fifth floor executive office suite is a mural by James McCreery entitled Liberty or Death: Don't Tread on Me. The work is an allegory of the American Revolution, including maps, cannon and other armament, and flags of the era. The eastern section of the fifth floor contains executive office suites for department heads and their staffs. The west side of the corridor includes staff offices and the general council room. The east side of the corridor includes office suites originally designated for the secretary of war and chief of staff.

The south courtyard of the State Department Building features a sculpture by Marshall M. Fredericks entitled The Expanding Universe, which includes a circular fountain and an architectural bronze statue. A treaty room and the ceremonial office of the Secretary of State is on the seventh floor. Diplomatic reception rooms were installed on the eighth floor during the 1980s as reproductions of early American architecture. They are furnished with eighteenth-century antique furnishings and eighteenth- and nineteenth-century artwork.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c "District of Columbia - Inventory of Historic Sites". District of Columbia: Office of Planning. Government of the District of Columbia. September 1, 2004. http://www.planning.dc.gov/planning/frames.asp?doc=/planning/lib/planning/preservation/hp_inventory/inventory_narrative_sep_2004.pdf. Retrieved August 8, 2009. 
  2. ^ "Hillary Rodham Clinton - Biography". United States Department of State. state.gov. http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/biog/115321.htm. Retrieved August 8, 2009. 
  3. ^ a b "Renovated State Department 'world class' space". Congressional and Public Affairs Office, GSA, National Capital Region, Public Buildings Service (Washington Business Journal). 2003-09-12. http://www.bizjournals.com/washington/stories/2003/09/15/focus10.html. Retrieved 2008-10-19. 
  4. ^ "State Department headquarters named for Harry S. Truman". Associated Press. CNN.com. September 22, 2000. http://web.archive.org/web/20041208101632/http://archives.cnn.com/2000/ALLPOLITICS/stories/09/22/truman.building.ap/index.html. Retrieved August 8, 2009. 

External links

Attribution

  • Some material on this page was initially produced by the U.S. General Services Administration, an agency of the United States government, and is reproduced with the express permission of that agency. All works derived from this material must credit the U.S. General Services Administration. The original text produced by the General Services Administration is available here.

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