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His Excellency
 Harry Heinz Schwarz

In office
6 March 1991 – 12 January 1995
President Frederik Willem de Klerk
Nelson Mandela
Preceded by Piet Koornhof
Succeeded by Franklin Sonn

1st South Africa Ambassador to Barbados
In office
1993–1995

In office
30 November 1977 – 5 May 1987
Preceded by John Jaminan
Succeeded by Jan van Zyl

In office
1977–1984
Preceded by Vause Raw
Succeeded by Roger Hulley

In office
1963–1974
Preceded by Marais Steyn
Succeeded by Alf Widman

In office
24 April 1974 – 6 February 1991
Preceded by Marais Steyn
Succeeded by Douglas Gibson

In office
1958–1974

Born 13 May 1924(1924-05-13)
Cologne, Weimar Republic
Died 5 February 2010 (aged 85)
Johannesburg, Gauteng, South Africa
Political party United Party
Reform Party
Progressive Reform Party
Progressive Federal Party
Democratic Party
Spouse(s) Annette Louise Schwarz
Children Jonathan, Allan & Michael Schwarz
Alma mater University of the Witwatersrand
Profession Solicitor, banker
Religion Judaism

Harry Heinz Schwarz (13 May 1924 – 5 February 2010) was a South African lawyer, politician, diplomat, statesman and leader in the anti-apartheid movement.

Schwarz rose from the childhood poverty he experienced as a German Jewish refugee to become a lawyer and a member of the Transvaal Provincial Council, where from 1963 to 1974, he was Leader of the Opposition. In the 1964 Rivonia Trial he was a defence lawyer. Advocating a more aggressive political opposition to the National Party's racial policies in the 1960s and 1970s, as Leader of the United Party in Transvaal and leader of the liberal "Young Turks", he clashed with the United Party establishment. He championed the cause of non-violent resistance to apartheid and in 1974 signed the Mahlabatini Declaration of Faith with Mangosuthu Buthelezi for a non-racial democratic society in South Africa. He was in the opposition for over 40 years and was a founding member of the Democratic Party. During and after South Africa's transition into democracy he was South African ambassador to the United States and was also the first South African ambassador to Barbados.

Schwarz was a founder of the Torch Commando, an ex-soldiers' movement to protest against the disenfranchisement of the coloured people in South Africa. For decades he was on the South African Jewish Board of Deputies and was one of the Jewish community's foremost leaders.[citation needed] He is regarded[who?] as one of the great South African orators and debaters of his time. In his political career spanning 43 years, in which he gained respect from across the political spectrum, he never lost an election.[1] He was a World War II veteran, having served as a navigator in the South African Air Force. In 1988 he received the Order for Meritorious Service and received several Honorary Doctorates.

Schwarz was described by the University of Stellenbosch as "one of the conceptual and moral fathers of the new South Africa"[2] in the sense that he had not only been one of apartheid's most prominent opponents, but his ideas and the initiatives he had taken had played a key role in the development of the concept of a negotiated democracy in South Africa, based on the principles of freedom and justice. Nelson Mandela, a friend of his who he visited while in prison, described him as a "champion of the poor".[3]

Contents

Refugee from Germany

Harry Schwarz, born Heinz Schwarz, was born to Fritz (1897–1969) and Alma Schwarz (1901–1999) in Cologne, Germany. He arrived in South Africa as a Jewish refugee from Germany in 1934 with his mother and younger brother Kurt. His father Fritz, a Social Democratic Party activist, left for South Africa the night the Nazis came to power. They boarded the SS Giulio Cesare in Genoa, Italy which took them to South Africa. When they arrived in Cape Town they stayed in one room in a house in Kloof Street. Schwarz described how he was "lucky" as eventually he was able to sleep in a bathroom in a rusty bath. He spoke no English at first and had strong memories of being taunted on the schoolyard for being different. Schwarz stated in an interview in 1991 that "I know what the word discrimination means, not because I've read it in a book, but because I've been the subject of it. And I know what it means to be hungry."[4] The discrimination and financial difficulties of his family left a strong impression on Schwarz and helped shape his political philosophy with its emphasis on social justice and the rule of law.

He attended Tamboerskloof School and South African College Schools in Cape Town and then Jeppe High School for Boys in Johannesburg.

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Military service

In 1942, aged 17, he joined the South African Air Force during World War II in order to fight Nazism. He served as a navigator and fought in North Africa and Italy. It was in the air force that he adopted the name Harry, as his Colonel said Heinz would not stand him in good stead if he were captured by Germans. He was in 15 Squadron and seconded to the RAF. In 1984 he was made an Honorary Colonel of the 15th Squadron.

Apartheid in South Africa
Events and Projects

Sharpeville massacre
Soweto uprising · Treason Trial
Rivonia Trial
Church Street bombing · CODESA
St James Church massacre
Cape Town peace march

Organisations

ANC · IFP · AWB · Black Sash · CCB
Conservative Party · ECC · PP · RP
PFP · HNP · MK · PAC · SACP · UDF
Broederbond · National Party
COSATU · SADF · SAP

People

P. W. Botha · D. F. Malan
Nelson Mandela
Desmond Tutu · F. W. de Klerk
Walter Sisulu · Helen Suzman
Harry Schwarz · Andries Treurnicht
H. F. Verwoerd ·Sheena Duncan
Oliver Tambo
B. J. Vorster · Kaiser Matanzima
Jimmy Kruger · Steve Biko
Mahatma Gandhi · Joe Slovo
Trevor Huddleston · Hector Pieterson
Winnie Madikizela-Mandela
Mangosuthu Buthelezi

Places

Bantustan · District Six · Robben Island
Sophiatown · South-West Africa
Soweto · Sun City · Vlakplaas

Other aspects

Afrikaner nationalism
Apartheid laws · Freedom Charter
Sullivan Principles · Kairos Document
Disinvestment campaign
South African Police

Wits University

In 1946 he went to University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg with the help of a Government loan and grant, where he first befriended fellow students and future anti-apartheid political activists Nelson Mandela and Joe Slovo. He joined the United Party and assisted in the 1948 election. However, as a result of the National Party victory, he was determined to become more active and was elected Chairman of the United Party branch at the university. He argued that the National Party's victory in 1948 was reversible and anyone who opposed them should concentrate on defeating them. In an interview in 1991, Schwarz said on the National Party victory that “To me, they were the people who had supported Germany during the war. As a young man, it was very objectionable to me that the very people I had been fighting against were the people that the National Party had supported.” He was also president of the university's ex-servicemen's league and chair of the Law Students Council.

He was awarded a BA, with distinctions in both history and economical history, and later an LLB. In 1949 he was admitted as an attorney, and later as a barrister (Member of Middle Temple) in London, United Kingdom and, in 1953, became an advocate at the South African Bar.

Rivonia trial

In 1963 Nelson Mandela and many other political opponents were arrested and brought to court in the famous Rivonia Trial. Harry Schwarz was one of the defence barristers in the trial defending Accused No. 8 Jimmy Kantor, who was a close friend of his. Kantor was Mandela's lawyer in the trial until he too was arrested and charged with the same crimes as Mandela. After being the subject of vicious taunting and many attempts to place him as a vital cog of MK by Percy Yutar, finally Judge Quartus de Wet discharged him, stating Accused No 8 has no case to answer. Kantor along with Rusty Bernstein were the only accused who were acquitted. Kantor noted in his autobiography, A healthy grave, that Schwarz refused payment. Schwarz was refused access to Mandela while he was imprisoned on Robben Island, however he was granted access to visit him after 1988 when he was transferred to Victor Verster Prison. After the trial he left the Bar and became a solicitor so that he could concentrate on fighting apartheid.

During the trial he presented the case for Kantor as follows: "My Lord, it is difficult to reply in a restrained fashion. My learned friend must not use words such as 'Communist' lightly, when he refers to Kantor. Kantor is not a Communist. My learned friend has used the tactics of McCarthyism in an endeavour to smear him. I think, with respect, my learned friend is allowing himself to run away with facts that are not there. His complaint in count one is not that they found files with evidence. Oh not, he says that we found files with nothing in them. Not in Kantor's office, but in the office of Wolpe. Then my learned friend that the practice had been ruined and liquidated Knator's practice, my lord, it is not Kantor. It is not Kantor! Why I say it is so difficult to be restrained, is that my learned friend has thrown in everything hat concerns every accused in this case, and says 'that is why I don't want Kantor to get bail".[5]

Rise to politics

Harry Schwarz's political career started with his election to the Johannesburg City Council in 1951 for Booysens, which had been said to be an unwinnable seat against the National Party. The seat had once been occupied by Labour Party politician Jimmy Green, who was his wife's uncle, who was first elected in 1920 to the City Council. In 1958 in a by-election he was elected into the Transvaal provincial council for the Hospital constituency. The constituency eventually changed to be renamed Hillbrow. In 1963 he became leader of the opposition in the Transvaal Provincial Council, a post he would hold until 1974. He continued to practice law in the Provincial Council and throughout his political career. However, he briefly withdrew from law between 1969 and 1974 to take up the post of Chief Executive of Merchant Bank.

Tensions within United Party

Schwarz was known as the leader of the liberal "Young Turks" in the United Party who were fundamentally opposed to apartheid, unlike the party's national leader De Villiers Graaff. Schwarz achieved prominence as a race relations and economic reformist in the party. In 1971 he became deputy leader of the UP in the Transvaal, a post specially created for him. However, internal divisions in the Party between liberals and conservatives came to a head in August 1973 when Schwarz replaced Marais Steyn as the leader of the United Party in the Transvaal. Steyn had been a MP for almost 25 years and for 15 years had been a close adviser to De Villiers Graaff. After he lost the election he defected to the National Party. His victory was a visible sign of strength from the liberals within the party.

Mahlabatini Declaration

On January 4, 1974, Harry Schwarz met with Mangosuthu Buthelezi. They agreed on a five-point plan for racial peace in South Africa that became known as the Mahlabatini Declaration of Faith. Its purpose was to provide a blueprint for government by consent and racial peace in a multi-racial society, stressing opportunity for all, consultation, the federal concept, and a bill of rights.[6] The declaration affirmed that political change must take place though non-violent means, at a time when neither the National Party nor the African National Congress were looking to peaceful solutions or dialogue. It enshrined the principles of peaceful transition of power and equality for all, the first of such agreements by acknowledged black and white political leaders in South Africa and was heralded by many as a breakthrough in race relations in South Africa. The declaration drew much media interest from both inside and outside South Africa. However, the declaration provoked an angry response from the UP's 'Old Guard', including the party's leader De Villiers Graaff and led to Schwarz and other liberals being expelled from the United Party the following year. The declaration received praise from other figures such as Alan Paton.[7]

On March 29, 1974, Chief Minister Cedric Phatudi of Lebowa signed the ‘Seshego Declaration’ with Harry Schwarz and the United Party M.P. for Durban North aiming at peaceful change, a federal system and a stake in society for black people.

Parliamentary career

Realigning opposition

1984 election rally poster with Harry Schwarz]]

Harry Schwarz played a key role in the realignment of the opposition in South Africa. In the 1974 general election, Schwarz was elected into Parliament for Yeoville, beating Marais Steyn who had defected to the National Party after he was ousted by Schwarz as Transvaal chairman of the United Party. On 11 February 1975 he along with three other MPs were expelled from the United Party for signing the Mahlabatini Declaration and not following the "party line". They formed the Reform Party, of which Schwarz as elected leader. The party's charter mainly incorporated the Mahlabatini Declaration's principles and called for universal franchise and for equality to be extended to all. The party had four MP's, a senator, ten members of the Transvaal Provincial Council, which made it the official opposition party in the Transvaal Provincial Council, 14 out of the 36 Johannesburg City Councillors and four Randburg City Councillors.

On the 25 July 1975, the Reform Party merged with the Progressive Party to form the Progressive Reform Party. Schwarz became the party's spokesman on finance and Chairman of the Federal Executive, while Colin Eglin was elected leader. In 1977 the party was renamed the Progressive Federal Party. This proved to realign opposition politics in South Africa, as the PFP became the official opposition party in South Africa, following the 1977 General Election.

Leader of the opposition

Schwarz, as one of his party's co-founders, finance spokesman (1975–91), defence spokesman (1975–84) and Chairman of the Federal Executive (1975–79), was one of its foremost leaders and a prominent leader of the opposition. He was regarded as the PFP's "star performer" in parliament.[8][9] Along with others such as Colin Eglin, he was an iconic opposition figure. He forcefully denounced the government's racial policy and was known for his sharp attacks on the National Party. According to fellow progressive activist Helen Suzman, Schwarz carried out his role so effectively as Shadow Finance Minister that National Party Finance Ministers lived in terror of him, particularly when the time came for delivering the annual budget speech. During the budget debate in 1979, Schwarz called for urgent steps to be taken to tackle unemployment. He stated that South Africa needed to create at least three jobs every minute of every 40-hour working week to deal with its unemployment problem. He stated that unemployment was a political time-bomb. He was a member and chairman of the Parliamentary Standing Committee on Finance and a member of the Parliamentary Public Accounts Committee. On several occasions, Schwarz received behind-the-scenes offers to take up a Cabinet position under a National Party government, which he refused every time.[10]

While distinctly on the left of South African politics, he was perceived to be on the right-wing of the PFP mainly due to his favouring strong military defence and his insistence that political change must take place without the disruption of law and order, which earned him the nickname "Harry the Hawk Schwarz". He often found himself in dispute with some members of the original Progressive Party, particularly Helen Suzman. Colleagues would often refer the clashes they had in the parliamentary caucus meetings as "the Helen and Harry show". Suzman wrote of her relations with Schwarz in her autobiography, In Uncertain Terms: A South African Memoir: following the merger between the PP and Schwarz's Reform Party "I stayed in the party, but relations between Harry Schwarz and myself were very strained for some time thereafter. They improved only in 1986 when Frederik van Zyl Slabbert resigned from Parliament and the Progressive Federal Party. Harry Schwarz and I were the two most outraged members of the caucus, and our other differences faded into insignificance as a result. We developed a mutual respect for one another. Schwarz was an extremely able MP with a good financial brain, and a hard worker who could devastate National Party members in Parliament, especially Ministers of Finance, who feared his vigorous attacks. Like me, he could be unpleasant both in and out of the House. The differences we had were not on racial policy, but on his hawkish support of the South African Defence Force."[11]

and Hillary Clinton in 1993]]

Democratic Party

Schwarz was one of the founding members of the Democratic Party. During the late 1980s and early 1990s, as its Spokesman on Finance, formulated its social market policy. Given South Africa's complex character, Mr Schwarz advocated a federal system similar to that of the United States, as well as a justiciable Bill of Rights to protect the rights of minorities as well as the majority, a measure which he attempted to persuade parliament to accept. His economic philosophy was summed up in a phrase he often used: "Freedom is incomplete if it is exercised in poverty".

On February 6, 1991 he ended his career in parliament following his appointment as the South African ambassador to the United States. His farewell speech to parliament was entitled "Look after my people while I'm gone".

South African Ambassador to United States

Harry Schwarz was the first serving politician from the parliamentary opposition ranks to be appointed to a senior ambassadorial post in South African history as well as the first Jewish ambassador. He was also accredited as the first South African High Commissioner to Barbados in 1993 when diplomatic relations opened. Schwarz had previously received behind-the-scenes offers to accept a Cabinet position, by President P.W. Botha and Prime Minister B.J. Voster, but refused every time due to their commitment to apartheid. He agreed to the appointment of ambassador because of the government's commitment to the fundamental reforms that he had fought for, as well as on the terms that the National Party would not try and take his seat in Yeoville. In an interview with the New York Times Schwarz said that "He hasn't asked me to change my political convictions," speaking of President de Klerk. "He knows that I'm implacably opposed to apartheid. Otherwise, there's no logic in asking me to do this job." Nor, Mr. Schwarz added, was he bound for Washington to represent South Africa's five million whites."I've made it clear that I want to be ambassador for 37 million people." A comment in the Daily News, Durban, typified the reaction among South Africans: "The main thing is that Harry Schwarz has been through the mill of opposing apartheid. If he tells them in Washington that change is irreversible, they'd better believe it." The fact that Schwarz, a well known and respected anti-apartheid leader was willing to accept the post was widely acknowledged in South Africa as a further demonstration of President F. W de Klerk's determination to introduce a new democratic system.

While in office in Washington, D.C., he worked on marketing the process towards democracy in South Africa and on lifting sanctions. Schwarz, played a significant role in convincing many Americans that the de Klerk government was committed to ending apartheid. In 1991, after international pressure on South Africa, Harry Schwarz signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. After the 1994 General election, he stayed on as ambassador, following a request from Nelson Mandela to stay on in the government of national unity.

in 1991]]

Schwarz resigned his post as ambassador and returned to South Africa in November 1994, following his three and-a-half-year tenure as South African ambassador to the United States. At an event sponsored by the South African Jewish Board of Deputies in his honour, Schwarz urged the Jewish community to make the best of the changes taking place in South Africa and to contribute actively to the success of the country.

Jewish Board of Deputies

Beginning in the mid-seventies, Schwarz played an increasingly important role on the Jewish Board of Deputies, serving as chairman of its committee on international relations and often acting as spokesman for the board to Jewish agencies abroad. He argued that violent change could ultimately lead to a nondemocratic government, incompatible with Jewish ethics and with the interests of the Jewish community. He emphasized that Jews needed not only a democratic society for all, but also "The right to follow [their] own religion and love for Israel freely." He was assured in private meetings by Israeli Prime Minister's Shimon Peres and Yitzhak Shamir that Jews in South Africa would not become isolated and links with Israel would be maintained. Schwarz was at the time of his death the vice-president of the Jewish Board of Deputies.

Awards and honors

File:Leadership Magazine - Harry
Harry Schwarz on the front cover of Leadership Magazine in 1991.

Harry Schwarz was awarded Order for Meritorious Service (Gold) in 1988, which is awarded to citizens who have displayed exceptional meritorious and dedicated service to South Africa. In 1995 he was awarded an Honorary Doctorate, from the University of Judaism (now the American Jewish University).[12] That year he also received an Honorary Degree from the University of Stellenbosch. He has also been given the Society of Advocates Prize and Transvaal Law Society Prize. In 1984 he was made an Honorary Colonel of the 15th Squadron in the South African Air Force, which he served in during the Second World War. In 1994 he was awarded the Moral Statesman of the Year award by the Anti-Defamation League.[13] In 2002 he was appointed Honorary Life Vice-President of the Gauteng Council of the Jewish Board of Deputies. In April 2005, he was named an honorary fellow of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Sir John Adamson High's School's hall was named, and still is, after Schwarz who was the first Chairperson of the School's Governing Body.[14]

Later life

Harry Schwarz retired from politics upon returning from Washington, and returned to law to practice in Schwarz-North in Johannesburg and continued to work until he passed away. His areas of legal practice were primarily corporate and commercial with special interests in banking, insurance, diplomacy and advocacy. In 2000 he left the Democratic Party because of its alliance with the New National Party and in 2008 stated that the DP "should have sought an alliance with black political groups".[15] He remained active in the Jewish community and was up to the time of his death, president of the South Africa-Israel Chamber of Commerce and vice-president of the South African Jewish Board of Deputies. Schwarz delivered his final public speech at the South African Parliament in November 2009 at a celebration of the fiftieth anniversary of the formation of the Progressive Party, in which he stated that "freedom is incomplete if it is exercised in poverty".[16] Upon returning to South Africa, Schwarz and his wife set up a charity trust called the Schwarz Upliftment Trust. He lived in Johannesburg with his wife Annette, who is an accomplished artist and ran all of his election campaigns. They were married for 57 years with three children and four grandchildren.

Death and tributes

On the morning of 5 February 2010, the South African Jewish Board of Deputies announced that Schwarz had died, following a short illness, at the age of 85.[17] He was laid to rest on Sunday 7 February in the section of honor in the West Park Cemetery in Johannesburg, which was attended by hundreds of guests and family members.

Democratic Alliance leader and Leader of the Opposition Helen Zille led tributes to Schwarz. She said "Harry Schwarz will be remembered for his signal contribution to the development of our democracy. His piercing intellect, and long professional experience in banking, made him the most astute analyst in Parliament on economic and financial matters during his terms in office. He had strong leadership qualities and could inspire people to great achievements. He was an outstanding debater, both inside and outside Parliament. He could stand his ground against all-comers. His principled and steadfast resistance to racial nationalism was rooted in the key role he played in fighting Nazism during World War 2. He continued his resistance to racial nationalism through his long and distinguished career in South African opposition politics. He has engraved his place in South Africa's political history. We will always remember him".[18]

South African President Jacob Zuma also paid tribute to Schwarz in the introduction of his State of the Nation address to Parliament on the 11 February 2010, the 20th anniversary of Nelson Mandela's release from prison and the 35th anniversary of the founding of Schwarz's Reform Party.[19]

In a statement the Jewish Board of Deputies said that Schwarz "One of the last of a generation of German Jewish refugees from Nazism who came to South Africa in the 1930s, he rendered sterling service to his adopted country, whether in the political, diplomatic, human rights, legal or Jewish communal fields." It stated that he was "amongst the most forthright and effective campaigners against apartheid" and also said how he "remained actively involved in Jewish communal work to the very end." Zev Krengel, Chairman of the South African Jewish Board of Deputies, said that "He was a man of formidable intellect and absolute integrity and was throughout his life a brave, unyielding fighter for justice." Rabbi Mendel Rabinowitz, who conducted the funeral said "Those like Harry, who contribute to society in so many capacities for so many years never die. Their bodies are laid to rest but the memory of them continues to live on."

Others such as former Leader of the Opposition Frederik van Zyl Slabbert, former Foreign Minister Pik Botha and the African Christian Democratic Party[20] paid tribute to Schwarz for his record as an anti-apartheid campaigner and for his contribution to democracy and human rights in South Africa.

Quotes

"Freedom is incomplete if it is exercised in poverty."
"It is important that in the process of change, existing institutions of value and means of production are not destroyed. The fabric of society, however critical one may be of its present structures, should be adopted and modified where required, but not destroyed."
"We are opposed to the homeland concept and we believe the way to solve our problems is to call a national convention of all races to change to a more multiracial basis."
"We are a country with a people who are removing the shackles of apartheid and will create a just economic system and a true democracy"
"I want to abolish discrimination, not merely cosmetically but in reality."

References

  1. ^ http://www.parliament.gov.za/content/25.03%20INSESSION%20Mar%20final.pdf
  2. ^ http://70.84.171.10/~etools/newsbrief/1995/news0923
  3. ^ http://www.parliament.gov.za/content/25.03%20INSESSION%20Mar%20final.pdf
  4. ^ http://articles.latimes.com/1991-02-12/news/wr-1224_1_new-south-africa?pg=3
  5. ^ Kantor, James (1967). A healthy grave. Seven Seas Books. ISBN B0006F5YJ6. 
  6. ^ Mitchell, Thomas (2002). Indispensable traitors: liberal parties in settler conflicts. Praeger. ISBN 0313317747. 
  7. ^ South African Institute of Race Relations, 1974. South African Institute of Race Relations. 1974. ISBN 0869821032. 
  8. ^ Leon, Tony (2009). On the Contrary: Leading the Opposition in the New South Africa. Jonathan Ball Publishers. ISBN 1868422593. 
  9. ^ http://www.timeslive.co.za/sundaytimes/article305270.ece
  10. ^ http://www.sajewishreport.co.za/pdf/latest_issue/NJWED00410.pdf
  11. ^ Suzman, Helen (1993). In No Uncertain Terms: A South African Memoir. Knopf. ISBN 10679409858. 
  12. ^ http://academics.ajula.edu/Content/ContentUnit.asp?CID=8&u=977&t=0
  13. ^ http://152.111.1.87/argief/berigte/dieburger/1994/06/15/2/12.html
  14. ^ http://www.sja.gp.school.za/awardsharryschwarz.html
  15. ^ http://www.businessday.co.za/articles/Content.aspx?id=93012
  16. ^ http://www.politicsweb.co.za/politicsweb/view/politicsweb/en/page71619?oid=152985&sn=Detail
  17. ^ http://www.therichmarksentinel.com/rs_headlines.asp?recid=3849
  18. ^ http://www.polity.org.za/article/da-statement-by-helen-zille-democratic-alliance-leader-expressing-condolences-on-the-passing-of-harry-schwarz-05022010-2010-02-05
  19. ^ http://news.iafrica.com/features/2222360.htm
  20. ^ http://www.acdp.mobi/wnewsdisp.php?id=4294

External links


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Harry Schwarz

Harry Heinz Schwarz (born May 13, 1924) is a former South African politician, diplomat, jurist and prominent leader in the anti-apartheid movement.

Contents

Rivonia Trial

  • My lord, one can perhaps be pardoned for saying that perhaps his (Jimmy Kantor) biggest crime, if it is a crime, is that he was a partner of Harold Wolpe, and that Harold Wolpe was his brother-in-law.
  • My Lord, it is difficult to reply in a restrained fashion. My learned friend must not use words such as 'Communist' lightly, when he refers to Kantor. Kantor is not a Communist. My learned friend has used the tactics of McCarthyism in an endeavour to smear him. I think, with respect, my learned friend is allowing himself to run away with facts that are not there. His complaint in count one is not that they found files with evidence. Oh not, he says that we found files with nothing in them. Not in Kantor's office, but in the office of Wolpe. Then my learned friend that the practice had been ruined and liquidated Knator's practice, my lord, it is not Kantor. It is not Kantor! Why I say it is so difficult to be restrained, is that my learned friend has thrown in everything hat concerns every accused in this case, and says 'that is why I don't want Kantor to get bail'. [1]

As a Member of Parliament

  • Democracy is impossible in a climate of violence, intimidation and fear.
  • We are opposed to the homeland concept and we believe the way to solve our problems is to call a national convention of all races to change to a more multiracial basis.
  • I want to abolish discrimination, not merely cosmetically but in reality.

Quotes as Ambassador

  • We are a country with a people who are removing the shackles of apartheid and will create a just economic system and a true democracy"
  • It is important that in the process of change, existing institutions of value and means of production are not destroyed. The fabric of society, however critical one may be of its present structures, should be adopted and modified where required, but not destroyed.
  • Freedom is incomplete if it is exercised in poverty.
  • Poverty corrodes freedom. [2]

Quotes about Schwarz

  • Schwarz has not only been one of apartheid's most prominent opponents, but his ideas and the initiatives he had taken had played an important role in the development of the concept of a negotiated democracy in South Africa, based on the principles of freedom and justice. In this regard he is one of the conceptual and moral fathers of the new South Africa.
    • University of Stellenbosch upon receiving an Honorary Degree (1995) [3]
  • The quickest analytical mind in South African politics.
    • Ken Owen, Business day, 1989.[5]
Wikipedia
Wikipedia has an article about:

References

  1. A healthy grave, Jimmy Kantor ASIN:B0006D1XN4
  2. Poverty Corrodes Freedom, Harry Schwarz ASIN:B0006F5YJ6
  3. [[1]]
  4. On the Contrary: Leading the opposition in a democratic South Africa, Tony Leon ISBN:1868423050
  5. http://209.85.229.132/search?q=cache:u0m0HEVqbBwJ:www.disa.ukzn.ac.za:8080/DC/ApAug90.1684.4459.000.034.Aug1990/ApAug90.1684.4459.000.034.Aug1990.pdf+%22harry+schwartz%22+mandela&cd=14&hl=en&ct=clnk&client=safari

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