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Haryana
Location of Haryana in India
Coordinates 30°44′N 76°47′E / 30.73°N 76.78°E / 30.73; 76.78
Country  India
District(s) 21
Established 1 November 1966
Capital Chandigarh
Largest city Faridabad
Governor Jagannath Pahadia
Chief Minister Bhupinder Singh Hooda
Population
Density
21082989 (16th)
477 /km2 (1,235 /sq mi)
Official languages Hindi, Punjabi
Time zone IST (UTC+05:30)
Area 44212 km2 (17070 sq mi)
ISO 3166-2 IN-HR
Website haryana.gov.in
Seal of Haryana

Haryana (Hindi: हरियाणा, Punjabi: ਹਰਿਆਣਾ, Urdu: ہاریانا, IPA: [hərɪjaːɳaː]) is a state in northern India. It is bordered by Punjab and Himachal Pradesh to the north, and by Rajasthan to the west and south. The river Yamuna defines its eastern border with Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh. Haryana also surrounds Delhi on three sides, forming the northern, western and southern borders of Delhi. Consequently, a large area of Haryana is included in the National Capital Region. The capital of the state is Chandigarh which is administered as a union territory and is also the capital of Punjab. The name Haryana means the Abode of God from Sanskrit Hari (the Hindu God Vishnu) and ayana (home), although it may also refer to the lush green landscape of the state (from Sanskrit harit meaning green).[1]

Haryana was the cradle of the Indus Valley and Vedic Civilizations, both flourishing on the banks of the now lost Sarasvati River. Several decisive battles were fought in the area, which shaped much of the history of India. These include the epic battle of Mahabharata at Kurukshetra (including the recital of the Bhagavad Gita by Krishna), and the three battles of Panipat. Haryana was administered as part of the Punjab province of British India, and was carved out on linguistic lines as India's 17th state in 1966. Haryana is now a leading contributor to the country's production of foodgrain and milk. Agriculture is the leading occupation for the residents of the state, the flat arable land irrigated by submersible pumps and an extensive canal system. Haryana contributed heavily to the Green Revolution that made India self-sufficient in food production in the 1960s.

Haryana is one of the wealthiest states of India and has the third highest per capita income in the country at Rs. 67,891,[2] including the largest number of rural crorepatis in India.[3] Haryana is also one of the most economically developed regions in South Asia and its agricultural and manufacturing industry has experienced sustained growth since 1970s.[4] Haryana is India's largest manufacturer of passenger cars, two-wheelers, and tractors.[5] Since 2000, the state has emerged as the largest recipient of investment per capita in India.[6] The city of Gurgaon has rapidly emerged as a major hub for the information technology and automobile industries. Gurgaon is home to Maruti Udyog Limited, India's largest automobile manufacturer, and Hero Honda Limited, the world's largest manufacturer of two-wheelers. Panipat, Panchkula and Faridabad are also industrial hubs, with the Panipat Refinery being the second largest refinery in South Asia. There are also long established steel and textile industries in the state.

Major ethnic group in Haryana is of Jat people. More than 40 % of its population is of Jats[7][8][9][10].Other ethnic groups are of Ahirs/Yadavs, Punjabis, Gujars, Agarwals, Rors, Brahmins, Rajputs and Sainis.[10] Hindus are majority in Haryana and are about 90% of the population, Sikhs 6.2%, Muslims 4.05% and Christians 0.10%.[10]

Contents

History

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Ancient period

Manuscript illustration of the Battle of Kurukshetra.

Haryana was the outermost location of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization with centers such as Banawali and Rakhigarhi. The most extensive center, Rakhigarhi, is now a village in Hisar District. The site is dated to be over 5,000 years old. Evidence of paved roads, drainage system, large rainwater collection, storage system, terracotta brick, statue production, and skilled metal working (in both bronze and precious metals) has been uncovered.

Also the Vedic Civilization flourished on the banks of the now lost Sarasvati River. Several decisive battles were fought in the area, which shaped much of the history of India. These include the epic Battle of Kurukshetra described in the Mahabharata (including the recital of the Bhagavad Gita by Krishna) and the three battles of Panipat.

Medieval period

A 16th century painting depicting the First Battle of Panipat which established the Mughal Empire in India.

After ousting the Huns, king Harshavardhana established his capital at Thanesar near Kurukshetra in the 7th century AD. After his death, the kingdom of his clansmen, the Pratiharas continued to rule over a vast region for quite a while from Harsha's adopted capital of Kannauj. The region remained strategically important for the rulers of North India even though Thanesar was no more central than Kannauj. Prithviraj Chauhan established forts at Tarori and Hansi in the 12th century. Muhammad Ghori conquered this area in the Second Battle of Tarain. Following his death, the Delhi Sultanate was established that ruled much of India for several centuries. The earliest reference to 'Hariana' occurs in a Sanskrit inscription dated 1328 AD kept in Delhi Museum, which refers to this region as The heaven on earth, indicating that it was fertile and relatively peaceful at that time. Firoz Shah Tughlaq established a fort at Hisar in 1354 to further fortify the region, and also constructed canals or rajwahas as they were referred to in the Indo-Persian historical texts.

The three famous battles of Panipat took place near the modern town of Panipat in Haryana. The first battle took place in 1526, where Babur, the ruler of Kabul, defeated Ibrahim Lodi of the Delhi Sultanate, through the use of field artillery. In the second battle of Panipat (November 5, 1556), Akbar's forces defeated Samrat Hem Chandra Vikramaditya popularly called Hemu, who belonged to Rewari in Haryana and who had earlier won 22 battles, from Punjab to Bengal including two against Akbar's forces during 1553-1556 before acceeding to Delhi throne and establishing 'Hindu Raj' in North India on 7th Oct. 1556. The Third Battle of Panipat was fought in 1761 between the Afghan warlord Ahmad Shah Abdali and the Marathas under Sadashivrao Bhau of Pune. Ahmad Shah won decisively, on January 13, 1761.

British period

The Second Anglo-Sikh War of 1848 to 1849 resulted in the Battle of Gujrat on 21 February 1849, at which the British defeated the Sikhs. As a result of this, on 2 April 1849 they annexed the Punjab as a new province of British India. This included most of Haryana, while the rest were ruled by the princely states of Loharu, Nabha, Jind and Patiala. During the Indian rebellion of 1857, several leaders from this region, including Rao Tula Ram, participated actively. People of Haryana took an active part in the Indian Independence movement. Many battles were fought by the rulers of the states and by the farmers also, sometimes defeating the British army. Some most important fights were at Sonipat, Rohtak, Sirsa and Hissar. Later, leaders like Sir Chhotu Ram played an important role in the politics of the Punjab province. Rao Tula Ram was one of the important leaders of the Indian Rebellion of 1857.

Formation of Haryana

Signature Towers in Haryana

Haryana state was formed on 1 November 1966, on the recommendation of the Sardar Hukam Singh Parliamentary Committee. The formation of this committee was announced in the Parliament on 23 September 1965. On 23 April 1966, acting on the recommendation of the Hukam Singh Committee, the Indian government set up the Shah Commission under the chairmanship of Justice J. C. Shah, to divide and set up the boundaries of Punjab and Haryana giving consideration to the language spoken by the people. The commission gave its report on 31 May 1966. According to this report the then districts of Hissar, Mahendragarh, Gurgaon, Rohtak, and Karnal were to be a part of the new state of Haryana. Further, the tehsils of Jind (district Sangrur), Narwana (district Sangrur), Naraingarh, Ambala and Jagadhari were also to be included. The commission recommended that Tehsil Kharar (including Chandigarh) should be a part of Haryana.[11]

The city of Chandigarh, and a Punjabi-speaking area of district Rupnagar were made a Union Territory serving as the capital of both Punjab and Haryana. According to the Rajiv-Longowal Accord, Chandigarh was to be transferred to the state of Punjab in 1986, but the transfer was delayed and it has not been executed so far.

Geography

Chandigarh Monument
Yamuna River near the Haryana Border
Butterfly in Haryana
Vultures in Haryana's green farms
Blackbuck male and female

Haryana is a landlocked state in northern India. It is located between 27°37' to 30°35' N latitude and between 74°28' and 77°36' E longitude. The altitude of Haryana varies between 700 to 3600 ft (200 metres to 1200 metres) above sea level. An area of 1,553 km2 is covered by forest. Haryana has four main geographical features.

Rivers of Haryana

The river Yamuna flows along its eastern boundary. The ancient Sarasvati River was thought to have flowed through Haryana, but it has now disappeared.

The river Ghaggar is Haryana's main seasonal river. The Ghaggar rises in the outer Himalayas, between the Yamuna and the Sutlej and enters Haryana near Pinjore, district Panchkula. Passing through Ambala and Hissar, it reaches Bikaner in Rajasthan and runs a course of 290 miles before disappearing into the deserts of Rajasthan.

The Markanda river's ancient name was Aruna. A seasonal stream like the Ghaggar, it originates from the lower Sivalik Hills and enters Haryana near Ambala. During monsoons, this stream swells into a raging torrent notorious for its devastating power. The surplus water is carried on to the Sanisa lake where the Markanda joins the Sarasvati.

An important tributary is the Tangri. The Sahibi originates in the Mewat hills near Jitgarh and Manoharpur in Rajasthan. Gathering volume from about a hundred tributaries, it reaches voluminous proportions, forming a broad stream around Alwar and Patan. On reaching Rohtak it branches off into two smaller streams, finally reaching the outskirts of Delhi and flowing into the Yamuna. There are three other rivulets in and around the Mewat hills – Indori, Dohan and Kasavati and they all flow northwards from the south.[12]

Climate

The climate of Haryana is similar to other states of India lying in the northern plains. It is very hot in summer (up to a high of 50 deg Celsius) and cold in winters (down to a low of 1 deg Celsius). The hottest months are May and June and the coldest being December and January. Rainfall is varied, with the Shivalik Hills region being the wettest and the Aravali Hills region being the driest. About 80% of the rainfall occurs in the monsoon season (July-September) and sometimes causes local flooding.[12]

Flora and fauna

Thorny, dry, deciduous forest and thorny shrubs can be found all over the state. During the monsoon, a carpet of grass covers the hills. Mulberry, eucalyptus, pine, kikar, shisham and babul are some of the trees found here. The species of fauna found in the state of Haryana include black buck, nilgai, panther, fox, mongoose, jackal and wild dog. Birds of Haryana. More than 300 species of birds are found here.

Demographics

Most of the residents in Gurgaon work in the city's booming IT industry.

The population of Haryana, according to the 2001 census, is 21,144,000, with 11,364,000 males and 9,781,000 females. The population density is 477 people/km2. Haryana, along with neighboring Punjab, has a skewed sex ratio at 861, with many more men than women. Selective abortion of female fetuses has a very high provenance, reflecting a widespread preference for the male child.

Major ethnic group in Haryana is of Jat people. More than 40% of its population is of Jats [7][8][9][14].Other ethnic groups are of Ahirs/Yadavs , Punjabis , Gujars , Agarwals , Rors , Brahmins , Rajputs and Sainis [14].

Hindus are majority in Haryana and are about 90% of the population, Sikhs 6.2%, Muslims 4.05% and Christians 0.10%.[14].Hindus make up about 18,655,925 of the population, Sikhs 1,170,662, Muslims 1,222,196, Jains 57,167, Christians 27,185, and Buddhists 7,140.[15] Muslims are mainly in the Mewat district, while Sikhs are mostly in the districts adjoining Punjab, Hisar and Jind. Agriculture and related industries have been the backbone of the local economy. These days the state is seeing a massive influx of immigrants from across the nation, primarily from Bihar, Bengal, Uttrakhand, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and Nepal.

Government and politics

Politics of Haryana is mainly dominated by Jats [16] . Like in all other states of India, Haryana is governed through a governor, a largely ceremonial position who is appointed by the President of India. The Chief Minister is the head of the Haryana state government and is vested with most of the executive powers. Haryana’s legislature is unicameral; its one house, the Haryana Legislative Assembly, consists of 90 members. Haryana has five seats in the Rajya Sabha, the upper house of India's national parliament, and ten in the Lok Sabha, the lower house. The largest political parties in Haryana are the Indian National Lok Dal, Haryana Janhit Congress, Bhartiya Janata Party,Bahujan Samaj Party and Indian National Congress. The present political scenario of the state is clear and it has a stable government under Bhupinder Singh Hooda who is presently the Chief Minister of the state.

Culture

14th Murrays Jat Lancers (Risaldar Major) of Jat Regiment, India by AC Lovett (1862-1919)

Haryana which has high density of Jat people has the distinction of producing the highest number of Victoria Cross winners of any state in India. Jat Regiment, an infantry regiment of the Indian Army which is limited only to Jat community, is one of the longest serving and most decorated regiments of the Indian Army[17], draws most of its soldiers from among the Haryanvi Jats. The regiment has won 19 battle honours between 1839 to 1947,[18] 5 battle honours post-1947, eight Mahavir Chakra, eight Kirti Chakra, 32 Shaurya Chakra, 39 Vir Chakra and 170 Sena medals.[17] Major Hoshiar Singh of Rohtak district in Haryana won the Param Vir Chakra during the Indo-Pak war of 1971.

Haryana has a rich cultural heritage that goes way back to the Vedic times. The state is rich in folklore with the oldest extant romance being that of Sorath and Dhaj, Ror Kumar.[19] Haryanvi Rors have ruled over the area of Sindh and Rajasthan for more than a 1000 years in history, which span the Iron age and the Middle ages.[20] The people of Haryana have their own traditions. The age old customs of meditation, Yoga and chanting of Vedic Mantras, are still observed by the masses. The seasonal and religious festivals glorify the culture of this region. The dance is said to be the mother of all arts. Music and poetry exist in tune, painting and architecture in space. The dance is just not a form of recreation but something needed to release the physical and emotional energy. Folk dances, like other creative art, helps in sublimating the performer's worries and cares.

The people of Haryana have preserved their old religious and social traditions. They celebrate festivals with great enthusiasm and traditional fervor. Their culture and popular art are Saangs, dramas, ballads and songs in which they take great delight. Haryanavi has traditionally been the dominant language spoken by the martial people of Haryana. Post-1947, Punjabi is also spoken by a lot of people in Haryana especially by those Hindus and Sikhs who came over from Pakistan. Sanskrit is also taught in most of the schools in Haryana. In towns and cities, English is still to be adopted as the household lingo, but is spoken in a hazy mixture of Haryanvi. The most striking feature of Haryana is its language itself; or rather, the manner in which it is spoken. Popularly known as Haryanavi, with Bangaru or Jatu (language of Jats) being the most widely spoken dialect, it is perhaps a bit crude, but full of earthy humor and straightforwardness. With rapid urbanization, and due to Haryana's close proximity to Delhi, the cultural aspects are now taking a more modern hue.

Economy

A major office complex in Gurgaon,Haryana.IT services form the largest sector closely followed by retail.
DLF Building

The economy of Haryana relies on manufacturing, business process outsourcing, agriculture and retail. In 2006-07 Haryana received a foreign direct investment projects of over Rs 11,000 crore in the state and corporate sector and had a fiscal deficit of 0.6 per cent in financial year 2006-07[21]. Haryana also toped the list in terms of per capita investment in the fiscal year 2007 with an investment of Rs 1,86,045 crore.[22][23] Haryana is also considered one of the most industrilised states in India with many SEZs. New plans for Sezs are of Reliance Industries which has plans to set up amulti-product special economic zone in Haryana.[24] At an investment of Rs 40,000 crore, the project will be India's largest SEZ spread over 25,000 acres.[24][25] The state has a developed banking system with over 4500 bank branches. The two financial hubs of Haryana, Gurgaon and Faridabad lie on the south west of the state.

The contribution of primary, secondary and tertiary sectors for the Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP) in 2007-08 is Rs. 21,265.92 crore, Rs. 30,919.95 crore and Rs.49,133.55 crore respectively. Over 3% of the S&P CNX 500 conglomerates have corporate offices in Haryana.[citation needed]

Manufacturing

Maruti Suzuki plant at Gurgaon

More than a thousand medium and large industries with a capital investment of Rs. 2000 billion or $ 40.4 billion have been established in the state in mainly Gurgaon, Panchkula, Panipat, Faridabad and Bahadurgarh. As a result, Haryana's share in national production is 50% of passenger cars, 50% of motorcycles, 30% of refrigerators, 25% of tractors, bicycles and sanitary ware, and 20% of the country's export of scientific instruments.[26] These include Honda Motorcycle & Scooter India Pvt. Ltd., Hindustan National Glass, Maruti Udyog Limited, Escorts, Hero Honda, Alcatel, Sony, Whirlpool India, Bharti Telecom, Liberty Shoes and Hindustan Machine Tools. In addition there are more than 80,000 small-scale industrial units in the state which cumulatively bring in a substantial income for the state and its people. Yamunanagar district has a paper mill BILT, Haryana has a large production of cars, motorcycles, tractors, sanitary ware, glass container industry, gas stoves and scientific instruments.

Faridabad is another big industrial part of Haryana.[27] It is home to hundreds of large scale companies like Orient fans (C.K.Birla Group), JCB India Limited, Nirigemes, Agri Machinery Group (Escorts Limited), India Yamaha Motor Pvt. Ltd., Whirlpool, ABB, Goodyear Tyres, Knorr Bremse India Pvt. Ltd. There are thousands of medium and small scale units as well, like Amrit Enterprises, McAma Industries.

Panipat is a city of textiles and carpets. It is the biggest centre for cheap blankets and carpets in India and has a handloom weaving industry. The pickle "Pachranga International" is also well known. Panipat also has heavy industry, with a refinery of the Indian Oil Corporation, a National Thermal Power Corporation power plant and a National Fertilizers Limited plant.

Hissar is another big city where Jindal company has established. Jindal Steel now increasing their business and open new factory in other state also.

Service industries

Shopping mall of Gurgaon-Delhi in Haryana
DLF Cyber Greens Office Complex contains the offices of ABN Amro, Microsoft IBM Daksh, Aricent, Sapient, Nokia, Canon, and Alcatel in Gurgaon

Gurgaon is considered the best city for setting up a software or BPO centre in India[28]. This is according to a research on Offshore Competitiveness conducted by neoIT, an offshoring consultancy. Gurgaon, has seen emergence of an active information technology industry in the recent years. With organisations like Tata Consultancy Services, IBM, NIIT, Hewitt Associates, Dell, Convergys, United Healthcare and The Boston Consulting Group setting up back offices or contact centers in Gurgaon. Haryana now ranks 3rd among states in software exports from India.[26] Establishment of Nano City[29] a joint venture between the Haryana State Industrial and Infrastructure Development Corporation (HSIIDC) and Nano Works Developers Private Ltd, a company promoted by Sabeer Bhatia, the creator of Hotmail will further boost the state position in this sector.

Agriculture

Beautiful Green Farms of Haryana

Despite recent industrial development, Haryana is primarily an agricultural state. About 70% of residents are engaged in agriculture Wheat and rice are the major crops. Haryana is self-sufficient in food production and the second largest contributor to India's central pool of food grains. The main crops of Haryana are wheat, rice, sugarcane, cotton, oilseeds, gram, barley, corn, millet etc. There are two main types of crops in Haryana: Rabi and Kharif. The major Kharif crops of Haryana are rice, jowar, bajra, maize, cotton, jute, sugarcane, sesame and groundnut. For these crops the ground is prepared in April and May and the seeds are sown at the commencement of rains in June. The crops are ready for harvesting by the beginning of November. The major Rabi crops are wheat, tobacco, gram, linseed, rapeseed and mustard. The ground is prepared by the end of October or the beginning of November and the crops are harvested by March.

About 86% of the area is arable, and of that 96% is cultivated. About 75% of the area is irrigated, through tube wells and an extensive system of canals. Haryana contributed significantly to the Green Revolution in India in the 1970s that made the country self-sufficient in food production. The state has also significantly contributed to the field of agricultural education in the country. Asia's biggest agricultural University[30] - Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University is located at Hisar and it has made a significant contribution in ushering in the 'Green Revolution' in the state.

Dairy farming is also an essential part of the rural economy. Haryana has a livestock population of 98.97 lakh.[30] Milk and milk products form an essential part of the local diet. There is the saying Desaan main des Haryana, jit doodh dahi ka khaana, which means "Best among all the countries in the world is Haryana, where the staple food is milk and yoghurt". Haryana, with 660 grams of availability of milk per capita per day, ranks at number two in the country as against the national average of 232 grams.[31][32] There is a vast network of milk societies that support the dairy industry. The National Dairy Research Institute [33] at Karnal, and the Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes at Hisar are instrumental in development of new breeds of cattle and propagation of these breeds through embryo transfer technology. The Murrah breed of water buffalo from Haryana is world-famous for its milk production.

Roads, aviation and infrastructure

Delhi and Gurgaon Police work together to keep Gurgaon safe. Interceptors patrol the Delhi Gurgaon Expressway and many of the main roads in Gurgaon.
The 32 lane toll gate at National Highway 8 is the largest in Asia and third largest in the world in Gurgaon.
Radio taxi

Haryana is a trend setter in the field of passenger transport. It has a total road length of 23,684 kilometers. The remotest parts of the state are linked with metaled roads. Its modern bus fleet of 3,864 buses covers a distance of 1.15 million Kilometers per day. It was the first State in the country to introduce luxury video coaches.[34] Grand Trunk Road, commonly abbreviated to GT Road, is one of South Asia's oldest and longest major roads. It passes through the districts of Sonipat, Panipat, Karnal, Kurukshetra and Ambala in north Haryana where it enters Delhi and subsequently the industrial town of Faridabad on its way. The state government proposes to construct Express highways and free ways for speedier vehicular traffic. The 135.6-km long Kundli-Manesar-Palwal Expressway(KMP) will provide high-speed link to northern Haryana with its southern districts such as Sonepat, Jhajjar, Gurgaon and Faridabad. The work on the project has already started and is scheduled to be completed by July 2009.[35] Haryana is in close contact with the cosmopolitan world, being right next to Delhi. As a result, international and domestic airports, diplomatic and commercial complexes are located in close proximity to the state. Haryana and Delhi government has also constructed Delhi-Gurgaon Expressway which has the largest toll plaza in Asia and 3rd largest in the world. With the proposed Badarpur Flyover and the widening of the Mathura Road passing thought Faridabad from 6 lane to 8 lanes, things are suddenly looking very bright in the state roadways sector.

Haryana State has always given high priority to the expansion of electricity infrastructure, as it is one of the most important inputs for the development of the State. Haryana was the first State in the country to achieve 100% rural electrification in 1970, first in the country to link all villages with all-weather roads and first in the country to provide safe drinking water facilities throughout the state[26] Haryana is well connected on the railway network as well. The main railway routes passing through Haryana are: Amritsar - Delhi, Rewari - Ahmedabad, Bhiwani - Rohtak - Delhi, Ambala - Ferozepur, Delhi - Ferozepur, Kalka - Jodhpur, Kalka - Howrah, Amritsar - Howrah and Delhi - Shimla

Two of the 16 airlines in India are based in Gurgaon which is just a few kilometers from the international airport in Delhi.

Communication and media

The 5 Star Hotel, Gurgaon Hilton is one of many 5 Star Hotels in town thanks to Gurgaon's booming economy, much of the economy has been built on the hard work of so called guest workers

Haryana has a state-wide network of highly efficient telecommunication facilities. Haryana Government has its own state-wide area network by which all government offices of 20 districts and 127 blocks across the state are connected with each other thus making it the first SWAN of the country.[36][37][38]Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL) and most of the leading private sector players (such as Reliance Infocom, Tata Teleservices, Bharti Telecom, Idea and Vodafone Essar) have operations in the state. Important areas around Delhi are also an integral part of the local Delhi Mobile Telecommunication System. This network system would easily cover major towns like Faridabad, Gurgaon, Bahadurgarh and Kundli. The major newspapers of Haryana are Punjab Kesari, Jag Bani, Dainik Jagran, The Tribune, Amar Ujala, Hindustan Times, Dainik Bhaskar, The Times of India and Hari-Bhumi.

Keeping pace with time, Haryana has its first 24x7 online news and Info portal Haryana Live fully dedicated to news and information from all around the state.[39]

Government of Haryana has decided to provide plot areas in all four divisions for "Press Bhawan". Haryana Press Club has been authorised to build & operate those press bhawans, by Haryana government.

Divisions

The state is divided into four divisions for administrative purpose - Ambala, Rohtak, Gurgaon and Hisar Division. There are 21 districts, 47 sub-divisions, 67 tehsils, 45 sub-tehsils and 116 blocks. Haryana has a total of 81 cities and towns. It has 6,759 villages.

Districts

Ambala Division

Gurgaon Division

Hisar Division

Rohtak Division

Education

The state of Haryana has made tremendous progress in the field of higher education since its inception. SCERT Haryana Gurgaon was established in April 1979. It was the conglomeration of State Institute of Education and State Institute of Science, to provide new dimensions to school education. It has been the endeavor of the government to make educational facilities available to the poorest of children. 32 primary schools, 69 middle schools and 101 high schools were upgraded to middle, high and senior secondary respectively during the year 2004-05. Now accessibility to schooling is available within the radius of 1.10 km, 1.38 km, 1.66 km and 2.79 km at the primary, middle, high and senior secondary levels respectively.[40] During 2001-02, there were 11,013 primary schools, 1,918 middle schools, 3,023 high schools and 1,301 senior secondary schools in the state.[41] Haryana Board of School Education, established in September 1969 and shifted to Bhiwani in 1981, conducts public examinations at middle, matriculation, and senior secondary levels twice a year. Over seven lac candidates attend annual examinations in February and March, and 150,000 attend supplementary examinations each November. The Board also conducts examinations for Haryana Open School at senior and senior secondary levels twice a year.[42] The Haryana government provides free education to women up to the Bachelor's Degree level.

North Haryana is more developed in terms of education and agriculture because of more fertile land and water availability. People from South Haryana were mostly government employees, soldiers and politicians but agriculture has picked up a lot in recent years as a result of efforts from the Haryana Agricultural University, Hissar.

Pt. B.D. Sharma PGIMS Rohtak

Leading institutes for Technical and Engineering Education in Haryana are NIT Kurukshetra, University Institute of Engineering & Technology, University Campus (UIET, Kurukshetra University Kurukshetra), Deenbandhu Chhotu Ram University of Science and Technology, YMCA Institute of Engineering and the Technological Institute of Textile & Sciences, Bhiwani. Earlier NIT Kurukshetra was known by the name of Regional Engineering College, Kurukshetra. There are six universities in the state. Technical education and management studies are provided by Maharishi Dayanand University at Rohtak have a University Institute of Engineering & Technology, University Campus (UIET, Rohtak), Kurukshetra University at Kurukshetra, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science & Technology at Hisar and Chaudhary Devi Lal University at Sirsa. Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University at Hisar is one of the biggest agricultural universities in Asia. It is engaged in education, research and development related to agriculture. The Holy Land where the University stands was first transformed into a centre of learning in 1936 by Bhagat Phool Singh Ji when he started a Gurukul for girls. The Gurukul was opened after he opened a boys Gurukul in 1919 in Bhainswal Kalan which today is the South Campus of the University. The Gurukul, started with only three students grew in size, stature and reputation with time and in November 2006, the Haryana Legislative Assembly passed a Legislative Notification, vide no. 31/2006 making the Gurukul a full-fledged State University

The National Dairy Research Institute at Karnal provides education in the field of dairy science. It has been upgraded to the level of a Deemed University. There are medical colleges in Rohtak, Mullana and Agroha. Pt. B.D. Sharma PGIMS Rohtak is a premier post-graduate medical institute in North India offering courses in major specialties and super specialties of medicine. There is also the Management Development Institute in Gurgaon, which is amongst the premier management institutes of India. The Technological Institute of Textile & Sciences came into existence in 1947.

Sports and youth development

Virender Sehwag born in Haryanvi Jat family
Vijender Singh Beniwal born in Bhiwani district in Haryana in Jat family.
Legendary Volleyball player Balwant Singh Sagwal born in Kaithal district in Haryana in a Ror family

Haryana is one of the leading states in sports and has produced some of the best Indian players in a variety of games. During the 33rd National games held in Assam in 2007, Haryana stood 4th in the nation[43] with a medal tally of 80, including 30 Gold, 22 Silver and 28 Bronze medals. In team sports, Haryana is the national champion in men's volleyball and women's hockey. Haryana is a traditional powerhouse in games like Kabbadi, Kho-kho, Judo, Boxing, Volleyball and Wrestling. Sports in the state are managed by the Department of Sports & Youth Affairs, Haryana. Nahar Singh Stadium for international cricket was built in Faridabad in the year 1981. This ground has the capacity to hold around 25,000 people as spectators.[44] The Tau Devi Lal Stadium in Panchkula is a multi-sport complex.[45] It came into prominence because of the Indian Cricket League's inaugural Twenty20 tournament. The DLF golf course in Gurgaon offers challenging play for golfers of all skill levels and a natural beauty that envelops your senses.[46] A World class stadium is going to open in Rohtak ,Haryana which is supposed to be best in North India. Astroturf hockey grounds in Nehru Stadium, Gurgaon and Shahbad, Kurukshetra.

In the Beijing Olympics 2008 sportspersons from Haryana exhibited high level of competitiveness especially in the field of boxing. In middleweight category Vijender Singh Beniwal is current no.-1 boxer in World and was awarded his middleweight (75 kg) bronze medal. Vijender happens to be the first Indian boxer to win a medal in Olympic games.

Most of the best players in Boxing, Wrestling and Volleyball are from Haryana. In Cricket & Hockey also Haryana has made a leading contribution to the national teams. Cricket players like Kapil Dev, Virender Sehwag, Ashish Nehra, Joginder Sharma etc. are from Haryana.

Haryana Sports Policy, 2009

Haryana has adopted a new sports policy on August 21, 2009, when Haryana Cabinet which met under the Chairmanship of Chief Minister, Mr Bhupinder Singh Hooda, approved the Sports Policy, 2009.[47]

Health

NRHM National Rural Health Mission

Haryana Civil Medical Services (HCMS)

See also

References

  1. ^ Haryāna - Britannica Online Encyclopedia
  2. ^ [1]
  3. ^ Poor rural India? It's a richer place - International Herald Tribune
  4. ^ Byres, T.J.. Rural labour relations in India. Taylor & Francis, 1999. ISBN 071468046X, 9780714680460. 
  5. ^ Government of India portal
  6. ^ IndianExpress.com :: Haryana Hurricane
  7. ^ a b Hukum Singh Pawar (Pauria):The Jats - Their Origin, Antiquity and Migration. 1993, ISBN 81-85253-22-8
  8. ^ a b Encyclopædia Britannica article on Punjab
  9. ^ a b Willuweit S., Roewer L. (2007), 'Y chromosome haplotype reference database (YHRD): Update', Forensic Science International: Genetics 1(2), 83-7.
  10. ^ a b c [www.haryana-online.com/People/people.htm haryana-online.com Haryana people]
  11. ^ 1 November 1966 - Haryana Day - History - Haryana Online - North India
  12. ^ a b Geography of Haryana - Map, Shivaliks, Ghaggar, Yamuna, Saraswati, Morni - India
  13. ^ "Census Population" (PDF). Census of India. Ministry of Finance India. http://indiabudget.nic.in/es2006-07/chapt2007/tab97.pdf. Retrieved 2008-12-18. 
  14. ^ a b c [www.haryana-online.com/People/people.htm haryana-online.com :: Haryana people ]
  15. ^ Census of India, Population by Religious Communities
  16. ^ Book by Ghansyam Shah on cast and politics , Google book store
  17. ^ a b http://www.india-defence.com/reports/2849.
  18. ^ http://www.bharat-rakshak.com/MONITOR/ISSUE3-4/bajwa.html .
  19. ^ This is a book by a Jat author. Page 19, "Ror Itihaas ki Jhalak" (Hindi) by Dr. Raj Pal Singh, Pal Publications, Yamunanagar (1987)
  20. ^ "The Divyavadana (Tibetan version) reports: 'The Buddha is in Rajgriha. At this time there were two great cities in Jambudvipa: Pataliputra and Roruka. When Roruka rises, Pataliputra declines; when Pataliputra rises, Roruka declines.' Here was Roruka of Sindh competing with the capital of the Magadha empire." Chapter 'Sindhu is divine', The Sindh Story, by K. R. Malkani from Karachi, Publisher: Sindhi Academy (1997), ISBN 8187096012
  21. ^ Haryana, Delhi top best states' list
  22. ^ Haryana Tops The List In Terms Of Per Capita Investment | Top News
  23. ^ Haryana hurricane
  24. ^ a b Reliance, Haryana finally ink SEZ pact
  25. ^ Reliance signs India's biggest SEZ deal with Haryana- Infrastructure-Economy-News-The Economic Times
  26. ^ a b c :::: Investment Promotion Center:::::: Govt. of HARYANA
  27. ^ The Tribune, Chandigarh, India - Delhi and neighbourhood
  28. ^ Gurgaon best BPO spot in India!
  29. ^ The Hindu: Other States / Haryana News: Nano City to come up
  30. ^ a b Haryana
  31. ^ Haryana number two in milk production The Times of India
  32. ^ Haryana 2nd in milk yield
  33. ^ Calcutta: KnowHOW The Telegraph
  34. ^ Why Haryana? - Economic Infrastructure
  35. ^ IndianExpress.com :: KMP Expressways to be completed by 2009
  36. ^ http://www.egovonline.net/articles/article-details.asp?Title=Tulip-IT-in-Haryana&ArticalID=1716&Type=INDUSTRY%20PERSPECTIVE
  37. ^ http://www.punjabnewsline.com/content/view/7526/93/
  38. ^ "The Tribune India". The Tribune. http://www.tribuneindia.com/2008/20080206/haryana.htm. Retrieved 2008-02-06. 
  39. ^ http://hr.abclive.in/[
  40. ^ Welcome to India in Business: Know India
  41. ^ Education in Haryana - Universities - Colleges - Schools - Institutions - Engineering - Medical
  42. ^ http://hbse.nic.in/history.htm
  43. ^ Official site for the 33rd National Games 2007, Guwahati
  44. ^ Cricinfo - Grounds - Nahar Singh Stadium, Faridabad
  45. ^ Cricinfo - Grounds - Tau Devi Lal Cricket Stadium, Panchkula, Chandigarh
  46. ^ Dlf Golf Resorts
  47. ^ http://hr.abclive.in/haryana_sports/haryana_sports_policy_2009.html

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Asia : South Asia : India : Plains : Haryana
Contents

Haryana is a state in India.

Understand

A Hindu-dominated state that split off from largely Sikh Punjab in 1966. Haryana surrounds Delhi on three sides and is dominated by its suburban and commercial sprawl. The remainder of the state is largely agrarian, and there are few attractions to slow down the passing tourist.

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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

English

Proper noun

Singular
Haryana

Plural
-

Haryana

  1. State in northern India which has Chandigarh as its capital.

Translations


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