|— Town and Borough —|
|Borough of Hastings|
View of Hastings Old Town from the East Hill
Hastings Shown within East Sussex
East Sussex shown within England
|Government Leader & Cabinet|
|- MP||Michael Foster|
|- Governing body||Hastings Borough Council|
|- Mayor||Maureen Charlesworth|
|Population (2008 est.)|
|- Density||7,529.1/sq mi (2,907/km2)|
|Time zone||GMT (UTC+0)|
|- Summer (DST)||British Summer Time (UTC+1)|
|Post Code Area||Tonbridge (TN34, 35, 37, 38)|
|London Distance||64 miles (103 km)|
In historical terms, Hastings can claim fame through its connection with the Norman conquest of England; and also because it became one of the medieval Cinque Ports. Hastings was, for centuries, an important fishing port; although much reduced, it has the largest beach-based fishing fleet in England. As with many other such places, the town became a watering place in the 1760s, and then, with the coming of the railway, a seaside resort. The Town is sometimes referred to as "the birthplace of television" since the pioneer of television, John Logie Baird, lived at 21 Linton Crescent from 1922 to 1924.
The attraction of Hastings as a tourist destination continues; although the numbers of hotels has decreased, it caters for wider tastes, being home to internationally-based cultural and sporting events, such as chess and running. It has set out to become "a modern European town" and seeks to attract commercial business in the many industrial sites round the borough.
The earliest mention of Hastings is found in the late 8th century in the form Hastingas. This is derived from the Old English tribal name Hæstingas, meaning "Hæsta's people", "the family/followers of Hæsta". Symeon of Durham records the victory of Offa in 771 over the Hestingorum gens, that is, "the people of the Hastings tribe", and the same tribe gave their name to Hastingleigh in Kent. An alternative form of the name, Hæstingaceaster, is found in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle entry for 1050, though the absence of any evidence of a Roman fort at Hastings suggests that this name may more probably have referred to the settlement based around the Roman remains at Pevensey.
There is evidence of prehistoric settlements at the site of the town: flint arrowheads and Bronze Age artefacts have been found; Iron Age forts have been excavated on both the East and West Hills suggests an early move to the safety of the valley in between, so that the settlement was already a port when the Romans arrived in Britain for the first time in 55 BC. At this time they began to exploit the iron (Wealden rocks provide a plentiful supply of the ore), and so the port was useful to them. One of the many local sites where the iron was worked at Beauport Park, to the north of the town, which employed up to one thousand men and is considered to have been the third largest in the Roman Empire.
With the departure of the Romans the town suffered setbacks. The Beauport site had been abandoned; and natural and man-made attacks began. The Sussex coast has always suffered from occasional violent storms; with the additional hazard of longshore drift (the eastward movement of shingle along the coast) the coastline has been frequently changing. The original Roman port could now well be under the sea.
Man-made attacks possibly included the Danish invaders, with their harbour in the west of the borough. Bulverhythe, where its original site is conjectured, suggests that: -hythe or hithe means a port or small haven. A royal mint in Hastings was established in AD 928 during the reign of Athelstan.
The start of the Norman Conquest was the Battle of Hastings, fought on 14 October 1066; although the battle itself took place eight miles to the north at Senlac Hill, and William had landed on the coast between Hastings and Eastbourne at a site now known as Norman's Bay. It is thought that the Norman encampment was on the town’s outskirts, where there was open ground; a new town was already being built in the valley to the east. That "New Burgh" was founded in 1069, and is mentioned in the Domesday Book as such. William defeated and killed Harold Godwinson, the last Saxon King of England, and destroyed his army; thus opening England to the Norman conquest.
William caused a castle to be built at Hastings probably using the earthworks of the existing Saxon castle.
Hastings was shown as a borough by the time of the Domesday Book (1086); it had also given its name to the Rape of Hastings, one of the six administrative divisions of Sussex. As a borough, Hastings had a corporation consisting of a "bailiff, jurats, and commonalty". By a Charter of Elizabeth I in 1589 the bailiff was replaced by a mayor.
By the end of the Saxon period, the port of Hastings had moved eastward near the present town centre in the Priory Stream valley, whose entrance was protected by the White Rock headland (since demolished). It was to be a short stay: Danish attacks and huge floods in 1011 and 1014 motivated the townspeople to relocate to the New Burgh.
In the Middle Ages Hastings became one of the Cinque Ports; Sandwich, Dover, and New Romney being the first, Hastings, and Hythe followed, all finally being joined by Rye and Winchelsea, at one point 42 towns were directly or indirectly affiliated to the group.
In the 13th century much of the town was washed away by the sea. During a naval campaign of 1339, and again in 1377, the town was raided and burnt by the French, and seems then to have gone into a decline. As a port, Hastings' days were finished.
Hastings had suffered over the years from the lack of a natural harbour, and there have been attempts to create a sheltered harbour. Attempts were made to build a stone harbour during the reign of Elizabeth I, but the foundations were destroyed by the sea in terrible storms. The last harbour project began in 1896, but this also failed when structural problems and rising costs exhausted all the available funds. Today a fractured seawall is all that remains of what might have become a magnificent harbour. In 1897 the foundation stone was laid of a large concrete structure, but there was insufficient money to complete the work and the "Harbour arm" remains uncompleted. It was partially blown up to discourage possible use by German invasion forces during World War II. The fishing boats are still stored on and launched from the beach.
Hastings was now a small fishing settlement, but it was soon discovered that the new taxes on luxury goods could be made profitable by smuggling, and the town was ideally located for that. Near the castle ruins, on the West Hill, are "St Clement's Caves", partly natural, but mainly excavated by hand by the smugglers from the soft sandstone. Their trade was to come to an end with the period following the Napoleonic Wars, for the town became one of the most fashionable resorts in Britain, brought about by the so-called properties of seawater. Once this came about the expansion of the town took place, to the west, since there was little space left in the valley.
It was at this time that the elegant Pelham Crescent and Wellington Square were built: other building followed. In the Crescent is the classical style church of St Mary in the Castle (its name recalling the old chapel in the castle above) now in use as an arts centre. The building of the crescent and the church necessitated further cutting away of the castle hill cliffs. Once that move away from the old town had begun, it led to the further expansion along the coast, eventually linking up with the new St Leonards.
Like many coastal towns, the population of Hastings grew significantly as a result of the construction of railway links and the fashionable growth of seaside holidays during the Victorian era. In 1801 its population was a mere 3,175; by 1831 it had reached over ten thousand; by 1891 it was almost sixty thousand, and the 2001 census reported over 85,000 inhabitants.
In the 1930s the town underwent some rejuvenation. Seaside resorts were starting to go out of fashion: Hastings perhaps more than most. The town council set about a huge rebuilding project, among which the promenade was rebuilt; and an Olympic-size bathing pool was erected. The latter, regarded in its day as one of the best open-air swimming and diving complexes in Europe, closed some years ago. The area is still known by locals as "The Bathing Pool".
Hastings returned two Members of Parliament from the 14th century until 1885 since when it has returned one. Since 1983 it has been part of the parliamentary constituency of Hastings and Rye; the current MP, since 1997, is Michael Foster of the Labour Party. Prior to 1983, the town was in an eponymous seat of its own.
Hastings, it is thought, was a Saxon town before the arrival of the Normans: the Domesday Book refers to a new Borough: as a borough, Hastings had a corporation consisting of a "bailiff, jurats, and commonalty". Its importance was such that it also gave its name to one of the six Rapes or administrative districts of Sussex.
By a Charter of Elizabeth I in 1589 the bailiff was replaced by a mayor, by which time the town's importance was dwindling. In the Georgian era, patronage of such seaside places (such as nearby Brighton) gave it a new lease of life so that, when the time came with the reform of English local government in 1888, Hastings became a County Borough, responsible for all its local services, independent of the surrounding county, then Sussex (East); less than one hundred years later, in 1974, that status was abolished.
Hastings Borough Council is now in the second tier of local government, below East Sussex County Council. The Borough is divided into sixteen electoral wards as shown on the map, they are in four areas, as below. Some explanation of the ward names is also given:
|Ward||Notes including name origin|
|Castle||Most central ward, including town centre and sea front|
|Braybrooke||Braybrooke Terrace is north of the town centre|
|Silverhill||Well-established area of Hastings|
|St Helens (part of Ore)||Area north of town: included St Helens Wood|
|Old Hastings||includes Hastings Old Town|
|Ore||One-time separate village: largest ward in borough|
|Tressell (part of Ore)||NNE of town centre; named after Robert Tressell|
|Baird||NE of town centre; named after John Logie Baird|
|Central St Leonards||Main part of St Leonards, including sea front|
|Gensing||N of Central St Leonards ward; includes Gensing Gardens|
|Maze Hill||Between Central and West wards; one-time maze in West St Leonards gardens|
|West St Leonards||Large ward extending to the Borough boundary|
|Ashdown||Northernmost ward: contains Ashdown House|
|Conquest||Contains Conquest hospital|
|Hollington||One time village|
|Wishing Tree||Area named after an ancient tree|
|St Leonards on Sea
Hastings is situated where the sandstone beds, at the heart of the Weald, known geologically as the Hastings Sands, meet the English Channel, forming tall cliffs to the east of the town. Hastings Old Town is in a sheltered valley between the East Hill and West Hill (on which the remains of the Castle stand). In Victorian times and later the town has spread westwards and northwards, and now forms a single urban centre with the more suburban area of St Leonards-on-Sea to the west. Roads from the Old Town valley lead towards the Victorian area of Clive Vale and the former village of Ore, from which "The Ridge", marking the effective boundary of Hastings, extends north-westwards towards Battle. Beyond Bulverhythe, the western end of Hastings is marked by low-lying land known as Glyne Gap, separating it from Bexhill-on-Sea.
The sandstone cliffs have been the subject of considerable erosion in relatively recent times: much of the Castle was lost to the sea before the present sea defences and promenade were built, and a number of cliff-top houses are in danger of disappearing around the nearby village of Fairlight.
The beach is mainly shingle, although wide areas of sand are uncovered at low tide. The town is generally built upon a series of low hills rising to 500 feet (150 m) above sea level at "The Ridge" before falling back in the river valley further to the north.
The town also has a large Victorian park, Alexandra Park.
There are three Sites of Special Scientific Interest within the borough; Marline Valley Woods, Combe Haven and Hastings Cliffs To Pett Beach. Marline Valley Woods lies within the Ashdown ward of Hastings. It is an ancient woodland of pedunculate oak-hornbeam which is uncommon nationally. Sussex Wildlife trust own part of the site. Combe Haven is another site of biological interest, with alluvial meadows, and the largest reed bed in the county, providing habitat for breeding birds. It is in the West St Leonards ward, stretching into the parish of Crowhurst. The final SSSI, Hastings Cliffs to Pett Beach, is within the Ore ward of Hastings, extending into the neighbouring Fairlight and Pett parishes. The site runs along the coast and is of both biological and geological interest. The cliffs hold many fossils and has many habitats, including ancient woodland and shingle beaches.
Hastings suffers at a disadvantage insofar as growth is concerned because of its restricted situation, lying as it does with the High Weald Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty to the north. Redevelopment of the area is partly hampered by the split administration of the combined Hastings and Bexhill economic region between Hastings and Rother district councils. There is little space for further large-scale housing and employment growth. Most of the jobs within the Borough are concentrated on health, public services, retail and education. 85% of the firms (in 2005) employed fewer than 10 people; as a consequence the unemployment rate was 3.3% (cf. East Sussex 1.7%); and almost one-third of the employable population had no skills at all in 2001.
This situation has now become the subject of parliamentary consideration, and regeneration of the Borough is now being considered at that level. From being the third tourist resort in the country 50 years ago, Hastings has still not been able to shake off its over-reliance on tourism. Urban regeneration was deemed essential: too many of the buildings once used as hotels are still unfit for modern use; many of them are now refugee accommodation. There is a lack of highly-skilled job opportunities, and education standards are low. In addition Hastings has the highest proportion of elderly people in the UK.
|Theft of a motor vehicle||3.1||2.7|
|Theft from a motor vehicle||10.8||6.9|
|Violence against a person||27.4||16.2|
Until the development of tourism, fishing was Hastings' major industry. The beach launched fishing fleet, based at the Stade remains Europe's largest and has recently won accreditation for its sustainable methods. The fleet has been based on the same beach, below the cliffs at Hastings, for at least 400, possibly 600, years. Its longevity attributed to the prolific fishing ground of Rye Bay nearby.
Hastings fishing vessels are registered at Rye, and thus bear the letters "RX" (Rye,SusseX).
On the beach near the Old Town are the so-called "net shops", said to be unique to Hastings, but similar buildings can be found in Whitby and Folkestone. These are wooden constructions, weatherboarded and tarred, of various shapes and sizes, used for storage. The buildings were built tall and narrow to avoid payment of ground tax. Net shops were not used for drying nets, instead they were used to store them. Fishing nets were made from natural material. They needed to be dry before being hung in a net shop otherwise they would rot. Nets were dried on the beach or on the piece of land known as the Minnis. The net huts are covered with traditional "clinker" weather-boarding and most of them measure about 25 feet in height by 8 feet square.
During the past 150 years, many net huts have been destroyed by stormy seas, and in the 1950s some of them were demolished by the Hastings Council as part of a clearance scheme for development of the beach. About forty-five of these structures still survive and are regularly maintained.
There are two major roads in Hastings: the A21 trunk road to London; and the A259 coastal road. Both are beset with traffic problems: although the London road, which has to contend with difficult terrain, has had several sections of widening over the past decades there are still many delays. Long-term plans for a much improved A259 east–west route (including a Hastings bypass) were abandoned in the 1990s, but a new road to Bexhill-on-Sea is planned to relieve the congested coastal route. Hastings is also linked to Battle via the A2100, the original London road. The A28 road connects Hastings to Ashford, Canterbury and the Isle of Thanet. The A27 road starts nearby at Pevensey. The Ring road includes parts of most of the main roads.
Hastings has four rail links: two to London, one to Brighton and one to Ashford. Of the London lines, the shorter is the Hastings Line, the former South Eastern Railway (SER) route to Charing Cross via Battle and Tunbridge Wells, which opened in 1852; and the longer is the East Coastway Line, the former London, Brighton and South Coast Railway (LBSCR) route to Victoria via Bexhill, Eastbourne and Lewes. Trains to Brighton also use the East Coastway Line. The Marshlink Line runs via Rye to Ashford where a connection can be made with Eurostar services, and is unelectrified except for the Hastings-Ore segment.
Hastings is served by two rail companies: Southeastern and Southern. Southeastern services run along the Hastings Line, generally terminating at Hastings, with some peak services extending to Ore; the other lines are served by Southern, with services terminating at Ore or Ashford.
The town currently has four railway stations: from west to east they are West St Leonards station, St Leonards Warrior Square, Hastings, and Ore; this latter has been proposed to be renamed to Ore Valley. There is also one closed station and one proposed station in the area. West Marina station (on the LBSCR line) was very near West St Leonards (on the SER line) and was closed some years ago. A new station has been proposed at Glyne Gap in Bexhill, which would also serve residents from western Hastings. A high speed railway from Bexhill to Ore has been proposed.
The Saxon Shore Way, (a long distance footpath, 163 miles (262 km) in length from Gravesend, Kent traces the Kent and Sussex coast “as it was in Roman times” to Hastings. The National Cycle Network route NCR2 links Dover to St Austell along the south coast, and passes through Hastings.
Hastings had a network of trams from 1905 to 1929. The trams ran as far as Bexhill, and were worked by overhead electric wires, except for the stretch along the seafront from Bo-Peep to the Memorial, which was initially worked by the Dolter stud contact system. The Dolter system was replaced by petrol electric trams in 1914, but overhead electrification was extended to this section in 1921. Trolleybuses rather than trams were used in the section that included the very narrow High Street, and the entire tram system was replaced by trolleybuses in 1928–1929.
Maidstone and District bought the Hastings Tramway Company in 1935, but the trolleybuses still carried the "Hastings Tramways" logo until shortly before they were replaced by diesel buses in 1959, following the failure of the "Save our trolleys" campaign.
The iconic landmarks, due to their being frequently used in the town's tourist publicity, are almost certainly the castle on its sandstone cliffs, and Hastings Pier. Little remains of the Castle apart from an arch of the chapel, some walls, and underground dungeons. The pier itself is closed due to its being considered in an unsafe condition. Violent storms during mid March 2008 have damaged the structure further.
In a similar vein, the old town of Hastings is certainly a landmark. Many of the buildings there today date from the time when the Georgians arrived here to "take the waters", although the two churches (see below) are very much older. An example of the houses is East Cliff House, designed and built between 1760 and 1762 by Edward Capell, the Shakespearean critic and official censor of plays, at a cost of £5,000. The house was constructed on the site of the old East Fort, with a gun platform that may have been adapted to form the front terrace of the building. The house was abandoned during the Second World War and, from then on, it became a bingo centre and then a seafront cafe.
An important former landmark was "the Memorial", a clock tower commemorating Albert the Prince Consort which stood for many years at the traffic intersection at the town centre, but was demolished following an arson attack in the 1970s.
On the seafront at St Leonards is Marine Court, a 1930s block of flats in the Art Deco style that is said to represent an ocean liner.
The school founded by Rev William Parker in 1619 and that founded by James Saunders in 1709 were eventually amalgamated to form Hastings Grammar School, which later became the William Parker Sports College. It is now the only all-boys secondary school in East Sussex. There is also a single-sex school for girls in Hastings, called Helenswood, named after St Helenswood situated close by the school.
East Sussex County Council has plans to close three mixed comprehensive schools (Filsham School, The Grove School and Hillcrest School) and replace them with two academy schools. The proposed sponsors for the academies are University of Brighton (lead sponsor), British Telecom and East Sussex County Council itself. As of December 2008 the proposals are awaiting approval of the Secretary of State for Children, Schools and Families. East Sussex County Council provisionally approved the closure of Hillcrest, the Grove and Filsham Valley in late-November, and has announced that a final decision will be made on the schools' future in January 2010.
The most important buildings from the late medieval period are the two churches in the Old Town, St Clement's (probably built after 1377) and All Saints (early 15th century). There is also a Muslim mosque, formerly "Mercatoria School" until purchased by the East Sussex Islamic Association.
Hastings has three museums: the Hastings Museum and Art Gallery; the Old Town Hall Museum; and the Fishermen's Museum. These are all open for the whole year. The Hastings Museum and Art Gallery includes a Durbar Hall representing an Indian palace, donated by Lord Brassey.
There are two places providing a theatrical venue: the White Rock Theatre the town's multipurpose venue; and the Stables Theatre, which shows mainly local productions and acts as an arts exhibition centre. Among other uses to which the main theatre is put is to host the annual Hastings Music Festival. There is a small Odeon cinema in Hastings, however there are plans to renovate an area known as the 'Priory Quarter' in the town centre. Some of the plans include large office spaces, retail units and a new large multiplex cinema. The town has its own independent cinema known as "Electric Palace".
The Hastings International Chess Congress which started in 1882 attracts international players to Hastings. The Hastings Writers' Group claims to be one of the oldest in the country: it was established in 1947.
Hastings has long been known as a retreat for artists and painters. For example, the pre-Raphaelite painters including Dante Gabriel Rossetti (who married here in Hastings) and William Holman Hunt, who painted pictures of nearby cliffs at Fairlight, admired the town for its light and clear air.
The town has its fair share of "visitor attractions". These are mostly clustered around the Fishmarket, near the dropping-off place for the coaches, and include a miniature railway, fairground rides and amusement arcades; there are also many refreshment places in this area of the town. The nearby cliff railways take visitors further afield: to the Caves; and to Hastings Country Park, an area of 12.67 km² (6.9 miles²) of lightly wooded and open land extending from Hastings approximately 3 miles (5 km) along the cliff tops to Fairlight.
The Blue Reef Aquarium (formerly Underwater World) is a popular visitor attraction, as is the Smugglers' Adventure in St Clement's Caves.
The largest annual event is the May Day bank holiday weekend, which features a Jack-in-the-Green festival (revived since 1983), and the Maydayrun, when tens of thousands of motorbikes drive to Hastings.
There is also a yearly carnival, and Old Town Week during August, a beer festival in Alexandra Park, and a Seafood and Wine Festival in the Old Town. During Hastings week held each year around 14 October the Hastings Bonfire Society stages a torchlight procession through the streets, with a beach bonfire and spectacular firework display. In 2007 the World Crazy Golf Championship was held at the Adventure Crazy Golf Course.
There are many organisations and venues catering for the sports enthusiast including angling, golf, lawn tennis, riding, rowing and swimming. The Summerfields Leisure Centre provides the largest venue. Another family pool (although outside the borough) with wave machine and water slide is situated at Glyne Gap, on the coast mid-way between Bexhill and Hastings.
The Hastings Half Marathon is becoming well-known around the country, being voted the best race of its kind three years running, and has become known as the unofficial "Great South Run". With numbers increasing every year, in 2009 the race had nearly 5,000 entries.
As for team sports, Hastings is home to one senior football club, Hastings United, who play in the Isthmian League Premier Division and use The Pilot Field as their home ground. There are also many other football clubs in Hastings that play in the East Sussex Football League, such as Hollington United and Hastings Rangers. The town's premier cricket venue is now Horntye Park Sports Complex, home of Hastings Priory. The previous venue, where Priory Meadow Shopping Centre now stands, saw the final game played in 1989.
Hastings is home to two major rugby clubs, Hastings & Bexhill R.F.C and Cinque Ports Rugby Club. Hastings & Bexhill play their home matches at William Parker Sports College and play in Division Four of the London Rugby Union League. Cinque Ports play in the Sussex Rugby Union League and play at The Grove School. Hastings' main hockey club is South Saxons, who play and train on the town's only AstroTurf surface at Horntye Park Sports Complex. The AstroTurf is also used for other sports such as football.
One of the athletics clubs in the Hastings & Rother Area is Hastings Athletics Club: it uses the running track at William Parker Sports College, the only running track in the area. A very popular sport in the town is bowls: there are plenty of greens in the town. The Hastings Open Bowls Tournament has been held annually in June since 1911 and attracts many entrants country-wide.
HASTINGS, a municipal, county and parliamentary borough and watering-place of Sussex, England, one of the Cinque Ports, 62 m. S.E. by S. from London, on the South Eastern & Chatham and the London, Brighton & South Coast railways. Pop. (1901), 65,528. It is picturesquely situated at the mouth of two narrow valleys, and, being sheltered by considerable hills on the north and east, has an especially mild climate. Eastward along the coast towards Fairlight, and inland, the country is beautiful. A parade fronts the English Channel, and connects the town on the west with St Leonard's, which is included within the borough. This is mainly a residential quarter, and has four railway stations on the lines serving Hastings. Both Hastings and St Leonard's have fine piers; there is a covered parade known as the Marina, and the Alexandra Park of 75 acres was opened in 1891. There are also numerous public gardens. The sandy beach is extensive, and affords excellent bathing. On the brink of the West Cliff stand a square and a circular tower and other fragments of the castle, probably erected soon after the time of William the Conqueror; together with the ruins, opened up by excavation in 1824, of the castle chapel, a transitional Norman structure 1 10 ft. long, with a nave, chancel and aisles. Besides the chapel there was formerly a college, both being under the control of a dean and secular canons. The deanery was held by Thomas Becket, and one of the canonries by William of Wykeham. The principal public buildings are the old parish churches of All Saints and St Clements, the first containing in its register for 1619 the baptism of Titus Oates, whose father was rector of the parish; numerous modern churches, the town hall (1880); theatre, music hall and assembly rooms. The Brassey Institute contains a public library, museum and art school. The Albert Memorial clock-tower was erected in 1864. Educational institutions include the grammar school (1883), school of science and art (1878) and technical schools. At the west end of the town are several hospitals and convalescent homes. The prosperity of the town depends almost wholly on its reputation as a wateringplace, but there is a small fishing and boat-building industry. In 1890 an act of parliament authorized the construction of a harbour, but the work, begun in 1896, was not completed. The fish-market beneath the castle cliff is picturesque. The parliamentary borough, returning one member, falls within the Rye division of the county. The county borough was created in 1888. The municipal borough is under a mayor, 10 aldermen and 30 councillors. Area, 4857 acres.
Rock shelters on Castle Hill and numerous flint instruments which have been discovered at Hastings point to an extensive neolithic population, and there are ancient earthworks and a promontory camp of unknown date. There is no evidence that Hastings was a Roman settlement, but it was a place of some note in the Anglo-Saxon period. In 795 land at Hastings (Haestingaceaster, Haestingas, Haestingaport) is included in a grant, which may possibly be a forgery, of a South Saxon chieftain to the abbey of St Denis in France; and a royal mint was established at the town by lEthelstan. The battle of Hastings in 1066 described below was the first and decisive act of the Norman Conquest. It was fought near the present Battle Abbey, about 6 m. inland. After the Conquest William I. erected the earthworks of the existing castle. By 1086 Hastings was a borough and had given its name to the rape of Sussex in which it lay. The town at that time had a harbour and a market. Whether Hastings was one of the towns afterwards known as the Cinque Ports at the time when they received their first charter from Edward the Confessor is uncertain, but in the reign of William I. it was undoubtedly among them. These combined towns, of which Hastings was the head, had special liberties and a separate jurisdiction under a warden. The only charter peculiar to Hastings was granted in 1589 by Elizabeth, and incorporated the borough under the name of "mayor, jurats and commonalty," instead of the former title of "bailiff, jurats and commonalty." Hastings returned two members to parliament probably from 1322, and certainly from 1366, until 1885, when the number was reduced to one.
On the 28th of September t066, William of Normandy, bent on asserting by arms his right to the English crown, landed at Pevensey. King Harold, who had destroyed the invaders of northern England at the battle of Stamford Bridge in Yorkshire, on hearing the news hurried southward, gathering what forces he could on the way. He took up his position, athwart the road from Hastings to London, on a hill' some 6 m. inland from Hastings, with his back to the great forest of Anderida (the Weald) and in front of him a long glacislike slope, at the bottom of which began the opposing slope of Telham Hill. The English army was composed almost entirely of infantry. The shire levies, for the most part destitute of body armour and with miscellaneous and, even improvised weapons, were arranged on either flank of Harold's guards (huscarles), picked men armed principally with the Danish axe and shield.
Before this position Duke William appeared on the morning of the 14th of October. His host, composed not only of his Norman vassals but of barons, knights and adventurers from all quarters, was arranged in a centre and two wings, each corps having its archers and arblasters in the front line, the rest of the infantry in the second and the heavy armoured cavalry in the third. Neither the arrows nor the charge of the second line of foot-men, who, unlike the English, wore defensive mail, made any impression on the English standing in a serried mass behind their interlocked shields.' Then the heavy cavalry came on, led by the duke and his brother Odo, and encouraged by the example of the minstrel Taillefer, who rode forward, tossing and catching his sword, into the midst of the English line before he was pulled down and killed. All along the front the cavalry came to close quarters with the defenders, but the long powerful Danish axes were ' Freeman called this hill Senlac and introduced the fashion of describing the battle as "the battle of Senlac." Mr J. H. Round, however, proved conclusively that this name, being French (Senlecque), could not have been in use at the time of the Conquest, that the battlefield had in fact no name, pointing out that in William of Malmesbury and in Domesday Book the battle is called "of Hastings" (Bellum Hastingense), while only one writer, Ordericus Vitalis, describes it two hundred years after the event as Bellum Senlacium. See Round, Feudal England (London, 1895), p. 333 et seq.
2 There is still a difference of opinion as to whether the English were, or were not, defended by any other rampart than that of the customary "shield-wall." Freeman, apparently as a result of a misunderstanding of a passage in Henry of Huntingdon and the slightly ambiguous verse of Wace in the Roman du Rou (11.69916 994 and 11.7815-7826), affirms that Harold turned "the battle as far as possible into the likeness of a siege," by building round his troops a "palisade" of solid timber (Norman Conquest, iii. 444). This was proved to be a fable by J. H. Round, .in the course of a general attack on Freeman's historical method, which provoked the professor's defenders to take up the cudgels on his behalf in a very long and lively controversy. The result of this was that Freeman's account was wholly discredited, though Round's view - that there was no wall of any kind save the shield-wall - is not generally accepted. Professor Oman (Academy, June 9, 1894), for instance, holds that there was "an abattis of some sort" set to hamper the advance of cavalry (see also English History, vol. ix., P. 474). Mr Round sums up the controversy, from his point of view, in his Feudal England, p. 340 et seq., where references to other monographs on the subject will be found.
as formidable as the halbert and the bill proved to be in battles of later centuries, and they lopped off the arms of the assailants and cut down their horses. The fire of the attack died out and the left wing (Bretons) fled in rout. But as the fyrd levies broke out of the line and pursued the Bretons down the hill in a wild, formless mob, William's cavalry swung round and destroyed them, and this suggested to the duke to repeat deliberately what the Bretons had done from fear. Another advance, followed by a feigned retreat, drew down a second large body of the English from the crest, and these in turn, once in the open, were ridden over and slaughtered by the men-at-arms. Lastly, these two disasters having weakened the defenders both materially and morally, William subjected the lefuscarles, who had stood fast when the fyrd broke its ranks, to a constant rain of arrows, varied from time to time by cavalry charges. These magnificent soldiers endured the trial for many hours, from noon till close on nightfall; but at last, when the Norman archers raised their bows so as to pitch the arrows at a steep angle of descent in the midst of the huscarles, the strain became too great. While some rushed forward alone or in twos and threes to die in the midst of the enemy, the remainder stood fast, too closely crowded almost for the wounded to drop. At last Harold received a mortal wound, the English began to waver, and the knights forced their way in. Only a remnant of the defenders made its way back to the forest; and William, after resting for a night on the hardly-won ground, began the work of the Norman Conquest.