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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A collection of 18th and 19th century hats

A hat is a head covering.They come in many sizes and shapes. It may be worn for protection against the elements, for religious reasons, for safety, or as a fashion accessory.[1] In the past, hats were an indicator of social status.[2] In the military, they may denote rank and regiment.[3]


Hat design

Paris millinery shop, 1822

A hat consists of four main parts: [4]

  • Crown, The portion of a hat covering the top of the head
    open crown, center crease, (modified) cattleman (-crown), tapered crown, un-tapered crown, teardrop crown, telescope crown, off-kilter telescope, pecan top (porkpie), flat crown/straight crown (e.g. like biberhut), etc.
  • Peak (British English), visor (American English), or bill, a stiff projection at the front, to shade or shield the eyes from sun and rain
  • Brim, an optional projection of stiff material from the bottom of the hat's crown horizontally all around the circumference of the hat
    wide brim, dimension brim (dimensional brim), curled brim, rolled sides, etc.
  • Puggaree (British) or sweatband or hatband (American), a ribbon or band that runs around the bottom of the torso of the hat. The sweatband may be adjustable with a cord at the top and is on the inside of the hat touching the skin while the hatband and puggaree are around the outside. The band worn with various military hats, such as the Australian slouch hat and the pith helmet, is referred to as a puggaree. [5][6]

Famous hatmakers

One of the most famous London hat-makers was Locks of St James's Street.[7] Another was Sharp & Davis of 6 Fish Street Hill [8] John B. Stetson is a well-known American hat company.[citation needed] Patey hats ( is probably the last remaining "real" hand-made custom hat maker - making for example all of the "Yeoman Warder" Tower of London ceremonial hats.

Hat styles

Image Name Description
Akubra-style hat.jpg Akubra Australian hat with similarities to fedoras and cowboy hats
20070102 per erik strandberg balaclava 1.jpg Balaclava A form of headgear covering the whole head, exposing only the face or upper part of it, and sometimes only the eyes. Also known as a ski mask.
Texas Tech Red Raiders baseball cap.jpg Baseball cap A type of soft cap with a long, stiffened and curved peak
1st Sardinia Grenadiers Bastille Day 2007 n1.jpg Bearskin The tall, fur, full dress uniform hat of the Brigade of Guards designed to protect the footguards against sword-cuts, commonly seen at Buckingham Palace
Balmoral-bonnet.jpg Balmoral bonnet Traditional Scottish bonnet or cap worn with Scottish Highland dress
Beaver-felt-hat-ftl.jpg Beaver hat Hats made of felted beaver fur
Austria-GreenBeret.jpg Beret Soft round cap, usually of wool felt, with a flat crown, worn by both men and women and traditionally associated with France. Also used in the military.
Bicorne hat Ecole Polytechnique.jpg Bicorne Military hat with upturned corners, also known as a cocked hat
BoaterStrawHat wb.jpg Boater Flat-brimmed and flat-topped straw hat, formerly worn by seamen, and now mostly at summer regattas or garden parties, often with a ribbon in club or college colors.
US Navy SEALs in from water.jpg Boonie hat A soft cotton wide-brim hat commonly used by militaries. Similar to a bucket hat.
1800s Boss of the plains 5.jpg Boss of the plains A lightweight all-weather hat designed by John B. Stetson for the demands of the American west
Bowler Hat sw fcm.jpg Bowler / Derby A hard felt hat with a rounded crown created in 1850 by Lock's of St James's, the hatters to Thomas Coke, 2nd Earl of Leicester, for his servants. Sometimes known as a derby hat
Bucket hat line drawing.svg Bucket hat A soft cotton hat with a wide, downwards-sloping brim
8e hussards 1804(fr).jpg Busby A small fur military hat
Zitoune cyclisme.JPG Casquette A small-peaked cap often worn by cyclists
Caubeen.png Caubeen Irish military hat, traditionally green with insignia
Greenmustardorangbluechullo.jpg Chullo Peruvian or Bolivian hat with ear-flaps made from vicuña, alpaca, llama or sheep's wool. [9]
Chupallas Chile.jpg Chupalla Straw hat made in Chile
Vilmabanky.jpg Cloche hat Popular bell-shaped ladies hat of the 1920s
Sombrero-cordobes.jpg Cordobés Flat-brimmed and flat-topped traditional hat originating from Cordoba, Spain, associated with Flamenco and popularized by characters such as the fictional Zorro
Conical hat.jpg Conical straw hat Simple straw hat associated with East and Southeast Asia
Stetson cowboy hat 1920s renovated.jpg Cowboy hat High-crowned, wide-brimmed hat, with a sweatband on the inside, and a decorative hat band on the outside. Customized by creasing the crown and rolling the brim. [10]
Hampshire helmet constable.jpg Custodian helmet Police helmet worn by British constables, popularly known as bobby hats
YellowHardHat.jpg Deerstalker Warm close-fitting tweed cap designed for hunting in the wet and windy Scottish climate, with brims in front and behind, and ear flaps which can be tied together either over the crown or under the chin; anachronistically associated with Sherlock Holmes.
Dunce cap from LOC 3c04163u.png Dunce cap A hat that was used as a punishment-humiliation hat in school during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. It is shaped like a cone and often has a big capital 'D' inscribed on the front.
Fascinators 2.jpg Fascinator A small hat commonly made with feathers, flowers and/or beads. It attaches to the hair by a comb, headband or clip.
Hatt.jpg Fedora A soft felt hat with a lengthwise crease
Fes.jpg Fez Red felt hat in the shape of a truncated cone
Flat-cap.jpg Flat cap A soft, round men's cap with a small brim in front
Gatsbycapsmall.jpg Gatsby A soft brimmed hat popular in New York after the turn of the century made from eight quarter panels. Also known as a newsboy cap
Omar-n-bradley-contrast-adjusted.jpg Forage cap A foldable cloth cap with straight sides and a creased or hollow crown.
YoungMon.jpg Gaung Paung Headwrap worn by the Bamar, Mon people, Rakhine and Shan peoples
Prince Sultan.jpg Ghutrah Three piece ensemble consisting of a Thagiyah skull cap, Gutrah scarf, and Ogal black band. Gutrahs are plain white or checkered, denoting ethnic or national identities.[citation needed]
Ts17army.jpg Glengarry Scottish military cap with a toorie or bobble on top and ribbons hanging down behind
Schutzhelm.jpg Hard hat A helmet predominantly used in workplace environments, such as construction sites, to protect the head from injury by falling objects, debris and bad weather.
Infantry Hardee.jpg Hardee hat Also known as the 1858 Dress Hat. Regulation hat for Union soldiers during the American Civil War.
Hatkin side view.JPG Hatkin A hat with additional fabric that covers the neck.
Robert Ewing 1914.jpg Homburg A semi-formal hat with a crease and no dents
Képi gendarmerie pontificale.jpg Kepi A French military hat with a flat, circular top and visor.
Kippa.jpg Kippah or Yarmulke A small close-fitting skullcap worn by religious Jews
Rabbi Moshe Leib Rabinovich.JPG Kolpik Brown fur hat worn by Hassidic Jews
PikiWiki Israel 3243 Ein Hahoresh.jpg Kova tembel Cloth hat worn by Israeli pioneers and kibbutzniks
Enrique ponce.jpg Montera A crocheted hat worn by bullfighters
LinusPaulingGraduation1922.jpg Mortarboard Flat, square hat with a tassel worn as part of academic dress
Pakol - textiles and clothing - Fatima Zehra Girls School - Kandahar - Afghanistan - 10-24-2008.jpg Pakul Round, rolled wool hat with a flat top, associated with Afghanistan and the Mujahideen.
PanamaHatHarryTruman.jpg Panama Straw hat made in Ecuador
Nathan Twining 02.jpg Peaked cap A military style cap with a crown, band and peak (also called a visor). It is used by many militaries of the world as well as law enforcement, as well as some people in service professions who wear uniforms.
Bust Attis CdM.jpg Phrygian Cap A soft conical cap pulled forward. In sculpture, paintings and caricatures it represents freedom and the pursuit of liberty. The popular comic / cartoon characters The Smurfs, are famous for their white Phrygian caps. Their leader, Papa Smurf wears a red one.
PithHelmetTruman.jpg Pith Helmet A lightweight cloth-covered helmet made of cork or pith.
Porkpie.jpg Porkpie Circular, flat topped hat
Sami hat.jpg Sami hat Also known as a "Four Winds" hat, traditional men's hat of the Sami people
Sajkaca.jpg Šajkača Serbian national hat
Silver enlaid salakot.jpg Salakot A traditional hat in the Philippines
Santa Hat.jpg Santa Hat A floppy pointed red hat trimmed in white fur traditionally associated with Christmas
MuseeMarine-ShakoMarine.jpg Shako A tall cylindrical military cap, usually with a visor, badge, and plume.
Judeu ortodoxo reza com um shtreimel, Kotel, Jerusalém.jpg Shtreimel A fur hat worn by married Hassidic men on Shabbat and holidays
Australian Army ceremonial slouch hat.png Slouch Generic term covering wide-brimmed felt-crowned hats like those worn by the military and ranchers
Adolf Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel cropped.JPG Snood A close-fitting net that gathers up the back of a woman's hair
Harry S Truman sombrero.jpg Sombrero A Mexican hat with a conical crown and a saucer-shaped brim, highly embroidered made of plush felt
Chalmers-student-cap.jpg Student cap A cap worn by university students in various European countries
Taqiyah A short, rounded cap worn by Muslim men
Tophat.jpg Top hat A tall, flat-crowned, cylindrical hat worn by men in the 19th and early 20th centuries, now worn only with morning dress or evening dress. Also known as a stovepipe hat
Cooks 050918 154402.jpg Toque A tall, pleated, brimless, cylindrical hat traditionally worn by chefs
Rosenberg - Selfportrait.jpg Trilby A soft felt men's hat with a deeply indented crown and a narrow brim often upturned at the back
Peter the Great Reenactor.jpg Tricorne A soft hat with a broad brim, pinned up on either side of the head and at the back, producing a triangular shape
Truckerhat.jpg Trucker hat Similar to a baseball cap, usually with a foam brim and front section and a breathable mesh back section
Tudor Bonnet.JPG Tudor bonnet A soft round black academic cap, with a tassel hanging from a cord attached to the centre of the top of the hat
Yellowhat.jpg Tuque A knitted hat, worn in winter, usually made from wool or acrylic. Also known as a ski cap, knit hat, knit cap, sock cap, stocking cap, watch cap, or goobalini.
Sikh wearing turban.jpg Turban A headdress consisting of a scarf-like single piece of cloth wound around either the head itself or an inner hat.
Tyrolean hat 3.jpg Tyrolean hat A felt hat originating from the Alps.
Grayushanka.jpg Ushanka Russian fur hat with fold down ear flaps
Sombrero vueltiao.jpg Vueltiao A Colombian hat of woven and sewn black and khaki dried palm braids with indigenous figures
Cardinal zucchetto 2003 modified 2008-15-08.jpg Zucchetto Skullcap worn by clerics

Hat size

Hat sizes are determined by measuring the circumference of a person's head about 1/2 inch (1.3 cm) above the ears and dividing by pi.[citation needed] In the UK, an equivalent hat size is an eighth of an inch smaller than in the US. [11] Inches or centimeters may be used depending on the manufacturer. Felt hats can be stretched for a custom fit, and hard hats (such as Derbys and top hats) have a hard goss which can be melted to adjust size. Cheaper hats come in standard sizes, such as small, medium, large. Some hats, like baseball caps, are adjustable.

Hat sizes
size Youth S/M Youth L/XL XXS XS S M L XL XXL XXL
Age (years) 0 ½ 1 2
Circumference in cm 34 43 47 48 48-50 51-52 52-53 53-54 55-56 57-58 59-60 61-62 63-65 65-66
Circumference in inches 13.5 17 18.5 19 19.25 20.25 20.75 21 22 22.5 23.5 24.25 25 26

See also


  1. ^ The Wearing of Hats Fashion History
  2. ^ The social meanings of hats
  3. ^ Insignia:The Way You Tell Who's Who in the Military
  4. ^ David Morgan: Hat Care
  5. ^ Puggaree, the hat band, it's origins (sic)
  6. ^ Puggaree: Definition at
  7. ^ see Whitbourn, F.: 'Mr Lock of St James's St Heinemann, 1971.
  8. ^ For an account of the Sharp family's hat-making business see, Knapman, D. - 'Conversation Sharp - The Biography of a London Gentleman, Richard Sharp (1759-1835), in Letters, Prose and Verse'. [Private Publication, 2004]. British Library.
  9. ^ Season of the chullo
  10. ^ Snyder, Jeffrey B. (1997) Stetson Hats and the John B. Stetson Company 1865-1970.p5 ISBN 0-7643-0211-6
  11. ^ Hat Sizing and How to Measure your Head

External links


Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

A hat is a headcovering. It may be worn for protection against the elements, for religious reasons, for safety or as a fashion accessory. Hats were once an indicator of social status. In the military, they denote rank and regiment.


  • A man is nothing without his hat.
  • A hat should be taken off when you greet a lady and left off for the rest of your life. Nothing looks more stupid than a hat.
    • P. J. O'Rourke (1947 - )

External links

Wikipedia has an article about:

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

HAT, a covering for the head worn by both sexes, and distinguished from the cap or bonnet by the possession of a brim. The word in O.E. is hcet, which is cognate with O. Frisian hatt, O.N. hotte, &c., meaning head-covering, hood; it is distantly related to the O.E. hod, hood, which is cognate with the German for "hat," Hut. The history of the hat as part of the apparel of both sexes, with the various changes in shape which it has undergone, is treated in the article Costume.

Hats were originally made by the process of felting, and as tradition ascribed the discovery of that very ancient operation to St Clement, he was assumed as the patron saint of the craft. At the present day the trade is divided into two distinct classes. The first and most ancient is concerned with the manufacture of felt hats, and the second has to do with the recent but now most extensive and important manufacture of silk or dress hats. In addition to these there is the important manufacture of straw or plaited hats (see Straw And Straw Manufactures); and hats are occasionally manufactured of materials and by processes not included under any of these heads, but such manufactures do not take a large or permanent position in the industry.

Felt Hats. - There is a great range in the quality of felt hats: the finer and more expensive qualities are made entirely of fur; for commoner qualities a mixture of fur and wool is used; and for the cheapest kinds wool alone is employed. The processes and apparatus necessary for making hats of fur differ also from those required in the case of woollen bodies; and in large manufactories machinery is now generally employed for operations which at no distant date were entirely manual. An outline of the operations by which the old beaver hat was made will give an idea of the manual processes in making a fur napped hat, and the apparatus and mechanical processes employed in making ordinary hard and soft felts will afterwards be noticed.

Hatters' fur consists principally of the hair of rabbits (technically called coneys) and hares, with some proportion of nutria, musquash and beavers' hair; and generally any parings and cuttings from furriers are also used. Furs intended for felting are deprived of their long coarse hairs, after which they are treated with a solution of nitrate of mercury, an operation called carroting or secretage, whereby the felting properties of the fur are greatly increased. The fur is then cut by hand or machine from the ski p, and in this state it is delivered to the hat maker.

The old process of making a beaver hat was as follows. The materials of a proper beaver consisted, for the body or foundation, of rabbits' fur, and for the nap, of beaver fur, although the beaver was often mixed with or supplanted by a more common fur. In preparing the fur plate, the hatter weighed out a sufficient quantity of rabbit fur for a single hat, and spread it out and combined it by the operation of bowing. The bow or stang ABC (fig. i) was about 7 ft. long, and it stretched a single cord of catgut D, which the workman vibrated by means of a wooden pin E, furnished with a half knob at each end. Holding the bow in his left hand, and the pin in his right, he caused the vibrating string to come in contact with the heap of tangled fur, which did not cover a space greater than that of the hand. At each vibration some of the filaments started up to the height of a few inches, and fell away from the mass, a little to the right of the bow, their excursions being restrained by a concave frame of wicker work called the basket. One half of the material was first operated on, and by bowing and gathering, or a patting use of the basket, the stuff was loosely matted into a triangular figure, about 50 by 36 in., called a bat. In this formation care was taken to work about two-thirds of the fur down towards what was intended for the brim, and this having been effected, greater density was induced by gentle pressure with the basket. It was then covered with a wettish linen cloth, upon which was laid the hardening skin, a piece of dry half-tanned horse hide. On this the workman pressed until the stuff adhered closely to the damp cloth, in which it was then doubled up, freely pressed with the hand, and laid aside. By this process, called basoning, the bat became compactly felted and thinned toward the sides and point. The other half of the fur was next subjected to precisely the same processes, after which a cone-shaped slip of stiff paper was laid on its surface, and the sides of the bat were folded over its edges to its form and size. It was then laid paper-side downward upon the first bat, which was now replaced on the hurdle, and its edges were transversely doubled over the introverted side-lays of the second bat, thus giving equal thickness to the whole body. In this condition it was reintroduced between folds of damp linen cloth, and again hardened, so as to unite the two halves, the knitting together of which was quickly effected. The paper was then withdrawn, and the body in the form of a large cone removed to the plank or battery room.

The battery consisted of an open iron boiler or kettle A (fig. 2), filled with scalding hot water, with shelves, B, C, partly of mahogany and partly of lead, slop ing down to it. Here the body was first dipped in the water, and then withdrawn to the plank to cool and drain, when it was unfolded, rolled gently with a pin tapering towards the ends, turned, and worked in every direction, to toughen and shrink it, and at the same time prevent adhesion of its sides. Stopping or thickening any thin spots seen on looking through the body, was carefully performed by dabbing on additional stuff in succes sive supplies from the hot liquor with a brush frequently dipped into the kettle, until the body was shrunk sufficiently (about one-half) and thoroughly equalized. When quite dried, stiffening was effected with a brush dipped into a thin varnish of shellac, and rubbed into the body, the surface intended for the inside having much more laid on it than the outer, while the brim was made to absorb many times the quantity applied to any other part.

On being again dried, the body was ready to be covered with a nap of beaver hair. For this, in inferior qualities, the hair of the otter, nutria or other fine fur was sometimes substituted. The requisite quantity of one or other of these was taken and mixed with a proportion of cotton, and the whole was bowed up into a thin uniform lap. The cotton merely served to give sufficient body to the material to enable the workman to handle the lap. The body of the hat FIG. 2.

being damped, the workman spread over it a covering of this lap, and by moistening and gentle patting with a brush the cut ends of the hair penetrated and fixed themselves in the felt body. The hat was then put into a coarse hair cloth, dipped and rolled in the hot liquor until the fur was quite worked in, the cotton being left on the surface loose and ready for removal. The blocking, dyeing and finishing processes in the case of beaver hats were similar to those employed for ordinary felts, except that greater care and dexterity were required on the part of the workmen, and further that the coarse hairs or kemps which might be in the fur were cut off by shaving the surface with a razor. The nap also had to be laid in one direction, smoothed and rendered glossy by repeated wettings, ironings and brushings. A hat so finished was very durable and much more light, cool and easy-fitting to the head than the silk hat which has now so largely superseded it.

The first efficient machinery for making felt hats was devised in America, and from the United States the machine-making processes were introduced into England about the year 1858; and now in all large establishments machinery such as that alluded to below is employed. For the forming of hat bodies two kinds of machine are used, according as the material employed is fur or wool. In the case of fur, the essential portion of the apparatus is a "former," consisting of a metal cone of the size and form of the body or bat to be made, perforated all over with small holes. The cone is made to revolve on its axis slowly over an orifice under which there is a powerful fan, which maintains a strong inward draught of air through the holes in the cone. At the side of the cone, and with an opening towards it, is a trunk or box from which the fur to be made into a hat is thrown out by the rapid revolution of a brushlike cylinder, and as the cloud of separate hairs is expelled from the trunk, the current of air being sucked through the cone carries the fibres to it and causes them to cling closely to its surface. Thus a coating of loose fibres is accumulated on the copper cone, and these are kept in position only by the exhaust at work under it. When sufficient for a hat body has been deposited, it is damped and a cloth is wrapped round it; then an outer cone is slipped over it and the whole is removed for felting, while another copper cone is placed in position for continuing the work. The fur is next felted by being rolled and pressed, these operations being performed partly by hand and partly by machine.

In the case of wool hats the hat or body is prepared by first carding in a modified form of carding machine. The wool is divided into two separate slivers as delivered from the cards, and these are wound simultaneously on a double conical block of wood mounted and geared to revolve slowly with a reciprocating horizontal motion, so that there is a continual crossing and recrossing of the wool as the sliver is wound around the cone. This diagonal arrangement of the sliver is an essential feature in the apparatus, as thereby the strength of the finished felt is made equal in every direction; and when strained in the blocking the texture yields in a uniform manner without rupture. The wool wound on the double block forms the material of two hats, which are separated by cutting around the median or base line, and slipping each half off at its own end. Into each cone of wool or bat an "inlayer" is now placed to prevent the inside from matting, after which they are folded in cloths, and placed over a perforated iron plate through which steam is blown. When well moistened and heated, they are placed between boards, and subjected to a rubbing action sufficient to harden them for bearing the subsequent strong planking or felting operations. The planking of wool hats is generally done by machine, in some cases a form of fulling mill being used; but in all forms the agencies are heat, moisture, pressure, rubbing and turning.

When by thorough felting the hat bodies of any kind have been reduced to dense leathery cones about one-half the size of the original bat, they are dried, and, if hard felts are to be made, the bodies are at this stage hardened or stiffened with a varnish of shellac. Next follows the operations of blocking, in which the felt for the first time assumes approximately the form it is ultimately to possess. For this purpose the conical body is softened in boiling water, and forcibly drawn over and over a hat-shaped wooden block. The operation of dyeing next follows, and the finishing processes include shaping on a block, over which crown and brim receive ultimately their accurate form, and pouncing or pumicing, which consists of smoothing the surface with fine emery paper, the hat being for this purpose mounted on a rapidly revolving block. The trimmer finally binds the outer brim and inserts the lining, after which the brim may be given more or less of a curl or turn over according to prevailing fashion.

Silk Hats

The silk hat, which has now become co-extensive with civilization, is an article of comparatively recent introduction. It was invented in Florence about 1760, but it was more than half a century before it was worn to any great extent.

A silk hat consists of a light stiff body covered with a plush of silk, the manufacture of which in a brilliant glossy condition is the most important element in the industry. Originally the bodies were made of felt and various other materials, but now calico is chiefly used. The calico is first stiffened with a varnish of shellac, and then cut into pieces sufficient for crown, side and brim. The side-piece is wound round a wooden hat block, and its edges are joined by hot ironing, and the crown-piece is put on and similarly attached to the side. The brim, consisting of three thicknesses of calico cemented together, is now slipped over and brought to its position, and thereafter a second side-piece and another crown are cemented on. The whole of the body, thus prepared, now receives a coat of size, and subsequently it is varnished over, and thus it is ready for the operation of covering. In covering this body, the under brim, generally of merino, is first attached, then the upper brim, and lastly the crown and side sewn together are drawn over. All these by hot ironing and stretching are drawn smooth and tight, and as the varnish of the body softens with the heat, body and cover adhere all over to each other without wrinkle or pucker. Dressing and polishing by means of damping, brushing and ironing, come next, after which the hat is "velured" in a revolving machine by the application of haircloth and velvet velures, which cleans the nap and gives it a smooth and glossy surface. The brim has only then to be bound, the linings inserted, and the brim finally curled, when the hat is ready for use.

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Bible wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From BibleWiki

Chald. karb'ela, (Dan. 3:21), properly mantle or pallium. The Revised Version renders it "tunic."

This entry includes text from Easton's Bible Dictionary, 1897.

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Simple English

Many hats

A hat is a type of covering for the head. There are many types of hats. Hats are different in different parts of the world. Some hats are worn by women, other hats by men, others by both, and some are not worn by anyone at all (they are just used for decoration). People who make hats for men are called hatters, and those who make hats for women are called milliners.

Some examples of hats:

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