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Hawaiian Bobtail Squid
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Mollusca
Class: Cephalopoda
Order: Sepiolida
Family: Sepiolidae
Subfamily: Sepiolinae
Genus: Euprymna
Species: E. scolopes
Binomial name
Euprymna scolopes
Berry, 1913

The Hawaiian Bobtail Squid (Euprymna scolopes) is a species of bobtail squid native to the central Pacific Ocean, where it occurs in shallow coastal waters off the Hawaiian Islands and Midway Island.[1][2] The type specimen was collected off the Hawaiian Islands and is deposited at the National Museum of Natural History in Washington, D.C..[3]

E. scolopes grows to 30 mm in mantle length.[1] Hatchlings weigh 0.005 g and mature in 80 days. Adults weigh up to 2.67 g.[4]

In the wild, E. scolopes is known to feed on various species of shrimp, including Halocaridina rubra, Palaemon debilis, and Palaemon pacificus.[5] In the laboratory, E. scolopes has been successfully reared on a varied diet of animals, including mysids (Anisomysis sp.), brine shrimp (Artemia salina), mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis), prawns (Leander debilis), and octopuses (Octopus cyanea).[6]

E. scolopes is known to be preyed upon by the Hawaiian Monk Seal (Monachus schauinslandi) in northwestern Hawaiian waters.[7]

Bioluminescence and symbiosis

E. scolopes lives in a symbiotic relationship with the bioluminescent bacteria Vibrio fischeri, which inhabits a special light organ in the squid's mantle. The bacteria are fed a sugar and amino acid solution by the squid and in return hide the squid's silhouette when viewed from below by matching the amount of light hitting the top of the mantle.[8] E. scolopes serves as a model organism for animal-bacterial symbiosis and its relationship with V. fischeri has been the subject of much research.[9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16]

Light organs have an electrical response when stimulated by light, which suggests that the organ functions as a photoreceptor that enables the host squid to respond to V. fischeri's luminescence.[17] The light organ of embryonic and juvenile squids has a striking anatomical similarity to an eye and expresses several genes similar to those involved in eye development in mammalian embryos (e.g. eya, dac) which indicates that squid eyes and squid light organs may be formed using the same developmental "toolkit".

See also


  1. ^ a b Reid, A. & P. Jereb 2005. Family Sepiolidae. In: P. Jereb & C.F.E. Roper, eds. Cephalopods of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of species known to date. Volume 1. Chambered nautiluses and sepioids (Nautilidae, Sepiidae, Sepiolidae, Sepiadariidae, Idiosepiidae and Spirulidae). FAO Species Catalogue for Fishery Purposes. No. 4, Vol. 1. Rome, FAO. pp. 153–203.
  2. ^ Countries' Exclusive Economic Zones with Euprymna scolopes
  3. ^ Current Classification of Recent Cephalopoda
  4. ^ Wood, J.B. & R.K. O'Dor 2000. Do larger cephalopods live longer? Effects of temperature and phylogeny on interspecific comparisons of age and size at maturity.PDF (134 KiB) Marine Biology 136(1): 91.
  5. ^ Shears, J. 1988. The Use of a Sand-coat in Relation to Feeding and Diel Activity in the Sepiolid Squid Euprymna scolopes. R.T. Hanlon (ed.) Malacologia 29(1): 121-133.
  6. ^ Boletzky, S.v. & R.T. Hanlon. 1983. A Review of the Laboratory Maintenance, Rearing and Culture of Cephalopod Molluscs. Memoirs of the National Museum of Victoria: Proceedings of the Workshop on the Biology and Resource Potential of Cephalopods, Melbourne, Australia, 9-13 March, 1981, Roper, Clyde F.E., C.C. Lu and F.G. Hochberg, ed. 44: 147-187.
  7. ^ Goodman-Lowe, G.D. 1998. Diet of the Hawaiian monk seal (Monachus schauinslandi) from the northwestern Hawaiian islands during 1991 and 1994.PDF (294 KiB) Marine Biology 132: 535-546.
  8. ^ Young RE, Roper CF. (1976). Bioluminescent countershading in midwater animals: evidence from living squid. Science. 191(4231):1046-8. PMID 1251214
  9. ^ DeLoney, C.R., T.M. Bartley & K.L. Visick 2002. Role for phosphoglucomutase in Vibrio fischeri-Euprymna scolopes symbiosis.PDF (221 KiB) Journal of Bacteriology 184(18): 5121-5129.
  10. ^ Dunlap, P.V., K. Kitatsukamoto, J.B. Waterbury & S.M. Callahan 1995. Isolation and characterization of a visibly luminous variant of Vibrio fischeri strain ES114 form the sepiolid squid Euprymna scolopes.PDF (105 KiB) Archives of Microbiology 164(3): 194-202.
  11. ^ Foster, J.S., M.A. Apicella & M.J. McFall-Ngai 2000. Vibrio fischeri lipopolysaccharide induces developmental apoptosis, but not complete morphogenesis, of the Euprymna scolopes light organ.PDF (610 KiB) Developmental Biology 226(2): 242-254.
  12. ^ Hanlon, R.T., M.F. Claes, S.E. Ashcraft & P.V. Dunlap 1997. Laboratory culture of the sepiolid squid Euprymna scolopes: A model system for bacteria-animal symbiosis.PDF (2.38 MiB) Biological Bulletin 192(3): 364-374.
  13. ^ Lee, K.-H. & E.G. Ruby 1995. Symbiotic role of the viable but nonculturable state of Vibrio fischeri in Hawaiian coastal seawater.PDF (249 KiB) Applied and Environmental Microbiology 61(1): 278-283.
  14. ^ Lemus, J.D. & M.J. McFall-Ngai 2000. Alterations in the protoeme of the Euprymna scolopes light organ in response to symbiotic Vibrio fischeri.PDF (2.10 MiB) Applied and Environmental Microbiology 66: 4091-4097.
  15. ^ Millikan, D.S. & E.G. Ruby 2003. FlrA, a s54-Dependent Transcriptional Activator in Vibrio fischeri, is required for motility and symbiotic light-organ colonization.PDF (382 KiB) Journal of Bacteriology (American Society for Microbiology) 185(12): 3547-3557.
  16. ^ Montgomery, M.K. & M. McFall-Ngai 1998. Late postembryonic development of the symbiotic light organ of Euprymna scolopes (Cephalopoda: Sepiolidae).PDF (6.10 MiB) Biological Bulletin 195: 326-336.
  17. ^ Tong D, Rozas NS, Oakley TH, Mitchell J, Colley NJ, McFall-Ngai MJ.Evidence for light perception in a bioluminescent organ. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 106: 9836–9841 PMID 19509343

Further reading

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