Hawthorne, California: Wikis

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City of Hawthorne
—  City  —
Location of Hawthorne in Los Angeles County, California
Coordinates: 33°55′2″N 118°20′55″W / 33.91722°N 118.34861°W / 33.91722; -118.34861
Country United States
State California
County Los Angeles
Incorporated (city) 1922-07-12[1]
Government
 - City Council Mayor Larry Guidi[2]
Daniel Juarez
Pablo Catano
Ginny Lambert
Gary Parsons
 - City Manager Jag Pathirana
 - City Attorney Russell Miyahira
 - City Clerk Angie English
Area
 - Total 6.06 sq mi (15.70 km2)
 - Land 6.06 sq mi (15.70 km2)
 - Water 0.00 sq mi (0.00 km2)  0.00%
Elevation 72 ft (22 m)
Population (2005)[3]
 - Total 100,754
 Density 13,879.4/sq mi (5,358.9/km2)
Time zone PST (UTC-8)
 - Summer (DST) PDT (UTC-7)
ZIP Code 90250, 90251[4]
Area code(s) 310/424[5]
FIPS code 06-32548
GNIS feature ID 1652717
Website http://www.cityofhawthorne.com/

Hawthorne is a city in southwestern Los Angeles County, California. The city in 2000 had a population of 84,112.

Contents

History

Hawthorne's first known residents were Indians of the Shoshonian linguistic group, occupying the South Bay, Los Angeles area as early as the 1500s. Portuguese explorer Juan Cabrillo caught sight of the area in October 1542, and 30 years later Sir Francis Drake sailed past the nearby coast. In 1769 title to all land in California became vested in the King of Spain, and the Southbay lands were used for the grazing of cattle. In 1822 Mexico obtained title to California from Spain. One of the ranchos subsequently formed was Sausal Redondo, named after a round clump of willows in the area. Sausal Redondo consisted of approximately 22,460 acres and included the present-day cities of El Segundo, Gardena, Hawthorne, Hermosa Beach, Inglewood, Lawndale, Manhattan Beach, Playa del Rey, Redondo Beach, and Torrance.

In 1837 Governor Alverado of Mexico granted title to Rancho Sausal Redondo to Antonio Ygnacio Avila. When California became a United States territory in 1848 and a state in 1850, disputes arose over the ownership of the rancho. Finally, in 1855 Avila was issued a U.S. Land patent for the rancho and thus became the first legal and recorded owner of the land of present-day Hawthorne.

In 1860 Sir Robert Burnett of Crathe's Castle, Scotland came to California and purchased Sausal Redondo from Avila's heirs. He expanded the sheep and cattle raising operations and planted thousands of eucalyptus, pepper, and fruit trees. Burnett returned to Scotland in 1873 and leased (with an option to buy) the rancho to Daniel Freeman, a Canadian. Freeman restocked the ranch with sheep and cattle and continued planting trees, adding more than 13,000. After the severe droughts of 1875 and 1876, during which he lost thousands of sheep and cattle, Freeman started dry farming and grew barley. By 1880 the area was producing a million bushels of barley a year. Freeman finally used his option to buy Sausal Redondo land and in 1885 received title from Sir Robert Burnett.

In 1887 several groups of investors, encouraged by the narrow-gauge railroad being built, organized several companies and purchased large amounts of towns. One of these was the Hawthorne Land Company. Hawthorne was founded by Benjamin I. Harding and Harry Dana Lombard, who in 1905 purchased acreage from the land company, thus creating the Hawthorne Improvement Company whose purpose was to build an 80-acre town site on the waving barley fields. The name of Hawthorne was chosen by Harding's daughter, Mrs. Laurine Harding Woolwine, who shared her birthday with author Nathaniel Hawthorne.

Hawthorne was advertised as the town between the city and the sea. Special appeals were made to those who wished to raise poultry and grow vegetables. Mr. and Mrs. W.J. Anderson were the first settlers and began building their house in November 1906 at 515 Freeman Avenue. Their son, Glenn, later served as mayor of Hawthorne, Lieutenant Governor of California, and congressman from the California 17th District.

By 1907 Hawthorne had grown to a thriving little town of over one hundred homes. Advertisements lauded Hawthorne as ideal for Homes or Investment Situated directly on the Redondo Electric Car Line - Three Stations on Property, 30 Minutes Ride from the Heart of Los Angeles and right in line of Rapid Growth Toward the Harbor.

In its early days Hawthorne had but one grocery store, and meat was brought by wagon from Inglewood three times a week. There was a furniture factory, an overall factory, a glove factory, and an art leather firm. A small building served as both church and school. The school had 16 pupils ranging from kindergarten to 18 years of age. Mail service began in October 1908.

By 1921 the population had reached 2,000, and Hawthorne was incorporated in July 1922. The area was largely settled by emigrants from the Oklahoma and Texas dustbowl.

The city has a council form of Government. The first city council consisted of Mayor C. C. Butler and Councilmen Lorig, Mason, Haylett, and Millhouse. W.B. Shaw served as City Clerk.

During the 1930s the town had a whites only policy, with signs posted at its borders reading "Nigger, Don't Let The Sun Set On YOU In Hawthorne." Since the 1960's Civil Rights Movement and the demographic change sparked by the 1965 Immigration Act, the roles are reversed. Black and Mexican gangs regularly tag their territory announcing violence and deaths to whites who remain after dark.[citation needed]

The first census was taken in 1930 and showed 6,595 residents. In 1939 Northrop Aircraft Inc. (later Northrop Corporation and even later Northrop Grumman Corporation) moved to Hawthorne with 50 people on the payroll. Dozens of firms moved to Hawthorne to acquire Northrop subcontracts. From that time on industrial and commercial development in Hawthorne proceeded at a steady pace. Northrop and Hawthorne enjoyed a long period of prosperity and cooperation. With the growth of the aviation industry and the subsequent aerospace industry, Hawthorne became known as the Cradle of Aviation and enjoyed a boom for many years in both jobs and real estate.

The City of Hawthorne has grown from a small, largely rural community to a well-rounded mixture of business, industries and homes.[6]

Geography

Hawthorne is at 33°55′2″N 118°20′55″W / 33.91722°N 118.34861°W / 33.91722; -118.34861 (33.917214, -118.348607).[7] According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 15.7 km² (6.1 mi²), all land.

To the north of is the unincorporated community of Lennox and the city of Inglewood. To the east is the unincorporated community of Athens and the city of Gardena. To the south is the unincorporated community of El Camino Village, and the cities of Lawndale and Redondo Beach. Manhattan Beach is at the southwest corner of Hawthorne, and the city of El Segundo is to the west of Hawthorne. The unincorporated community of Del Aire is surrounded on three sides by the city of Hawthorne along western edge of Hawthorne.

The Century Freeway (Glenn Anderson Freeway, I-105) runs along the northern boundary of Hawthorne, with the LACMTA Green Line light rail line running down the center of the Century Freeway. The San Diego Freeway (I-405) runs along the western boundary of Hawthorne. Major east-west streets in Hawthorne include Rosecrans Ave., El Segundo Ave.. and Imperial Highway. Major north-south street include Aviation Blvd., Inglewood Ave., Hawthorne Blvd., Prairie Ave., Crenshaw Blvd., and Van Ness Ave.

Hawthorne is five miles from the Los Angeles International Airport.[8]

Hawthorne comprises ZIP codes, 90250, 90251, and the 310 Area Code. A small portion of northeastern Hawthorne is located in the 323 Area Code.

Climate

Hawthorne, like the rest of the Los Angeles basin is well-known for its year-round pleasant weather:
-On average, the warmest month is August.
-The highest recorded temperature was 111°F in 1961.
-On average, the coolest month is January.
-The lowest recorded temperature was 15°F in 1963.
-The maximum average precipitation occurs in February. Hawthorne has a Mediterranean climate or Dry-Summer Subtropical (Köppen climate classification Csb on the coast, Csa inland), enjoying plenty of sunshine throughout the year, with an average of 263 sunshine days and only 35 days with measurable precipitation annually.[9]

Hawthorne, California
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
3
 
68
46
 
 
3
 
68
48
 
 
2.4
 
69
50
 
 
0.6
 
73
53
 
 
0.2
 
74
58
 
 
0.1
 
78
61
 
 
0
 
83
65
 
 
0.1
 
85
66
 
 
0.2
 
83
64
 
 
0.4
 
79
58
 
 
1.1
 
73
50
 
 
1.8
 
69
45
average max. and min. temperatures in °F
precipitation totals in inches
source: Weather.com / NWS

The period of April through November is warm to hot and dry with average high temperatures of 71 - 79°F and lows of 50 - 62°F. Due to the moderating effect of the ocean, temperatures are cooler than more inland areas of Los Angeles, where temperatures frequently exceed 90°F (32°C) and occasionally reach 100°F (38°C).

The period of November through March is somewhat rainy, as shown in the table to left.[10]

The Los Angeles area is also subject to the phenomena typical of a microclimate. As such, the temperatures can vary as much as 18°F (10°C) between inland areas and the coast, with a temperature gradient of over one degree per mile (1.6 km) from the coast inland. California has also a weather phenomenon called "June Gloom or May Grey", which sometimes brings overcast or foggy skies in the morning at the coast, but usually gives way to sunny skies by noon, during late spring and early summer.

The Los Angeles region averages 15 inches (385 mm) of precipitation annually, which mainly occurs during the winter and spring (November through April) with generally light rain showers, but sometimes as heavy rainfall and thunderstorms. On November 6th, 1966 the first ever documented tornado touched down with in the city's limits. It caused significant damage, it ran for about a half of a mile, from 132nd street and Ramona Ave. to 140th and Ramona. Coastal areas receive slightly less rainfall, while the mountains receive slightly more. Snowfall is extremely rare but not impossible in the city basin, but the mountains within city limits typically receive snowfall every winter.

The greatest snowfall recorded in downtown Los Angeles was 2 inches (5 cm) in 1932.[11][12]

Demographics

As of the census[13] of 2000, there were 84,112 people, 28,536 households, and 19,775 families residing in the city. The population density was 5,359.0/km² (13,879.4/mi²). There were 29,629 housing units at an average density of 1,887.8/km² (4,889.1/mi²). The racial makeup of the city was 29.27% White, 39.02% Black or African American, 0.75% Native American, 6.73% Asian, 0.86% Pacific Islander, 24.16% from other races, and 5.22% from two or more races. 44.3% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 28,536 households out of which 43.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.6% were married couples living together, 23.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 30.7% were non-families. 24.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.93 and the average family size was 3.50.

In the city the population was spread out with 31.7% under the age of 18, 11.3% from 18 to 24, 34.9% from 25 to 44, 16.1% from 45 to 64, and 6.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 29 years. For every 100 females there were 92.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.3 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $31,887, and the median income for a family was $35,149. Males had a median income of $29,481 versus $27,427 for females. The per capita income for the city was $15,022. About 18.4% of families and 20.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.6% of those under age 18 and 9.0% of those age 65 or over.

Government

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Local Government

According to the city’s most recent Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the city’s various funds had $126.1 million in Revenues, $113.2 million in expenditures, $220.2 million in total assets, $152.7 million in total liabilities, and $29.6 million in cash and investments.[14] The structure of the management and coordination of city services is:[15]

City Department Director
City Manager Jag Pathirana
Airport Director Arnie Shadbehr
Building & Safety Director Ray Shun
Business License Director Lisa Miller
Engineering/Public Works Director Arnie Shadbehr
Housing Director Hamid Pournamdari
Planning & Community Development Director Harold Roth
Recreation & Community Services Assistant Director Mark Hardison

County, state, and federal representation

The Los Angeles County Department of Health Services operates the Curtis Tucker Health Center in Inglewood, serving Hawthorne.[16]

In the state legislature Hawthorne is located in the 25th Senate District, and in the 51st Assembly District, represented by Democrat Curren D. Price Jr.. Federally, Hawthorne is located in California's 35th congressional district, which has a Cook PVI of D +33[17] and is represented by Democrat Maxine Waters.

The United States Postal Service Hawthorne Post Office is located at 12700 Inglewood Avenue.[18]

Education

Primary and secondary schools

Centinela Valley Union High School District
Hawthorne School District
Wiseburn School District
  • Juan Cabrillo Elementary School (Kindergarten-2nd grade), Peter Burnett Elementary School (3rd-5th grade), Richard Henry Dana Middle School (6th-8th grade)
Lawndale Elementary School District
Lennox School District
Los Angeles Unified School District

In addition Los Angeles County Office of Education operates Southwest Day (5th-12th grade).

Hawthorne Math and Science Academy is a charter high school in Hawthorne associated with the Hawthorne School District. [2]

Colleges and universities

Los Angeles Community College District

Noted residents

Hawthorne is known to rock and roll fans as the home of Brian, Carl, and Dennis Wilson of the Beach Boys. The Wilson brothers' boyhood home was demolished in the late 1980s during the construction of the Century Freeway, although it was honored by the dedication of the Beach Boys Historic Landmark (California Landmark 1041) in May 2005.

Business

  • Century Media Records independent rock label
  • Hawthorne Plaza shopping center
  • Mattel - the headquarters of Mattel was, for a long time, located in Hawthorne, but is now in nearby El Segundo.
  • Nuclear Blast US headquarters
  • SpaceX has its headquarters near Hawthorne Municipal Airport.
  • Hotel Sea Rock Inn offers daily and weekly rooms for budget travellers. (www.SeaRockInn.net)

See also

References

  1. ^ "Incorporation Dates of California Cities". http://www.cacities.org/resource_files/20457.IncorpDateLO.doc. Retrieved 2007-01-18. 
  2. ^ "City of Hawthorne, CA - Mayor". http://www.cityofhawthorne.com/city_offices/mayorcitycouncil/councilmembers/mayor.asp. Retrieved 2007-01-18. 
  3. ^ "Hawthorne city, California - Fact Sheet - American FactFinder". http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/ACSSAFFFacts?_event=Search&geo_id=&_geoContext=&_street=&_county=&_cityTown=Hawthorne&_state=04000US06&_zip=&_lang=en&_sse=on&pctxt=fph&pgsl=010. Retrieved 2007-01-18. 
  4. ^ "USPS - ZIP Code Lookup - Find a ZIP+ 4 Code By City Results". http://zip4.usps.com/zip4/zcl_1_results.jsp?visited=1&pagenumber=0&state=ca&city=Hawthorne. Retrieved 2007-01-18. 
  5. ^ "Number Administration System - NPA and City/Town Search Results". http://www.nanpa.com/nas/public/npa_city_query_step2.do?method=displayData&cityToNpaModel.stateAbbr=CA&cityToNpaModel.city=Hawthorne. Retrieved 2007-01-18. 
  6. ^ http://www.cityofhawthorne.com/about/history.asp
  7. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2000 and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2005-05-03. http://www.census.gov/geo/www/gazetteer/gazette.html. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  8. ^ http://maps.google.com/maps?num=100&hl=en&safe=off&client=safari&rls=en&um=1&ie=UTF-8&q=international+airport&near=Los+Angeles,+CA&fb=1&cid=0,0,9285121272480581238&sa=X&oi=local_result&resnum=1&ct=image maps.google.com
  9. ^ "Weatherbase: Historical Weather for Los Angeles, California, United States of America". Weatherbase.com. http://www.weatherbase.com/weather/weather.php3?s=159227&refer=. Retrieved 2009-01-08. 
  10. ^ www.weather.com
  11. ^ Rasmussen, Cecilia (2005-03-10). "We're Not in Kansas, but We Do Get Twisters - Los Angeles Times". Articles.latimes.com. http://articles.latimes.com/2005/mar/10/local/me-surroundings10. Retrieved 2009-01-08. 
  12. ^ Burt, Christopher. Extreme Weather: A Guide and Record Book. New York: Norton, 2004: 100.
  13. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  14. ^ City of Hawthorne CAFR Retrieved 2009-08-18
  15. ^ City of Hawthorne City Directory Retrieved 2009-08-18
  16. ^ "Curtis Tucker Health Center." Los Angeles County Department of Health Services. Retrieved on March 18, 2010.
  17. ^ "Will Gerrymandered Districts Stem the Wave of Voter Unrest?". Campaign Legal Center Blog. http://www.clcblog.org/blog_item-85.html. Retrieved 2008-02-10. 
  18. ^ "Post Office Location - HAWTHORNE." United States Postal Service. Retrieved on December 6, 2008.
  19. ^ http://www.movielanddirectory.com/tour-location.cfm?location=18748
  20. ^ [1]
  21. ^ http://www.cityofhawthorne.com/about/welcome/thorpe.asp
  22. ^ http://www.cityofhawthorne.com/depts/publicworks/commservices/park_locations/jim_thorpe.asp
  23. ^ http://www.cityofhawthorne.com/about/welcome/beach_boys.asp
  24. ^ a b http://www.broowaha.com/article.php?id=2465
  25. ^ http://www.myspace.com/reddkross
  26. ^ http://www.trouserpress.com/entry.php?a=red_kross
  27. ^ http://www.chrismontez.com/pages/home_frames.html
  28. ^ http://www.newyorkjets.com/team/all_time/player/165-curtis-conway
  29. ^ http://ca.youtube.com/watch?v=oi_ZQR8IItQ
  30. ^ http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0004885/
  31. ^ http://www.oocities.com/SunsetStrip/Lounge/3117/olivia.html
  32. ^ http://dondt.20megsfree.com/hhs75/
  33. ^ http://www.planetmadtv.com/forum/showthread.php?t=5565
  34. ^ http://vault.sportsillustrated.cnn.com/vault/article/magazine/MAG1126859/index.htm
  • Walt Dixon, "Hawthorne, California (Images of America)", 2005 ISBN 0-7385-2971-0

External links

Coordinates: 33°55′02″N 118°20′55″W / 33.917214°N 118.348607°W / 33.917214; -118.348607


Simple English

Hawthorne is a city in Los Angeles County, California. Its population is 84,112. The area was first settled by the Shoshonian Indians during the 1500s.[1]

Famous residents

Marilyn Monroe lived in Hawthorne until she was six. The Beach Boys members Brian, Carl, and Dennis Wilson grew up there. George Harrison's second wife, Olivia Harrison graduated from Hawthorne High School.

References

  1. "History of Hawthorne". cityofhawthorne.com. http://www.cityofhawthorne.com/about/history.asp. Retrieved 29 December 2010. 


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