Hazardous waste: Wikis

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A hazardous waste is waste that poses substantial or potential threats to public health or the environment.

U.S. environmental laws (see Resource Conservation and Recovery Act) additionally describe a "hazardous waste" as a waste (usually a solid waste) that has the potential to:

  • cause, or significantly contribute to an increase in mortality (death) or an increase in serious irreversible, or incapacitating reversible illness; or
  • pose a substantial (present or potential) hazard to human health or the environment when improperly treated, stored, transported, or disposed of, or otherwise managed.

These wastes may be found in different physical states such as gaseous, liquids, or solids. Furthermore, a hazardous waste is a special type of waste because it cannot be disposed of by common means like other by-products of our everyday lives. Depending on the physical state of the waste, treatment and solidification processes might be available. In other cases, however, there is not much that can be done to prevent harm.

Contents

Regulatory history

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Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)

Modern hazardous waste regulations in the U.S. began with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) which was enacted in 1976. The primary contribution of RCRA was to create a "cradle to grave" system of record keeping for hazardous wastes. Hazardous wastes must be tracked from the time they are generated until their final disposition.

RCRA's record keeping system helps to track the life cycle of hazardous waste and reduces the amount of hazardous waste illegally disposed.

Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act

The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), was enacted in 1980. The primary contribution of CERCLA was to create a "Superfund" and provided for the clean-up and remediation of closed and abandoned hazardous waste sites.Before this act was created, hazardous wastes were being disposed in regular landfills until scientists measured unfavorable amounts of hazardous materials seeping into the ground. These chemicals eventually made their way to the water systems, and contaminated the soil that animals and crops used, as well as the soil that people employed to build their communities. After these regulations were put into practice, many landfills require now countermeasures against groundwater contamination; for example installing a barrier along the foundation of the landfill to contain the hazardous substances that may remain in the disposed waste.[1]Currently, in order to enter a landfill, hazardous wastes must be stabilized and solidified, thus the new waste produced is less harmful than the original.

Hazardous wastes in the United States

Many types of businesses generate hazardous waste. Some are small areas that may be located in a community. For example, dry cleaners, automobile repair shops, hospitals, exterminators, and photo processing centers all generate hazardous waste. Some hazardous waste generators are larger companies like chemical manufacturers, electroplating companies, and oil refineries.

A US facility that treats, stores or disposes of hazardous waste must obtain a permit for doing so under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Generators of and transporters of hazardous waste must meet specific requirements for handling, managing, and tracking waste. Through the RCRA, Congress directed the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to create regulations to manage hazardous waste. Under this mandate, the EPA developed strict requirements for all aspects of hazardous waste management including the treatment, storage, and disposal of hazardous waste. In addition to these federal requirements, states may develop more stringent requirements or requirements that are broader in scope than the federal regulations.

In the United States, hazardous wastes generated by commercial or industrial activities may be classified as "listed" hazardous wastes or "characteristic" hazardous wastes by the EPA.

In regulatory terms, a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste is a waste that either a "characteristic waste" or a "listed waste":

  • Characteristic Waste - exhibits at least one of the four "characteristics" of hazardous waste (ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity, or toxicity)
  • Listed Waste - appears on one of the four hazardous wastes lists (F-list, K-list, P-list, or U-list), or

Individual states may regulate particular wastes more stringently than mandated by federal regulation. This is because the U.S. EPA is authorized to delegate primary rulemaking authorization to individual states. Most states take advantage of this authority, implementing their own hazardous waste programs that are at least as stringent as the federal program.

Characteristic wastes

Characteristic Hazardous Wastes are defined as wastes that exhibit the following characteristics: ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity, or toxicity.

Ignitability

Ignitable wastes can create fires under certain conditions, are spontaneously combustible, or have a flash point less than 60 °C (140 °F). Examples include waste oils and used solvents. For more details, see 40 CFR §261.21. Test methods that may be used to determine ignitability include the Pensky-Martens Closed-Cup Method for Determining Ignitability, the Setaflash Closed-Cup Method for Determining Ignitability, and the Ignitability of Solids.

Corrosive

Corrosive wastes are acids or bases (pH less than or equal to 2, or greater than or equal to 12.5) that are capable of corroding metal containers, such as storage tanks, drums, and barrels. Battery acid is an example. For more details, see 40 CFR §261.22. The test method that may be used to determine corrosivity is the Corrosivity Towards Steel (Method 1110A) (PDF).

Reactivity

Reactive wastes are unstable under "normal" conditions. They can cause explosions, toxic fumes, gases, or vapors when heated, compressed, or mixed with water. Examples include lithium-sulfur batteries and explosives. For more details, see 40 CFR §261.23. There are currently no test methods available.

Toxicity

Toxic wastes are those containing concentrations of certain substances in excess of regulatory thresholds which are expected to cause injury or illness to human health or the environment. For more details see [3]

Listed wastes

Listed hazardous wastes are generated by specific industries and processes and are automatically considered hazardous, based solely on the process that generates them and irrespective of whether a test of the waste shows any of the "characteristics" of hazardous waste. Examples of listed wastes include:

  • many sludges leftover from electroplating processes.
  • certain waste from iron and steel manufacturing
  • wastes from certain cleaning and/or degreasing processes

Hazardous wastes are incorporated into lists published by the Environmental Protection Agency. These lists are organized into three categories:

The F-list (non-specific source wastes)

This list identifies wastes from common manufacturing and industrial processes, such as solvents, that have been used in cleaning or degreasing operations. Because the processes producing these wastes can occur in different sectors of industry, the F-listed wastes are known as wastes from non-specific sources.

The K-list (source-specific wastes)

This list includes certain wastes from specific industries, such as petroleum refining or pesticide manufacturing. Certain sludges and wastewaters from treatment and production processes in these industries are examples of source-specific wastes.

Discarded wastes (P-List and U-List)

P-List and U-List wastes are actually sublists of the same major list applying to discarded wastes. These wastes apply to commercial chemical products that are considered hazardous when discarded and are regulated under the following U.S. Federal Regulation: 40 C.F.R. 261.33(e) and 261.33(f). P-List wastes are wastes that are considered "acutely hazardous" when discarded and are subject to more stringent regulation. Nitric oxide is an example of a P-list waste and carries the number P076. U-Listed wastes are considered "hazardous" when discarded and are regulated in a somewhat less stringent manner than P-Listed wastes.

Hazardous Waste Mapping Systems

There are several tools for mapping hazardous wastes to particular locations. These tools also allow the user to view additional information.

Universal wastes

Universal wastes are hazardous wastes that (in the U.S.):

  • generally pose a lower threat relative to other hazardous wastes
  • are ubiquitous and produced in very large quantities by a large number of generators.

Some of the most common "universal wastes" are: fluorescent light bulbs, some specialty batteries (e.g. lithium or lead containing batteries), cathode ray tubes, and mercury-containing devices.

Also, in worldwide, The United Nations Environmental Programme(UNEP) estimated that more than 400 million tons of hazardous wastes are produced universally each year, mostly by industrialized countries (schmit, 1999). About 1- percent of this total is shipped across international boundaries, with the majority of the transfers occurring between countries in the Organization for the Economic Cooperation and Development(OECD) (Krueger, 1999).[2] In a country like the United States, some undefined portion of the total is shipped legally or illegally to underdeveloped countries. some of the reasons for industrialized countries to ship the hazardous waste to industrializing countries for disposal are the rising cost of disposing hazardous waste in the home country.[3]

Universal wastes are subject to somewhat less sringent regulatory requirements and small quantity generators of universal wastes may be classified as "conditionally-exempt small quantity generators" (CESQGs) which releases them from some of the regulatory requirements for the handling and storage hazardous wastes.

Universal wastes must still be disposed of properly. (For more information, see Fact Sheet: Conditionally Exempt Small Quantity Generator)

Other hazardous wastes

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has other ways of regulating hazardous waste. These "rules" include:

  • The "Mixture Rule" - 400 CFR Section 261-23 (incorrect citation)

applies to a mixture of a listed hazardous waste and a solid waste and states that the result of a mixture of these two wastes is regulated as a hazardous waste. Exemptions may apply in some cases.

  • The "Derived-from Rule" - 40 CFR Section 261.3(b) applies to a waste that is generated from the treatment, storage or disposal of a hazardous waste (for example, the ash from the incineration of hazardous waste). Wastes "derived" in this manner may be regulated as hazardous wastes.
  • The "Contained-in Rule" - - 40 CFR Section 261.3(f) applies to soil, groundwater, surface water and debris that are contaminated with a listed hazardous waste.

Exempted hazardous wastes

USEPA regulations automatically exempt certain solid wastes from being regulated as "hazardous wastes". This does not necessarily mean the wastes are not hazardous nor that they are not regulated. An exempted hazardous waste simply means that the waste is not regulated by the primary hazardous waste regulations. Many of these wastes may by regulated by different statutes and/or regulations and/or by different regulatory agencies. For example, many hazardous mining wastes are regulated via mining statutes and regulations. "Exempted" hazardous wastes include:

  • Household hazardous waste (HHW); (see below)
  • Agricultural wastes which are returned to the ground as fertilizer;
  • Mining overburden returned to the mine site;
  • Utility wastes from [coal] combustion to produce electricity;
  • Oil and natural gas exploration drilling waste;
  • Wastes from the extraction of beneficiation, and processing of ores and minerals, including coal;
  • Cement kiln wastes;
  • Wood treated with arsenic preservatives.
  • Certain chromium-containing wastes (See Code of Federal Regulations Section 261.4(b))
  • Recycled hazardous wastes: Some hazardous wastes that are recycled may also be exempted from hazardous waste regulations.

Household Hazardous Waste

Household Hazardous Waste (HHW) (also referred to as domestic hazardous waste) is waste that is generated from residential households. HHW only applies to wastes that are the result of the use of materials that are labeled for and sold for "home use".

The following list includes categories often applied to HHW. It is important to note that many of these categories overlap and that many household wastes can fall into multiple categories:

Disposal of HHW in the United States

Because of the expense associated with the disposal of HHW, it is still legal for most homeowners in the U.S. to dispose of most types of household hazardous wastes as municipal solid waste (MSW) and these wastes can be put in your trash. Laws vary by state and municipality and they are changing every day. Be sure to check with your local environmental regulatory agency, solid waste authority, or health department to find out how HHW is managed in your area.

Modern landfills are designed to handle normal amounts of HHW and minimize the environmental impacts. However, there are still going to be some impacts and there are many ways that homeowners can keep these wastes out of landfills.[4]

Laws regulating HHW in the U.S. are gradually becoming more strict. As of 2007, radioactive smoke detectors are the only HHW that are managed nationally. While it is still legal in the United States to dispose of smoke detectors in your trash in most places, manufacturers of smoke detectors must accept returned units for disposal as mandated by the Nuclear Regulatory law 10 CFR 32.27. If you send your detector back to a manufacturer then it will be disposed in a nuclear waste facility.

In the U.S., states are regulating various HHW waste disposal in MSW landfills on a state by state basis. Some commonly regulated wastes in some (but not all) states include restrictions on the disposal of:

(Note: Yard waste or "green waste" (particularly "source-separated" yard waste such as from a city leaf collection program) is not hazardous but may be a regulated household waste)

Local solid waste authorities and health departments may also have specific bans on wastes that apply to their service area.

Solid Waste Haulers and HHW - One "catch-22" that residents often encounter is that while it may be legal to dispose of some HHW in their regular trash, the waste hauler that collects the trash can choose not to haul the waste. It is not uncommon for a waste hauler to refuse to pick up municipal solid waste that contains things like paint and fluorescent light bulbs. There is often little recourse for residents in this case. In these cases the resident may have to make their own arrangements to dispose of the waste by taking it directly to a landfill or solid waste transfer station.

Final disposal of hazardous waste

Hazardous wastes undergo different treatments in order to stabilize and dispose of them.

Recycling

Many HWs can be recycled into new products. Examples might include lead-acid batteries or electronic circuit boards where the heavy metals can be recovered and used in new products.Another example is the ash generated by coal-fired power plants; these plants produced two types of these residues: fly and bottom ash. Fly ash particles have a low density, are very fine, and are removed by air pollution control devices. On the other side, bottom ash is a dense, dark, gravely substance that remains on the bottom of combustion chambers.[5] After these types of ashes go though the proper treatment, they could bind to other pollutants and convert them into easier-to- dispose solids, or they could be used as pavement filling. Such treatments reduce the level of threat of harmful chemicals, like fly and bottom ash, while also recycling the safe product and helping the environment.

Portland cement

Another commonly used treatment is cement based solidification and stabilization. Cement is used because it can treat a range of hazardous wastes by improving physical characteristics and decreasing the toxicity and transmission of contaminants. The cement produced is categorized into 5 different divisions, depending on its strength and components. This process of converting sludge into cement might include the addition of pH adjustment agents, phosphates, or sulfur reagents to reduce the settling or curing time, increase the compressive strength, or reduce the leach ability of contaminants.

Neutralization

Some HW can be processed so that the hazardous component of the waste is eliminated. making it a non-hazardous waste. An example of this might include a corrosive acid that is neutralized with a basic substance so that it is no-longer corrosive. (see acid-base reactions.)Another mean to neutralize some of the waste is pH adjustment. pH is an important factor on the leaching activity of the hazardous waste. By adjusting the pH of some toxic materials, we are reducing the leaching ability of the waste.

Incineration, destruction and waste-to-energy

A HW may be "destroyed" for example by incinerating it at a high temperature. Flammable wastes can sometimes be burned as energy sources. For example many cement kilns burn HWs like used oils or solvents. Today incineration treatments not only reduce the amount of hazardous waste. They also generate energy throughout the gases released in the process. It is known that this particular waste treatment releases toxic gases produced by the combustion of byproduct or other materials and this can affect the environment. However, current technology has developed more efficient incinerator units that control these emissions to a point that this treatment is considered a more beneficial option. There are different types of incinerators and they vary depending on the characteristics of the waste. Starved air incineration is another method used to treat hazardous wastes. Just like in common incineration, burning occurs, however controlling the amount of oxygen allowed proves to be significant to reduce the amount of harmful bi products produced. Starved Air Incineration is an improvement of the traditional incinerators in terms of air pollution. Using this technology it is possible to control the combustion rate of the waste and therefore reduce the air pollutants produce in the process.

Hazardous waste landfill (sequestering, isolation, etc.)

A HW may be sequestered in a HW landfill or permanent disposal facility. "In terms of hazardous waste, a landfill is defined as a disposal facility or part of a facility where hazardous waste is placed or on land and which is not a pile, a land treatment facility, a surface impoundment, an underground injection well, a salt dome formation, a salt bed formation, an underground mine, a cave, or a corrective action management unit (40 CFR 260.10)."[6][7]

Pyrolysis

Some hazardous waste types may be eliminated using pyrolisis in an ultra high temperature electrical arc, in inert conditions to avoid combustion. This treatment method may be preferable to high temperature incineration in some circumstances such as in the destruction of concentrated organic waste types, including PCBs, pesticides and other persistent organic pollutants. [8] [9]

See also

References

  1. ^ Chaudhary R., Rachana M., 2006. Factors affecting hazardous waste solidification/stabilization: A Review. In: Journal of Hazardous Materials B137 pp.267–276
  2. ^ Orloff, Kenneth, and Henry Falk. 2003. An international perspective on hazardous waste practices. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 206 (4-5):291- 302.
  3. ^ Orloff, Kenneth, and Henry Falk. 2003. An international perspective on hazardous waste practices. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 206 (4-5):291- 302.
  4. ^ USEPA Household Hazardous Wastes
  5. ^ Munson-McGee S.H., Parsa, J., Steiner, R., 1996. Stabilization/solidification of hazardous wastes using fly ash. In: Journal of Environmental Engineering, 122 (10), pp. 935-940.
  6. ^ Hazardous Waste Landfills
  7. ^ Land Disposal Units
  8. ^ [1]
  9. ^ [2]

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