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The Head of State of Estonia (Estonian: Riigivanem) (a literal translation: Elder of State) was the official title of the Estonian head of state and head of government from 1920 to 1937. He was the equivalent of a president and prime minister.

According to the 1920 Estonian Constitution, which was enforced by the “Constitution of the Republic of Estonia, the Referendum Act and the Citizens’s Initiative Act Implementation Act“ on July 2, 1920, after being approved by the Constituent Assembly on June 16, 1920 (Riigi Teataja August 9, 1920 No. 113/114), the Government of the Republic consisted of the Riigivanem (Head of State) and Ministers (Section 58).

The responsibilities of the Head of State were representing the Republic of Estonia, administration and co-ordination of the activities of the Government of the Republic, chairing the Government meetings; the Head of State had the right to make inquiries about the activities of the Ministers (Section 62). The Government of the Republic appointed one of its members the Deputy of the Elder of State.

Heads of State of the Republic of Estonia, 1920–1937

Name Took Office Left Office Party
1 Ants Piip 21 December 1920 25 January 1921 Estonian Labour Party
2 Konstantin Päts 25 January 1921 21 November 1922 Unions of Farmers
3 Juhan Kukk 21 November 1922 2 August 1923 Estonian Labour Party
4 Konstantin Päts (2nd time) 2 August 1923 26 March 1924 Unions of Farmers
5 Friedrich Akel 26 March 1924 16 December 1924 Estonia People's Party
6 Jüri Jaakson 16 December 1924 15 December 1925 Estonia People's Party
7 Jaan Teemant 15 December 1925 9 December 1927 Unions of Farmers
8 Jaan Tõnisson 9 December 1927 4 December 1928 Estonia People's Party
9 August Rei 4 December 1928 9 July 1929 Estonian Socialist Party of Workers
10 Otto Strandman 9 July 1929 12 February 1931 Estonian Labour Party
11 Konstantin Päts (3rd time) 12 February 1931 19 February 1932 Non-party
12 Jaan Teemant (2nd time) 19 February 1932 19 July 1932 Unions of Farmers
13 Kaarel Eenpalu 19 July 1932 1 November 1932 Unions of Farmers
14 Konstantin Päts (4th time) 1 November 1932 18 May 1933 Non-party
15 Jaan Tõnisson (2nd time) 18 May 1933 21 October 1933 National Centre Party
16 Konstantin Päts (5th time, acting from 24 January 1934) 21 October 1933 3 September 1937 Non-party

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