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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Health is the general condition of a person in all aspects. It is also a level of functional and/or metabolic efficiency of an organism, often implicitly human.

At the time of the creation of the World Health Organization (WHO), in 1948, health was defined as being "a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity".[1][2]

Only a handful of publications have focused specifically on the definition of health and its evolution in the first 6 decades. Some of them highlight its lack of operational value and the problem created by use of the word "complete." Others declare the definition, which has not been modified since 1948, "simply a bad one." [1]

In 1986, the WHO, in the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion, said that health is "a resource for everyday life, not the objective of living. Health is a positive concept emphasizing social and personal resources, as well as physical capacities." Classification systems such as the WHO Family of International Classifications (WHO-FIC), which is composed of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) and the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) also define health.

Overall health is achieved through a combination of physical, mental, emotional, and social well-being, which, together is commonly referred to as the Health Triangle.

Contents

Determinants of health

The LaLonde report suggests that there are four general determinants of health including human biology, environment, lifestyle, and healthcare services.[3] Thus, health is maintained and improved not only through the advancement and application of health science, but also through the efforts and intelligent lifestyle choices of the individual and society.

A major environmental factor is water quality, especially for the health of infants and children in developing countries.[4]

Studies show that in developed countries, the lack of neighborhood recreational space that includes the natural environment leads to lower levels of neighborhood satisfaction and higher levels of obesity; therefore, lower overall well being.[5] Therefore, the positive psychological benefits of natural space in urban neighborhoods should be taken into account in public policy and land use. Health is also a state of complete physical,mental,social,and spiritual wellbeing not merely absence of disease.

Maintaining health

Achieving and maintaining health is an ongoing process. Effective strategies for staying healthy and improving one's health include the following elements:

Observations of Daily Living [6]

Personal health depends partially on one's active, passive, and assisted observations about their health in their everyday life. The information gleaned from such observations may be used to inform personal decisions and actions (e.g., "I feel tired in the morning so I am going to try sleeping on a different pillow"), as well as clinical decisions and treatment plans (e.g., a patient who notices their shoes are tighter than usual may be having exacerbation of left-sided heart failure, and require diuretic medication to reduce fluid overload) for patients who share their observations with their health care providers.

Social Activity

Personal health depends partially on the social structure of one's life. The maintenance of strong social relationships is linked to good health conditions, longevity, productivity, and a positive attitude. This is due to the fact that positive social interaction as viewed by the participant increases many chemical levels in the brain which are linked to personality and intelligence traits.

Volunteering also can lead to a healthy life. To be a volunteer, while gaining plenty of social benefits, people also take their mind off their own troubles.[citation needed] Volunteering could even add years of life. According to a university study,[citation needed] compared with people who did not volunteer, senior citizens who volunteered showed a 67% reduced risk of dying during a seven-year period.

Hygiene

Hygiene is the practice of keeping the body clean to prevent infection and illness, and the avoidance of contact with infectious agents. Hygiene practices include bathing, brushing and flossing teeth, washing hands especially before eating, washing food before it is eaten, cleaning food preparation utensils and surfaces before and after preparing meals, and many others. This may help prevent infection and illness. By cleaning the body, dead skin cells are washed away with the germs, reducing their chance of entering the body.

Stress management

Prolonged psychological stress may negatively impact health, and has been cited as a factor in cognitive impairment with aging, depressive illness, and expression of disease.[7]. Stress management is the application of methods to either reduce stress or increase tolerance to stress. Relaxation techniques are physical methods used to relieve stress. Psychological methods include cognitive therapy, meditation, and positive thinking which work by reducing response to stress. Improving relevant skills and abilities builds confidence, which also reduces the stress reaction to situations where those skills are applicable.

Reducing uncertainty, by increasing knowledge and experience related to stress-causing situations, has the same effect. Learning to cope with problems better, such as improving problem solving and time management skills, may also reduce stressful reaction to problems. Repeatedly facing an object of one's fears may also desensitize the fight-or-flight response with respect to that stimulus—e.g., facing bullies may reduce fear of bullies.

Health care

Health care [8] is the prevention, treatment, and management of illness and the preservation of mental and physical well being through the services offered by the medical, nursing, and allied health professions.

Workplace wellness programs

Workplace wellness programs are recognized by an increasingly large number of companies for their value in improving the health and well-being of their employees, and for increasing morale, loyalty, and productivity.[citation needed] Workplace wellness programs can include things like onsite fitness centers, health presentations, wellness newsletters, access to health coaching, tobacco cessation programs and training related to nutrition, weight and stress management. Other programs may include health risk assessments, health screenings and body mass index monitoring.

Public health

Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting health through the organised efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals." (Winslow, 1920)[citation needed] It is concerned with threats to the overall health of a community based on population health analysis. The population in question can be as small as a handful of people or as large as all the inhabitants of several continents (for instance, in the case of a pandemic). Public health has many sub-fields, but is typically divided into the categories of epidemiology, biostatistics and health services. Environmental, social and behavioral health, and occupational health, are also important fields in public health.

The focus of public health intervention is to prevent rather than treat a disease through surveillance of cases and the promotion of healthy behaviors. In addition to these activities, in many cases treating a disease can be vital to preventing it in others, such as during an outbreak of an infectious disease. Vaccination schedules and distribution of condoms are examples of public health measures.

Role of science in health

Health science is the branch of science focused on health, and it includes many subdisciplines. There are two approaches to health science: the study and research of the human body and health-related issues to understand how humans (and animals) function, and the application of that knowledge to improve health and to prevent and cure diseases.

Sources

Health research builds primarily on the basic sciences of biology, chemistry, and physics as well as a variety of multidisciplinary fields (for example medical sociology). Some of the other primarily research-oriented fields that make exceptionally significant contributions to health science are biochemistry, epidemiology, and genetics.

Application

Applied health sciences also endeavor to better understand health, but in addition they try to directly improve it. Some of these are: biomedical engineering, biotechnology, nursing, nutrition, pharmacology, pharmacy, public health (see above), social work, psychology, physical therapy, and medicine. The provision of services to maintain or improve people's health is referred to as health care (see above).

See also

Notes

  1. ^ WHO.int, Preamble to the Constitution of the World Health Organization as adopted by the International Health Conference, New York, 19-22 June, 1946; signed on 22 July 1947 by the representatives of 61 States (Official Records of the World Health Organization, no. 2, p. 100); and entered into force on 7 April 1948.
  2. ^ WHO.int Constitution of the World Health Organization- Basic Documents, Forty-fifth edition, Supplement, October 2006.
  3. ^ Lalonde, Marc. "A New Perspective on the Health of Canadians." Ottawa: Minister of Supply and Services; 1974.
  4. ^ The UN World Water Development Report | Facts and Figures | Meeting basic needs
  5. ^ "Recreational Values of the Natural Environment in Relation to Neighborhood Satisfaction, Physical Activity, Obesity and Wellbeing."
  6. ^ Health in Everyday Living Robert Wood Johnson Foundation primer
  7. ^ McEwen BS (2006). "Protective and damaging effects of stress mediators: central role of the brain". Dialogues Clin Neurosci 8 (4): 367–81. PMID 17290796. 
  8. ^ "Health Care UK". National Health Service (NHS). March 11, 2010. http://www.nhs.uk/. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 

References

  • BMJ.com, Jadad, AR and O'Grady L. How should health be defined? BMJ 2008; 337:a2900
  • WHO (1979) Health for all.
  • WHO (1980) WHO Chr., 34(2)80
  • WHO (1986) Concepts of Health Behavior Research, Reg. Health Paper No.13, SEARO, New Delhi
  • WHO (1978) Health for all.
  • UNDP, Human Development Report 1999, Oxford University Press
  • UNICEF (2001) State of world's children, 2001
  • WHO (1979) Health for all.
  • Evang, K. (1967); In health of mankind; Ciba foundation; 100th symposium, Churchill, London
  • Last, J.M (1983) A Dictionary of Epidemiology, Oxford University Press
  • Raska, K (1966), WHO Chr., 20, 315

External links


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Day by day, in every way, I'm getting better and better. ~ Émile Coué

Quotes about Health:

Sourced

Alphabetized by author
  • The best six doctors anywhere
    And no one can deny it
    Are sunshine, water, rest, and air
    Exercise and diet.
    These six will gladly you attend
    If only you are willing
    Your mind they'll ease
    Your will they'll mend
    And charge you not a shilling.
    • Anonymous nursery rhyme set to the tune of "Yankee Doodle", quoted in "The Health Club" in School Life, Vol. IV (January - June 1920), p. 17
  • I am pretty sure that, if you will be quite honest, you will admit that a good rousing sneeze, one that tears open your collar and throws your hair into your eyes, is really one of life's sensational pleasures.
    • Robert Benchley, in "Hiccoughing Makes Us Fat" in No Poems: or Around the World Backwards and Sideways (1932)
  • I reckon being ill as one of the great pleasures of life, provided one is not too ill and is not obliged to work till one is better.
  • Thank Him for health. Consecrate it as His trust to innocent enjoyment, manly effort, social usefulness, and preparation for an honorable and holy career.
    • William Ellery Channing, reported in Josiah Hotchkiss Gilbert, Dictionary of Burning Words of Brilliant Writers (1895), p. 299.
  • Tous les jours, à tous points de vue, je vais de mieux en mieux.
    • Day by day, in every way, I'm getting better and better.
      • Émile Coué, in his auto-suggestive formula for health, as quoted in The Practice of Autosuggestion by the Method of Emile Coué (1922) by Cyrus Harry Brooks
    • Variant translation: Every day, in every way, I'm getting better and better.
  • If you resolve to give up smoking, drinking and loving, you don't actually live longer; it just seems longer.
  • If you start to think about your physical or moral condition, you usually find that you are sick.
  • Christ's gospel could never have been delivered by one who was diseased.
    • John McClellan Holmes, reported in Josiah Hotchkiss Gilbert, Dictionary of Burning Words of Brilliant Writers (1895), p. 299.
  • If you wish to keep as well as possible, the less you think about your health the better.
  • How sickness enlarges the dimension of a man's self to himself!
  • In minds crammed with thoughts, organs clogged with toxins, and bodies stiffened with neglect, there is just no space for anything else.
    • Alison Rose Levy, in "An Ancient Cure for Modern Life" in Yoga Journal (January - February 2002)
  • If the pain wanders, do not waste your time with doctors.
  • Healthy people are invalids who don't know it.
  • Everyone who is born holds dual citizenship, in the kingdom of the well and in the kingdom of the sick. Although we all prefer to use only the good passport, sooner or later each of us is obliged, at least for a spell, to identify ourselves as citizens of that other place.
  • As a people, we have become obsessed with Health. There is something fundamentally, radically unhealthy about all this. We do not seem to be seeking more exuberance in living as much as staving off failure, putting off dying. We have lost all confidence in the human body.

Unsourced

  • A bad cold wouldn't be so annoying if it weren't for the advice of our friends.
  • A cough is a symptom, not a disease. Take it to your doctor and he can give you something serious to worry about.
  • A cripple of the worst sort, and consumptive into the bargain.
  • A good laugh and a long sleep are the best cures in the doctor's book.
  • I have a headache, my tummy feels hurty, I feel sick, quite frankly it'd be less trouble if I just had cancer.
    • Alex Mallett, ex-Black Reverence drummer.
  • A healthy body is the guest-chamber of the soul; a sick, its prison.
  • After these two, Dr. Diet and Dr. Quiet, Dr. Merriman is requisite to preserve health.
  • A man's health can be judged by which he takes two at a time ... pills or stairs.
    • Joan Welsh
  • Be careful about reading health books. You may die of a misprint.
  • Diseases crucify the soul of man, attenuate our bodies, dry them, wither them, rivel them up like old apples, make them as so many Anatomies.
  • Diseases of the soul are more dangerous and more numerous than those of the body.
  • Eat right, exercise regularly, die anyway.
    • Author Unknown
  • Every man's disease is his personal property.
  • First need in the reform of hospital management? That's easy! The death of all dietitians, and the resurrection of a French chef.
  • From the bitterness of disease man learns the sweetness of health.
  • Good health makes the worst weather to be the loveliest.
    • Leonid S. Sukhorukov
  • Half the modern drugs could well be thrown out the window, except that the birds might eat them.
  • He who has health has hope; and he who has hope has everything.
  • He who takes medicine and neglects to diet wastes the skill of his doctors.
  • Health is a large word. It embraces not the body only, but the mind and spirit as well;... and not today's pain or pleasure alone, but the whole being and outlook of a man.
  • Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.
    • World Health Organization, (1948)
  • Health is like money, we never have a true idea of its value until we lose it.
  • Health is merely the slowest way someone can die.
    • Author Unknown
  • Health nuts are going to feel stupid someday, lying in hospitals dying of nothing.
  • I drive way too fast to worry about cholesterol.
    • Author Unknown
  • I refuse to spend my life worrying about what I eat. There is no pleasure worth forgoing just for an extra three years in the geriatric ward.
  • I see rejection in my skin, worry in my cancers, bitterness and hate in my aching joints. I failed to take care of my mind, and so my body now goes to hospital.
  • I think you might dispense with half your doctors if you would only consult Dr. Sun more.
  • If by gaining knowledge we destroy our health, we labour for a thing that will be useless in our hands.
  • If I'd known I was going to live so long, I'd have taken better care of myself.
  • If you do everything you should do, and do not do anything you should not do, you will, according to the best available statistics, live exactly eighteen hours longer than you would otherwise.
  • If you have health, you probably will be happy, and if you have health and happiness, you have all the wealth you need, even if it is not all you want.
  • In a disordered mind, as in a disordered body, soundness of health is impossible.
  • In order to change we must be sick and tired of being sick and tired.
    • Author Unknown
  • It's bizarre that the produce manager is more important to my children's health than the pediatrician.
  • It's no longer a question of staying healthy. It's a question of finding a sickness you like.
  • Know, then, whatever cheerful and serene
    Supports the mind supports the body too.
    ~ John Armstrong
  • Life expectancy would grow by leaps and bounds if green vegetables smelled as good as bacon.
  • Like everybody else, when I don't know what else to do, I seem to go in for catching colds.
  • Live in rooms full of light
    Avoid heavy food
    Be moderate in the drinking of wine
    Take massage, baths, exercise, and gymnastics
    Fight insomnia with gentle rocking or the sound of running water
    Change surroundings and take long journeys
    Strictly avoid frightening ideas
    Indulge in cheerful conversation and amusements
    Listen to music.
  • May you live as long as you are fit to live, but no longer! Or, may you rather die before you cease to be fit to live than after!
  • Men make use of their illnesses at least as much as they are made use of by them.
  • Men that look no further than their outsides, think health an appurtenance unto life, and quarrel with their constitutions for being sick; but I that have examined the parts of man, and know upon what tender filaments that fabric hangs, do wonder that we are not always so; and considering the thousand doors that lead to death, do thank my God that we can die but once.
  • Nature does require
    Her time of preservation, which perforce
    I her frail son amongst my brethren mortal
    Must give my attendance to.
    ~ William Shakespeare
  • Of all the forms of inequality, injustice in health care is the most shocking and inhumane.
  • Our body is a machine for living. It is organized for that, it is its nature. Let life go on in it unhindered and let it defend itself, it will do more than if you paralyze it by encumbering it with remedies.
  • People who are always taking care of their health are like misers who are hoarding a treasure which they have never spirit enough to enjoy.
  • Physical ills are the taxes laid upon this wretched life; some are taxed higher, and some lower, but all pay something.
  • Physick, for the most part, is nothing else but the Substitute of Exercise or Temperance.
  • Red meat is not bad for you. Now blue-green meat, that's bad for you!
  • Sickness can be a healthy reaction to an unhealthy way of life.
    • Leonid S. Sukhorukov
  • Sickness is poor-spirited, and cannot serve anyone; it must husband its resources to live. But health or fullness answers its own ends, and has to spare, runs over, and inundates the neighborhoods and creeks of other men's necessities.
  • Sickness is the vengeance of nature for the violation of her laws.
  • So many people spend their health gaining wealth, and then have to spend their wealth to regain their health.
  • The appearance of a disease is swift as an arrow; its disappearance slow, like a thread.
  • The greatest wealth is health.
  • The longer I live the less confidence I have in drugs and the greater is my confidence in the regulation and administration of diet and regimen.
  • The only way to keep your health is to eat what you don't want, drink what you don't like, and do what you'd druther not.
  • The power of love to change bodies is legendary, built into folklore, common sense, and everyday experience. Love moves the flesh, it pushes matter around.... Throughout history, "tender loving care" has uniformly been recognized as a valuable element in healing.
  • The trouble with always trying to preserve the health of the body is that it is so difficult to do without destroying the health of the mind.
  • The... patient should be made to understand that he or she must take charge of his own life. Don't take your body to the doctor as if he were a repair shop.
  • There are people who strictly deprive themselves of each and every eatable, drinkable and smokable which has in any way acquired a shady reputation. They pay this price for health. And health is all they get for it. How strange it is. It is like paying out your whole fortune for a cow that has gone dry.
  • There are two things in life that a sage must preserve at every sacrifice, the coats of his stomach and the enamel of his teeth. Some evils admit of consolations, but there are no comforters for dyspepsia and the toothache.
  • There's lots of people in this world who spend so much time watching their health that they haven't the time to enjoy it.
  • They claim red meat is bad for you. But I never saw a sick-looking tiger.
  • Those obsessed with health are not healthy; the first requisite of good health is a certain calculated carelessness about oneself.
  • To avoid sickness eat less; to prolong life worry less.
  • To feel keenly the poetry of a morning's roses, one has to have just escaped from the claws of this vulture which we call sickness.
  • Water, air, and cleanliness are the chief articles in my pharmacopoeia.
  • What some call health, if purchased by perpetual anxiety about diet, isn't much better than tedious disease.
  • “Health is what my friends are always drinking to before they fall down.”

External links

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Study guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiversity

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This page was created, but so far, little content has been added. Everyone is invited to help expand and create educational content for Wikiversity. If you need help learning how to add content, see the editing tutorial and the MediaWiki syntax reference. Please do not simply copy-and-paste large chunks from other projects.

Health might well be described as being 'in the eye of the beholder'. An attempt at a global definition was made by the World Health Organisation (1948) : "Health is a complete state of physical, mental and social wellbeing, not merely the absence of disease or infirmity". The need for the latter part of this definition stems from the recognition that, over the last couple of centuries in 'Western-led' societies, discussion about health has been dominated by medically-based professionals (seeing health in terms of whether a diagnosed condition is present, in a body or mind seen distinctly from the rest of people's lives). Sociologists identify how different social groups 'construct' their own understandings of health, and how medics are one social group (albeit a powerful one) amongst many. Other social groups and cultures can also perceive health as related to, eg. individual coping, social support, ecologism, spirituality etc. --Different kinds of definitions are useful in various contexts e.g. functional health is a good approach to evaluate the health of eldery people or work ability -- The problem raised by this is : 'If we have no simple definition of health, how can we know if we are improving it?". Health promotion specialists respond to this by a) accepting people's multiple perceptions of health, often combined in a 'holistic' way, and b) seeking to enable local people to take greater control over their health, as the experts in their own lives, alongside the generalised expertises of the various health professionals. (initial entry by Aldo Mussi, University of Central England, Birmingham, Britain.)

--Perceived health has epidemiologically shown to be a powerful predictor for future such as death. --

Contents

Practicing health

There are many ways to practice health. It depends on what you want to be healthy about.

Germs

Germs are everywhere. Some are harmless, some are harmful, and some are even helpful. Here are 5 ways to protect yourself from germs. (The bad kind.)

  1. Wash Your Hands
  2. Bathe Often
  3. Cover Your Mouth When You Cough or Sneeze
  4. Develop an Awareness of Germs, not a Fear
  5. Avoid Very Sick People

Sexual health

When You're Having Intercourse, Practice These 5 Rules:

  1. No Oral
  2. Wear a Condom
  3. Wash Sheets
  4. Dispose of Semen and Condoms Properly
  5. Be Prepared to be a Parent

Measuring health

  1. General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28; Goldberg & Hillier, 1979)

See also

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References

  1. Goldberg, D., & Hillier, V. F. (1979). A scaled version of the General Health Questionnaire. Psychological Medicine, 9, 139-145.

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

HEALTH, a condition of physical soundness or well-being, in which an organism discharges its functions efficiently; also in a transferred sense a state of moral or intellectual well-being (see Hygiene, Therapeutics and Public Health). " Health " represents the O. Eng. hcelth, the condition or state of being hal, safe or sound. This word took in northern dialects the form " hale," in southern or midland English hole, hence " whole," with the addition of an initial w, as in " whoop," and in the pronunciation of " one." " Hail," properly an exclamation of greeting, good health to you, hence, to greet, to call out to, is directly Scandinavian in origin, from Old Norwegian heill, cognate with the O. Eng. hal, used also in this sense. " To heal " (0. Eng. hoelan), to make in sound health, to cure, is also cognate.

Drinking of Healths

The custom of drinking " health " to the living is most probably derived from the ancient religious rite of drinking to the gods and the dead. The Greeks and Romans at meals poured out libations to their gods, and at ceremonial banquets drank to them and to the dead. The Norsemen drank the " minni " of Thor, Odin and Freya, and of their kings at their funeral feasts. With the advent of Christianity the pagan custom survived among the Scandinavian and Teutonic peoples. Such festal formulae as " God's minne!" "A bowl to God in Heaven!" occur, and Christ, the Virgin and the Saints were invoked, instead of heathen gods and heroes. The Norse " minne " was at once love, memory and thought of the absent one, and it survived in medieval and later England in the " minnying " or " mynde " days, on which the memory of the dead was celebrated by services and feasting. Intimately associated with these quasi-sacrificial drinking customs must have ever been the drinking to the health of living men. The Greeks drank to one another and the Romans adopted the custom. The Goths pledged each other with the cry " Hails ! " a greeting which had its counterpart in the Anglo-Saxon " waes hael " (see Wassail). Most modern drinking-usages have had their equivalents in classic times. Thus the Greek practice of drinking to the Nine Muses as three times three survives to-day in England and elsewhere. The Roman gallants drank as many glasses to their mistresses as there were letters in each one's name. Thus Martial: " Six cups to Naevia's health go quickly round!

And be with seven the fair Justina's crown'd." The English drinking phrase - a " toast," to " toast " any one - not older than the 17th century, had reference at first to this custom of drinking to the ladies. A toast was at first invariably a woman, and the origin of the phrase is curious. In Stuart days there appears to have been a time-honoured custom of putting a piece of toast in the wine-cup before drinking, from a fanciful notion that it gave the liquor a better flavour. In the Taller No. 24 the connexion between this sippet of toast and the fair one pledged is explained as follows: " It happened that on a publick day " (speaking of Bath in Charles II.'s reign) a celebrated beauty of those times was in the cross bath, and one of the crowd of her admirers took a glass of the water in which the fair one stood, and drank her health to the company. There was in the place a gay fellow, half fuddled, who offered to jump in, and swore, though he liked not the liquor, he would have the toast. He was opposed in his resolution; yet this whim gave foundation to the present honour which is done to the lady we mention in our liquor, who has ever since been called a toast." Skeat adds (Etym. Dict., 1908), "whether the story be true or not, it may be seen that a ` toast,' i.e. a health, easily took its name from being the usual accompaniment to liquor, especially in loving cups," &c.

Health drinking had by the beginning of the 7th century become a very ceremonious business in England. At Christmas 1623 the members of the Middle Temple, according to one of the Harleian MSS. quoted in The Life of Sir Simonds D'Ewes, drank to the health of the princess Elizabeth, who, with her husband the king of Bohemia, was then suffering great misfortunes, and stood up, one after the other, cup in one hand, sword in the other, and pledged her, swearing to die in her service. Toasts were often drunk solemnly on bended knees; according to one authority, Samuel Ward of Ipswich, in his Woe to Drunkards (1622), on bare knees. In 1668 at Sir George Carteret's at Cranbourne the health of the duke of York was drunk by all in turn, each on his knees, the king, who was a guest, doing the like. A Scotch custom, still surviving, was to drink a toast with one foot on the table and one on the chair. Healths, too, were drunk in a definite order. Braithwaite says: " These cups proceed either in order or out of order. In order when no person transgresseth or drinkes out of course, but the cup goes round according to their manner of sitting: and this we call a health-cup, because in our wishing or confirming of any one's health, bare headed and standing, it is performed by all the company " (Laws of Drinking, 1617). Francis Douce's MSS. notes say: " It was the custom in Beaumont and Fletcher's time for the young gallants to stab themselves in the arms or elsewhere, in order to drink the health of their mistresses." Pepys, in his Diary for the r9th of June 1663, writes: " To the Rhenish wine house, where Mr Moore showed us the French manner when a health is drunk, to bow to him that drunk to you, and then apply yourself to him, whose lady's health is drunk, and then to the person that you drink to, which I never knew before; but it seems it is now the fashion." A Frenchman visiting England in Charles II.'s time speaks of the custom of drinking but half your cup, which is then filled up again and presented to him or her to whose health you drank. England's divided loyalty in the 18th century bequeathed to modern times a custom which possibly yet survives. At dinners to royalties, until the accession of Edward VII., finger-glasses were not placed on the table, because in early Georgian days those who were secretly Jacobites passed their wine-glasses over the finger-bowls before drinking the loyal toasts, in allusion to the royal exiles " over the water," thus salving their consciences. Lord Cockburn (1779-1854), in his Memorials of his Time (1856), states that in his day the drinking of toasts had become a perfect social tyranny; "every glass during dinner had to be dedicated to some one. It was thought sottish and rude to take wine without this, as if forsooth there was nobody present worth drinking with. I was present about 1803 when the late duke of Buccleuch took a glass of sherry by himself at the table of Charles Hope, then lord advocate, and this was noticed afterwards as a piece of direct contempt." In Germany to-day it is an insult to refuse to drink with any one; and at one time in the west of America a man took his life in his hands by declining to pledge another. All this is a survival of that very early and universal belief that drinking to one another was a proof of fair play, whether it be in a simple bargain or in matters of life and death. The ceremony surrounding the Loving Cup to-day is reminiscent of the perils of those times when every man's hand was raised against his fellow. This cup, known at the universities as the Grace Cup, was originated, says Miss Strickland in her Lives of the Queens of Scotland, by Margaret Atheling, wife of Malcolm Canmore, who, in order to induce the Scots to remain at table for grace had a cup of the choicest wine handed round immediately after it had been said. The modern "loving cup" sometimes. has a cover, and in this case each guest rises and bows to his immediate neighbour on the right, who, also rising, removes and holds the cover with his right hand while the other drinks; the little comedy is a survival of the days when he who drank was glad to have the assurance that the right or dagger hand of his neighbour was occupied in holding the lid of the chalice. When there is no cover it is a common custom for both the leftand the right-hand neighbour to rise while the loving cup is drunk, with the similar object of protecting the drinker from attack. The Stirrup Cup is probably the Roman poculum boni genii, the last glass drunk at the banquet to a general " good night." See Chambers, Book of Days; Valpy, History of Toasting (1881) F. W. Hackwood, Inns, Ales, and Drinking Customs (London, 1909).


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Health Science

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All Health science books...
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The health science Wikibooks are still being developed. Some books are being expanded almost daily by expert authors, others are not yet being written. Pages where nothing has been written yet contain external links to relevant (and preferably non-commercial) websites.

The books on Radiation Oncology and Emergency Medicine are in a more advanced stage of development.

Pages marked as [DEV] are under development and do not yet contain (sufficient) useful material. Books which are currently online or being written are marked as [ACT]. Note: Please change [DEV] and [ACT]] to development stages.

For discussion about this page or section, please use the 'discussion' option (above).

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Basic Medical Sciences

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Human Physiology (download)

Human Physiology is about how that body you live in actually works. An undergraduate, understandable, systemic approach to the human body's functions with a specific focus on homeostasis.
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Dentistry

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Medicine

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Allied health professions

Surgery

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Alternative Medicine

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Books for Medical Students

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Miscellaneous Books

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Related Books

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Stuttering (download)

Stuttering, part of the series on Speech-Language Pathology, is an excellent guide for both the stutterer and the therapist.

Gaming

Up to date as of January 31, 2010
(Redirected to Points article)

From Wikia Gaming, your source for walkthroughs, games, guides, and more!

The RPG spoof Great Cave Offensive from Kirby Super Star

Points, are, basically, numbers. Points are how many of something you have. It's an oddly universal term that's rarely used the way it's used in video games anywhere outside of video games.

Points are units of a surreal concept that typically cannot be measured in numbers.

Examples of points

  • Score - When points go towards the a score they are units used to measure how well the player is playing the game. A 'high score' is a record of the most points the player has ever been able to accumulate.
  • Hit points - Hit points, or HP, represent a character's vitality. Usually, hit points mean nothing unless they are at zero. When hit points reach zero the character (usually) dies. 'Max HP' is the most amount of hit points a character can have at any given time. When a character loses HP, the amount it lost is usually called 'damage'.
  • Magic Points - Magic points, or MP, represent the character's diminishing ability to cast magic. In more recent games, MP is also consumed by non-magic attacks, and has sort of become more representative of stamina than anything. MP is often called stamina or mana but usually serves the same purpose. Casting spells or using abilities costs MP, if the character doesn't have enough MP to cast the spell, they usually cannot cast it. Sometimes it is referred to as Mana.
  • Statistic Points - In RPGs, character statistics (often called 'stats') like Strength, Agility, and Intelligence are measured in points. They are usually connected to the character's "level," also represented numerically.
  • Experience Points - Also in RPGs, experience points, or more simply "experience," (or even more simply EXP) comes from defeating enemies or accomplishing significant goals (sometimes referred to in-game as "quests"). When a character nets enough experience points, his level increases, as do his statistics (see above).

This article uses material from the "Points" article on the Gaming wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

Simple English

Health is "a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity", according to the World Health Organization (WHO). [1][2] Physical is about the body. Mental is about how people think and feel. Social talks about how people live with other people. It is about family, work, school, and friends.

Some people also include spiritual health, which talks about the spirit or soul. It concerns religious parts of people but not only that: the spiritual aspect of a person can be understood as that which desires peace, hope, security and connectedness to the universe.
File:Poster of reluctant GI getting Flu
Poster: Reluctant GI getting a Flu shot.

Contents

Aspects of health

Physical health

Physical fitness refers to good body health, and is the result of regular exercise, proper diet and nutrition, and proper rest for physical recovery. A good way of knowing if a group of people is healthy is their weight, which generally increases with better nutrition.

Mental health

Mental health refers to a person's emotional and psychological well-being. "A state of emotional and psychological well-being in which an individual is able to use his or her thinking and emotional (feeling) abilities, function in society, and meet the ordinary demands of everyday life."

One way to think about mental health is by looking at how well a person functions. Feeling capable and efficiant; being able to handle normal levels of stress, have good friends and family, and lead an independent life; and being able to "bounce back," or recover from hardships, are all signs of mental health.

Public health

Public Health refers to trying to stop a disease that is unhealthy to the community, and does not help in long life or promote your health. This is fixed by organized efforts and choices of society, public and private clubs, communities and individuals.

It is based on the health of many people or everybody than on one person. Public health stops instead of encouraging a disease through surveillance of cases. To stop being sick, it is good to do healthy behaviors such as hand washing, vaccination programs and condoms. When infectious diseases break out, washing hands may be especially important.

Other pages

References

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  1. [1] Preamble to the Constitution of the World Health Organization as adopted by the International Health Conference, New York, 19-22 June, 1946; signed on 22 July 1947 by the representatives of 61 States (Official Records of the World Health Organization, no. 2, p. 100); and entered into force on 7 April 1948.
  2. [2] Constitution of the World Health Organization- Basic Documents, Forty-fifth edition, Supplement, October 2006.








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