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The Heart of Perfect Wisdom Sutra or Heart Sutra or Essence of Wisdom Sutra (Sanskrit: प्रज्ञापारमिताहृदय Prajñāpāramitā Hṛdaya; Chinese: 摩訶般若波羅蜜多心經) (the word sutra is not present in known Sanskrit manuscripts[1]) is a well-known Mahāyāna Buddhist sutra that is very popular among Mahayana Buddhists both for its brevity and depth of meaning. Buddhist writer and translator Bill Porter calls the Heart Sutra the best known[2] and most popular of all Buddhist scriptures.[3][4]

Contents

Introduction

The Heart Sutra is a member of the Perfection of Wisdom (Prajñāpāramitā) class of Mahāyāna Buddhist literature, and along with the Diamond Sutra, is perhaps the most prominent representative of the genre.

The Heart Sutra is made up of 14 shlokas in Sanskrit; a shloka composed of 32 syllables. In Chinese, it is 260 Chinese characters, while in English it is composed of sixteen sentences.[5] This makes it one of the most highly abbreviated versions of the Perfection of Wisdom texts, which exist in various lengths up to 100,000 shlokas. According to Buddhist scholar and author Geshe Kelsang Gyatso in his commentary to the Heart Sutra:

The Essence of Wisdom Sutra (Heart Sutra) is much shorter than the other Perfection of Wisdom Sutras but it contains explicitly or implicitly the entire meaning of the longer Sutras.[6]

This sutra is classified by Edward Conze as belonging to the third of four periods in the development of the Perfection of Wisdom canon, although because it contains a mantra (sometimes called a dharani), it does overlap with the final tantric phase of development according to this scheme, and is included in the tantra section of at least some editions of the Kangyur.[7] Conze estimates the sutra's date of origin to be 350 CE; some others consider it to be two centuries older than that.[8] Recent scholarship is unable to verify any date earlier than the 7th century CE.[9]

The Chinese version is frequently chanted (in the local pronunciation) by the Chan (Zen/Seon/Thiền) sects during ceremonies in China, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam respectively. It is also significant to the Shingon Buddhist school in Japan, whose founder Kūkai wrote a commentary on it, and to the various Tibetan Buddhist schools, where it is studied extensively.

The sutra is in a small class of sutras not attributed to the Buddha. In some versions of the text, starting with that of Fayue dating to about 735[10], the Buddha confirms and praises the words of Avalokiteśvara, although this is not included in the preeminent Chinese version translated by Xuanzang. The Tibetan canon uses the longer version[1][11], although Tibetan translations without the framing text have been found at Dunhuang. The Chinese Buddhist canon includes both long and short versions, and both versions exist in Sanskrit.[1]

Origin and early translations

The Heart Sutra, it is generally thought, is likely to have been composed in the 1st century CE in Kushan Empire territory, by a Sarvastivadin or ex-Sarvastivadin monk.[12] The earliest record of a copy of the sutra is a 200-250CE Chinese version attributed to the Yuezhi monk Zhi Qian.[3] It was supposedly translated again by Kumarajiva around 400CE, although John McRae and Jan Nattier have argued that this translation was created by someone else, much later, based on Kumarajiva's Large Sutra.[13] Zhi Qian's version, if it ever existed, was lost before the time of Xuanzang, who produced his own version in 649CE, which closely matches the one attributed to Kumarajiva.[14] Xuanzang's version is the first record of the title "Heart Sutra" (心經 xīnjīng) being used for the text,[15] and Fukui Fumimasa has argued that xinjing actually means dharani scripture.[16][17] According to Huili's biography, Xuanzang learned the sutra from an inhabitant of Sichuan, and subsequently chanted it during times of danger in his journey to the West.[18]

However, based on textual patterns in the Sanskrit and Chinese versions of the Heart Sutra and the Mahaprajnaparamita Sutra, scholar Jan Nattier has suggested that the earliest (shortest) version of the Heart Sutra was probably first composed in China in the Chinese language from a mixture of Indian-derived material and new composition, and that this assemblage was later translated into Sanskrit (or back-translated, in the case of most of the sutra). She argues that the majority of the text was redacted from the Larger Sutra on the Perfection of Wisdom, which had originated with a Sanskrit Indian original, but that the "framing" passages (the introduction and concluding passages) were new compositions in Chinese by a Chinese author, and that the text was intended as a dharani rather than a sutra.[9][19][20] The Chinese version of the core (i.e. the short version) of the Heart Sutra matches a passage from the Large Sutra almost exactly, character by character; but the corresponding Sanskrit texts, while agreeing in meaning, differ in virtually every word.[21] Furthermore, Nattier argues that there is no evidence (such as a commentary would be) of a Sanskrit version before the 8th century CE[22], and she dates the first evidence (in the form of commentaries by Xuanzang's disciples Kuiji and Wonch'uk, and Dunhuang manuscripts) of Chinese versions to the 7th century CE. She considers attributions to earlier dates "extremely problematic". In any case, the corroborating evidence supports a Chinese version at least a century before a Sanskrit version.[23] This theory has gained support amongst some other prominent scholars of Buddhism, but is by no means universally accepted.[24]

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Title

The Zhi Qian version is titled Po-jo po-lo-mi shen-chou i chuan[25] or Prajnaparamita Dharani[26]; the Kumarajiva version is titled Mo-ho po-jo po-lo-mi shen-chou i chuan[25] or Maha Prajnaparamita Mahavidya Dharani. Xuanzang's was the first version to use Hrdaya or "Heart" in the title.[27]

Xuanzang's was also the first version to call the text a sutra. No extant Sanskrit copies use this word, though it has become standard usage in Chinese and Tibetan, as well as English.[28]

Some citations of Zhi Qian's and Kumarajiva's versions prepend moho (which would be maha in Sanskrit) to the title. Some Tibetan editions add bhagavatī, meaning "Victorious One" or "Conqueror," an epithet of Prajnaparamita as goddess.[29]

In the Tibetan text the title is given first in Sanskrit and then in Tibetan:

Sanskrit: Bhagavatiprajnaparamitahrdaya

Tibetan: བཅོམ་ལྡན་འདས་མ་ཤེས་རབ་ཀྱི་ཕ་རོལ་ཏུ་ཕྱིན་པའི་སྙིང་པོWylie: bcom ldan 'das ma shes rab kyi pha rol tu phyin pa'i snying po

English: Bhagavatī Heart of Perfect Wisdom

The text

Various commentators divide this text in different numbers of sections. Briefly, the sutra describes the experience of liberation of the bodhisattva of compassion, Avalokiteśvara, as a result of insight gained while engaged in deep meditation to awaken the faculty of prajña (wisdom). The insight refers to the fundamental emptiness of all phenomena, the five aggregates of human existence (skandhas) – form (rūpa), feeling (vedanā), volitions (samskārā), perceptions (saṁjñā), and consciousness (vijñāna).

The specific sequence of concepts listed in lines 12-20 ("...in emptiness there is no form, no sensation, ... no attainment and no non-attainment" is the same sequence used in the Sarvastivadin Samyukt Agama; this sequence differs in the texts of other sects. On this basis, Red Pine has argued that the Heart Sutra is specifically a response to Sarvastivada teachings that dharmas are real.[30] Lines 12-13 enumerate the five skandhas. Lines 14-15 list the twelve ayatanas or abodes.[31] Line 16 makes a reference to the eighteen dhatus or elements of consciousness, using a conventional shorthand of naming only the first (eye) and last (conceptual consciousness) of the elements.[32] Lines 17-18 assert the emptiness of the Twelve Nidānas, the traditional twelve links of dependent origination.[33] Line 19 refers to the Four Noble Truths.

Avalokiteśvara addresses Śariputra, who was, according to the scriptures and texts of the Sarvastivada and other early Buddhist schools, the promulgator of abhidharma, having been singled out by the Buddha to receive those teachings.[34] Avalokiteśvara famously states that, "Form is empty (Śūnyatā). Emptiness is form." and declares the other skandhas to be equally empty – that is, empty of an independent essence. Avalokiteśvara then goes through some of the most fundamental Buddhist teachings such as the Four Noble Truths and explains that in emptiness none of these labels apply. This is interpreted according to the concept of smaran as saying that teachings, while accurate descriptions of conventional truth, are mere statements about reality – they are not reality itself – and that they are therefore not applicable to the ultimate truth that is by definition beyond our comprehending. Thus the bodhisattva, as the archetypal Mahāyāna Buddhist, relies on the perfection of wisdom, defined in the larger Perfection of Wisdom sutra to be the wisdom that perceives reality directly without conceptual attachment. This perfection of wisdom is condensed in the mantra with which the sutra concludes.

It is unusual for Avalokiteśvara to play any role, let alone the central one, in a Prajñāpāramitā text. Most early Prajñāpāramitā texts involve Subhuti, who is absent from both versions of the Heart Sutra, and the Buddha, who is only present in the longer version.[35] This could be considered evidence that the framing text is Chinese in origin.[9]

Mantra

Jan Nattier points out in her article on the origins of the Heart Sūtra that this mantra in several variations is present in the Chinese Tripiṭaka associated with several different Prajñāpāramitā texts.[9] The version in the Heart Sūtra runs:

  • Roman script: gate gate pāragate pārasaṃgate bodhi svāhā
  • Devanāgarī: गते गते पारगते पारसंगाते बोधि स्वाहा
  • Tibetan: ག༌ཏེ༌ག༌ཏེ༌པཱ༌ར༌ག༌ཏེ༌པཱ༌ར༌སཾ༌ག༌ཏེ༌བོ༌དྷི༌སྭཱ༌ཧཱ།
  • Pronunciation: ɡəteː ɡəteː paːɾəɡəteː paːɾəsəŋɡəte boːdʱɪ sʋaːɦaː

Translation

Edward Conze, who translated most of the vast Prajñāpāramita corpus, rendered this mantra into English as:

  • "gone gone, gone beyond, gone altogether beyond, O what an awakening, all hail!"

There are several approaches to translating the mantra, most of which assume that the mantra obeys the rules of Classical Sanskrit. Gata is the past-participle of the verbal root √gam meaning "gone". Pāra means "across to the other side" – hence "gone beyond". The preposition sam- equates to the Greek συν, "with". Monier Monier-Williams gives "come together , met , encountered , joined , united; allied with , friendly to" and many other phrases that imply joining together. So a literal translation of pārasamgate would be "gone across to the other side, together with" or as Conze suggests "gone altogether beyond". Bodhi is an action noun from √budh "to wake up, to understand" and is generally taken to mean "awaken" in the Buddhist context. Svāhā is an expletive from Vedic ritual where it was used by ritualists as they made oblations to the fire. It is usually understood as deriving from su- + āha and therefore means "well said" (even Conze admits that his "all hail!" is not a good rendering).

There is much discussion about case ending (-e) of gata, pāragata, and pārasaṃgata. According to Classical Sanskrit grammar it could be a feminine singular vocative (of gatā), or a masculine/neuter singular locative. Most Western exegesis follows Conze in considering it a feminine vocative - and taking the mantra to be an address to the feminine deity Prajñāpāramitā. However the mantra may well have been composed in Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit which is much freer in case endings – in the Magadhi Prakirt -e indicates a masculine nominative singular for instance. In fact the string of words resists analysis and is not a grammatical sentence – or anything like it.

Exegesis

The text itself describes the mantra as "Mahāmantro, mahā-vidyā mantro, ‘nuttara mantro samasama-mantraḥ", which Conze translates as "The great mantra, the mantra of great knowledge, the utmost mantra, the unequalled mantra, the allayer of all suffering." Conze notes that these words are also epithets of the Buddha, and so the text seems to be equating the mantra with the Buddha. Each Buddhist tradition with an interest in the Heart Sūtra seems to have its own interpretation of the sūtra, and therefore of the mantra. As Alex Wayman commented:

One feature of these commentaries [in Tibetan] on the Heart Sutra struck me quite forcibly: each commentary seemed so different to the others, and yet they all seemed to show in greater or lesser degree the influence of the Mādhyamika school of Buddhist philosophy.[36]

Donald Lopez goes further to suggest:

The question still remains of the exact function of the mantra within the sutra, because the sutra provides no such explanation and the sadhanas make only perfunctory references to the mantra. [37]

Tibetan exegesis of the mantra tends to look back on it from a Tantric point of view. For instance seeing it as representing progressive steps along the five paths of the Bodhisattva, through the two preparatory stages (the path of accumulation and preparation – gate, gate), through the first part of the first bhumi (path of insight – pāragate), through the second part of the first to the tenth bhumi (path of meditation – Pārasamgate), and to the eleventh bhumi (stage of no more learning – bodhi svāhā). As Geshe Kelsang Gyatso explains in Heart of Wisdom:

This mantra, retained in the original Sanskrit, explains in very condensed form the practice of the five Mahayana paths, which we attain and complete in dependence upon the perfection of wisdom.[38]

The current Dalai Lama explains the mantra in a discourse on the Heart Sutra both as an instruction for practice and as a device for measuring one's own level of spiritual attainment, and translates it as go, go, go beyond, go thoroughly beyond, and establish yourself in enlightenment. In the discourse, he gives a similar explanation to the four stages (the four go's) as in the previous paragraph.

Recordings

The Heart Sutra has been set to music a number of times.[39] The Buddhist Audio Visual Production Centre (佛教視聽製作中心) produced an album of recordings of the Heart Sutra in 1995 featuring a number of Hong Kong pop singers, including Alan Tam, Anita Mui and Faye Wong and composer by Andrew Lam Man Chung (林敏聰) to raise money to rebuild the Chi Lin Nunnery.[40] Other Hong Kong pop singers, such as the Four Heavenly Kings sang the Heart Sutra to raise money for relief efforts related to the 1999 Chichi earthquake.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c Nattier 1992, pg. 200
  2. ^ Pine 2004, pg. 16
  3. ^ a b Pine 2004, pg. 18
  4. ^ Nattier 1992, pg. 153
  5. ^ Taisho Tripitaka Vol. T08 No. 251, attributed to Xuanzang.
  6. ^ Heart of Wisdom: An Explanation of the Heart Sutra, Tharpa Publications (4th. ed., 2001), page 2, ISBN 978-0-948006-77-7
  7. ^ Conze 1960
  8. ^ Lopez 1988, pg. 5
  9. ^ a b c d Nattier 1992
  10. ^ Pine 2004 pg. 26
  11. ^ http://www.dharmaweb.org/index.php/Tibetan_Version_of_the_Heart_Sutra_(English)
  12. ^ Pine 2004, pg. 21
  13. ^ Nattier 1992, pp. 184-9
  14. ^ Pine 2004, pg. 22-26
  15. ^ Pine 2004, pg. 8
  16. ^ Fukui 1987
  17. ^ Nattier 1992, pp. 175-6
  18. ^ Nattier 1992, pp. 179-80
  19. ^ Buswell 2003, page 314
  20. ^ Pine 2004, pg. 23
  21. ^ Nattier 1992, pp. 159, 167
  22. ^ Nattier 1992, pg. 173
  23. ^ Nattier 1992, pp. 173-4
  24. ^ Pine 2004, pg. 25
  25. ^ a b Nattier 1992, pg. 183
  26. ^ Pine 2004, pg. 20
  27. ^ Pine 2004, pg. 36
  28. ^ Pine 2004, pg. 39
  29. ^ Pine 2004, pg. 35
  30. ^ Pine 2004, pg. 9
  31. ^ Pine 2004, pg. 100
  32. ^ Pine 2004, pp. 105-6
  33. ^ Pine 2004, pg. 109
  34. ^ Pine 2004, pp. 11-12, 15
  35. ^ Nattier 1992, pg. 156
  36. ^ Wayman 1990, p.136
  37. ^ Lopez 1990 p.120.
  38. ^ Heart of Wisdom by Geshe Kelsang Gyatso, page 125. Tharpa Publications (4th. ed., 2001) ISBN 978-0-948006-77-7
  39. ^ DharmaSound: Sūtra do Coração in various languages (mp3)
  40. ^ 佛學多媒體資料庫

References

  • Buswell, Robert E. (ed). Encyclopedia of Buddhism (2003) MacMillan Reference Books. ISBN 0028657187
  • Conze, Edward. Buddhist Wisdom Books: Containing the "Diamond Sutra" and the "Heart Sutra" (New edition). Thorsons, 1975. ISBN 0042940907
  • Conze, Edward. Prajnaparamita Literature (2000) Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers ISBN 8121509920 (originally published 1960 by Mouton & Co.)
  • Fukui Fumimasa 福井 文雅 (1987) (in Japanese). Hannya shingyo no rekishiteki kenkyu 般若心経の歴史的研究. 東京: Shunjusha 春秋社. ISBN 4393111281
  • Lopez, Donald S., Jr. The Heart Sutra Explained: Indian and Tibetan Commentaries (1988) State Univ of New York Pr. ISBN 0887065899
  • Nattier, Jan. 'The Heart Sūtra: A Chinese Apocryphal Text?'. Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies Vol. 15 (2) 1992. p.153-223.
  • Pine, Red. The Heart Sutra: The Womb of the Buddhas (2004) Shoemaker 7 Hoard. ISBN 1-59376-009-4
  • Geshe Kelsang Gyatso. Heart of Wisdom: An Explanation of the Heart Sutra, Tharpa Publications (4th. ed., 2001) ISBN 978-0-948006-77-7
  • Wayman, Alex. 'Secret of the Heart Sutra.' in Buddhist insight: essays Motilal Banarsidass Publ., 1990. pp.307-326. ISBN 8120806751.

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Source material

Up to date as of January 22, 2010

From Wikisource

Heart Sutra  (unknown translator)
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Contents

The Heart Sutra

The Great Heart of Perfection of Wisdom Sutra

Avalokiteshvara, the Bodhisattva of Compassion, was deep through the Perfection of Wisdom, saw clearly that the five aggregates of human existence are empty, and so released himself from suffering.

"Sarisputra! Form is nothing more than emptiness, emptiness is nothing more than Form. Form is exactly emptiness, and emptiness is exactly Form. The other four aggregates of human existence -- feeling, thought, will, and consciousness -- are also nothing more than emptiness."

"Sarisputra! All things are empty: Nothing is born, nothing dies, nothing is pure, nothing is stained, nothing increases and nothing decreases. So, in emptiness, there is no form, no feeling, no thought, no will, no consciousness. There are no eyes, no ears, no nose, no tongue, no body, no mind. There is no seeing, no hearing, no smelling, no tasting, no touching, no imagining. No plane of sight, no plane of thought. There is no ignorance, and no end to ignorance. There is no old age and death, and no end to old age and death. There is no suffering, no cause of suffering, no end to suffering, no path to suffering. There is no attainment of wisdom, and no wisdom to attain."

The Bodhisattvas rely on the Perfection of Wisdom, their hearts without delusions; they have no reason for delusion, no fear within, abandoning their confused thoughts, finally experiencing Nirvana.

The Buddhas, past, present, and future, rely on the Perfection of Wisdom, and live in full enlightenment. The Perfection of Wisdom is the greatest mantra. It is the wisest mantra, the highest mantra, the mantra of the rest. This is truth that cannot be doubted. The reason of the Perfection of Wisdom Mantra, The Mantra is thus: Gaté, gaté, paragaté, parasamgaté. Bodhi! Svaha! [1]

Footnotes

  1. Translation: Gone, Gone, gone beyond, Gone Completely Beyond. Praise to Awakening!

Small version in Sanskrit

आर्यावलोकितेश्वरो बोधिसत्त्वो गंभीरायां प्रज्ञापारमितायां चर्यां चरमाणो व्यवलोकयति स्म ।
पंचस्कन्धाः । तांश्च स्वभावशून्यान्पश्यति स्म ।
इह शारिपुत्र रूपं शून्यता शून्यतैव रूपं रूपान्न पृथक्शून्यता शून्यताया न पृथग्रूपं
यद्रूपं सा शून्यता या शून्यता तद्रूपं । एवमेव वेदनासंज्ञासंस्कारविज्ञानानि ।
इह शारिपुत्र सर्वधर्माः शून्यतालक्षणा अनुत्पन्ना अनिरुद्धा अमला न विमला नोना न परिपूर्णाः ।
तस्माच्छारिपुत्र शून्यतायां न रूपं न वेदना न संज्ञा न संस्कारा न विज्ञानानि ।

न चक्षुःश्रोत्रघ्राणजिह्वाकायमनांसी । न रूपशब्दगंधरसस्प्रष्टव्यधर्माः । न चक्षुर्धातुर्यावन्न
मनोविज्ञानधातुः । न विद्या नाविद्या न विद्याक्षयो नाविद्याक्षयो यावन्न
जरामरणं न जरामरणक्षयो न दुःखसमुदयनिरोधमार्गा न ज्ञानं न प्राप्तिः ॥

तस्मादप्राप्तित्वाद्बोधिसत्त्वाणां प्रज्ञापारमितामाश्रित्य विहरत्यचित्तावरणः ।

चित्तावरणनास्तित्वादत्रस्तो विपार्यासातिक्रान्तो निष्ठनिर्वाणः ।। त्र्यध्वव्यवस्थिताः सर्वबुद्धाः

प्रज्ञापारमितामाश्रित्यानुत्तरां सम्यक्सम्बोधिमभिसंबुद्धाः ।।

तस्माज्ज्ञातव्यं प्रज्ञापारमिता महामन्त्रो महाविद्यामन्त्रो ऽनुत्तरमन्त्रो

ऽसमसममन्त्रः सर्वदुःखप्रशमनः । सत्यममिथ्यत्वात् । प्रज्ञपारमितायामुक्तो मन्त्रः । तद्यथा

गते गते पारगते पारसंगते बोधि स्वाहा ।।

Large version in Sanskrit

एवं मया श्रुतम्। एकस्मिन् समये भगवान् राजगृहे विहरति स्म गृध्रकूटे पर्वते महता भिक्षुसंघेन सार्धं महता च बोधिसत्त्वसंघेन। तेन खलु समयेन भगवान् गम्भीरावसंबोधं नाम समाधिं समापन्नः। तेन च समयेन आर्यावलोकितेश्वरो बोधिसत्त्वो महासत्त्वो गम्भीरायां प्रज्ञापारमितायां चर्यां चरमाणः एवं व्यवलोकयति स्म। पञ्च स्कन्धांस्तांश्च स्वभावशून्यं व्यवलोकयति॥

अथायुष्मान् शारिपुत्रो बुद्धानुभावेन आर्यावलोकितेश्वरं बोधिसत्त्वमेतदवोचत्- यः कश्चित् कुलपुत्रो [वा कुलदुहिता वा अस्यां] गम्भीरायां प्रज्ञापारमितायां चर्यां चर्तुकामः, कथं शिक्षितव्यः ? एवमुक्ते आर्यावलोकितेश्वरो बोधिसत्त्वो महासत्त्वः आयुष्मन्तं शारिपुत्रमेतदवोचत्- यः कश्चिच्छारिपुत्र कुलपुत्रो व कुलदुहिता वा [अस्यां] गम्भीरायां प्रज्ञापारमितायां चर्यां चर्तुकामः, तेनैवं व्यवलोकितव्यम्-पञ्च स्कन्धांस्तांश्च स्वभावशून्यान् समनुपश्यति स्म। रूपं शून्यता, शून्यतैव रूपम्। रूपान्न पृथक् शून्यता, शून्यताया न पृथग् रूपम्। यद्रूपं सा शून्यता, या शून्यता तद्रूपम्। एवं वेदनासंज्ञासंस्कारविज्ञानानि च शून्यता। एवं शारिपुत्र सर्वधर्माः शून्यतालक्षणा अनुत्पन्ना अनिरुद्धा अमला विमला अनूना असंपूर्णाः। तस्मात्तर्हि शारिपुत्र शून्यतायां न रूपम्, न वेदना, स संज्ञा, न संस्काराः, न विज्ञानम्, न चक्षुर्न श्रोत्रं न घ्राणं न जिह्वा न कायो न मनो न रूपं न शब्दो न गन्धो न रसो न स्प्रष्टव्यं न धर्मः। न चक्षुर्धातुर्यावन्न मनोधातुर्न धर्मधातुर्न मनोविज्ञानधातुः। न विद्या नाविद्या न क्षयो यावन्न जरामरणं न जरामरणक्षयः, न दुःखसमुदयनिरोधमार्गा न ज्ञानं न प्राप्तिर्नाप्राप्तिः। तस्माच्छारिपुत्र अप्राप्तित्वेन बोधिसत्त्वानां प्रज्ञापारमितामाश्रित्य विहरति चित्तावरणः। चित्तावरणनास्तित्वादत्रस्तो विपर्यासातिक्रान्तो निष्ठनिर्वाणः। त्र्यध्वव्यवस्थिताः सर्वबुद्धाः प्रज्ञापारमितामाश्रित्य अनुत्तरां सम्यक्संबोधिमभिसंबुद्धाः। तस्माद् ज्ञातव्यः प्रज्ञापारमितामहामन्त्रः अनुत्तरमन्त्रः असमसममन्त्रः सर्वदुःखप्रशमनमन्त्रः सत्यममिथ्यत्वात् प्रज्ञापारमितायामुक्तो मन्त्रः। तद्यथा- गते गते पारगते पारसंगते बोधि स्वाहा। एवं शारिपुत्र गम्भीरायां प्रज्ञापारमितायां चर्यायां शिक्षितव्यं बोधिसत्त्वेन॥


अथ खलु भगवान् तस्मात्समाधेर्व्युत्थाय आर्यावलोकितेश्वरस्य बोधिसत्त्वस्य साधुकारमदात्- साधु साधु कुलपुत्र। एवमेतत् कुलपुत्र, एवमेतद् गम्भीरायां प्रज्ञापारमितायां चर्यं चर्तव्यं यथा त्वया निर्दिष्टम्। अनुमोद्यते तथागतैरर्हद्भिः॥

इदमवोचद्भगवान्। आनन्दमना आयुष्मान् शारिपुत्रः आर्यावलोकितेश्वरश्च बोधिसत्त्वः सा च सर्वावती परिषत् सदेवमानुषासुरगन्धर्वश्च लोको भगवतो भाषितमभ्यनन्दन्॥

Chinese version

摩訶般若波羅密多心經

觀自在菩薩行深般若波羅密多時照見五蘊皆空度一切苦厄舍利子色不異空空不異色色即是空空即是色受想行識亦復如是舍利子是諸法空相不生不滅不垢不淨不增不減是故空中無色無受想行識無眼耳鼻舌身意無色聲香味觸法無眼界乃至無意識界無無明亦無無明盡乃至無老死亦無老死盡無苦集滅道無智亦無得以無所得故菩提薩埵依般若波羅密多故心無罣礙無罣礙故無有恐怖遠離顛倒夢想究竟涅槃三世諸佛依般若波羅密多故得阿耨多羅三藐三菩提故知般若波羅密多是大神咒是大明咒是無上咒是無等等咒能除一切苦真實不虛故說般若波羅密多咒即說咒曰
揭帝 揭帝 般羅揭帝 般羅僧揭帝 菩提 薩婆訶


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