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hydrogenheliumlithium
-

He

Ne
Appearance
Colorless gas, exhibiting a purple glow when placed in a high voltage electric field
General properties
Name, symbol, number helium, He, 2
Pronunciation /ˈhiːliəm/, HEE-lee-əm
Element category noble gases
Group, period, block 181, s
Standard atomic weight 4.002602(2)g·mol−1
Electron configuration 1s2
Electrons per shell 2 (Image)
Physical properties
Phase gas
Density (0 °C, 101.325 kPa)
0.1786 g/L
Melting point (at 2.5 MPa) 0.95 K, −272.20 °C, −457.96 °F
Boiling point 4.22 K, −268.93 °C, −452.07 °F
Critical point 5.19 K, 0.227 MPa
Heat of fusion 0.0138 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization 0.0829 kJ·mol−1
Specific heat capacity (25 °C) 20.786 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure (defined by ITS-90)
P/Pa 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T/K     1.23 1.67 2.48 4.21
Atomic properties
Electronegativity no data (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies 1st: 2372.3 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 5250.5 kJ·mol−1
Covalent radius 28 pm
Van der Waals radius 140 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structure hexagonal close-packed
Magnetic ordering diamagnetic[1]
Thermal conductivity (300 K) 0.1513 W·m−1·K−1
Speed of sound 972 m/s
CAS registry number 7440-59-7
Most stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of helium
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
3He 0.000137%* 3He is stable with 1 neutron
4He 99.999863%* 4He is stable with 2 neutrons
*Atmospheric value, abundance may differ elsewhere.
Helium is the chemical element with atomic number 2 and an atomic weight of 4.0026, which is represented by the symbol He. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, non-toxic, inert monatomic gas that heads the noble gas group in the periodic table. .Its boiling and melting points are the lowest among the elements and it exists only as a gas except in extreme conditions.^ Although chemically identical the melting point and boiling point of the para form are both about 0.1° lower than the 3:1 equilibrium mixture.

^ Helium is unusual in that it is the only known substance for which there is no triple point (i.e., no combination of pressure and temperature at which all three phases can co-exist).

.Next to hydrogen, it is the second most abundant element in the universe, and accounts for 24% of the elemental mass of our galaxy.^ Element which, after hydrogen, is the second lightest and second most abundant in the Universe.

^ The most abundant chemical in the universe.

^ Element that is the lightest and the most abundant in the Universe.

An unknown yellow spectral line signature in sunlight was first observed from a solar eclipse in 1868 by French astronomer Pierre Janssen. Janssen is jointly credited with the discovery of the element with Norman Lockyer, who observed the same eclipse and was the first to propose that the line was due to a new element which he named helium. In 1903, large reserves of helium were found in the natural gas fields of the United States, which is by far the largest supplier of the gas.
.Helium is used in cryogenics (its largest single use, accounting for about a quarter of production), mostly the cooling of superconducting magnets, particularly the main commercial application in MRI scanners.^ I'm considering writing my own hub about Helium but it would be hard to do without using profanity.
  • Helium.com - Writing for Fun or Writing to Make Money? 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: General]

.Helium's other industrial uses as a pressurizing and purge gas, and a protective atmosphere for arc welding and processes (such as growing crystals to make silicon wafers), account for half of its use.^ A process of joining two metals using an electric arc in an atmosphere of a noble gas.

^ Helium is recovered commercially from natural gas in both the USA and countries of the former USSR and it also forms part of ammonia plant tail gas if natural gas is used as a feedstock.

^ The gas accounts for only 5.2 × 10 -4 % of the atmosphere; up to 7% occurs in some natural gas deposits.

Economically minor uses, such as lifting gas in balloons and airships are popularly known.[2]. .Inhaling a small volume of the gas temporarily changes the timbre and quality of the human voice.^ A much less serious use is to temporarily change the timbre and quality of one's voice by inhaling a small volume of the gas (see precautions section below).
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Reference]

^ What it does is change the timbre of your voice.
  • How Helium Works | Squeaky Voice | Effects & Dangers of Inhaling 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.kidzworld.com [Source type: General]

^ Says: January 24th, 2008 at 7:57 pm Quote Again, I think it would be similar to inhaling any gas that can’t be used to support aerobic respiration (by humans, anyway).
  • dispatches from TJICistan » Blog Archive » managing the helium market, so you don’t have to 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC tjic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In scientific research, the behavior of liquid helium-4's two fluid phases, helium I and helium II, is important to researchers studying quantum mechanics (in particular the phenomenon of superfluidity) and to those looking at the effects that temperatures near absolute zero have on matter (such as superconductivity).^ This also undergoes a phase change at temperatures close to absolute zero.

^ Humphreys (2005 ), the Institute for Creation "Research" (ICR) laboratory extracted the biotite samples for the helium diffusion studies in Humphreys et al.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Humphreys (2005 ) also mistakenly believes that any helium contamination of zircons would require high temperature "magmatic fluids" and in particular "basaltic magmatic fluids."
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

.Helium is the second lightest element and is the second most abundant in the observable universe, being present in the universe in masses more than 12 times those of all the heavier elements combined.^ Element which, after hydrogen, is the second lightest and second most abundant in the Universe.

^ The most abundant chemical in the universe.

^ Element that is the lightest and the most abundant in the Universe.

.Helium's abundance is also similar to this in our own Sun and Jupiter.^ A metal-poor star, similar in mass to the Sun, that fuses helium into carbon and oxygen at its core.

This high abundance is due to the very high binding energy (per nucleon) of helium-4 with respect to the next three elements after helium (lithium, beryllium, and boron). This helium-4 binding energy also accounts for its commonality as a product in both nuclear fusion and radioactive decay. Most helium in the universe is helium-4, and was formed during the Big Bang. .Some new helium is being created presently as a result of the nuclear fusion of hydrogen, in all but the very heaviest stars, which fuse helium into heavier elements at the extreme ends of their lives.^ The fusion of hydrogen into helium and the process by which all main-sequence stars generate energy.

^ The stage when a star fuses helium into carbon and oxygen.

^ A star appears on the horizontal branch after it has undergone the helium flash and begins to burn helium quietly in its core and hydrogen in a surrounding envelope.

.On Earth, the lightness of helium has caused its evaporation from the gas and dust cloud from which the planet condensed, and it is thus relatively rare—0.00052% by volume in the atmosphere.^ "For several years before the magnitude of the polar wind was determined Vardiman (1990 ) reported that the lack of helium in the atmosphere argued for a young earth.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

^ For years, Vardiman (1990 ), Melvin Cook (see Cook, 1957 ) and other YECs have argued that the Earth's atmosphere has too little helium to be billions of years old.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

.What helium is present today has been mostly created by the natural radioactive decay of heavy radioactive elements (thorium and uranium), as the alpha particles that are emitted by such decays consist of helium-4 nuclei.^ Therefore, instead of observing the substantial remnants of radiogenic helium in zircons from 1.5 billion years' worth of uranium and thorium decay, Humphreys et al.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The uranium, helium, and lead levels in our samples are perfectly consistent with the corresponding levels Gentry reported for his.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

.This radiogenic helium is trapped with natural gas in concentrations up to seven percent by volume, from which it is extracted commercially by a low-temperature separation process called fractional distillation.^ Helium is recovered commercially from natural gas in both the USA and countries of the former USSR and it also forms part of ammonia plant tail gas if natural gas is used as a feedstock.

^ The gas accounts for only 5.2 × 10 -4 % of the atmosphere; up to 7% occurs in some natural gas deposits.

^ Once the helium burning has started, the temperature builds up rapidly (without a cooling, stabilizing expansion), and the extreme sensitivity of the nuclear reaction rate to temperature causes the helium-burning process to accelerate.

Contents

History

Scientific discoveries

The first evidence of helium was observed on August 18, 1868 as a bright yellow line with a wavelength of 587.49 nanometers in the spectrum of the chromosphere of the Sun. The line was detected by French astronomer Pierre Janssen during a total solar eclipse in Guntur, India.[3][4] .This line was initially assumed to be sodium.^ This line was initially assumed to be sodium .
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Helium: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ This line was initially assumed to be Sodium.

On October 20 of the same year, English astronomer Norman Lockyer observed a yellow line in the solar spectrum, which he named the D3 Fraunhofer line because it was near the known D1 and D2 lines of sodium.[5] .He concluded that it was caused by an element in the Sun unknown on Earth.^ Lockyer concluded that the D3 line was caused by an element in the Sun that was unknown on Earth; he and the chemist Edward Frankland used the Greek word for sun, helios, in naming the element.
  • Helium - Electronic, Research and other specialty grades. Properties,Purity and Packaging, Helium - He - Helium is a colorless, odorless andtasteless gas. It is present in dry air in a concentration of 5.24 ppm byvolume. Used extensively in the welding 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.c-f-c.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Lockyer concluded that the D 3 line was caused by an element in the Sun that was unknown on Earth ; he and the chemist Edward Frankland used the Greek word for sun, hēlios, in naming the element.
  • helium (He) (chemical element) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ On October 20 of the same year, English astronomer Norman Lockyer observed a yellow line in the solar spectrum, which he named the D 3 line, for it was near the known D 1 and D 2 lines of sodium, [12] and concluded that it was caused by an element in the Sun unknown on Earth.
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Reference]

Lockyer and English chemist Edward Frankland named the element with the Greek word for the Sun, ἥλιος (helios)."[6][7][8]
Picture of visible spectrum with superimposed sharp yellow and blue and violet lines.
Spectral lines of helium
.In 1882, Italian physicist Luigi Palmieri detected helium on Earth, for the first time, through its D3 spectral line, when he analyzed the lava of Mount Vesuvius.^ "First, if the helium in the zircons were 'excess' and came from outside them, it would have had to come through the biotite.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

[9]
On March 26, 1895 British chemist Sir William Ramsay isolated helium on Earth by treating the mineral cleveite (a variety of uraninite with at least 10% rare earth elements) with mineral acids. Ramsay was looking for argon but, after separating nitrogen and oxygen from the gas liberated by sulfuric acid, he noticed a bright yellow line that matched the D3 line observed in the spectrum of the Sun.[5][10][11][12] .These samples were identified as helium by Lockyer and British physicist William Crookes.^ These analyses could quickly determine whether his samples contain extraneous helium.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

It was independently isolated from cleveite in the same year by chemists Per Teodor Cleve and Abraham Langlet in Uppsala, Sweden, who collected enough of the gas to accurately determine its atomic weight.[4][13][14] Helium was also isolated by the American geochemist William Francis Hillebrand prior to Ramsay's discovery when he noticed unusual spectral lines while testing a sample of the mineral uraninite. .Hillebrand, however, attributed the lines to nitrogen.^ Hillebrand, however, attributed the lines to Nitrogen.

^ Hillebrand, however, attributed the lines to nitrogen.
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Helium: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

.His letter of congratulations to Ramsay offers an interesting case of discovery and near-discovery in science.^ His letter of congratulations to Ramsay offers an interesting case of discovery and near-discovery in science.
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.3rd1000.com [Source type: Reference]
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  • Helium: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

[15]
.In 1907, Ernest Rutherford and Thomas Royds demonstrated that alpha particles are helium nuclei by allowing the particles to penetrate the thin glass wall of an evacuated tube, then creating a discharge in the tube to study the spectra of the new gas inside.^ Humphreys (2005 ), the Institute for Creation "Research" (ICR) laboratory extracted the biotite samples for the helium diffusion studies in Humphreys et al.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

.In 1908, helium was first liquefied by Dutch physicist Heike Kamerlingh Onnes by cooling the gas to less than one kelvin.^ I'm not singling out one site as better or worse than the rest - it's simply that Helium and HubPages are the only ones of which I have personal experience.
  • Helium.com - Writing for Fun or Writing to Make Money? 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: General]

^ But if your goal is to make money with your writing, there are reasons to have major reservations about Helium - the first one being - .
  • Helium.com - Writing for Fun or Writing to Make Money? 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: General]

^ Depending on whether extraneous helium is present in the zircons, the "dates" of the "uniformitarian model" may range from less than 10,000 years to 1.6 billion years.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

[16] He tried to solidify it by further reducing the temperature but failed because helium does not have a triple point temperature at which the solid, liquid, and gas phases are at equilibrium. Onnes' student Willem Hendrik Keesom was eventually able to solidify 1 cm3 of helium in 1926.[17]
.In 1938, Russian physicist Pyotr Leonidovich Kapitsa discovered that helium-4 has almost no viscosity at temperatures near absolute zero, a phenomenon now called superfluidity.^ However I soon discovered that all links in Helium articles are "no follow" - which means they're useless!
  • Helium.com - Writing for Fun or Writing to Make Money? 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: General]

[18] This phenomenon is related to Bose-Einstein condensation. .In 1972, the same phenomenon was observed in helium-3, but at temperatures much closer to absolute zero, by American physicists Douglas D. Osheroff, David M. Lee, and Robert C. Richardson.^ This also undergoes a phase change at temperatures close to absolute zero.

The phenomenon in helium-3 is thought to be related to pairing of helium-3 fermions to make bosons, in analogy to Cooper pairs of electrons producing superconductivity.[19]

Extraction and use

After an oil drilling operation in 1903 in Dexter, Kansas produced a gas geyser that would not burn, Kansas state geologist Erasmus Haworth collected samples of the escaping gas and took them back to the University of Kansas at Lawrence where, with the help of chemists Hamilton Cady and David McFarland, he discovered that the gas consisted of, by volume, 72% nitrogen, 15% methane (a combustible percentage only with sufficient oxygen), 1% hydrogen, and 12% an unidentifiable gas.[4][20] .With further analysis, Cady and McFarland discovered that 1.84% of the gas sample was helium.^ After the gas was discovered, a sample was sent to the University of Kansas for analysis.
  • [ARTICLE ABOUT HELIUM GAS IN KANSAS] 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.ausbcomp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the analysis made by Prof. Cady and Prof. McFarland, it was discovered that the helium content of the gas was 1.82 percent.
  • [ARTICLE ABOUT HELIUM GAS IN KANSAS] 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.ausbcomp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With further analysis, Cady and McFarland discovered that 1.84% of the gas sample was helium.
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.3rd1000.com [Source type: Reference]
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  • Helium: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

[21][22] This showed that despite its overall rarity on Earth, helium was concentrated in large quantities under the American Great Plains, available for extraction as a byproduct of natural gas.[23] The greatest reserves of helium were in the Hugoton and nearby gas fields in southwest Kansas and the panhandles of Texas and Oklahoma.
.This enabled the United States to become the world's leading supplier of helium.^ This put the United States in an excellent position to become the world's leading supplier of helium.
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Reference]

^ This put the United States in an excellent position to become the world's leading supplier of Helium.

^ The resulting "Helium Privatization Act of 1996" (Public Law 104–273) directed the United States Department of the Interior to start liquidating the reserve by 2005.
  • The Oil Drum: Europe | Goodbye Helium, Goodbye Brainscans 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC europe.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Following a suggestion by Sir Richard Threlfall, the United States Navy sponsored three small experimental helium production plants during World War I. .The goal was to supply barrage balloons with the non-flammable, lighter-than-air gas.^ Helium is also used for balloons (it is less dense than air) and for low-temperature physics research.

.A total of 5,700 m3 (200,000 cubic feet) of 92% helium was produced in the program even though less than a cubic meter of the gas had previously been obtained.^ Baca-15 and Baca-4 are greater than 1,000 meters deep and have bottom temperatures of 267°C and 295°C, respectively.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Depending on whether extraneous helium is present in the zircons, the "dates" of the "uniformitarian model" may range from less than 10,000 years to 1.6 billion years.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Rather than being quantitative or even semiquantitative helium measurements ( Q ) as Humphreys et al.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

[5] Some of this gas was used in the world's first helium-filled airship, the U.S. Navy's C-7, which flew its maiden voyage from Hampton Roads, Virginia to Bolling Field in Washington, D.C. on December 1, 1921.[24]
.Although the extraction process, using low-temperature gas liquefaction, was not developed in time to be significant during World War I, production continued.^ Helium at low temperatures is also used in cryogenics .
  • Helium: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ It's used for any number of low-temperature experiments.
  • Will there be a Helium Shortage? 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC digg.com [Source type: General]

^ Although the extraction process, using low-temperature gas liquefaction, was not developed in time to be significant during World War I, production continued.
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.3rd1000.com [Source type: Reference]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Helium: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

.Helium was primarily used as a lifting gas in lighter-than-air craft.^ Helium is recovered commercially from natural gas in both the USA and countries of the former USSR and it also forms part of ammonia plant tail gas if natural gas is used as a feedstock.

^ Helium is also used for balloons (it is less dense than air) and for low-temperature physics research.

This use increased demand during World War II, as well as demands for shielded arc welding. The helium mass spectrometer was also vital in the atomic bomb Manhattan Project.[25]
.The government of the United States set up the National Helium Reserve in 1925 at Amarillo, Texas with the goal of supplying military airships in time of war and commercial airships in peacetime.^ Make sure you have set up your Adsense and eBay memberships properly, and take time to add photos and lay out your Hubs properly.
  • Helium.com - Writing for Fun or Writing to Make Money? 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: General]

^ However, the relatively impermeable zircons could have retained any extraneous helium for a longer period of time, perhaps up to the present.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

^ I have given up writing for Helium for a long time.
  • Helium.com - Writing for Fun or Writing to Make Money? 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: General]

[5] Due to a US military embargo against Germany that restricted helium supplies, the Hindenburg was forced to use hydrogen as the lift gas. .Helium use following World War II was depressed but the reserve was expanded in the 1950s to ensure a supply of liquid helium as a coolant to create oxygen/hydrogen rocket fuel (among other uses) during the Space Race and Cold War.^ I visited Helium and created a profile, yet had reservations about it, so hadn't submitted.
  • Helium.com - Writing for Fun or Writing to Make Money? 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: General]

^ During prolonged exposure, extraneous helium could have contaminated biotites, zircons and other minerals.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

^ C ~ 0.001 C 0 because in the real world the plane would probably intersect several other zircons that are additional sources of helium?
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

.Helium use in the United States in 1965 was more than eight times the peak wartime consumption.^ Helium use in the United States in 1965 was more than eight times the peak wartime consumption.
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.3rd1000.com [Source type: Reference]
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  • Helium: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ The low price of helium as compared with the cost of hydrogen, which the passenger-carrying dirigibles of Europe use, is expected to make air passenger and freight traffic on a large scale much more successful in this country than in Europe.
  • [ARTICLE ABOUT HELIUM GAS IN KANSAS] 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.ausbcomp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since its inception in 2006, Helium writers have published more than 1.25 million articles on 125,000 subjects.
  • Hearst to use Helium citizen journalists - Boston Business Journal: 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC boston.bizjournals.com [Source type: News]

[26]
.After the "Helium Acts Amendments of 1960" (Public Law 86–777), the U.S. Bureau of Mines arranged for five private plants to recover helium from natural gas.^ Helium is recovered commercially from natural gas in both the USA and countries of the former USSR and it also forms part of ammonia plant tail gas if natural gas is used as a feedstock.

For this helium conservation program, the Bureau built a 425-mile (684 km) pipeline from Bushton, Kansas to connect those plants with the government's partially depleted Cliffside gas field, near Amarillo, Texas. .This helium-nitrogen mixture was injected and stored in the Cliffside gas field until needed, when it then was further purified.^ This helium-nitrogen mixture was injected and stored in the Cliffside gas field until needed, when it then was further purified.
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Helium: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ This Helium-Nitrogen mixture was injected and stored in the Cliffside gas field until needed, when it then was further purified.

^ Only about one-tenth of the working natural gas fields have economically viable concentrations of helium greater than 0.4%.
  • How helium is made - material, history, used, processing, components, product, industry, Raw Materials, The Manufacturing Process of helium, Quality Control, The Future 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.madehow.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Helium: How Products are Made 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.enotes.com [Source type: Reference]

[27]
By 1995, a billion cubic meters of the gas had been collected and the reserve was US$1.4 billion in debt, prompting the Congress of the United States in 1996 to phase out the reserve.[4][28] The resulting "Helium Privatization Act of 1996"[29] (Public Law 104–273) directed the United States Department of the Interior to start emptying the reserve by 2005.[30]
Helium produced between 1930 and 1945 was about 98.3% pure (2% nitrogen), which was adequate for airships. .In 1945, a small amount of 99.9% helium was produced for welding use.^ In 1945 a small amount of 99.9% helium was produced for welding use.
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Helium: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ In 1945 a small amount of 99.9% Helium was produced for welding use.

^ Uses of Helium: Used in balloons, deep sea diving & welding.
  • Periodic Table of Elements: Helium - He (EnvironmentalChemistry.com) 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC environmentalchemistry.com [Source type: Academic]

.By 1949, commercial quantities of Grade A 99.95% helium were available.^ Pressurized helium is commercially available in large quantities.
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.3rd1000.com [Source type: Reference]
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^ By 1949 commercial quantities of Grade A 99.995% helium were available.
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Helium: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ By 1949 commercial quantities of Grade A 99.995% Helium were available.

[31]
.For many years the United States produced over 90% of commercially usable helium in the world, while extraction plants in Canada, Poland, Russia, and other nations produced the remainder.^ Helium has been produced in commercial quantities at few other sites around the world.
  • Helium 02:2008 EXPLORER 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.aapg.org [Source type: News]

^ Extraction plants created in Canada, Poland, Russia, and other nations produced the remaining helium.
  • Helium: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Extraction plants created in Canada , Poland , Russia , and other nations produced the remaining helium.
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Reference]

In the mid-1990s, a new plant in Arzew, Algeria producing 17 million cubic meters (600 million cubic feet) began operation, with enough production to cover all of Europe's demand. .Meanwhile, by 2000, the consumption of helium within the US had risen to above 15 million kg per year.^ The present value is somewhere between 15 and 30 kilometers per second per million light-years.

[32] .In 2004–2006, two additional plants, one in Ras Laffen, Qatar and the other in Skikda, Algeria were built, but as of early 2007, Ras Laffen is functioning at 50%, and Skikda has yet to start up.^ [LB90] (b) The observation, first made by E.P. Hubble in the 1920s, that distant galaxies are receding from us with a velocity proportional to their distance; one infers that any two galaxies are receding from each other with a velocity proportional to their separation.

.Algeria quickly became the second leading producer of helium.^ Algeria quickly became the second leading producer of helium.
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Helium: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Algeria quickly became the second leading producer of Helium.

^ Although Canada, Russia, Poland and Algeria have produced helium in commercial quantities, none have discovered reserves or helium concentrations comparable to those found in the United States.
  • Helium 02:2008 EXPLORER 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.aapg.org [Source type: News]

[33] .Through this time, both helium consumption and the costs of producing helium increased.^ Through this time, both Helium consumption and the costs of producing Helium increased.

^ Through this time, both helium consumption and the costs of producing helium increased and during 2007 the major suppliers, Air Liquide, Airgas and Praxair all raised prices from 10 to 30%.
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Reference]
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^ From these figure it can be concluded that Helium consumption has been rising steadily over time especially since the mid 80’s of the 20th century.
  • The Oil Drum: Europe | Goodbye Helium, Goodbye Brainscans 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC europe.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[34] In the 2002 to 2007 period helium prices doubled,[35] and during 2008 alone the major suppliers raised prices about 50%.[citation needed]

Characteristics

The helium atom

Helium atom
Picture of a diffuse gray sphere with grayscale density decreasing from the center. Length scale about 1 Angstrom. An inset outlines the structure of the core, with two red and two blue atoms at the length scale of 1 femtometer.
An illustration of the helium atom, depicting the nucleus (pink) and the electron cloud distribution (black). .The nucleus (upper right) in helium-4 is in reality spherically symmetric and closely resembles the electron cloud, although for more complicated nuclei this is not always the case.^ Heterotic E 8 × E 8 string theory One of the five superstring theories; involves closed strings whose right-moving vibrations resemble those of the Type II string and whose left-moving vibrations involve those of the bosonic string.

^ Helium has the electronic configuration 1s 2 and consists of a nucleus of two protons and two neutrons (equivalent to an -particle) with two extra-nuclear electrons.

^ "Because b is more than 32 times larger than a , the disk-like (not spherical) volume of biotite the helium enters is more than 1000 (~32 squared [ sic ]) times the volume of the zircon.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

The black bar is one angstrom, equal to 10−10 m or 100,000 fm.

Helium in quantum mechanics

Helium is the next simplest atom to solve using the rules of quantum mechanics, after the hydrogen atom. Helium is composed of two electrons in orbit around a nucleus containing two protons along with some neutrons. .However, as in Newtonian mechanics, no system consisting of more than two particles can be solved with an exact analytical mathematical approach (see 3-body problem) and helium is no exception.^ YEC magic is that their results may be nothing more than artifacts of extraneous helium contamination that occurred many thousands or tens of thousands of years ago.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

^ To be exact, Dr. Humphreys' "accelerated nuclear decay event" is nothing more than an example of the infamous Gosse (Omphalos) (also here ) and "god of the gaps" (also here ) fallacies.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Humphreys has had more than two years to make a thorough and air tight case for his claims.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

.Thus, numerical mathematical methods are required, even to solve the system of one nucleus and two electrons.^ Its atom comprises two protons, two neutrons and two electrons; its nucleus is sometimes called an alpha particle.

^ Helium has the electronic configuration 1s 2 and consists of a nucleus of two protons and two neutrons (equivalent to an -particle) with two extra-nuclear electrons.

.However, such computational chemistry methods have been used to create a quantum mechanical picture of helium electron binding which is accurate to within < 2% of the correct value, in a few computational steps.^ I do not think that even the corrected Q/Q 0 values in my Appendix A are good enough to use.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

^ He showed that YECs often omitted critical details on various atmospheric helium escape mechanisms, such photoionization.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Humphreys has failed to show that the Q and Q/Q 0 values for sample 5 are quantitative enough to justify their use in his "creation" and "uniformitarian models."
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

[36] .In such models it is found that each electron in helium partly screens the nucleus from the other, so that the effective nuclear charge Z which each electron sees, is about 1.69 units, not the 2 charges of a classic "bare" helium nucleus.^ Throughout his Fenton Hill documents, Dr. Humphreys talks about the "uniformitarian model" requiring helium retention in zircons for 1.5 billion years.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

The related stability of the helium-4 nucleus and electron shell

.The nucleus of the helium-4 atom, which is identical with an alpha particle is particularly interesting, inasmuch as high energy electron-scattering experiments show its charge to decrease exponentially from a maximum at a central point, exactly as does the charge density of helium's own electron cloud.^ STP/μg) in sample 5 "agrees" with the temperature and helium concentration "trends" in samples 1-4, but that an identical helium measurement from sample 6 is "too high" to fit their "model."
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

This symmetry reflects similar underlying physics: the pair of neutrons and the pair of protons in helium's nucleus obey the same quantum mechanical rules as do helium's pair of electrons (although the nuclear particles are subject to a different nuclear binding potential), so that all these fermions fully occupy 1s1s orbitals in pairs, none of them possessing orbital angular momentum, and each cancelling the other's intrinsic spin. .Adding another of any of these particles would require angular momentum and would release substantially less energy (in fact, no nucleus with five nucleons is stable).^ Energy which would be required to form a molecule from dissociated atoms.

^ The larger the value of S (total spin angular momentum), the lower the value of the average perturbation energy < V > SL .

This arrangement is thus energetically extremely stable for all these particles, and this stability accounts for many crucial facts regarding helium in nature.
.For example, the stability and low energy of the electron cloud state in helium accounts for the element's chemical inertness (the most extreme of all the elements), and also the lack of interaction of helium atoms with themselves, producing the lowest melting and boiling points of all the elements.^ Because helium atoms are much smaller than argon atoms, helium would tend to more readily move in and out of most minerals than argon.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

^ For example, quartz and other impermeable and low-uranium minerals should be analyzed for extraneous helium.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

.In a similar way, the particular energetic stability of the helium-4 nucleus, produced by similar effects, accounts for the ease of helium-4 production in atomic reactions involving both heavy-particle emission, and fusion.^ Helium is the product of the nuclear fusion of hydrogen in most stars, but this does not explain the overall helium abundance.

^ Helium has the electronic configuration 1s 2 and consists of a nucleus of two protons and two neutrons (equivalent to an -particle) with two extra-nuclear electrons.

Some stable helium-3 is produced in fusion reactions from hydrogen, but it is a very small fraction, compared with the highly favorable helium-4. The stability of helium-4 is the reason hydrogen is converted to helium-4 (not deuterium or helium-3 or heavier elements) in the Sun. It is also partly responsible for the fact that the alpha particle is by far the most common type of baryonic particle to be ejected from atomic nuclei; in other words, alpha decay is far more common than cluster decay.
Binding energy per nucleon of common isotopes. The binding energy per particle of helium-4 is significantly larger than all nearby nuclides.
.The unusual stability of the helium-4 nucleus is also important cosmologically: it explains the fact that in the first few minutes after the Big Bang, as the "soup" of free protons and neutrons which had initially been created in about 6:1 ratio cooled to the point that nuclear binding was possible, almost all first compound atomic nuclei to form were helium-4 nuclei.^ Chapter 2 in Faure (1998 ) and Delsemme (1998 ) further demonstrate that the distribution of elements in the Universe (including the Oddo-Harkins rule and H/He ratios) is consistent with the Big Bang and nuclear fusion reactions in stars.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

^ First of all, two zircons can have identical U/Pb dates and Pb/Pb isotope ratios, but still greatly differ in size (variable a values) and have radically different concentrations of uranium, thorium and helium (very different Q/Q 0 values; my Appendix B ).
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

^ First of all, his helium diffusion experiments were performed under a vacuum rather than at realistic pressures that model the subsurface conditions at Fenton Hill (about 200 to 1,200 bars; Winkler, 1979 , p.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

.So tight was helium-4 binding, in fact, than helium-4 production consumed nearly all of the free neutrons in a few mintues, before they could beta-decay, and also leaving very few left to form any lithium, beryllium, or boron.^ The fact that about 8% of all atoms are helium can be traced, through the - - theory, to the primordial big bang.

^ All stars born with more than half a solar mass eventually burn helium.

^ YECs consider the few accelerated radioactive decay paragraphs to represent the very foundation and the most important part of Humphreys et al.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

.Helium-4 nuclear binding per nucleon is stronger than in any of these elements (see nucleogenesis and binding energy) and thus no energetic drive was available, once helium had been formed, to make elements 3, 4 and 5. It was barely energetically favorable for helium to fuse into the next element with a lower energy per nucleon, carbon.^ The stage when a star fuses helium into carbon and oxygen.

^ The fusion of hydrogen into helium and the process by which all main-sequence stars generate energy.

^ Because of the small mass of hydrogen, these forms are more important in hydrogen molecules than in other diatomic molecules.

However, due to lack of intermediate elements, this process requires three helium nuclei striking each other nearly simultaneously (see triple alpha process). There was thus no time for significant carbon to be formed in the Big Bang, before the early expanding universe cooled, in a matter of a few minutes, to the temperature and pressure point where helium fusion to carbon was no longer possible. This left the early universe with a very similar ratio of hydrogen/helium as is observed today (3 parts hydrogen to 1 part helium-4 by mass), with nearly all the neutrons in the universe (even as it exists today) trapped in helium-4.
All heavier elements (including those necessary for rocky planets like the Earth, and for carbon-based or other life), have thus had to be created since the Big Bang, in stars which were hot enough to burn not just hydrogen (for this produces only more helium), but hot enough to burn helium itself. .Such stars are massive and therefore rare, and this fact accounts for the fact that all other chemical elements after hydrogen and helium today account for only 2% of the mass of atomic matter in the universe.^ A star appears on the horizontal branch after it has undergone the helium flash and begins to burn helium quietly in its core and hydrogen in a surrounding envelope.

^ A universe is called homogeneous if it would look the same to all observers, no matter where they were located.

^ Element which, after hydrogen, is the second lightest and second most abundant in the Universe.

Helium-4, by contrast, makes up about 23% of the universe's ordinary matter—nearly all the ordinary matter which isn't hydrogen.

Gas and plasma phases

gas discarge tube filled with pure helium
Helium is the least reactive noble gas after neon and thus the second least reactive of all elements; it is inert and monatomic in all standard conditions. .Due to helium's relatively low molar (atomic) mass, in the gas phase its thermal conductivity, specific heat, and sound speed are all greater than any other gas except hydrogen.^ For example, quartz and other impermeable and low-uranium minerals should be analyzed for extraneous helium.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

^ That is, Dr. Humphreys falsely believe that if the helium concentrations in "surrounding" biotites are now relatively low, then these concentrations must have always been low.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

.For similar reasons, and also due to the small size of helium atoms, helium's diffusion rate through solids is three times that of air and around 65% that of hydrogen.^ For similar reasons, and also due to the small size of its molecules, Helium's diffusion rate through solids is three times that of air and around 65% that of Hydrogen.

^ This is because the speed of sound in helium is nearly three times the speed of sound in air.
  • Helium: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ J of helium atoms in the x -direction through a region with diffusivity D as: .

[5]
Illuminated light red gas discharge tubes shaped as letters H and e.
Helium discharge tube shaped like the element's atomic symbol.
.Helium is less water soluble than any other gas known,[37] and helium's index of refraction is closer to unity than that of any other gas.^ The helium flash can only occur when the helium core is less than the 1.4 M Chandrasekhar mass limit and thus it is restricted to low-mass stars.

^ The more precisely one quantity is known, the less certain the precision of the other.

^ Depending on whether extraneous helium is present in the zircons, the "dates" of the "uniformitarian model" may range from less than 10,000 years to 1.6 billion years.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

[38] .Helium has a negative Joule-Thomson coefficient at normal ambient temperatures, meaning it heats up when allowed to freely expand.^ "The fluid inclusions in the calcite veins and those in quartz of the Precambrian crystalline rocks from the GT-2 indicate heating up to the thermal maximum, cooling and calcite veining, and heating again to the present temperature."
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

Only below its Joule-Thomson inversion temperature (of about 32 to 50 K at 1 atmosphere) does it cool upon free expansion.[5] .Once precooled below this temperature, helium can be liquefied through expansion cooling.^ Once precooled below this temperature, Helium can be liquefied through expansion cooling.

^ Once precooled below this temperature, helium can be liquefied through expansion cooling.
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^ Helium liquefies at a much lower temperature than natural gas, close to absolute zero (4 degrees Kelvin).
  • Balloon Boy Helium Physics – How Much Helium Would It Take to Lift Falcon? | Steve Spangler's Blog 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.stevespangler.com [Source type: General]

Most extraterrestrial helium is found in a plasma state, with properties quite different from those of atomic helium. .In a plasma, helium's electrons are not bound to its nucleus, resulting in very high electrical conductivity, even when the gas is only partially ionized.^ In a plasma, Helium's electrons and protons are not bound together, resulting in very high electrical conductivity, even when the gas is only partially ionized.

^ It can be observed only at very high resolution.

^ "Helium has a closed electronic configuration, a very tightly bound atom.
  • Helium Supplies Endangered, Threatening Science And Technology 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.sciencedaily.com [Source type: News]

.The charged particles are highly influenced by magnetic and electric fields.^ The charged particles are highly influenced by magnetic and electric fields.
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.3rd1000.com [Source type: Reference]
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^ It is caused by deflection of the moving charge carriers in the magnetic field.

^ Light waves are fluctuations of electric and magnetic fields in space.
  • Imagine the Universe! Dictionary 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

For example, in the solar wind together with ionized hydrogen, the particles interact with the Earth's magnetosphere giving rise to Birkeland currents and the aurora.[39]

Solid and liquid phases

Unlike any other element, helium will remain liquid down to absolute zero at normal pressures. .This is a direct effect of quantum mechanics: specifically, the zero point energy of the system is too high to allow freezing.^ The quantity in classical mechanics corresponding to the total energy of a system, expressed in terms of momenta and positional coordinates.

^ A model of magnetic systems in which each magnetic atom has a spin which is free to point in any direction in space.

^ This is because the interatomic forces, which normally participate in the formation of solids, are so weak that they are of the same order as the zero-point energy.

.Solid helium requires a temperature of 1–1.5 K (about –272 °C or –457 °F) and about 25 bar (2.5 MPa) of pressure.^ Fenton Hill (about 200 to 1,200 bars of pressure; Winkler, 1979, p.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Throughout his Fenton Hill documents, Dr. Humphreys talks about the "uniformitarian model" requiring helium retention in zircons for 1.5 billion years.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

^ First of all, his helium diffusion experiments were performed under a vacuum rather than at realistic pressures that model the subsurface conditions at Fenton Hill (about 200 to 1,200 bars; Winkler, 1979 , p.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

[40] .It is often hard to distinguish solid from liquid helium since the refractive index of the two phases are nearly the same.^ Solid and liquid phases .
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^ It is often hard to distinguish solid from liquid helium since the refractive index of the two phases are nearly the same.
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.3rd1000.com [Source type: Reference]
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^ Equal mixtures of liquid helium-3 and helium-4 below 0.8 K will separate into two immiscible phases due to their dissimilarity (they follow different quantum statistics : helium-4 atoms are bosons while helium-3 atoms are fermions ).
  • Helium: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

.The solid has a sharp melting point and has a crystalline structure, but it is highly compressible; applying pressure in a laboratory can decrease its volume by more than 30%.^ The question then arises, what would happen to the defects in any zircons and their defect curves if these minerals were under 200 to 1,200 bars of pressure in the subsurface rather than in a laboratory vacuum?
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

^ "Because b is more than 32 times larger than a , the disk-like (not spherical) volume of biotite the helium enters is more than 1000 (~32 squared [ sic ]) times the volume of the zircon.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Gneisses are former igneous or sedimentary rocks that have been metamorphosed under relatively high temperature and pressure conditions (highly altered), but without melting ( Hyndman, 1985 , p.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

[41] With a bulk modulus on the order of 50 MPa[42] it is 50 times more compressible than water. Solid helium has a density of 0.214 ± 0.006 g/ml at 1.15 K and 66 atm; the projected density at 0 K and 25 bar (2.5 MPa) is 0.187 ± 0.009 g/ml.[43]

Helium I state

Below its boiling point of 4.22 kelvins and above the lambda point of 2.1768 kelvins, the isotope helium-4 exists in a normal colorless liquid state, called helium I.[5] Like other cryogenic liquids, helium I boils when it is heated and contracts when its temperature is lowered. .Below the lambda point, however, helium doesn't boil, and it expands as the temperature is lowered further.^ It also contracts when its temperature is lowered until it reaches the lambda point, when it stops boiling and suddenly expands.
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.3rd1000.com [Source type: Reference]
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^ It also contracts when its temperature is lowered until it reaches the lambda point , when it stops boiling and suddenly expands.
  • Helium: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Onnes found that helium (technically, the helium 4 isotope) began to readily conduct heat below –455.67 degrees F (–270.92 degrees C), also known as the lambda point.
  • Strange but True: Superfluid Helium Can Climb Walls: Scientific American 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.scientificamerican.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Helium I has a gas-like index of refraction of 1.026 which makes its surface so hard to see that floats of styrofoam are often used to show where the surface is.^ He showed that YECs often omitted critical details on various atmospheric helium escape mechanisms, such photoionization.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

^ "Measurements of noble gas diffusion in a given type of naturally occurring mineral often show significant differences from site to site, caused by variations in composition."
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

^ "Measurements of noble gas diffusion in a given type of naturally occurring mineral often show significant differences from site to site, caused by variations in composition.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

[5] This colorless liquid has a very low viscosity and a density of 0.145 g/mL, which is only one-fourth the value expected from classical physics.[5] .Quantum mechanics is needed to explain this property and thus both types of liquid helium are called quantum fluids, meaning they display atomic properties on a macroscopic scale.^ Quantum mechanics is needed to explain this property and thus both types of liquid helium are called quantum fluids , meaning they display atomic properties on a macroscopic scale.
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.3rd1000.com [Source type: Reference]
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  • Helium: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ K meaning liquid helium cooling is not required.
  • The Oil Drum: Europe | Goodbye Helium, Goodbye Brainscans 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC europe.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Equal mixtures of liquid helium-3 and helium-4 below 0.8 K will separate into two immiscible phases due to their dissimilarity (they follow different quantum statistics : helium-4 atoms are bosons while helium-3 atoms are fermions ).
  • Helium: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

This may be an effect of its boiling point being so close to absolute zero, preventing random molecular motion (thermal energy) from masking the atomic properties.[5]

Helium II state

.Liquid helium below its lambda point begins to exhibit very unusual characteristics, in a state called helium II.^ Below its boiling point of 4.22 kelvin and above the lambda point of 2.1768 kelvin, the isotope Helium-4 exists in a normal colorless liquid state, called Helium I .

^ Liquid helium below its lambda point begins to exhibit very unusual characteristics, in a state called helium II .
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.3rd1000.com [Source type: Reference]
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^ Helium II state .
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  • Helium: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

Boiling of helium II is not possible due to its high thermal conductivity; heat input instead causes evaporation of the liquid directly to gas. The isotope helium-3 also has a superfluid phase, but only at much lower temperatures; as a result, less is known about such properties in the isotope helium-3.[5]
A cross-sectional drawing showing one vessel inside another. There is a liquid in the outer vessel, and it tends to flow into the inner vessel over its walls.
.Unlike ordinary liquids, helium II will creep along surfaces in order to reach an equal level; after a short while, the levels in the two containers will equalize.^ Helium II also exhibits a "creeping" effect.
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.3rd1000.com [Source type: Reference]
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^ Helium II will "creep" along surfaces in order to find its own level - after a short while, the levels in the two containers will equalize.
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^ Equal mixtures of liquid helium-3 and helium-4 below 0.8 K will separate into two immiscible phases due to their dissimilarity (they follow different quantum statistics: helium-4 atoms are bosons while helium-3 atoms are fermions).
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Reference]

The Rollin film also covers the interior of the larger container; if it were not sealed, the helium II would creep out and escape.[5]
.Helium II is a superfluid, a quantum-mechanical state of matter with strange properties.^ Helium II is a superfluid , a quantum-mechanical state of matter with strange properties.
  • Helium: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Helium II state .
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Helium: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Helium II is a superfluid, a quantum-mechanical state of matter with strange properties.

.For example, when it flows through capillaries as thin as 10−7 to 10−8 m it has no measurable viscosity.^ For example, when it flows through even capillaries of 10 −7 to 10 −8 m width it has no measurable viscosity .
  • Helium: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ For example, when it flows through even capillaries of 10 -7 to 10 -8 m width it has no measurable viscosity.
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.3rd1000.com [Source type: Reference]
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^ Because it attracts itself so little, it will wet any surface and flow over it by capillary action, creating a thin film less than 100 nm thick.
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

[4] .However, when measurements were done between two moving discs, a viscosity comparable to that of gaseous helium was observed.^ However, when measurements were done between two moving discs, a viscosity comparable to that of gaseous helium was observed.
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^ The gases were mixed in a manifold between the two tanks and the diver's mouthpiece.
  • Brief History Of Mixed Gas Diving 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www-personal.umich.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We wish to compare the behavior of hydrogen, Z = 1, with a nucleus consisting of a proton, and helium, Z = 2, with a nucleus consisting of two protons and two neutrons, strongly held together by nuclear forces.
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Current theory explains this using the two-fluid model for helium II. In this model, liquid helium below the lambda point is viewed as containing a proportion of helium atoms in a ground state, which are superfluid and flow with exactly zero viscosity, and a proportion of helium atoms in an excited state, which behave more like an ordinary fluid.^ Fluid samples collected from the wells in the 1980s contained significant extraneous helium.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

^ "Because b is more than 32 times larger than a , the disk-like (not spherical) volume of biotite the helium enters is more than 1000 (~32 squared [ sic ]) times the volume of the zircon.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Because helium atoms are much smaller than argon atoms, helium would tend to more readily move in and out of most minerals than argon.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

[44]
In the fountain effect, a chamber is constructed which is connected to a reservoir of helium II by a sintered disc through which superfluid helium leaks easily but through which non-superfluid helium cannot pass. .If the interior of the container is heated, the superfluid helium changes to non-superfluid helium.^ If the interior of the container is heated, the superfluid helium changes to non-superfluid helium.
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.3rd1000.com [Source type: Reference]
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^ In the fountain effect , a chamber is constructed which is connected to a reservoir of helium II by a sintered disc through which superfluid helium leaks easily but through which non-superfluid helium cannot pass.
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.3rd1000.com [Source type: Reference]
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^ In order to maintain the equilibrium fraction of superfluid helium, superfluid helium leaks through and increases the pressure, causing liquid to fountain out of the container.
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.3rd1000.com [Source type: Reference]
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.In order to maintain the equilibrium fraction of superfluid helium, superfluid helium leaks through and increases the pressure, causing liquid to fountain out of the container.^ In order to maintain the equilibrium fraction of superfluid helium, superfluid helium leaks through and increases the pressure, causing liquid to fountain out of the container.
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.3rd1000.com [Source type: Reference]
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^ As a result of this creeping behavior and helium II's ability to leak rapidly through tiny openings, it is very difficult to confine liquid helium.
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.3rd1000.com [Source type: Reference]
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^ In the fountain effect , a chamber is constructed which is connected to a reservoir of helium II by a sintered disc through which superfluid helium leaks easily but through which non-superfluid helium cannot pass.
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.3rd1000.com [Source type: Reference]
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[45]
.The thermal conductivity of helium II is greater than that of any other known substance, a million times that of helium I and several hundred times that of copper.^ The thermal conductivity of helium II is greater than that of any other known substance, a million times that of helium I and several hundred times that of copper.

^ The thermal conductivity of helium II is greater than that of any other known substance, a million times that of helium I and several hundred times that of copper .
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^ Due to Helium's relatively low molar (molecular) mass, in the gas phase it has a thermal conductivity, specific heat, and sound conduction velocity that are all greater than any gas, except Hydrogen.

[5] This is because heat conduction occurs by an exceptional quantum mechanism. Most materials that conduct heat well have a valence band of free electrons which serve to transfer the heat. .Helium II has no such valence band but nevertheless conducts heat well.^ Helium II has no such valence band but nevertheless conducts heat well.
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.3rd1000.com [Source type: Reference]
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^ So when heat is introduced, it will move at 20 meters per second at 1.8 K through helium II as waves in a phenomenon called second sound .
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^ The thermal conductivity of helium II is greater than that of any other known substance, a million times that of helium I and several hundred times that of copper .
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The flow of heat is governed by equations that are similar to the wave equation used to characterize sound propagation in air. When heat is introduced, it moves at 20 meters per second at 1.8 K through helium II as waves in a phenomenon known as second sound.[5]
.Helium II also exhibits a creeping effect.^ Helium II also exhibits a "creeping" effect.
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.3rd1000.com [Source type: Reference]
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^ In the fountain effect , a chamber is constructed which is connected to a reservoir of helium II by a sintered disc through which superfluid helium leaks easily but through which non-superfluid helium cannot pass.
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^ As a result of this creeping behavior and helium II's ability to leak rapidly through tiny openings, it is very difficult to confine liquid helium.
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.3rd1000.com [Source type: Reference]
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When a surface extends past the level of helium II, the helium II moves along the surface, against the force of gravity. .Helium II will escape from a vessel that is not sealed by creeping along the sides until it reaches a warmer region where it evaporates.^ Helium II will escape from a vessel that is not sealed by creeping along the sides until it reaches a warmer region where it evaporates.
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.3rd1000.com [Source type: Reference]
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^ Unless the container is carefully constructed, the helium II will creep along the surfaces and through valves until it reaches somewhere warmer, where it will evaporate.
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.3rd1000.com [Source type: Reference]
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^ Helium II also exhibits a "creeping" effect.
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.3rd1000.com [Source type: Reference]
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.It moves in a 30 nm-thick film regardless of surface material.^ It moves in a 30 nm-thick film regardless of surface material.
  • Helium: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ It moves in a 30 nm thick film regardless of surface material.
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.3rd1000.com [Source type: Reference]
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^ Because it attracts itself so little, it will wet any surface and flow over it by capillary action, creating a thin film less than 100 nm thick.
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

This film is called a Rollin film and is named after the man who first characterized this trait, Bernard V. Rollin.[5][46][47] .As a result of this creeping behavior and helium II's ability to leak rapidly through tiny openings, it is very difficult to confine liquid helium.^ The result of this rather difficult process is liquid helium.
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ As a result of this creeping behavior and helium II's ability to leak rapidly through tiny openings, it is very difficult to confine liquid helium.
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.3rd1000.com [Source type: Reference]
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^ Helium II also exhibits a "creeping" effect.
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.3rd1000.com [Source type: Reference]
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.Unless the container is carefully constructed, the helium II will creep along the surfaces and through valves until it reaches somewhere warmer, where it will evaporate.^ Helium II will escape from a vessel that is not sealed by creeping along the sides until it reaches a warmer region where it evaporates.
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.3rd1000.com [Source type: Reference]
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^ Unless the container is carefully constructed, the helium II will creep along the surfaces and through valves until it reaches somewhere warmer, where it will evaporate.
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.3rd1000.com [Source type: Reference]
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^ Helium II also exhibits a "creeping" effect.
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.Waves propagating across a Rollin film are governed by the same equation as gravity waves in shallow water, but rather than gravity, the restoring force is the van der Waals force.^ Typically, standard deviations are calculated with a "non-biased" equation, which uses degrees of freedom ( n -1) in the denominator rather than the total number of samples ( n ) ( Davis, 1986 , p.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Rather than providing suitable measurements and standard deviations for b , Humphreys (2005 ) again throws out the same old lame excuses.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

[48] These waves are known as third sound.[49]

Isotopes

There are eight known isotopes of helium, but only helium-3 and helium-4 are stable. In the Earth's atmosphere, there is one 3He atom for every million 4He atoms.[4] .Unlike most elements, helium's isotopic abundance varies greatly by origin, due to the different formation processes.^ The different formation processes of the two stable isotopes of helium produce the differing isotope abundances.
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.3rd1000.com [Source type: Reference]
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^ However, helium is unusual in that its isotopic abundance varies greatly depending on its origin.
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.3rd1000.com [Source type: Reference]
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^ Rocks from the Earth's crust have isotope ratios varying by as much as a factor of ten; this is used in geology to study the origin of such rocks.
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.3rd1000.com [Source type: Reference]
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.The most common isotope, helium-4, is produced on Earth by alpha decay of heavier radioactive elements; the alpha particles that emerge are fully ionized helium-4 nuclei.^ YECs consider the few accelerated radioactive decay paragraphs to represent the very foundation and the most important part of Humphreys et al.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

Helium-4 is an unusually stable nucleus because its nucleons are arranged into complete shells. It was also formed in enormous quantities during Big Bang nucleosynthesis.[50]
.Helium-3 is present on Earth only in trace amounts; most of it since Earth's formation, though some falls to Earth trapped in cosmic dust.^ Even though this is your best shot (that's why I've spent some time on it), your reliance on magic falls far short of credibility.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Even though this is his best shot (that's why I've spent some time on it), it falls far short of credibility."
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

[51] Trace amounts are also produced by the beta decay of tritium.[52] Rocks from the Earth's crust have isotope ratios varying by as much as a factor of ten, and these ratios can be used to investigate the origin of rocks and the composition of the Earth's mantle.[51] 3He is much more abundant in stars, as a product of nuclear fusion. Thus in the interstellar medium, the proportion of 3He to 4He is around 100 times higher than on Earth.[53] Extraplanetary material, such as lunar and asteroid regolith, have trace amounts of helium-3 from being bombarded by solar winds. The Moon's surface contains helium-3 at concentrations on the order of 0.01 ppm.[54][55] A number of people, starting with Gerald Kulcinski in 1986,[56] have proposed to explore the moon, mine lunar regolith and use the helium-3 for fusion.
Liquid helium-4 can be cooled to about 1 kelvin using evaporative cooling in a 1-K pot. Similar cooling of helium-3, which has a lower boiling point, can achieve about 0.2 kelvin in a helium-3 refrigerator. Equal mixtures of liquid 3He and 4He below 0.8 K separate into two immiscible phases due to their dissimilarity (they follow different quantum statistics: helium-4 atoms are bosons while helium-3 atoms are fermions).[5] Dilution refrigerators use this immiscibility to achieve temperatures of a few millikelvins.
.It is possible to produce exotic helium isotopes, which rapidly decay into other substances.^ "By the same laws, the currents and fields would preserve themselves with only minor losses, as God rapidly transformed the water into other materials."
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

^ That means, according to the laws of diffusion, that the helium is presently leaking out of the zircons into the biotite, not the other way around.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Furthermore, because the core has been contaminated with uranium, we should expect the decay of this uranium to produce significant extraneous 4 He that could contaminate zircons and other minerals.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

The shortest-lived heavy helium isotope is helium-5 with a half-life of 7.6 × 10–22 seconds. Helium-6 decays by emitting a beta particle and has a half life of 0.8 second. Helium-7 also emits a beta particle as well as a gamma ray. Helium-7 and helium-8 are created in certain nuclear reactions.[5] Helium-6 and helium-8 are known to exhibit a nuclear halo. .Helium-2 (two protons, no neutrons) is a radioisotope that decays by proton emission into protium (hydrogen), with a half-life of 3 × 10–27 second.^ For Dr. Humphreys, God had no problem invoking a few miracles to keep water liquefied in the vacuum of space and then converting it into everything from hydrogen to uranium.
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[5]

Compounds

.Helium has a valence of zero and is chemically unreactive under all normal conditions.^ First of all, his helium diffusion experiments were performed under a vacuum rather than at realistic pressures that model the subsurface conditions at Fenton Hill (about 200 to 1,200 bars; Winkler, 1979 , p.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

[41] It is an electrical insulator unless ionized. .As with the other noble gases, helium has metastable energy levels that allow it to remain ionized in an electrical discharge with a voltage below its ionization potential.^ Considering the trends with noble gases in other silicate minerals (see discussions above), the data might even correspond to the "uniformitarian model."
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

[5] Helium can form unstable compounds, known as excimers, with tungsten, iodine, fluorine, sulfur and phosphorus when it is subjected to an electric glow discharge, to electron bombardment, or else is a plasma for another reason. The molecular compounds HeNe, HgHe10, and WHe2, and the molecular ions He+2, He2+2, HeH+, and HeD+ have been created this way.[57] This technique has also allowed the production of the neutral molecule He2, which has a large number of band systems, and HgHe, which is apparently only held together by polarization forces.[5] .Theoretically, other true compounds may also be possible, such as helium fluorohydride (HHeF) which would be analogous to HArF, discovered in 2000.[58] Calculations show that two new compounds containing a helium-oxygen bond could be stable.^ These analyses could quickly determine whether his samples contain extraneous helium.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

^ D. R. Humphreys and other young-Earth creationists (YECs) believe that zircons from the Fenton Hill rock cores, New Mexico, USA, contain too much radiogenic helium to be billions of years old ( Humphreys et al.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

^ "Jemez granodiorite" of the Fenton Hill rock core, New Mexico, USA, contain too much "radiogenic" helium to be billions of years old.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

[59] Two new molecular species, predicted using theory, CsFHeO and N(CH3)4FHeO, are derivatives of a metastable [F– HeO] anion first theorized in 2005 by a group from Taiwan. If confirmed by experiment, such compounds will end helium's chemical inertness, and the only remaining inert element will be neon.[60]
.Helium has been put inside the hollow carbon cage molecules (the fullerenes) by heating under high pressure.^ Under high-pressure subsurface conditions, defect lines should be less pronounced and the samples should have lower diffusion coefficients (located lower on the graph).
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^ The extended intrinsic curve passes very close to sample 1 of the "uniformitarian" model, which may be relevant under relatively high-pressure subsurface conditions.
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^ Under subsurface pressures, the zircons might easily retain much of their helium for 1.5 billion years.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

The endohedral fullerene molecules formed are stable up to high temperatures. .When chemical derivatives of these fullerenes are formed, the helium stays inside.^ When chemical derivatives of these fullerenes are formed, the helium stays inside.
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^ Helium has been put inside the hollow carbon cage molecules (the fullerenes) by heating under high pressure of the gas.
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[61] If helium-3 is used, it can be readily observed by helium nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.[62] .Many fullerenes containing helium-3 have been reported.^ Many fullerenes containing helium-3 have been reported.
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^ The zircons also would be expected to contain helium ( 4 He), which comes from the alpha particles (nuclei of helium atoms) emitted by many of the nuclear decays (Figure 2).

.Although the helium atoms are not attached by covalent or ionic bonds, these substances have distinct properties and a definite composition, like all stoichiometric chemical compounds.^ These substances fit the definition of compounds in the Handbook of Chemistry and Physics.
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^ GRLCowan on January 18, 2008 - 7:50pm It is the only thing that is completely unreactive to neutrons and completely unreactive to all chemical substances.
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^ Helium is chemically unreactive under all normal conditions due to its valence of zero.
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Occurrence and production

Natural abundance

Helium is the second most abundant element in the known Universe (after hydrogen), constituting 23% of the baryonic mass of the Universe.[4] .The vast majority of helium was formed by Big Bang nucleosynthesis one to three minutes after the Big Bang.^ "Yes, there are occasional veins of material other than the coarse-grained granodiorite that forms the vast majority [ sic ] of the core.
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^ Baumgardner's statement that a "coarse-grained granodiorite" forms "the vast majority of the core" blatantly contradicts statements in Laughlin (1981 , p.
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.As such, measurements of its abundance contribute to cosmological models.^ As such, measurements of its abundance contribute to cosmological models.
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^ Such a large difference made it likely that experiments would be able to distinguish between the two models, so we began seeking ways to conduct or commission such measurements.

In stars, it is formed by the nuclear fusion of hydrogen in proton-proton chain reactions and the CNO cycle, part of stellar nucleosynthesis.[50]
.In the Earth's atmosphere, the concentration of helium by volume is only 5.2 parts per million.^ Thorium (parts per million) in zircons .
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Uranium (parts per million) in zircons .
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

^ "For several years before the magnitude of the polar wind was determined Vardiman (1990 ) reported that the lack of helium in the atmosphere argued for a young earth.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

[63][64] .The concentration is low and fairly constant despite the continuous production of new helium because most helium in the Earth's atmosphere escapes into space by several processes.^ Nevertheless, the final nail in the coffin of the YEC atmospheric helium argument occurred when NASA satellite images showed helium and other gases being swept from the Earth's atmosphere into deep space.
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^ He showed that YECs often omitted critical details on various atmospheric helium escape mechanisms, such photoionization.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

^ "For several years before the magnitude of the polar wind was determined Vardiman (1990 ) reported that the lack of helium in the atmosphere argued for a young earth.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

[65][66] In the Earth's heterosphere, a part of the upper atmosphere, helium and other lighter gases are the most abundant elements.
.Nearly all helium on Earth is a result of radioactive decay, and thus an Earthly helium balloon is essentially a bag of retired alpha particles.^ RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't Support Young-Earth Creationism .
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

.Helium is found in large amounts in minerals of uranium and thorium, including cleveite, pitchblende, carnotite and monazite, because they emit alpha particles (helium nuclei, He2+) to which electrons immediately combine as soon as the particle is stopped by the rock.^ Furthermore, because the core has been contaminated with uranium, we should expect the decay of this uranium to produce significant extraneous 4 He that could contaminate zircons and other minerals.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Therefore, instead of observing the substantial remnants of radiogenic helium in zircons from 1.5 billion years' worth of uranium and thorium decay, Humphreys et al.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

^ For example, quartz and other impermeable and low-uranium minerals should be analyzed for extraneous helium.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

.In this way an estimated 3000 metric tons of helium are generated per year throughout the lithosphere.^ Throughout his Fenton Hill documents, Dr. Humphreys talks about the "uniformitarian model" requiring helium retention in zircons for 1.5 billion years.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

[67][68][69] .In the Earth's crust, the concentration of helium is 8 parts per billion.^ In the Earth's crust, the concentration of helium is 8 parts per billion.
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.3rd1000.com [Source type: Reference]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Reference]

^ In seawater, the concentration is only 4 parts per trillion.
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.3rd1000.com [Source type: Reference]
  • WikiSlice 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Next, Henke would have to show that the concentration (atoms or nanomoles per cc) of helium in the magmatic fluids could have been high enough to do the job.
  • Helium Evidence for A Young World Remains Crystal-Clear 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.trueorigin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In seawater, the concentration is only 4 parts per trillion.^ In seawater, the concentration is only 4 parts per trillion.
  • Helium: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ In the Earth's crust, the concentration of helium is 8 parts per billion.
  • Helium: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ In the Earth's atmosphere , the concentration of helium by volume is only 5.2 parts per million.
  • Helium: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

There are also small amounts in mineral springs, volcanic gas, and meteoric iron. .Because helium is trapped in a similar way by non-permeable layer of rock like natural gas the greatest concentrations on the planet are found in natural gas, from which most commercial helium is derived.^ "Because b is more than 32 times larger than a , the disk-like (not spherical) volume of biotite the helium enters is more than 1000 (~32 squared [ sic ]) times the volume of the zircon.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Because helium atoms are much smaller than argon atoms, helium would tend to more readily move in and out of most minerals than argon.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The helium could have entered and become trapped in small fractures, permeable metamict areas and other voids in the zircons.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

The concentration varies in a broad range from a few ppm up to over 7% in a small gas field in San Juan County, New Mexico.[70][71]

Modern extraction

For large-scale use, helium is extracted by fractional distillation from natural gas, which contains up to 7% helium.[72] .Since helium has a lower boiling point than any other element, low temperature and high pressure are used to liquefy nearly all the other gases (mostly nitrogen and methane).^ Rather than invoke strawperson fallacies based on unrealistic temperatures, Dr. Humphreys needs to look at how he unrealistically applies vacuum helium diffusion data to high-pressure subsurface conditions.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

^ If he and his colleagues perform these high-pressure experiments, they could find that the helium diffusion results more closely comply with the "uniformitarian model" than their vacuous "creation model."
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

^ CRSQ 2004, the helium concentration in the biotite is two hundred times lower than the concentration in the zircon.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

.The resulting crude helium gas is purified by successive exposures to lowering temperatures, in which almost all of the remaining nitrogen and other gases are precipitated out of the gaseous mixture.^ The resulting crude helium gas is purified by successive exposures to lowering temperatures, in which almost all of the remaining nitrogen and other gases are precipitated out of the gaseous mixture.
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.3rd1000.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Helium: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Since helium has a lower boiling point than any other element, low temperature and high pressure are used to liquefy nearly all the other gases (mostly nitrogen and methane).
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.3rd1000.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Helium: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Gas rich in helium usually also has considerable nitrogen, but much nitrogen does not imply helium.
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

Activated charcoal is used as a final purification step, usually resulting in 99.995% pure Grade-A helium.[5] The principal impurity in Grade-A helium is neon. In a final production step, most of the helium that is produced is liquefied via a cryogenic process. .This is necessary for applications requiring liquid helium and also allows helium suppliers to reduce the cost of long distance transportation, as the largest liquid helium containers have more than five times the capacity of the largest gaseous helium tube trailers.^ K meaning liquid helium cooling is not required.
  • The Oil Drum: Europe | Goodbye Helium, Goodbye Brainscans 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC europe.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Liquid helium is about 500 times more expensive than liquid air.
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ This is necessary for applications requiring liquid helium and also allows helium suppliers to reduce the cost of long distance transportation, as the largest liquid helium containers have more than five times the capacity of the largest gaseous helium tube trailers.
  • Helium: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

[33][73]
In 2008, approximately 169 million standard cubic meters (SCM) of helium were extracted from natural gas or withdrawn from helium reserves with approximately 78% from the United States, 10% from Algeria, and most of the remainder from Russia, Poland and Qatar.[74] In the United States, most helium is extracted from natural gas of the Hugoton and nearby gas fields in Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas.[33] .Diffusion of crude natural gas through special semipermeable membranes and other barriers is another method to recover and purify helium.^ "Measurements of noble gas diffusion in a given type of naturally occurring mineral often show significant differences from site to site, caused by variations in composition.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

^ "Measurements of noble gas diffusion in a given type of naturally occurring mineral often show significant differences from site to site, caused by variations in composition."
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

[75] .In 2000, The U.S. has proven helium reserves, in such gas well complexes, of about 147 billion standard cubic feet (4.2 billion SCM).^ Throughout his Fenton Hill documents, Dr. Humphreys talks about the "uniformitarian model" requiring helium retention in zircons for 1.5 billion years.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Entering data from another lead diffusion in zircon study ( Cherniak and Watson, 2000 ) into the Nicolaysen equation also predicts about 1% lead loss in the zircons over 1.5 billion years.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

.This is enough helium for about 25 years of world use, or 35 years of U.S. use, although factors in saving and processing are expected to impact effective reserve numbers.^ Throughout his Fenton Hill documents, Dr. Humphreys talks about the "uniformitarian model" requiring helium retention in zircons for 1.5 billion years.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

^ YECs also tended to forget about the impacts of 20th century helium pollution on any attempts to evaluate atmospheric escape mechanisms.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

.It is estimated that the resourse base for yet-unproven helium in natural gas in the US is 31-53 trillion SCM, or roughly an order of magnitude more than the proven reserves.^ YEC magic is that their results may be nothing more than artifacts of extraneous helium contamination that occurred many thousands or tens of thousands of years ago.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Specifically, Mussett (1969 ) showed that improper estimates of a can cause the argon diffusion coefficients ( D values) to vary by over seven orders of magnitude at a given temperature.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Fenton Hill zircons can vary by more than an order of magnitude even if the zircons are taken from the same section of the cores (my Appendix B ).
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

[76]
.Helium must be extracted from natural gas because it is present in air at only a fraction of that of neon, yet the demand for it is far higher.^ For example, diffusion coefficients are commonly measured at temperatures far higher than are relevant in nature, so large and potentially inaccurate extrapolations are often necessary.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The semiquantitative (at best) nature of the helium ( Q ) results for samples 5 and 6 must be remembered when evaluating Humphreys et al.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

.It is estimated that if all neon production production were retooled to save helium, that 0.1% of the world's helium demands would be satisfied.^ C ~ 0.001 C 0 because in the real world the plane would probably intersect several other zircons that are additional sources of helium?
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

.Similarly, only 1% of the world's helium demands could be satisfied by re-tooling all air distillation plants.^ Suppose that helium could not escape the biotite at all.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Open systems not only mean that helium may periodically flow out of zircons, but if the helium pressures surrounding the minerals were once higher, extraneous helium could have periodically flowed into them.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

[77] Helium can be synthesized by bombardment of lithium or boron with high-velocity protons, but this an economically completely non-viable method of production.[78]

Supply depletion

.Current reserves of helium are being utilized much faster than they are being replenished.^ Because helium atoms are much smaller than argon atoms, helium would tend to more readily move in and out of most minerals than argon.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Rather than being quantitative or even semiquantitative helium measurements ( Q ) as Humphreys et al.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

.Given this situation, there are major concerns that the supply of helium may be depleted soon; the world's largest reserves, in Amarillo, Texas, are expected to run out within the next eight years.^ YEC magic is that their results may be nothing more than artifacts of extraneous helium contamination that occurred many thousands or tens of thousands of years ago.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Depending on whether extraneous helium is present in the zircons, the "dates" of the "uniformitarian model" may range from less than 10,000 years to 1.6 billion years.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Humphreys simply fails to realize that the zircons may have been contaminated with extraneous helium many thousands of years ago.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

This might be preventable if current users capture and recycle the gas and if oil and gas companies make use of capture techniques when extracting gas.[79][80]

Applications

.
Estimated U.S. fractional helium use by category, by the U.S. Geological Survey, in 1996. Most of the cryogenic use is for superconducting MRI magnets.
^ The graph shows that anyone could estimate the magnetic moments of Uranus and Neptune by simply knowing their masses and using the trend line in Figure 8.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The graph shows that anyone could accurately estimate the magnetic moments of Uranus and Neptune by simply knowing their masses and using the trend line.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

71.9 million standard cubic meters is 13.8 million kg.
.Of the 2008 world helium total production of about 32 million kg helium per year, the largest use (about 22% of the total in 2008) is in cryogenic applications, most of which involves cooling the superconducting magnets in medical MRI scanners.^ Throughout his Fenton Hill documents, Dr. Humphreys talks about the "uniformitarian model" requiring helium retention in zircons for 1.5 billion years.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

^ C about 1030 million years ago and below about 130°C around 870 million years ago.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

[81] Other major uses (totalling to about 78% of use in 1996) were pressurizing and purging systems, maintainence of controlled atmospheres, and welding. .Other uses by category were relatively minor fractions.^ Considering the absurd range of "dates" using Dr. Humphreys' methods, YECs have no basis for criticizing the relatively minor problems with radiometric dating.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

[82]
.Helium is used for many purposes that require some of its unique properties, such as its low boiling point, low density, low solubility, high thermal conductivity, or inertness.^ So at least from my vantage point, the samples of core we used for the helium diffusion measurements were indeed coarse-grained granodiorite, not gneiss."
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

.Helium is commercially available in either liquid or gaseous form.^ Helium is commercially available in either liquid or gaseous form.
  • Helium: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ "It is also easier to design cryogen-free HTS magnets, an important consideration in underdeveloped countries where the liquid helium mandated for cooling LTS magnets is not available" .
  • The Oil Drum: Europe | Goodbye Helium, Goodbye Brainscans 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC europe.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ EntropyBrain on January 21, 2008 - 10:19am NASA does use lots of helium, and not just in the liquid form, although Nitrogen is more ubiquitous.
  • The Oil Drum: Europe | Goodbye Helium, Goodbye Brainscans 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC europe.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

As a liquid, it can be supplied in small containers called Dewars which hold up to 1,000 liters of helium, or in large ISO containers which have nominal capacities as large as 42 m3 (11,000 US gallons). In gaseous form, small quantities of helium are supplied in high pressure cylinders holding up to 8 m3 (300 standard cubic feet), while large quantities of high pressure gas are supplied in tube trailers which have capacities of up to 4,860 m3 (180,000 standard cubic feet).
Cigar-shaped blimp with "Good Year" written on its side.
Because of its low density and incombustibility, helium is the gas of choice to fill airships such as the Goodyear blimp.
Airships, balloons and rocketry
Because it is lighter than air, airships and balloons are inflated with helium for lift. .While hydrogen gas is approximately 7% more buoyant, helium has the advantage of being non-flammable (in addition to being fire retardant).^ Since Helium is a by-product of natural gas production, and the discoveries of natural gas fields peaked in the ‘70s of the 20th century and have been on a declining trend ever since, it is unlikely that much more Helium reserves will be discovered.
  • The Oil Drum: Europe | Goodbye Helium, Goodbye Brainscans 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC europe.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of course, the reason it is used is the elimination of the hazards of hydrogen combustion, perhaps more in the gas sources than in the actual balloon.
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In gas metal arc welding (GMAW), helium or argon is blown on the weld, protecting it without producing a slag and excluding oxygen or hydrogen.
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

[28] In rocketry, helium is used as an ullage medium to displace fuel and oxidizers in storage tanks and to condense hydrogen and oxygen to make rocket fuel. It is also used to purge fuel and oxidizer from ground support equipment prior to launch and to pre-cool liquid hydrogen in space vehicles. For example, the Saturn V booster used in the Apollo program needed about 370,000 m3 (13 million cubic feet) of helium to launch.[41]
Commercial and recreational
.Helium alone is less dense than atmospheric air, so it will change the timbre (not pitch[83]) of a person's voice when inhaled.^ Depending on whether extraneous helium is present in the zircons, the "dates" of the "uniformitarian model" may range from less than 10,000 years to 1.6 billion years.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Rather than properly explaining the mysterious changes in the helium concentrations ( Q ) taken from Gentry et al.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

However, inhaling it from a typical commercial source, such as that used to fill balloons, can be dangerous due to the risk of asphyxiation from lack of oxygen, and the number of contaminants that may be present. .These could include trace amounts of other gases, in addition to aerosolized lubricating oil.^ These could include trace amounts of other gases, in addition to aerosolized lubricating oil.
  • Helium: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ These could include trace amount of other gases, in addition to aerosolized lubricating oil.

^ Argon was present to about 1% by volume, a considerable amount, but the other gases were by far scarcer.
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

For its low solubility in nervous tissue, helium mixtures such as trimix, heliox and heliair are used for deep diving to reduce the effects of narcosis.[84][85] At depths below 150 metres (490 ft) small amounts of hydrogen are added to a helium-oxygen mixture to counter the effects of high pressure nervous syndrome.[86] .At these depths the low density of helium is found to considerably reduce the effort of breathing.^ Because of its extremely low index of refraction, the use of helium reduces the distorting effects of temperature variations in the space between lenses in some telescopes.

^ Helium is used for many purposes that require some of its unique properties, such as its low boiling point , low density , low solubility , high thermal conductivity , or inertness .
  • Helium: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Secondly, even if these studies were to locate evidence of extraneous helium like what was found a few kilometers away in the Valles Caldera ( Goff and Gardner, 1994 , p.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

[87]
Helium-neon lasers have various applications, including barcode readers.[4]
Industrial leak detection
One industrial application for helium is leak detection. .Because it diffuses through solids at three times the rate of air, helium is used as a tracer gas to detect leaks in high-vacuum equipment and high-pressure containers.^ Some of this natural gas also contains helium.
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ It's used for checking leaks in high-precision pressure gauges and calibrators.
  • The Oil Drum: Europe | Goodbye Helium, Goodbye Brainscans 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC europe.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is because the speed of sound in helium is nearly three times the speed of sound in air.
  • Helium: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

[88]
Photo of a large, metal-framed device (about 3×1×1.5 m) standing in a room.
A dual chamber Helium Leak Detection Machine from KONTIKAB.
.If one needs to know the total leak rate of the tested product (for example in a heat pumps or an air conditioning system), the object is placed in a test chamber, the air in the chamber is removed with vacuum pumps and the product is filled with helium under specific pressure.^ Rather than invoke strawperson fallacies based on unrealistic temperatures, Dr. Humphreys needs to look at how he unrealistically applies vacuum helium diffusion data to high-pressure subsurface conditions.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The extended intrinsic curve passes very close to sample 1 of the "uniformitarian" model, which may be relevant under relatively high-pressure subsurface conditions.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The question then arises, what would happen to the defects in any zircons and their defect curves if these minerals were under 200 to 1,200 bars of pressure in the subsurface rather than in a laboratory vacuum?
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

.The helium that escapes through the leaks is detected by a sensitive device (mass spectrometer), even at the leak rates as small as 10−9 mbar·L/s (10−20 Pa·m3/s).^ That argument is no longer valid based on the measured and computed escape rate of helium to space in the polar wind."
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

The measurement procedure is normally automatic and is called Helium Integral Test. In a simpler test, the product is filled with helium and an operator is manually searching for the leak with a hand-held device called sniffer.[89]
.For its inertness and high thermal conductivity, neutron transparency, and because it does not form radioactive isotopes under reactor conditions, helium is used as a heat-transfer medium in some gas-cooled nuclear reactors.^ Under high-pressure subsurface conditions, defect lines should be less pronounced and the samples should have lower diffusion coefficients (located lower on the graph).
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The extended intrinsic curve passes very close to sample 1 of the "uniformitarian" model, which may be relevant under relatively high-pressure subsurface conditions.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Gneisses are former igneous or sedimentary rocks that have been metamorphosed under relatively high temperature and pressure conditions (highly altered), but without melting ( Hyndman, 1985 , p.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

[88] Helium is used as a shielding gas in arc welding processes on materials that are contaminated easily by air.[4]
Helium is used as a protective gas in growing silicon and germanium crystals, in titanium and zirconium production, and in gas chromatography,[41] because it is inert. .Because of its inertness, thermally and calorically perfect nature, high speed of sound, and high value of the heat capacity ratio, it is also useful in supersonic wind tunnels[90] and impulse facilities[91].^ Because of this error, I mistakenly concluded in my original essay that the Q/Q 0 values for the 750-meter sample were unrealistically high.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

Helium, mixed with a heavier gas such as xenon, is useful for thermoacoustic refrigeration due to the resulting high heat capacity ratio and low Prandtl number.[92] .The inertness of helium has environmental advantages over conventional refrigeration systems which contribute to ozone depletion or global warming.^ The inertness of helium adds to the environmental advantage of this technology over conventional refrigeration systems which may contribute to ozone depleting and global warming effects.
  • Helium: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

[93]
A large solid cylinder with a hole in its center and a rail attached to its side.
Liquid helium is used to cool the superconducting magnets in modern MRI scanners.
Scientific
The use of helium reduces the distorting effects of temperature variations in the space between lenses in some telescopes, due to its extremely low index of refraction.[5] .This method is especially used in solar telescopes where a vacuum tight telescope tube would be too heavy.^ These amounts would be sufficient for discharge tubes, which use only very small amounts, and for scientific purposes, but not for any wide-scale use.
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

[94][95]
.The age of rocks and minerals that contain uranium and thorium can be estimated by measuring the level of helium with a process known as helium dating.^ "Jemez granodiorite" of the Fenton Hill rock core, New Mexico, USA, contain too much "radiogenic" helium to be billions of years old.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Therefore, instead of observing the substantial remnants of radiogenic helium in zircons from 1.5 billion years' worth of uranium and thorium decay, Humphreys et al.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Zartman (1979 ) indicate that the Fenton Hill zircons typically contain a lot more uranium and thorium than what Humphreys et al.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

[4][5]
.Liquid helium is used to cool certain metals to the extremely low temperatures required for superconductivity, such as in superconducting magnets for magnetic resonance imaging.^ Humphreys (2005 ) also mistakenly believes that any helium contamination of zircons would require high temperature "magmatic fluids" and in particular "basaltic magmatic fluids."
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

The Large Hadron Collider at CERN uses 96 metric tons of liquid helium to maintain the temperature at 1.9 kelvins.[96] Helium at low temperatures is also used in cryogenics.
Helium is a commonly used carrier gas for gas chromatography. .The leak rate of industrial vessels (typically vacuum chambers and cryogenic tanks) is measured using helium because of its small molecular diameter and because it is inert.^ An Arrhenius plot of the vacuum helium diffusion measurements from Humphreys et al.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

^ So at least from my vantage point, the samples of core we used for the helium diffusion measurements were indeed coarse-grained granodiorite, not gneiss."
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Q 0 ) value for their 1-6 samples and used it to calculate helium measured/helium theoretical ( Q/Q 0 ) values for the six samples.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

.No other inert substance will leak through micro-cracks or micro-pores in a vessel's wall at a greater rate than helium.^ That means, according to the laws of diffusion, that the helium is presently leaking out of the zircons into the biotite, not the other way around.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

^ That argument is no longer valid based on the measured and computed escape rate of helium to space in the polar wind."
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Of course, zircons have tetragonal (anisotropic) rather than isotropic crystalline structures, which would cause some anisotropy in the flow of helium through the minerals.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

A helium leak detector (see Helium mass spectrometer) is used to find leaks in vessels. Helium leaks through cracks should not be confused with gas permeation through a bulk material. While helium has documented permeation constants (thus a calculable permeation rate) through glasses, ceramics, and syntheic materials, inert gasses such as helium will not permeate most bulk metals.[97]

Safety

.Neutral helium at standard conditions is non-toxic, plays no biological role and is found in trace amounts in human blood.^ Neutral helium at standard conditions is non-toxic, plays no biological role and is found in trace amounts in human blood.
  • Helium: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Extreme conditions are also needed to create the small handful of helium compounds , which are all unstable at standard temperature and pressure .
  • Helium: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ The standard model of particle physics predicts one electrically neutral Higgs particle which has not yet been found, but which will be sought in upcoming particle accelerator experiments.

If enough helium is inhaled that oxygen needed for normal respiration is replaced asphyxia is possible. .The safety issues for cryogenic helium are similar to those of liquid nitrogen; its extremely low temperatures can result in cold burns and the liquid to gas expansion ratio can cause explosions if no pressure-relief devices are installed.^ On Earth, no geologist would consider such low pressures to be in the realm of possibility.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

.Containers of helium gas at 5 to 10 K should be handled as if they contain liquid helium due to the rapid and significant thermal expansion that occurs when helium gas at less than 10 K is warmed to room temperature.^ YEC magic is that their results may be nothing more than artifacts of extraneous helium contamination that occurred many thousands or tens of thousands of years ago.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Fluid samples collected from the wells in the 1980s contained significant extraneous helium.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Depending on whether extraneous helium is present in the zircons, the "dates" of the "uniformitarian model" may range from less than 10,000 years to 1.6 billion years.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

[41]

Biological effects

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The speed of sound in helium is nearly three times the speed of sound in air. Because the fundamental frequency of a gas-filled cavity is proportional to the speed of sound in the gas, when helium is inhaled there is a corresponding increase in the pitches of the resonant frequencies of the vocal tract.[4][98] This causes a reedy, duck-like vocal quality which some people find amusing. (The opposite effect, lowering frequencies, can be obtained by inhaling a dense gas such as sulfur hexafluoride.)
Inhaling helium can be dangerous if done to excess, since helium is a simple asphyxiant and so displaces oxygen needed for normal respiration.[4][99] Breathing pure helium continuously causes death by asphyxiation within minutes. Inhaling helium directly from pressurized cylinders is extremely dangerous, as the high flow rate can result in barotrauma, fatally rupturing lung tissue.[99][100] .However, death caused by helium is quite rare, with only two fatalities reported between 2000 and 2004 in the United States.^ The resulting "Helium Privatization Act of 1996" (Public Law 104–273) directed the United States Department of the Interior to start liquidating the reserve by 2005.
  • The Oil Drum: Europe | Goodbye Helium, Goodbye Brainscans 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC europe.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I was with Helium until a week or two ago....only wrote about 13 articles there.
  • Helium.com - Writing for Fun or Writing to Make Money? 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: General]

^ This put the United States in an excellent position to become the world's leading supplier of helium.
  • Helium: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

[100]
At high pressures (more than about 20 atm or two MPa), a mixture of helium and oxygen (heliox) can lead to high pressure nervous syndrome, a sort of reverse-anesthetic effect; adding a small amount of nitrogen to the mixture can alleviate the problem.[101][102]

See also

Notes

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  87. ^ Butcher, Scott J.; Jones, Richard L.; Mayne, Jonathan R.; Hartley, Timothy C.; Petersen, Stewart R. (2007). "Impaired exercise ventilatory mechanics with the self-contained breathing apparatus are improved with heliox". European Journal of Applied Physiology (Netherlands: Springer) 101 (6): 659. doi:10.1007/s00421-007-0541-5. PMID 17701048. 
  88. ^ a b Considine, Glenn D., ed (2005). "Helium". Van Nostrand's Encyclopedia of Chemistry. Wiley-Interscience. pp. 764–765. ISBN 0-471-61525-0. 
  89. ^ Hablanian, M. H. (1997). High-vacuum technology: a practical guide. CRC Press. p. 493. ISBN 0824798341. http://books.google.com/books?id=5L8uIAFm4SoC&pg=PA493. 
  90. ^ Beckwith, I.E.; Miller, C. G. (1990). "Aerothermodynamics and Transition in High-Speed Wind Tunnels at Nasa Langley". Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics 22: 419–439. doi:10.1146/annurev.fl.22.010190.002223. 
  91. ^ Morris, C.I. (2001) (PDF). Shock Induced Combustion in High Speed Wedge Flows. Stanford University Thesis. http://thermosciences.stanford.edu/pdf/TSD-143.pdf. 
  92. ^ Belcher, James R. et al (1999). "Working gases in thermoacoustic engines". The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 105 (5): 2677–2684. doi:10.1121/1.426884. PMID 10335618. 
  93. ^ Makhijani, Arjun; Gurney, Kevin (1995). Mending the Ozone Hole: Science, Technology, and Policy. MIT Press. ISBN 0262133083. 
  94. ^ Jakobsson, H. (1997). "Simulations of the dynamics of the Large Earth-based Solar Telescope". Astronomical & Astrophysical Transactions 13 (1): 35–46. doi:10.1080/10556799708208113. 
  95. ^ Engvold, O.; Dunn, R.B.; Smartt, R. N.; Livingston, W. C. (1983). "Tests of vacuum VS helium in a solar telescope". Applied Optics 22: 10–12. doi:10.1364/AO.22.000010. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1983ApOpt..22...10E&db_key=AST. Retrieved 2008-07-27. 
  96. ^ LHC Guide booklet "CERN - LHC: Facts and Figures". CERN. http://visits.web.cern.ch/visits/guides/tools/presentation/LHC_booklet-2.pdf LHC Guide booklet. Retrieved 2008-04-30. 
  97. ^ Jack W. Ekin (2006). Experimental Techniques for Low-Temperature measurements. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0198570546. http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=Q9tmZQTDPiYC. 
  98. ^ Ackerman MJ, Maitland G (1975). "Calculation of the relative speed of sound in a gas mixture". Undersea Biomed Res 2 (4): 305–10. PMID 1226588. http://archive.rubicon-foundation.org/2738. Retrieved 2008-08-09. 
  99. ^ a b (German) Grassberger, Martin; Krauskopf, Astrid (2007). "Suicidal asphyxiation with helium: Report of three cases Suizid mit Helium Gas: Bericht über drei Fälle" (in German & English). Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift 119 (9–10): 323–325. doi:10.1007/s00508-007-0785-4. PMID 17571238. 
  100. ^ a b Engber, Daniel (2006-06-13). "Stay Out of That Balloon!". Slate.com. http://www.slate.com/id/2143631/. Retrieved 2008-07-14. 
  101. ^ Rostain JC, Lemaire C, Gardette-Chauffour MC, Doucet J, Naquet R (1983). "Estimation of human susceptibility to the high-pressure nervous syndrome". J Appl Physiol 54 (4): 1063–70. PMID 6853282. http://jap.physiology.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=6853282. Retrieved 2008-08-09. 
  102. ^ Hunger Jr, W. L.; Bennett., P. B. (1974). "The causes, mechanisms and prevention of the high pressure nervous syndrome". Undersea Biomed. Res. 1 (1): 1–28. OCLC 2068005. PMID 4619860. http://archive.rubicon-foundation.org/2661. Retrieved 2008-08-09. 

References

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From Wikiversity

.Helium (He) is the second element of the periodic table.^ Helium is the second most abundant element in the universe, the primary process on the Sun being nuclear fusion of hydrogen to give helium.

It exists almost solely as a gas, and is very unreactive. .It belongs to a group of elements on the periodic table known as noble gases.^ [C95] (c) A colorless monatomic gas; the first member of the rare gases (group 18 of the periodic table).

Physical Constants

Molecular Weight = 4.0026 g·mol-1
Melting Point = -272°C
Boiling Point = -268.94°C
Density = 0.138 g·mL-1[1]

See also


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

HELIUM (from Gr. ijXcos, the sun), a gaseous chemical element, the modern discovery of which followed closely on that of argon. .The investigations of Lord Rayleigh and Sir William Ramsay had shown that indifference to chemical reagents did not sufficiently characterize an unknown gas as nitrogen, and it became necessary to reinvestigate other cases of the occurrence of "nitrogen" in nature.^ The Encyclopedia of the Chemical Elements , page 257 ^ William Ramsay (1895).
  • Helium: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Ramsay was looking for argon but, after separating nitrogen and oxygen from the gas liberated by sulfuric acid , noticed a bright-yellow line that matched the D 3 line observed in the spectrum of the Sun.
  • Helium: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ In this case only produced when the lifetime of the natural gas field and the gas resources warrant the construction of infrastructure to produce Helium for 20 years or longer.
  • The Oil Drum: Europe | Goodbye Helium, Goodbye Brainscans 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC europe.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.H. Miers drew Ramsay's attention to the work of W. F. Hillebrand, who had noticed, in examining the mineral uraninite, that an inert gas was evolved when the mineral was decomposed with acid.^ Helium was also isolated by the American geochemist William Francis Hillebrand prior to Ramsay's discovery when he noticed unusual spectral lines while testing a sample of the mineral uraninite.
  • Helium: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Ramsay heard of inert gases given off by uranium minerals in the studies of W. F. Hillebrand of the USGS published in 1891.
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The gas given off when uraninite was dissolved in acid was studied spectroscopically by Hillebrand and found to be apparently only nitrogen.
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Ramsay, repeating these experiments, found that the inert gas emitted refused xIIl.^ The difference between these diatomic molecules and the inert gases is simply that the diatomic molecules can be torn apart with sufficient violence, while the inert gas atoms cannot be.
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

.8 a to oxidize when sparked with oxygen, and on examining it spectroscopically he saw that the spectrum was not that of argon, but was characterized by a bright yellow line near to, but not identical with, the D line of sodium.^ The helium spectrum in a discharge tube shows strong lines at 447.1 nm (blue), 501.6 nm (green), 587.56 nm (yellow) and 667.8 nm (red).
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Pierre Janssen studied the chromosphere of the sun, which was until then only visible during total eclipses, with a spectroscope and found its spectrum to consist of bright lines, as are emitted by excited gases.
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Ramsay was looking for argon but, after separating nitrogen and oxygen from the gas liberated by sulfuric acid , noticed a bright-yellow line that matched the D 3 line observed in the spectrum of the Sun.
  • Helium: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

.This was afterwards identified with the D3 line of the solar chromosphere, observed in 1868 by Sir J. Norman Lockyer, and ascribed by him to a hypothetical element helium. This name was adopted for the new gas.^ Evidence of helium was first detected on August 18, 1868 as a bright yellow line with a wavelength of 587.49 nanometres in the spectrum of the chromosphere of the Sun , by French astronomer Pierre Janssen during a total solar eclipse in Guntur, India.
  • Helium: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ On October 20 of the same year, English astronomer Norman Lockyer observed a yellow line in the solar spectrum, which he named the D 3 line , for it was near the known D 1 and D 2 lines of sodium, [13] and concluded that it was caused by an element in the Sun unknown on Earth.
  • Helium: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ In 1868 the French astronomer Pierre Janssen first detected helium as an unknown yellow spectral line signature in light from a solar eclipse.
  • Helium: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

.Helium is relatively abundant in many minerals, all of which are radioactive, and contain uranium or thorium as important constituents.^ Many fullerenes containing helium-3 have been reported.
  • Helium: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ The decay product is primarily found in minerals of uranium and thorium , including cleveites , pitchblende , carnotite , monazite and beryl , because they emit alpha particles , which consist of helium nuclei (He 2+ ) to which electrons readily combine.
  • Helium: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ These crystals, called zircons , were radioactive, containing high amounts of uranium and thorium relative to the rest of the rock, as is usual for that mineral.

(For the significance of this fact see Radioactivity.) The richest known source is thorianite, which consists mainly of thorium oxide, and contains 9.5 cc. of helium per gram. Monazite, a phosphate of thorium and other rare earths, contains on the average about i cc. per gram. .Cleveite, samarskite and fergusonite contain a little more than monazite.^ I'm much more interested in freelancing for a fair rate of pay than creating web content for little or nothing and hassling with ad content for a few cents.
  • Helium.com - Writing for Fun or Writing to Make Money? 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: General]

^ Zartman (1979 ) indicate that the Fenton Hill zircons typically contain a lot more uranium and thorium than what Humphreys et al.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Documents: The Fenton Hill Zircons Probably Contain more Uranium and Thorium than Dr. Humphreys or R. Gentry Realize .
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

The gas also occurs in minute quantities in the common minerals of the earth's crust. In this case too it is associated with radioactive matter, which is almost ubiquitous. .In two cases, however, it has been found in the absence of appreciable quantities of uranium and thorium compounds, namely in beryl, and in sylvine (potassium chloride).^ The decay product is primarily found in minerals of uranium and thorium , including cleveites , pitchblende , carnotite , monazite and beryl , because they emit alpha particles , which consist of helium nuclei (He 2+ ) to which electrons readily combine.
  • Helium: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

.Helium is contained almost universally in the gases which bubble up with the water of thermal springs.^ For large-scale use, helium is extracted by fractional distillation from natural gas, which contains up to 7% helium.
  • Helium: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ In the modern universe almost all new helium is created as a result of the nuclear fusion of hydrogen in stars.
  • Helium: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ The resulting crude helium gas is purified by successive exposures to lowering temperatures, in which almost all of the remaining nitrogen and other gases are precipitated out of the gaseous mixture.
  • Helium: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

The proportion varies greatly. .In the hot springs of Bath it amounts to about one-thousandth part of the gas evolved.^ There are also small amounts in mineral springs , volcanic gas, and meteoric iron.
  • Helium: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ About 1 part per million of atmospheric helium is the stable lighter isotope He 3 , with only one neutron.
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

Much larger percentages have been recorded in some French springs (Comps. rend., 1906, 1 43, p. 795, and 146, p. .435), and considerable quantities occur in some natural gas (Journ.^ Some of this natural gas also contains helium.
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Far from being a rare element, helium was present in vast quantities under the American Great Plains, available for extraction from natural gas.
  • Helium: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ If some of the natural gas fields are not developed on a speedy basis then the helium production curve will be much smoother and shortages will appear earlier.
  • The Oil Drum: Europe | Goodbye Helium, Goodbye Brainscans 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC europe.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Amer. Chem. Soc.
29, p. 1524). .R. J. Strutt has suggested that helium in hot springs may be derived from the disintegration of common rocks at great depths.^ Uniformitarian "helium dating" methods would not call attention to the large helium retentions we are concerned with, so it may be that sites like borehole GT-2 are common throughout the world.

^ Extraneous helium may further accumulate in hydrothermal (not magmatic) fluids through the leaching of 4 He from surrounding Precambrian rocks ( Truesdell and Janik, 1986 , p.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The Great Plains of the United States consist of a thin crust of sedimentary rock on a basement of igneous rock that would be a source of radiogenic helium.
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Helium is present in the atmosphere, of which it constitutes four parts in a million.^ In the Earth's heterosphere, a part of the upper atmosphere, helium and other lighter gases are the most abundant elements.
  • Helium: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ In the Earth's atmosphere , the concentration of helium by volume is only 5.2 parts per million.
  • Helium: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ About 1 part per million of atmospheric helium is the stable lighter isotope He 3 , with only one neutron.
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

.It is conspicuous by its absorption spectrum in many of the white stars.^ An object with many of the characteristics of a T Tauri star (e.g., its spectrum shows a weak continuum with strong emission lines), believed to be a star in the very early stages of evolution.

.Certain stars and nebulae show a bright line helium spectrum.^ The helium spectrum in a discharge tube shows strong lines at 447.1 nm (blue), 501.6 nm (green), 587.56 nm (yellow) and 667.8 nm (red).
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Ramsay was looking for argon but, after separating nitrogen and oxygen from the gas liberated by sulfuric acid , noticed a bright-yellow line that matched the D 3 line observed in the spectrum of the Sun.
  • Helium: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ The nitrogen spectrum had obscured the feeble yellow line from the small amount of helium present.
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Much the best practical source of helium is thorianite, a mineral imported from Ceylon for the manufacture of thoria.^ A chunk of Uranium or Thorium (or even Polnium 210) is a source of Helium, its just that you don't get very much.
  • The Oil Drum: Europe | Goodbye Helium, Goodbye Brainscans 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC europe.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because helium atoms are much smaller than argon atoms, helium would tend to more readily move in and out of most minerals than argon.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

^ However, silicate minerals can lose much of their helium through crushing ( Trull and Kurz, 1993 , p.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

It dissolves readily in strong nitric acid, and the helium contained is thus liberated. .The gas contains a certain amount of hydrogen and oxides of carbon, also traces of nitrogen.^ Molecule which contains only hydrogen and carbon.

^ In 1785, Henry Cavendish found that about 1/120 of the volume of air was a gas that was not oxygen, nitrogen or carbon dioxide, and which would not react chemically.
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The bacteria that produced the oil also leave behind carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide, which are often found in the gas.
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In order to get rid of hydrogen, some oxygen is added to the helium, and the mixture exploded by an electric spark.^ In rocketry, helium is used as an ullage medium to displace fuel and oxidizers in storage tanks and to condense hydrogen and oxygen to make rocket fuel .
  • Helium: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ In gas metal arc welding (GMAW), helium or argon is blown on the weld, protecting it without producing a slag and excluding oxygen or hydrogen.
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ When a light is touched to a balloon filled with an explosive mixture of hydrogen and oxygen (and the mixture is explosive over a wide range of concentrations) there is a violent catastrophe.
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

.All remaining impurities, including the excess of oxygen, can then be taken out of the gas by Sir James Dewar's ingenious method of absorption with charcoal cooled in liquid air.^ Typically we would pre-cool the thing with liquid nitrogen to get the thing down to 77K, blow out the liquid nitrogen and fill with liquid helium.
  • The Oil Drum: Europe | Goodbye Helium, Goodbye Brainscans 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC europe.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1785, Henry Cavendish found that about 1/120 of the volume of air was a gas that was not oxygen, nitrogen or carbon dioxide, and which would not react chemically.
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Hydrogen diffused out of an inflated airship, while oxygen from the air diffused in.
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Helium alone refuses to be absorbed, and it can be pumped off from the charcoal in a state of absolute purity.^ Helium on the other hand only liquifies at minus 272 degrees centigrade and stays in that state even down to absolute zero.
  • The Oil Drum: Europe | Goodbye Helium, Goodbye Brainscans 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC europe.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the absence of liquid air the helium must be purified by the methods employed for argon (q.v.^ Liquid helium is about 500 times more expensive than liquid air.
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Introduction The Source of Helium Why the Inert Gases are Inert The Inert Gases as Gases Xenon and Radon Liquid Helium Helium-Three Uses of Helium and Argon References Introduction .
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

). If thorianite cannot be obtained, monazite, which is more abundant, may be utilized. A part of the helium contained in minerals can be extracted by heat or by grinding (J. A. Gray, Proc. Roy. Soc., 1909, 82A, p. 301).
.Properties.--All attempts to make helium enter into stable chemical union have hitherto proved unsuccessful.^ If a helium atom were to have greater chemical attraction for the atoms of zircon than for the atoms of biotite, that would result in a force at the interface hindering its outward motion into the biotite.

^ To enter a zircon, extraneous helium need not actually dissolve into the zircon crystalline structure or migrate across the boundary (interface) between a biotite and zircon crystal.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In fact, helium is the least chemically active of all the noble gases (Holloway, 1968, p.

.The gas is in all probability only mechanically retained in the minerals in which it is found.^ The gas given off when uraninite was dissolved in acid was studied spectroscopically by Hillebrand and found to be apparently only nitrogen.
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Jacquerod and Perrot have found that quartz-glass is freely permeable to helium below a red-heat (Comet.^ Helium has some nice heat transfer properties not found in the other rare gases.
  • The Oil Drum: Europe | Goodbye Helium, Goodbye Brainscans 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC europe.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

rend.,
1904, 1 39, p. 789). .The effect is even perceptible at a temperature as low as 220° C. Hydrogen, and, in a much less degree, oxygen and nitrogen, will also permeate silica, but only at higher temperatures.^ Oxygen and nitrogen also have low critical temperatures, 155K and 126K. .
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ January 16, 2008 - 9:50am For MRI scanning this means the available substitutes can only offer much higher temperatures at which the scanner can operate, implying less conductivity and therefore a less effective scanner.
  • The Oil Drum: Europe | Goodbye Helium, Goodbye Brainscans 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC europe.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For MRI scanning this means the available substitutes can only offer much higher temperatures at which the scanner can operate, implying less conductivity and therefore a less effective scanner.
  • The Oil Drum: Europe | Goodbye Helium, Goodbye Brainscans 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC europe.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They have made this observation the basis of a practical method of separating helium from the other inert gases.^ This is the reason helium is an inert gas, and will not combine with other atoms, just as it will not combine with itself, to form a stable diatomic molecule.
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Even hydrogen freezes at 14K. Because helium remains gaseous when all other gases have liquefied, or even frozen, it has been valuable in rocketry, which uses many cryogenic gases as fuels.
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Breathing helium (or any other inert gas except radon) is quite safe, so long as enough oxygen is supplied to avoid asphyxiation.
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

.M. Travers has suggested that it may explain the liberation of helium from minerals by heat, the gas being enabled to permeate the siliceous materials in which it is enclosed.^ Numerous researchers have shown that the diffusion of helium or argon in silicate minerals may vary by many orders of magnitude at a given temperature depending on whether the studies were conducted in a vacuum or under pressure.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

^ However, silicate minerals can lose much of their helium through crushing ( Trull and Kurz, 1993 , p.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Open systems not only mean that helium may periodically flow out of zircons, but if the helium pressures surrounding the minerals were once higher, extraneous helium could have periodically flowed into them.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

.Thorianite, however, contains no silica, and until it is shown that metallic oxides behave in the same way this explanation must be accepted with reserve.^ Hydrogen, of course, behaves the same way, but diffuses even more rapidly.
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ However, the USGS database and the literature databases Georef and Web of Science contain no references to the existence of the "Beartooth" or "Bear tooth" gneiss.
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The other diatomic atmospheric gases, oxygen and nitrogen, behave the same way.
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The density of helium has been determined by Ramsay and Travers as 1.98. Its ratio of specific heats has very nearly the ideal value 1 666, appropriate to a monatomic molecule.^ This flow and conversion transports heat very effectively, and is responsible for the very large thermal conductivity of helium II. .
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Its just a working fluid however, and while helium is ideal, many other gasses work very well.
  • The Oil Drum: Europe | Goodbye Helium, Goodbye Brainscans 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC europe.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ First of all, two zircons can have identical U/Pb dates and Pb/Pb isotope ratios, but still greatly differ in size (variable a values) and have radically different concentrations of uranium, thorium and helium (very different Q/Q 0 values; my Appendix B ).
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

The accepted atomic weight is accordingly double the density, i.e. approximately four times that of hydrogen. The refractivity of helium is 0.1238 (air =1). .The solubility in water is the lowest known, being, at 18.2°, only 0073 vols.^ It happens that helium is the gas least soluble in water, only 0.97 parts in 100 parts at 0°C. Nitrogen is soluble to the extent of 2.35 parts.
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

per unit volume of water. The viscosity is 96 (air =I).
Red
7066
Red .
.
6678
Yellow .
.
5876
Green .
.
4922
Blue .
4472
Violet. .
. .
4026
.The spectrum of helium as observed in a discharge tube is distinguished by a moderate number of brilliant lines, distributed over the whole visual spectrum.^ The observed helium spectrum is mainly due to excitation of one electron, the other remaining in the 1s state.
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The helium spectrum in a discharge tube shows strong lines at 447.1 nm (blue), 501.6 nm (green), 587.56 nm (yellow) and 667.8 nm (red).
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The nitrogen spectrum had obscured the feeble yellow line from the small amount of helium present.
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The following are the approximate wave-lengths of the most brilliant lines: When the discharge passes through helium at a pressure of several millimetres, the yellow line 5876 is prominent.^ The helium spectrum in a discharge tube shows strong lines at 447.1 nm (blue), 501.6 nm (green), 587.56 nm (yellow) and 667.8 nm (red).
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The search for terrestrial helium was unavailing, and the source of the yellow line remained obscure.
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ One very prominent yellow line at 587.56 nm did not correspond to any known element.
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

.At lower pressures the green line 4922 becomes more conspicuous.^ Under high-pressure subsurface conditions, defect lines should be less pronounced and the samples should have lower diffusion coefficients (located lower on the graph).
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

.At atmospheric pressure the discharge is able to pass through a far greater distance in helium than in the common gases.^ Helium cannot be frozen at atmospheric pressure.
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Hydrogen and helium are, by far, the most common elements in the universe, but only small amounts of them appear on the earth.
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The speed of sound in helium at 300K is 1010 m/s, about three times greater than in air at the same temperature, where the speed is 347 m/s.
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

M. Travers, G. Senter and A. Jacquerod (Phil. Trans. A. 1903, 200, p. .105) carefully examined the behavour of a constant volume gas thermometer filled with helium.^ This means that the molar specific heat at constant volume is C v = 3R/2, the molar specific heat at constant pressure is C p = 5R/2, the ratio of specific heats γ = 5/3, and the gas obeys the ideal gas law pV = RT, where V is the molar volume, and R is the molar gas constant.
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

.For the pressure coefficient per degree, between o° and Ice C., they give the value 0036-6255, when the initial pressure is 700 mm.^ The pressure is a few mm Hg, and the voltage drop around 100 V per metre.
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

This value is indistinguishable from that which they find for hydrogen. .Thus at high temperatures a helium thermometer is of no special advantage.^ The availability of Helium is thus quite important as long as no substitutes for these processes have been developed.
  • The Oil Drum: Europe | Goodbye Helium, Goodbye Brainscans 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC europe.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Humphreys (2005 ) also mistakenly believes that any helium contamination of zircons would require high temperature "magmatic fluids" and in particular "basaltic magmatic fluids."
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

^ STP/μg) in sample 5 "agrees" with the temperature and helium concentration "trends" in samples 1-4, but that an identical helium measurement from sample 6 is "too high" to fit their "model."
  • RATE's Ratty Results: Helium Diffusion Doesn't SupportYoung-Earth Creationism 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

.At low temperatures, on the other hand, they find, using an initial pressure of 'coo mm., that the temperatures on the helium scale are measurably higher than on the hydrogen scale, owing to the more perfectly gaseous condition of helium.^ Helium can be frozen at higher pressures, however.
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Every star born with more than 0.08 solar masses burns hydrogen.

^ I'm not as bothered by the *current* standards, even if they are an adjustment toward the more exclusive/"stricter" conditions.
  • Helium.com - Writing for Fun or Writing to Make Money? 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: General]

.This difference amounts to about at the temperature of liquid oxygen, and about -k° at that of liquid hydrogen.^ The temperature is about 125 K (the spin temperature of neutral hydrogen - far too low for electrons to emit radiation in the optical part of the spectrum (see 21-cm radiation).

.The liquefaction of helium was achieved by H. Kamerlingh Onnes at Leiden in 1908. According to him its boiling point is 4.3° abs.^ Liquefaction of gases was a new science then, in which Kamerlingh Onnes was a pioneer.
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Helium was first liquefied by Kamerlingh Onnes in 1908, using the Joule-Kelvin effect as we have described.
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

.(-268.7° C.), the density of the liquid 0.154, the critical temperature 5° abs., and the critical pressure 2.3 atmospheres (Communications from the Physical Laboratory at Leiden, No.^ Above the critical temperature, no pressure is sufficient to produce a liquid, so that to liquefy a gas, the temperature must be below the critical temperature.
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Hydrogen has a critical temperature of 33K, critical pressure 12.8 atm, and critical density 0.0310 g/cc, showing how effectively inert its molecules are.
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ A good explanation of low-temperature physics and the empirical properties of liquid helium.
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

108; see also Liquid Gases).
REFERENCES. - A bibliography and summary of the earlier work on helium will be found in a paper by Ramsay, Ann. chim. phys. (1898) [7], 13, p. .433. See also M. Travers, The Study of Gases (1901).^ Ramsay, with the help of Travers, went to work to see if they could be discovered in the argon separated from atmospheric nitrogen, by fractional distillation of the liquefied gases.
  • Helium 8 January 2010 3:54 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

(R. J. S.)


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also helium

German

Chemical Element: He (atomical number 2)

Pronunciation

Noun

Helium n
  1. helium

Simple English

[[File:|thumb|right|Because it is very light, helium is the gas of choice to fill airships such as the Goodyear blimp]] Helium is a chemical element. It has the chemical symbol He and atomic number 2.

Helium is called a noble gas, because it does not regularly mix with other chemicals and form new compounds. It has the lowest boiling point of all the elements. It is the second most common element in the universe, after hydrogen, and has no color or smell. However, Helium has a blue-ish, neon color when being burnt with fire. Helium does not usually react with anything else. However, it can react with tungsten, iodine, fluorine, sulfur and phosphorus under very special conditions. Astronomers found helium in 1868. They found that it was in the Sun before it was found on Earth. Because of where it was found, its name comes from the Greek word for Sun, helios.

It is used to fill balloons and airships because it is lighter than air, and does not burn or react, meaning it is normally safe for using it in that way. It is also used in some kinds of light bulbs. People also breathe it in to make their voices sound higher than they normally do as a joke, but this is extremely dangerous if they breathe in too much, since it can kill them because they are not breathing normal air. Breathing too much helium can also cause long-term effects to vocal cords.

It can be created through the process of nuclear fusion in the sun. During this process, four Hydrogen atoms are fused together to form one Helium atom.

koi:Гелий


frr:Helium


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 17, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Helium, which are similar to those in the above article.








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