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—  City  —
Helsingin kaupunki
Helsingfors stad
Port of Helsinki and the Helsinki Cathedral in March.

Coat of arms
Nickname(s): Stadi, Hesa
Location of Helsinki in Europe
Coordinates: 60°10′15″N 024°56′15″E / 60.17083°N 24.9375°E / 60.17083; 24.9375Coordinates: 60°10′15″N 024°56′15″E / 60.17083°N 24.9375°E / 60.17083; 24.9375
Country Finland
Region Uusimaa
Sub-region Helsinki
Charter 1550
Capital city 1812
 - Mayor Jussi Pajunen
Area (2009-01-01)[1]
 - City 715.55 km2 (276.3 sq mi)
 - Land 213 km2 (82.2 sq mi)
 - Water 502.55 km2 (194 sq mi)
 - Urban 769.48 km2 (297.1 sq mi)
 - Metro 2,969.54 km2 (1,146.5 sq mi)
Area rank 167th largest in Finland
Population (2009-12-31)[2]
 - City 583,484
 Density 2,739.36/km2 (7,094.9/sq mi)
 Urban 1,034,106
 - Urban Density 1,343.9/km2 (3,480.7/sq mi)
 Metro 1,310,755
 - Metro Density 441.4/km2 (1,143.2/sq mi)
Population rank Largest in Finland
Population by native language [3]
 - Finnish 84.3% (official)
 - Swedish 6.1% (official)
 - Others 9.6%
Population by age [4]
 - 0 to 14 13.7%
 - 15 to 64 72%
 - 65 or older 14.3%
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 - Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Municipal tax rate[5] 17.5%

Helsinki (About this sound listen ; Swedish: Helsingfors, About this sound listen ) is the capital and largest city in Finland. It is in the southern part of Finland, on the shore of the Gulf of Finland, by the Baltic Sea. The population of the city of Helsinki is 583,484 (31 December 2009),[2] making it the most populous municipality in Finland by a wide margin. Helsinki is located some 400 kilometers east of Stockholm, Sweden, 300 kilometers west of St. Petersburg, Russia and 80 kilometers north of Tallinn, Estonia. Helsinki has close connections with these three cities.

The municipality of Helsinki forms the heart of the Helsinki metropolitan area and Greater Helsinki area. Over one million people live in the Helsinki metropolitan area, which includes the city of Helsinki and three other cities. Two of these cities, Espoo and Vantaa, immediately border Helsinki to the west and north. Kauniainen, the third city, is an enclave within the city of Espoo. The Helsinki metropolitan area is the northernmost urban area on Earth with a population of over 1 million people, and the city is the northernmost capital of an EU member state. Altogether 1.3 million people live in the Greater Helsinki area, which includes the aforementiond cities and 9 suburban satellite towns. Approximately 1 in 4 Finns live in the Greater Helsinki area.

Helsinki is Finland's major political, educational, financial, cultural and research center. Helsinki is also an important regional city on the Baltic Sea and northern Europe. Greater Helsinki has eight universities and six technology parks.[6] Approximately 70% of foreign companies operating in Finland have settled in the Helsinki region.[6]

Finnish and Swedish are the official languages of the municipality of Helsinki. The majority, or 84,3%[7] of the population, speak Finnish as their native language. A minority, at 6,1%, speak Finland Swedish. Those that speak a native language other than Finnish or Swedish stand at around 9,6% of the population.

Since early 2009, Helsinki has begun to contemplate a possible merger with Vantaa. On 30 March 2009, the city council of Vantaa agreed to review Helsinki's proposal of a possible merger. The city council emphasizes that the review is not about the possibility of ceasing the existence of the city of Vantaa.[8]

In 2009, Helsinki was chosen to be the World Design Capital for 2012[9] by the International Council of Societies of Industrial Design. Helsinki narrowly beat Eindhoven for the title.



The Swedish name Helsingfors ([hɛlsiŋˈfɔrs] or [hɛlsiŋˈfɔʂ]) is the original name of the city of Helsinki (in the very beginning, in the form 'Hellssingeforss'). The Finnish language form of the city's name probably originates from 'Helsinga' and similar names used for the river that is currently known as Vantaanjoki as documented already in the 14th century. Helsinki (pronounced with the stress on the first syllable: [ˈhelsiŋki]), is used to refer to the city in all languages except Swedish and Norwegian. Helsingfors comes from the name of the surrounding parish, Helsinge (source for Finnish Helsinki) and the rapids (in Swedish: fors), which flowed through the original village. The name Helsinge was possibly given by medieval Swedish settlers who came from Hälsingland in Sweden. Another possibility is that the name is derived from the Swedish word hals (neck), referring to the narrowest part of the river, i.e. the rapids.[10] Finnish speakers replaced those that spoke Swedish as a majority of the city's inhabitants in 1890[11], nearly 30 years before Finland's independence. In 2008, 35,125[12] people spoke Swedish as their first language, comprising 6 percent of Helsinki's population.

In Helsinki slang the town is also called Stadi (from the Swedish word stad, meaning city) and Hesa in colloquial Finnish. Helsset is the North Sami name of Helsinki.


Early history

Central Helsinki in 1820 before rebuilding. Drawing by Carl Ludvig Engel.

Helsinki was founded by King Gustav I of Sweden in 1550 as the town of Helsingfors, which he intended to be a rival to the Hanseatic city of Reval (today: Tallinn). Little came of the plans as Helsinki remained a small coastal town for a long time, plagued by poverty, wars, and diseases. The plague of 1710 killed the greater part of the inhabitants of Helsinki.[13] The construction of the naval fortress Sveaborg (In Finnish Viapori, today also Suomenlinna) in the 18th century helped improve Helsinki's status, but it was not until Russia defeated Sweden in the Finnish War and annexed Finland as the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland in 1809 that the town began to develop into a major city.

Czar Alexander I of Russia moved the capital from Turku to Helsinki to reduce Swedish influence in Finland. The Royal Academy of Turku, back then the only university in the country, was relocated to Helsinki in 1827 and eventually became the modern University of Helsinki. The move consolidated the city's new role, and helped set it on the path of continuous growth. This transformation is highly apparent in the downtown core, which was rebuilt in neoclassical style to resemble St. Petersburg. As elsewhere, technological advancements such as railroads and industrialization were key factors behind the city's growth.

Twentieth century

In 1918 the Finnish Civil War broke out and Helsinki fell to the Red Guards on January 28, the first day of the war. The Red side gained control of the whole of southern Finland after minor hostilities. Most members of the Senate fled to Vaasa, although some senators and officials remained in hiding in the capital. After the tide of war turned against the Red forces, German troops allied with the White Government took control of Helsinki in April 1918.[citation needed]

Unlike Tampere, Helsinki suffered relatively little damage in the war.[citation needed] After the White victory many former Reds were put in prison camps, the largest camp with some 13 300 prisoners was located on the fortress island of Suomenlinna in Helsinki. Although the civil war left a considerable scar in society, the standard of living in the country and the city began to improve in the following decade. Renowned architects such as Eliel Saarinen created utopistic plans for Helsinki, but they were never fully realized.[citation needed]

In the aerial bombings of the Winter War (1939–40) and the Continuation War (1941–44) Helsinki was attacked by Soviet bombers. The most intense air raids took place in the spring of 1944, when over two thousand Soviet planes dropped some 16,000 bombs in and around the city. Fortunately successful air defence efforts spared Helsinki from the destruction visited upon many other European cities.[citation needed]

Despite the tumultuous first half of the 20th century, Helsinki continued to develop steadily. A landmark event was the XV Olympiad (1952 Olympic Games) held in Helsinki. Finland's rapid urbanization in the 1970s, occurring relatively late in a European context, tripled the population in the metropolitan area and led to the development of the Helsinki Metro subway system. The Helsinki metropolitan area was one of the fastest growing urban centres in the European Union in the 1990s. The relatively sparse population density of Helsinki and its peculiar structure have often been attributed to this late growth spurt. The Helsinki metropolitan area is the second most sparsely populated EU-capital after Brussels.[14]


Helsinki seen from Spot Satellite
Suomenlinna has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1991.

Helsinki is spread across a number of bays and peninsulas and over a number of islands. The inner city area occupies a southern peninsula, which is rarely referred to by its actual name Vironniemi. Population density in certain parts of Helsinki's inner city area is very high, reaching 16,494 inhabitants per square kilometer (42,719/sq mi) in the district of Kallio, but as a whole Helsinki's population density of 3,050 inhabitants per square kilometer (7,899/sq mi) ranks it as quite sparsely populated in comparison to other European capital cities. Much of Helsinki outside the inner city area consists of postwar suburbs separated from each other by patches of forests. A narrow, ten kilometre (6.2 mi) long Helsinki Central Park that stretches from the inner city to the northern border of Helsinki is an important recreational area for residents.

Some notable islands in Helsinki include Seurasaari, Lauttasaari and Korkeasaari – which is also the country's biggest zoo – as well as the fortress island of Suomenlinna (Sveaborg) and the military island of Santahamina.


The city has a temperate continental climate.[citation needed] Owing to the mitigating influence of the Baltic sea and Gulf stream, temperatures in winter are much higher than the northern location might suggest, with the average in January and February around −5 °C.[15] Temperatures below −20 °C occur normally a week or two in a year. However, because of the latitude, days lasts less than six hours in the winter solstice, and the very cloudy weather at this time of year accentuates the darkness. Conversely, Helsinki enjoys long days in summer, almost nineteen hours at the summer solstice. The average maximum temperature from June through August is around 19 to 21 °C (70 °F). The highest temperature ever recorded at city centre was 31.6 °C (89 °F) on July 18, 1945 and the lowest was −34.3 °C (−30 °F) on January 10, 1987.[16]

Climate data for Helsinki
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 8.5
Average high °C (°F) −1.7
Average low °C (°F) −6.9
Record low °C (°F) −34.3
Precipitation mm (inches) 47
Snowfall cm (inches) 20
Sunshine hours 38 70 138 194 284 297 291 238 150 93 36 29 1,742
Source: Climatological statistics for the normal period 1971–2000[15] 2009-01-03[17] and [16]


The view across summertime Kaisaniemenlahti.
The Helsinki Cathedral is probably the most prominent building and symbol of the city.
Parliament of Finland on the right, and new supplemental offices on the left.

Carl Ludvig Engel (1778–1840) designed several neo-classical buildings in Helsinki. He was kept in Helsinki by a unique assignment, as he was elected to plan a new city centre all on his own. The city became low and wide at the time when most buildings had only two or three floors.[citation needed] The central point of Engel's city plan is the Senate Square, surrounded by the Government Palace, the main building of the University, and the enormous Cathedral, which was finished in 1852, twelve years after C. L. Engel's death. Engel's neo-classical plan of the city centre has later given Helsinki the epithet The White City Of The North.

Helsinki is, however, perhaps even more famous for its numerous Art Nouveau (Jugend in Finnish) buildings, designed in the early 1900s and strongly influenced by the Kalevala, which is a very popular theme in the national romantic art of that era. Helsinki's Art Nouveau style is also featured in large residential areas such as Katajanokka and Ullanlinna. The master of the Finnish Art Nouveau was Eliel Saarinen (1873–1950), whose architectural masterpiece was the Helsinki central railway station.

Helsinki also features several buildings by the world-renowned Finnish architect Alvar Aalto (1898–1976), attributed as one of the pioneers in functionalism. Many of Aalto's works are either loved or hated. Aalto's buildings, such as the headquarters of the paper company Enso and the concert and congress house Finlandia Hall, have sparked much debate amongst Helsinki's inhabitants.

In addition to Aalto's work, there is a body of other noteworthy functionalist architecture in Helsinki, such as the Olympic Stadium, the Tennis Palace, the Rowing Stadium, the Swimming Stadium, the Velodrome, the Glass Palace, the Exhibition Hall (now Töölö Sports Hall) and Helsinki-Malmi Airport. The sports venues were built to serve the 1940 Helsinki Olympic Games; the games were initially cancelled due to the Second World War, but the venues eventually got to fulfill their purpose in the 1952 Olympic Games. Many of them are listed by DoCoMoMo as significant examples of modern architecture. The Olympic Stadium and Helsinki-Malmi Airport are in addition catalogued by the National Board of Antiquities as cultural-historical environments of national significance.[citation needed]

As a historical footnote, Helsinki's neoclassical buildings were often used as a backdrop for scenes set to take place in the Soviet Union in many Cold War era Hollywood movies, when filming in the USSR was not possible. Some of the more notable ones are The Kremlin Letter (1970), Reds (1981) and Gorky Park (1983). Because some of the streetscapes were reminiscent of Leningrad's and Moscow's old buildings, they were used in the production – much to some residents' dismay. At the same time the government secretly instructed Finnish officials not to extend assistance to such film projects.[18]

Helsinki panorama from Hotel Torni, a building famous for having been used by the Allied(Soviet) Control Commission in Helsinki after World War II. Torni, which means Tower in Finnish, is one of the highest buildings in the Helsinki cityscape.


Helsinki has eighty-five members in its city council. The three largest parties are National Coalition (26), Greens (21), and Social Democrats (16).


The population of nearly 585,000 people consists of 85 % whose native language is Finnish and 6.1 % whose native language is Swedish. 9.6% of the population have a native language that is not Finnish or Swedish. Helsinki has a higher proportion of women (53,4%) than elsewhere in Finland (51,1%). Helsinki’s current population density of 3,049.66 people per square kilometer is the highest in Finland by a wide margin. A man's life expectancy is 75.1 years in Helsinki as compared to the national average of 75.7 years. Women in Helsinki have a life expectancy of 81.7 years as compared to the national average of 82.5 years.[19][20]

Helsinki has experienced strong growth since the 1810s, when it replaced Turku as the capital of the Grand Duchy of Finland, which later became the sovereign Republic of Finland. The city continued to show strong growth from that time onwards, with the exception during the Finnish Civil War period. From the end of WW2 up until the 1970s there was a massive exodus of people from the countryside to the cities of Finland, in particular Helsinki. Helsinki's population doubled in a little over 20 years, from 1944 up to 1969 the population of the city nearly doubled from 275000[21] to 525600[22].

In the 1970s Helsinki's population growth began to slow down due to lack of housing in the capital. Many residents began to move to neighboring Espoo and Vantaa. The population growth in these neighboring cities has risen exponentially. Espoo went from having a population of 22,874 people in 1950 to 244,353 in 2009, a ninefold increase. Neighboring Vantaa has had more dramatic changes. Vantaa went from having a population of 14,976 in 1950 to 197,663 in 2009, a thirteen-fold increase. The dramatic increase in population pushed these cities to work in more cooperation with each other in such areas as public transportation[23] and waste management[24]. The increasing scarcity of housing and the higher costs of living in the Helsinki metropolitan area have pushed many daily commuters to find housing in formerly very rural areas, and even further, to such cities as Lohja (50 kilometers northwest from the city center), Hämeenlinna and Lahti (both 100 kilometers from Helsinki, and Porvoo (50 kilometers to the east).

The 1980s were a time of stalled growth in the city of Helsinki, when there was continuous migration to neighboring towns. Since the 1990s and into the 2000s, growth has been both positive and negative.[citation needed] Some reasons for a decline in the population are young families seeking cheaper housing with more green space nearby. The city of Helsinki's own predictions show that the current city of Helsinki should reach a population of 575,000 in 2015 and 586,000 in 2030. However, due to new housing construction within the acquired area of southwestern Sipoo the city should reach a population of well over 600,000 inhabitants.[citation needed]

The most important future population growth areas are including the newly acquired land area of Sipoo: Jätkäsaari, Kalasatama, Keski-Pasila and Kruunuvuorenranta.


The population of the city that does not hold Finnish citizenship stand at 5.2% (29 200) of the population. Those that were born outside Finland stand at 7.9% (44,400) of the population.[citation needed] 33% of foreigners resident in Helsinki are other EU nationals. In 2008, 55,245[25] residents spoke a native language other than Finnish, Swedish or Sami. The largest group of residents with a non-Finnish background come from Estonia (5,900), Russia (5,633), Somalia (2,400), China (1,150) and Thailand (680)[26]. Half of the immigrant population in Finland live in the Helsinki metropolitan area. One third of the immigrant population of Finland reside in the city of Helsinki.[27] 44% of the African population in Finland live in Helsinki. In 2001, out of all the EU-15 capitals, only Lisbon had a smaller share of immigrants in their population. There are some challenges to integration, as the immigrant unemployment rate on average is 2.5 times higher than native Finns[28] .


Kamppi Center, a shopping and transportation complex in the Kamppi district in the centre of Helsinki.

The Helsinki metropolitan area generates approximately one third of Finland's GDP. GDP per capita is roughly 1.5 times the national average[citation needed], making Helsinki one of the wealthiest capitals in Europe. Helsinki's GDP per capita is one of the highest of any city in the world.

The tap water is of excellent quality and it is supplied by 120 km (75 mi) long Päijänne Water Tunnel, one of the world's longest continuous rock tunnels. Bottled Helsinki tap water is even sold to countries such as Saudi Arabia.[29]

The employment rate in the Helsinki metropolitan area stands at around 75% and employment growth has been good. Around 20% work in manufacturing and construction, compared to 10% in London and 30% in Milan. In private-sector services the distribution is that 34.5% work in trade, 17% in transport, 8% in hotels and restaurants, 5.7% in financial services, and 34.5% in other market services.[citation needed]

The metropolitan area's gross value-added per capita is 200% of the mean of 27 European metropolitan areas. It equals Stockholm or Paris. The gross value-added annual growth has been around 4%.[30]

83 of the 100 largest Finnish companies are headquartered in Greater Helsinki. Two-thirds of the 200 highest-paid Finnish executives live in Greater Helsinki and 42% in Helsinki. The average income of the top 50 earners was 1.65 million euro.[31]


Main building of the University of Helsinki.
Haaga-Helia University Of Applied Sciences is the largest business polytechnic in Finland.

Helsinki has 190 comprehensive schools, 41 upper secondary schools and 15 vocational institutes. Half of the 41 upper secondary schools are private or state-owned, the other half municipal. Higher level education is given in eight universities (see the section "Universities" below) and four polytechnics.

Institutions of higher education



Helsinki is one of co-location centres of Knowledge and Innovation Community (Future information and communication society )of The European Institute of Innovation and Technology (EIT) [32]


Kiasma is a contemporary art museum located at the heart of Helsinki.

The biggest historical museum in Helsinki is the National Museum of Finland, which displays a vast historical collection from prehistoric times to the 21st century. The museum building itself, a national romantic style neo-medieval castle, is a tourist attraction. Other major historical museum is the Helsinki City Museum, which introduces visitors to Helsinki's 500 year history. The University of Helsinki also has many significant museums, including the University Museum and the Natural History Museum.

The Finnish National Gallery consists of three museums: Ateneum Art Museum for classical Finnish art, Sinebrychoff Art Museum for classical European art, and Kiasma Art Museum for modern art. The old Ateneum, a neo-renaissance palace from 19th century, is one of the city's major historical buildings, whereas the highly modern Kiasma is probably the most debated building in Helsinki. All three museum buildings are state-owned through Senate Properties.

Helsinki has three major theatres: The Finnish National Theatre, the Helsinki City Theatre, and the Finland Swedish Svenska Teatern. The city's main musical venues are the Finnish National Opera and the Finlandia concert-hall. Bigger concerts and events are usually held at one of the city's two big ice hockey arenas: the Hartwall Areena or the Helsinki Ice Hall. Helsinki has Finland's largest fair centre.

Helsinki is considered as one of the main hubs of popular music in Northern Europe, many widely renowned and acclaimed bands have originated in Helsinki, including HIM, Stratovarius, Norther, Wintersun, Finntroll, Ensiferum, The Rasmus, Shape of Despair, The 69 Eyes, Hanoi Rocks, and Apocalyptica.


Helsinki Arena hosted the Eurovision Song Contest 2007, the first ever Eurovision Song Contest arranged in Finland, following Lordi's win in 2006.

Helsinki is the 2012 World Design Capital, in recognition of the use of design as an effective tool for social, cultural and economic development in the city. In choosing Helsinki, the World Design Capital selection jury highlighted Helsinki's use of 'Embedded Design', which has tied design in the city to innovation, "creating global brands, such as Nokia, Kone and Marimekko, popular events, like the annual Helsinki Design Week, outstanding education and research institutions, such as the University of Art and Design Helsinki, and exemplary architects and designers such as Eliel Saarinen and Alvar Aalto".[33]


The Helsinki Olympic Stadium was the centre of activities during the 1952 Summer Olympics.

Helsinki has a long tradition of sports: the city gained much of its initial international recognition during the 1952 Summer Olympics, and the city has since then been very open to arranging sporting events, for example the first World Championships in Athletics 1983 and 2005, and European Championships in Athletics 1971, 1994 and 2012 etc. Helsinki hosts fairly successful local teams in both of the most popular team sports in Finland, football and ice hockey. Helsinki houses HJK, Finland's largest and most successful football club. Helsinki's track and field club Helsingin Kisa-Veikot is also pretty dominant in Finland. Ice Hockey is a sport of passion for many Helsinki residents, who usually take a stance for either of the local clubs HIFK or Jokerit. HIFK, with 14 Finnish championships titles, also plays in the highest bandy division,[34] so does Botnia -69. The Olympic stadium hosted the 1st ever Bandy World Championships in 1957.[35]


Helsinki region roads.


Helsinki has several ring roads: Kehä I, Kehä II, and Kehä III. From central city to east and west, there are Itäväylä and Länsiväylä. From the central city to north, there are several routes. There is a proposal to build a Stockholm-like tunnel under central Helsinki to hide cars from streets. Central Helsinki has popular underground parking facilities.

Helsinki has some 390 cars per 1000 inhabitants.[36] This is less than in cities of similar density, for instance, Brussels' 483 per 1000 and Stockholm's 401, and Oslo's 413.[37][38]

Rail transport and buses

The Helsinki Metro with its characteristic bright orange trains is the world's northernmost subway.
Malmi airport, one of the oldest in the world and Finland's- main general aviation airport.

Public transportation is generally a hotly debated subject in the local politics of Helsinki. In Helsinki, public transportation is mostly managed under Helsinki City Transport, the city's transportation authority. The diverse public transport system consists of trams, commuter rail, the subway, bus lines and two ferry lines. The Helsinki Metropolitan Area Council manages traffic to the surrounding municipalities of Espoo, Vantaa and Kauniainen.

Today, Helsinki is the only city in Finland to have trams or subway trains. There used to be two other cities in Finland with trams: Turku and Viipuri (Vyborg, now in Russia), but both have since abandoned trams. The Helsinki Metro, opened in the year 1982, is so far the only subway system in Finland. In 2006, the construction of the long debated extension of the subway system west into Espoo was approved, and serious debate about an eastern extension into Sipoo has taken place.[39]


Air traffic is handled primarily from the international Helsinki-Vantaa Airport, located approximately 19 kilometres (12 mi) north of Helsinki's downtown area, in the neighbouring city of Vantaa. Helsinki's second airport, Malmi Airport, is mainly used for general and private aviation. Copterline has provided fast (18 min.) helicopter flights to Tallinn, but discontinued the regular service in December 2008 on grounds of unprofitability.

Sea transport

Ferry connections to Tallinn and Stockholm are serviced by various companies. Finnlines passenger-freight ferries to Gdynia, Poland and Travemünde, Germany are also available, while Tallink began service to Rostock, Germany in 2007.


See also


  1. ^ "Area by municipality as of 1 January 2009" (in Finnish and Swedish) (PDF). Land Survey of Finland. Retrieved 20 February 2009. 
  2. ^ a b "Population by municipality as of 31 December 2009" (in Finnish and Swedish). Population Information System. Population Register Center of Finland.$file/091231.htm. Retrieved 13 January 2010. 
  3. ^ "Population according to language and the number of foreigners and land area km2 by area as of 31 December 2008". Statistics Finland's PX-Web databases. Statistics Finland. Retrieved 29 March 2009. 
  4. ^ "Population according to age and gender by area as of 31 December 2008". Statistics Finland's PX-Web databases. Statistics Finland. Retrieved 28 April 2009. 
  5. ^ "List of municipal and parish tax rates in 2010". Tax Administration of Finland. 24 November 2009.;25512. Retrieved 13 January 2010. 
  6. ^ a b Helsinki region in brief
  7. ^ [1]
  8. ^ Vantaa city council agrees to a review of a possible merger proposal, Retrieved 30 March 2009.
  9. ^ [2]
  10. ^ "Utbildning & Vetenskap: Svenskfinland". Retrieved 2009-07-08. 
  11. ^
  12. ^
  13. ^ "Ruttopuisto – Plague Park". Retrieved 2008-11-03. 
  14. ^ 1 January 2007, Hufvudstadsbladet – Helsingfors en metropol om hundra år. Citing Professors Ache (metropolitan planning, Helsinki University of Technology) and Vaatovaara (University of Helsinki), and statistics from The European Economic Research Consortium
  15. ^ a b Climatological statistics for the normal period 1971–2000
  16. ^ a b "Ilmatieteen laitos – Sää ja ilmasto – Ilmastotilastot – Ilman lämpötila" (in Finnish). Finnish Meteorological Institute. Retrieved 2009-07-08. 
  17. ^ Karttunen, Hannu; Jarmo Koistinen, Elena Saltikoff, Olli Manner (1998). Ilmakehä ja sää. Ursa. ISBN 951-9269-87-8. 
  18. ^ Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland, Political Department: Memo 56 of 20 January 1982 (labelled highly confidential in 1982)PDF (1.37 MB)
  19. ^ Template:Verkkoviite
  20. ^ Tilasto
  21. ^
  22. ^
  23. ^
  24. ^
  25. ^ Tilasto
  26. ^ Helsingissä asuu virlaisia enemmän kuin venäläisiä,
  27. ^
  28. ^ Jussi Pajunen jarruttaisi maahanmuuttoa
  29. ^ Bottled water sells, Finnfacts
  30. ^ The Regional Economy of Helsinki from a European Perspective
  31. ^ "Helsingin Sanomat – International Edition – Metro". 2005-11-09. Retrieved 2009-07-08. 
  32. ^
  33. ^
  34. ^ Video from the Finnish final 2009 against OLS fromOulu:
  35. ^ Video from the tournament:
  36. ^ This is Helsinki, by City of Helsinki
  37. ^
  38. ^ "Tietokeskus: suunnatframe". Retrieved 2009-07-08. 
  39. ^ – an information portal dedicated to the "länsimetro" subway expansion in the Helsinki capital region.

External links

Preceded by
Athens, Greece 2006
Eurovision Song Contest Hosts Helsinki
Succeeded by
Belgrade, Serbia 2008


Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Northern Sami

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Proper noun


  1. Helsinki


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