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Henån
Henån is located in Sweden
Henån
Coordinates: 58°14′N 11°41′E / 58.233°N 11.683°E / 58.233; 11.683Coordinates: 58°14′N 11°41′E / 58.233°N 11.683°E / 58.233; 11.683
Country Sweden
Province Bohuslän
County Västra Götaland County
Municipality Orust Municipality
Area [1]
 - Total 1.93 km2 (0.7 sq mi)
Population (2005-12-31)[1]
 - Total 1,855
 - Density 959/km2 (2,483.8/sq mi)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 - Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)

Henån is a locality and the seat of Orust Municipality, Västra Götaland County, Sweden with 1,855 inhabitants in 2005.[1]

Overview

Henån is home to approximately 2,000 permanent all year residents with a significant increase of city living summer residents who come and stay in their summer cottages, frequently passed down for generations.

In 1850, Henån became of the first swimming resorts in Sweden where people from Gothenburg, Alingsås, and other inland cities and towns came to stay with locals to enjoy the warm summer waters in the ocean. Later hotels and hostels were built and saw the town of Henån grow.

There is a magnificent legacy of boat building on Henån which still lives on amongst the residents. while most of the smaller traditional boat building shops have since long closed down, the legacy has evolved into some of the most spectacular and beautiful yacht manufacturers in the world. With brands like Najad, Hallberg-Rassy, Malö and Regina af Vindö the craftsmanship lives on.

To ensure the skills are passed on to new generation, Henån is home to the one of the most reputable boat building schools in Scandinavia. Orust Båtbyggarskola is a college program with focus on boat building. To the right you can see some of the students rowing one of the main school projects.

References

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Coordinates: 33°50′N 113°30′E / 33.833°N 113.5°E / 33.833; 113.5

Henan Province
Chinese : 河南省
Hénán Shěng
Abbreviations:   (pinyin: )
File:China
Origin of name 河 hé - (Yellow) River
南 nán - south
"south of the Yellow River"
Administration type Province
Capital
(and largest city)
Zhengzhou
CPC Ctte Secretary Lu Zhangong 卢展工
Governor Guo Gengmao 郭庚茂
Area 167,000 km2 (64,000 sq mi) (17th)
Population (2007)
 - Density
93,600,000 (2nd)
591 /km2 (1,530 /sq mi) (6th)
GDP (2009)
 - per capita
CNY 1.94 trillion (5th)
CNY 20,477 (19th)
HDI (2008) 0.787 (medium) (15th)
Ethnic composition Han - 98.8%
Hui - 1%
Prefecture-level 17 divisions
County-level 159 divisions
Township-level*
ISO 3166-2 CN-41
Official website
www.henan.gov.cn (Simplified Chinese)
Source for population and GDP data:
《中国统计年鉴—2005》 China Statistical Yearbook 2005
ISBN 7503747382
Source for nationalities data:
《2000年人口普查中国民族人口资料》 Tabulation on nationalities of 2000 population census of China
ISBN 7105054255
*As at December 31, 2004
Template ■ Discussion ■ WikiProject China

Henan (Chinese: 河南; pinyin: Hénán; Wade–Giles: Ho-nan), is a province located in the central region of the People's Republic of China.[1] Its one-character abbreviation is 豫 (pinyin: yù), named after Yuzhou State (豫州 Yù Zhōu), a Han Dynasty state (zhou) that included parts of Henan. The name Henan means "south of the River" (Huang He),[2] and is an important cradle of Chinese civilization

With an estimated population of 93,600,000 residents in 2007, Henan is the second most populous province of China after Guangdong, which recently surpassed Henan due to an influx of immigrant workers from other provinces. Similar to Wisconsin in size, Henan is China's 17th largest province with an area of 167,000 km².

Henan is the 5th largest economy of China and the largest among inland provinces. However, the large population made the personal wealth relatively low compared to other eastern and central provinces, and its economy of often compared to that of China's which is also a large economy supported by a large population. Agriculture, heavy industry, tourism, and numerous small to medium sized businesses employed the majority its citizen, while high-tech industry and service sector is largely underdeveloped.

Henan is often referred to as Zhongyuan (中原 zhōngyuán) or Zhongzhou (中州 zhōngzhōu) which literally means "central plains" or "midland", although the name is also broadly applied to the entirety of China proper. Often regarded as the birthplace of Chinese civilization, the region is among the first regions in China to develop, and has been its cultural, political, and economical center for over 2000 years. Four of the Eight Great Ancient Capitals of China are located in the Henan province.

Contents

History

Widely regarded as the Cradle of Chinese civilization along with the Shanxi and Shaanxi province, Henan is known for its historical prosperity, which resulted from its vast, fertile plains and its location at the heart of the country, making it a center of economic developments. However, its strategic location also means virtually all of the major wars in China have partially taken place there, resulting in numerous mass destruction of artifacts. In addition, the numerous floodings of Yellow River have also caused significant damages, burying the ancient city of Kaifeng seven times.

Ancient Era

Archaeological sites reveal that prehistoric cultures such as the Yangshao Culture and Longshan Culture were active in what is now northern Henan since early Neolithic Era. The Erlitou culture, which has been controversially identified with the Xia Dynasty, the first and largely legendary Chinese dynasty as described in historical records, was also centered in Henan.

The first literate dynasty of China, the Shang Dynasty (16th-11th century BC), is centered in Henan. Its many capitals are located at the modern cities of Shangqiu, Yanshi, Zhengzhou. Their last and most important capital, Yin, located in modern Anyang, is the where the first Chinese writing is created.

In the 11th century BC, the Zhou Dynasty arrived from the west and destroyed the Shang Dynasty. Their capital was located initially in Hao near present day Xi'an in Shaanxi province, and the capital has shifted away from Henan for the first time. In 722 BC, it was moved to back to Henan in the city Luoyang due to invasions in the west from Xionites. This began the Eastern Zhou Dynasty, a period of warfare and rivalry. What is now Henan and the entire China was divided into a variety of small, independent states, constantly at war for control of the entire central plain. Later on these states were replaced by seven large and powerful states, with Han and Wei located in northern and central Henan and Chu in southern Henan.

Imperial Era

In 221 BC, the state of Qin from what is now Shaanxi completed the unification of China, establishing the first unified Chinese state, the Qin Dynasty. They were followed by the Han Dynasty in 206 BC, which initially put its capital in Chang'an (now Xi'an, Shaanxi). The second half of this dynasty (the Eastern Han Dynasty) moved its capital to Luoyang.

The late Eastern Han Dynasty saw war and rivalry between regional warlords. Henan was the power base of Cao Cao, who was based in Xuchang and eventually succeeded in unifying all of northern China under the Kingdom of Wei. Wei then put its capital in Luoyang. The Western Jin Dynasty that followed also put its capital at Luoyang.

In the 4th century, nomadic peoples from the north invaded northern China. Henan then came under the rule of many successive regimes, including the Later Zhao, the Former Yan, the Former Qin, the Later Yan, and the Later Qin. The Northern Wei Dynasty, which unified North China in 439, moved its capital to Luoyang in 493.

statue of a Boddhisattva was probably created in the Henan province around 570, in the Northern Qi Dynasty.]]

Northern Wei splintered in 534 and would not be restored until 589, when the Sui Dynasty reunified China. Sui Emperor Yang's costly attempt to relocate the capital from Chang'an to Luoyang contributed to the downfall of Sui. The Tang Dynasty that followed kept its capital in Chang'an (modern Xi'an, Shaanxi). The Tang lasted for three centuries, but eventually succumbed to internal strife.

In the Period of Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms that followed, Kaifeng was the capital of four dynasties: Later Liang Dynasty, Later Jin Dynasty, Later Han Dynasty, and Later Zhou Dynasty. The Song Dynasty that reunified China in 982 also had its capital at Kaifeng. Under Song rule, China entered a golden age of culture and prosperity, and Kaifeng was the largest city in the world  [1]. In 1127, however, the Song Dynasty succumbed to Jurchen (Jin Dynasty) invaders from the north, and in 1142 had to cede away all of northern China, including Henan. By this point, cultural and economic development in the Yangtze River delta Jiangnan region (modern southern Jiangsu, northern Zhejiang, and Shanghai) had made that area into the new economic and cultural center of China, instead of Henan. Henan would forever lose this pre-eminent position.

Kaifeng served as the Jurchen's "southern capital" from 1157 (other sources say 1161) and was reconstructed during this time. [2] [3] But they kept their main capital further north, until 1214, when they were forced to move the imperial court southwards to Kaifeng in order to flee the Mongol onslaught. In 1234 they succumbed to combined Mongol and Song Dynasty forces. Mongols took control, and in 1279 they conquered all of China.

Mongol rule over China ended in 1368. The Ming Dynasty that followed set up the equivalent of modern Henan province, with borders extremely similar to modern ones. The capital was, however, at Kaifeng instead of modern Zhengzhou. The Qing Dynasty (1644–1911) did not make any significant changes to this arrangement.

Modern Era

The Qing Dynasty in 1911 was overthrown by the Republic of China, which marked the beginning of China's modern era. No significant changes were made to the territories and administrative divisions of Henan until the completion of the Pinghan Railway made Zhengzhou, a previously unnoted county town, into a major transportation hub. In 1954, the new People's Republic of China government moved the capital of Henan from Kaifeng to Zhengzhou. The PRC also established a short-lived Pingyuan Province consisting of what is now northern Henan and western Shandong, with capital Xinxiang. This province was abolished in 1952.

In 1958, Yashan in Suiping County, Henan became the first people's commune of China, heralding the beginning of the "Great Leap Forward". In the subsequent famines of the early 1960s popularly attributed to the Great Leap Forward, Henan suffered terribly, with several million lives lost. [4]

In 1975, the collapse of the Banqiao Dam and other dams in southern Henan, following a typhoon that caused extraordinarily high levels of rainfall, is estimated to have killed 230,000 people across several counties. This was the most deadly dam-related catastrophe in human history.

In recent years the prevalence of "blood selling" (blood donation with pay) among poor villagers has put Henan in the spotlight of the nation. It was exposed that AIDS villages, where most of the population is HIV positive, have resulted because of poor sterilization techniques. The initial cover up of the crisis by local officials, followed by the national exposure, has put Henan in a somewhat negative light.

In November 2004, martial law was declared in Zhongmou county, Henan, to quell deadly ethnic clashes between Han Chinese and the Muslim Hui Chinese. [5] The reported number of deaths ranged between 7 and 148.

Geography

(Mt. Longmen), Luoyang, Henan.]]

Henan is flat in the east and mountainous in the west and extreme south. The eastern and central parts of the province form part of the North China Plain. To the northwest the Taihang Mountains intrude partially into Henan's borders; to the west the Qinling Mountains enter Henan from the west and end about halfway across Henan, with branches (such as the Funiu Mountains) extending northwards and southwards. To the far south, the Dabie Mountains separate Henan from neighbouring Hubei province.

Henan shares borders with six other provinces. It is bordered to the west by Shaanxi (northwest) and Hubei (southwest), and to the north by Shanxi (northwest) and Hebei (northeast). To the east lie Shandong (northeast) and Anhui (southeast), whose borders meet at a narrow strip of land which separates Henan from Jiangsu to the east.

The Yellow River passes through northern Henan. It enters from the northwest, via the Sanmenxia Reservoir. After it passes Luoyang, the Yellow River is raised via natural sedimentation and artificial construction onto a levee, higher than the surrounding land. From here onwards, the Yellow River divides the Hai He watershed to the north and the Huai He watershed to the south. The Huai He itself originates in southern Henan. The southwestern corner of Henan, around Nanyang, is part of the drainage basin of the Han Shui River across the border in Hubei.

There are many reservoirs in Henan. Major ones include the Danjiangkou Reservoir on the border with Hubei, the Sanmenxia Reservoir, the Suyahu Reservoir, the Baiguishan Reservoir, the Nanwan Reservoir, and the Banqiao Reservoir.

Henan has a temperate continental climate, with most rainfall in summer. Temperatures average about 0°C in January, and 27 to 28°C in July.

Zhengzhou is the province's capital and most populous city. Other major cities include Kaifeng, Luoyang, Xinxiang, Anyang, Luohe, and Xuchang.

Administrative divisions

Henan is divided into seventeen prefecture-level divisions – all prefecture-level cities – and one directly administered county-level city.The prefecture-level cities are:

Map # Name Hanzi Hanyu Pinyin Administrative Seat
File:Henan prfc
Prefecture-level city
1 Zhengzhou 郑州市 Zhèngzhōu Shì Zhongyuan District
2 Anyang 安阳市 Ānyáng Shì Beiguan District
3 Hebi 鹤壁市 Hèbì Shì Qibin District
4 Jiaozuo 焦作市 Jiāozuò Shì Jiefang District
5 Kaifeng 开封市 Kāifēng Shì Gulou District
6 Luohe 漯河市 Luòhé Shì Yancheng District
7 Luoyang 洛阳市 Luòyáng Shì Xigong District
8 Nanyang 南阳市 Nányáng Shì Wolong District
9 Pingdingshan 平顶山市 Píngdǐngshān Shì Xinhua District
10 Puyang 濮阳市 Púyáng Shì Hualong District
11 Sanmenxia 三门峡市 Sānménxiá Shì Hubin District
12 Shangqiu 商丘市 Shāngqiū Shì Liangyuan District
13 Xinxiang 新乡市 Xīnxiāng Shì Weibin District
14 Xinyang 信阳市 Xìnyáng Shì Shihe District
15 Xuchang 许昌市 Xǔchāng Shì Weidu District
16 Zhoukou 周口市 Zhōukǒu Shì Chuanhui District
17 Zhumadian 驻马店市 Zhùmǎdiàn Shì Yicheng District
Sub-prefecture-level city
18 Jiyuan 济源市 Jǐyuán Shì Jiyuan

The seventeen prefecture-level divisions and one directly administered county-level city of Henan are subdivided into 159 county-level divisions (50 districts, twenty-one county-level cities, and 88 counties; Jiyuan is counted as a county-level city here). Those are in turn divided into 2440 township-level divisions (866 towns, 1234 townships, twelve ethnic townships, and 328 subdistricts).

Demographics

Henan is the most populous province of China, with a population of 97,170,000 in 2004. If it were its own country, it would be the twelfth most populous, just behind Mexico. However, Sichuan used to be more populous before Chongqing city was carved out of it. Also, when considering migrants, Guangdong has the highest population in China, despite Hainan being splintered off of it.

Just under 99% of Henan's population is Han Chinese, while Hui account for virtually all the remaining 1%. It is the third most populous sub-national division in the world, after Uttar Pradesh and Maharashtra of India.

Along with Jiangxi, Henan has one of the most gender imbalanced ratios in China at over 140 males for 100 females in the 1-4 age group.[6]

Politics

The Government of Henan is structured in a dual party-government system like all other governing institutions in mainland China.

The Governor of Henan is the highest ranking official in the People's Government of Henan. However, in the province's dual party-government governing system, the Governor has less power than the Henan Communist Party of China Provincial Committee Secretary, colloquially termed the "Henan CPC Party Chief".

Economy

Henan is a major economy in China and is ranked 5th in GDP in China (after Guangdong, Jiangsu, Shandong and Zhejiang). Like most other inland regions, it lags behind the coastal region economically. Since undergoing reforms, however, the speed of economic development has increased by an average of about 10% each year for the past twenty years. In 2009, Henan's nominal GDP was 1.94 trillion RMB (US$280 billion)[3], a year-on-year rise of 10.7%. Its GDP per capita in 2009 was 21,073 RMB (US$3,085). In 2009, Henan's primary, secondary, and tertiary industries were worth 277 billion RMB (US$40 billion), 1.097 trillion RMB (US$160 billion), and 563 billion RMB (US$82 billion), respectively. An industrial system of light textiles, food, metallurgy, petrol, building materials, chemical industry, machinery and electronics has been formed. Nearly one hundred products, such as coal, industrial cord fabrics, fridges, aluminium, color glass cases, gold, meat products, tires, chemical fibers, glass, cement, generated energy, and others are an important part of the national market. Industrial sales reached 2.53 trillion RMB in 2008. [7]

Henan is actively trying to build an open economy. In 2008, the total trade volume (import and export) was US$17.5 billion, including US$10.7 billion for exports. Since 2002, 7,111 foreign enterprises have been approved, and foreign funds (FDI) of US$10.64 billion have been used in contracts with a realized FDI of US$5.3 billion. Foreign exchanges are increasing continuously. Friendly provincial relationships have been established with 16 states (districts) in the United States, Japan, Russia, France, Germany, and others. Some cities of Henan have established friendly relationships (sister city) with thirty-two foreign cities.

Henan is an agricultural province, leading the provinces of China in wheat and sesame production, and is third place overall in terms of total grain output. Cotton, rice, and maize are also important crops in Henan.

There are several important centers of coal production in Henan, including Pingdingshan, Yima, and Jiaozuo. Luanchuan County in western Henan is an important center of molybdenum extraction. Electricity generation is another important industry of Henan.

Economic and Technological Development Zones

  • Zhengzhou New & Hi-Tech Industries Development Zone

Zhengzhou High & New Technology Industries Development Zone was established in 1988, and approved by the state Council of PRC to be a state development zone on Mar.6,1991. It was appraised to be advanced high tech zone of China respectively in 1993, 1998 and 2002. The Zone currently covers a total area of 18.6 square kilometers. An extension plan was approved by Zhengzhou Municipal Government, the various construction work started in 2004. Under the development strategy of “multiple parks in one zone”, the Zone has been making great efforts to promote the development of software,information technologies, new materials, bio-pharmaceutical and photo-machinery-electronic industries.[4]

  • Zhengzhou Economic and Technological Development Zone

Zhengzhou Economic and Technological Development Zone was approved as state-level development zone on February 13, 2000. The zone has a developed area of 7 square kilometers. Industries encouraged include Electronics Assembly & Manufacturing, Telecommunications Equipment, Trading and Distribution, Biotechnology/Pharmaceuticals, Instruments & Industrial Equipment Production, Medical Equipment and Supplies, Shipping/Warehousing/Logistics and Heavy Industry.[5]

  • Zhengzhou Export Processing Area

Zhengzhou (Henan) Export Processing Zone was established on June 21, 2002 with approval by the state council. Its planned area is 2.7 square kilometers. Zone A is located in Zhengzhou National Economic & technological Development Area and began to operate on June 1, 2004. The area of land developed is 0.893 square kilometers at present. Zone B is located in Zhengzhou Airport Area and is adjacent to Zhengzhou Xinzheng International Airport on the north and it covers a planned area of 5 square kilometers with bonded logistics zone, bonded processing zone and supporting industry zone, etc.[6]

Culture

Most of Henan speaks dialects of the Mandarin group of dialects spoken in northern and southwestern China. Linguists put these dialects into the category of "Zhongyuan Mandarin". The northwestern corner of Henan is an exception, where people speak Jin dialects instead. The dialects of Henan are collectively called "the Henan dialect" in popular usage, with easily identifiable stereotypical features.

Henan opera (Yuju) is the local form of Chinese opera; it is also famous and popular across the rest of China. Henan Quju and Henan Yuediao are also important local opera forms.

Henan cuisine is the local cuisine, with traditions such as the Luoyang Shuixi (Luoyang "Water Table", consisting entirely of various soups, etc.); Xinyang Duncai (Xinyang brewed vegetables), and the traditional cuisine of Kaifeng.

Important traditional art and craft products include: Junci, a type of porcelain originating in Yuzhou noted for its unpredictable colour patterns; the jade carvings of Zhenping; and Luoyang's Tangsancai ("Tang Three Colours"), which are earthenware figurines made in the traditional style of the Tang Dynasty.

Notable people

Transportation

Two important railway arteries, the Jingguang Railway (Beijing-Guangzhou) and the Longhai Railway (Lianyungang-Lanzhou), pass through Henan and cross at Zhengzhou, the provincial capital. The Jingjiu Railway (Beijing-Kowloon) also passes through Henan.

With the recent completion of the Zhengzhou-Xinxiang expressway, there is an expressway that now crosses Henan from north to south, as part of a longer line linking Beijing with Shenzhen. Another expressway crosses Henan from east to west, and more are being built.

Xinzheng Airport is the province's main airport.

Tourism

Henan is located in the Yellow River valley where ancient people lived. Earlier in the New Stone Age, the light of civilization had appeared and the delicate potteries in the Peiligang Culture and Yangshao Culture, and the character signs and musical instruments 8,000 years ago have filled the present world and the ancient times with wonders. Three of the Seven Ancient Capitals of China are in Henan: Luoyang, Kaifeng and Anyang. Henan is one of the provinces that has the most historical relics in the country. There are 16 key national units of protecting historical relics and 267 provincial units of protecting historical relics. The over-ground historical relics are the second in China in number. Historical relics in museums take up one-eighth of those in China, and the underground historical relics are the first in China in number. In Henan Museum there are 120,000 historical relics, including over 40,000 rare ones.

Colleges and universities

Public (a partial list)

Miscellaneous topics

Professional sports teams in Henan include:

Notes

External links

File:Flag of the People' People's Republic of China portal


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