Henrietta Anne Stuart: Wikis

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Princess Henrietta Anne of England
Duchess of Orléans
Portrait by Pierre Mignard
Spouse Philippe de France, Duke of Orléans
Issue
Marie Louise, Queen of Spain
Anne Marie, Queen of Sardinia
House House of Bourbon
House of Stuart
Father Charles I of England
Mother Henrietta Maria of France
Born 16 June or 26 June 1644
Bedford House, Exeter, England
Died 30 June 1670 (aged 26)
Château de Saint-Cloud, France
Burial Royal Basilica of Saint Denis, Saint-Denis, France

Henrietta Anne of England, Duchess of Orléans (16 June Old Style 26 June New Style, 1644 – 30 June, 1670), in French Henriette d'Angleterre, known familiarly as Minette, was the youngest daughter of King Charles I of England and Henrietta Maria of France. The Jacobite claims to the throne following the death of Henry Benedict Stuart descend from her. After her marriage to Monsieur, Philippe de France, brother of king Louis XIV, she became known as Madame at court. Her descendants include Prince Henri, Count of Paris, the present Orléanist pretender to the French throne. She is also an ancestor of Juan Carlos I of Spain, Albert II, King of the Belgians, Henri, Grand Duke of Luxembourg and Vittorio Emanuele, Prince of Naples, the pretender to the Italian throne.

Contents

Biography

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England

Princess Henrietta of England was born at Bedford House[1], Exeter, at a time when the English Civil War was raging across the land. Her mother Queen Henrietta Maria, the youngest daughter of Henry IV of France and Marie de' Medici, had fled London arriving in Exeter on May 1, 1644. Her mother was not expected to survive the birth.

After a particularly difficult birth, the princess was put in the care of Anne Villiers, Lady Dalkeith, the wife of Robert Douglas.

By 28th June, Queen Henrietta Maria had decided to flee England and left her daughter at Exeter still in the care of Lady Dalkeith. Arriving at Falmouth in mid July, the Queen was informed that the infant princess had been taken ill with convulsions. On 26 July, she met her father for the first time, Charles I of England. Prior to his arrival, the king ordered that the princess would be baptised in accordance with the Church of England; the princess was baptised Henrietta at Exeter Cathedral on 21st July. The Dean of Exeter, Dr Lawrence Burnell, officiated, and the Governor, Sir John Berkeley, Lady Dalkeith and Lady Poulett, acted as sponsors. A canopy of state was erected in honour of her dignity as a Princess of England.

Henrietta Anne (the "Anne" was added after she was baptized into the Catholic Church) was not reunited with her mother until she was two years old. After her father, Charles I of England, was beheaded in 1649, and a republic was proclaimed in England, Lady Morton brought her to France to live at the court of her cousin, King Louis XIV.

France

At the age of seventeen, Princess Henrietta married her first cousin, Philippe I, Duke of Orléans, who was the younger son of her maternal uncle Louis XIII and the only brother of Louis XIV. The wedding was held at the Palais Royal chapel in Paris on 31 March 1661. By then her brother Charles II had been restored to the thrones of England and Scotland and therefore the marriage was even more politically advantageous. The marriage was unhappy, and her husband preferred the affections of his gentlemen, who vied with Henrietta for power. For this reason, the marriage may have been invalid under canon (and therefore French) law due to a lack of consent on the part of the Duke, and also on the grounds of consanguinity, assuming a valid papal dispensation had not been issued.

Louis XIV was very close to his sister-in-law, and the two may have been lovers. Louis' mourning of her after her death was even greater than that of Philippe, her husband, lending credence to that theory. However, Philippe was extremely jealous of his wife, possibly abusive, and paraded a succession of male lovers before her.

Scottish and English Royalty
House of Stuart
James VI & I
   Henry, Prince of Wales
   Elizabeth, Queen of Bohemia
   Charles I
   Robert, Duke of Kintyre
Charles I
   Charles II
   James II & VII
   Henry, Duke of Gloucester
   Mary, Princess Royal
   Henrietta, Duchess of Orléans
   Princess Elizabeth of England
Charles II
Illegitimate sons included
   James Scott, Duke of Monmouth
   Charles FitzRoy, Duke of Cleveland and Southampton
   Henry FitzRoy, Duke of Grafton
   George FitzRoy, Duke of Northumberland
   Charles Beauclerk, Duke of St Albans
   Charles Lennox, Duke of Richmond and Lennox
James II & VII
   Mary II
   Anne
   James Francis Edward Stuart
Grandchildren
   Charles Edward Stuart
   Henry Benedict Stuart
Mary II & William III
William III
Anne

Popular at court, much to Philippe's annoyance, Henriette was known as a pretty, good-natured girl who enjoyed flirting. She soon attracted the attention of her husband's older brother. In order to hide their attraction from the king's mother and wife, Henriette and Louis invented the story that he was constantly in Henriette's company in order to be close to one of her ladies-in-waiting, Louise de La Vallière. Only later did Henriette realize that the ruse had been so successful that Louis had indeed begun an affair with Louise[2].

Reluctantly and somewhat bitterly, Henriette stepped aside. Later, she seems to have taken one of her husband's earlier conquests, the comte de Guiche, as a lover[3]. This caused all sorts of arguments at the Palais Royal, the Orléans residence in Paris.

The Chevalier de Lorraine

The favorites of Monsieur, invariably younger, handsome men, would dominate contemporary and historical commentary about his role at court, particularly with one man who shared his princely rank and much of his life:

Philippe de Lorraine was three years younger than Philip of Orléans. Insinuating, brutal and devoid of scruple, he was the great love of the life of Monsieur. He was also the worst enemy of the latter's two wives. As greedy as a vulture, this cadet of the French branch of the House of Lorraine had, by the end of the 1650s, hooked Monsieur like a harpooned whale. The young prince loved him with a passion that worried Madame Henrietta and the court bishop, Cosnac, but it was plain to the King that, thanks to the attractive face and sharp mind of the good-looking cavalier, he would have his way with his brother.[4]

Under these circumstances, it is no surprise that Monsieur's first marriage was not a happy one. In January 1670, his wife prevailed upon the King to imprison the chevalier, first near Lyon, then in the Mediterranean island-fortress of the Château d'If, and finally he was banished to Rome. But by February Monsieur's protests and pleas persuaded the King to restore him to his brother's entourage.

Later life

Today, Henrietta is best known through her correspondence with her brother King Charles II of England, with whom she was very close. With her brother, she helped to negotiate the Secret Treaty of Dover (1670), which was an offensive and defensive alliance between England and France. When she visited her brother at Dover, she was accompanied by one of her ladies-in-waiting, Louise de Kérouaille. The English king became fascinated with Louise. After Henrietta's death, Louise was appointed by Charles to become a lady-in-waiting to his wife, the Portuguese princess Catherine of Braganza, and became his mistress.

Henrietta died at the Château de Saint-Cloud, near Paris on 30 June 1670, just two weeks after the treaty was signed. At the time of her death, it was widely believed that Henrietta-Anne had been poisoned by friends of her husband’s jealous lover and exiled favourite, the Chevalier de Lorraine. An autopsy was performed, however, and it was reported that Henrietta-Anne had died of peritonitis caused by a perforated ulcer.[5] At her funeral, the well-known orator Jacques-Bénigne Bossuet conducted her eulogy, the famous Oraison funèbre d'Henriette d'Angleterre. Her widowed husband took Elizabeth Charlotte of the Palatinate as his second wife; she was the daughter of Henrietta's first cousin.

Issue

Despite the marital dissension between Monsieur and Madame, several children were born of the union. Some believed at the time that the King was the real father of Henrietta's two daughters:

Henriette had four miscarriages, in 1663, 1666, 1667, 1668.[8]

By the time of the birth of Anne Marie, the couple was notorious for their constant arguing at court and at home in the Palais Royal.[9] Philippe now had a new lover, and many were aware of the great influence this man had over Philippe.

Ancestors

Titles, styles, honours and arms

Titles and styles

References

  1. ^ At that time owned by the Russel family, Dukes of Bedford
  2. ^ Hartmann, Cyril Hughes (1954). The King, my brother. London: William Heinemann.   OCLC: 2292261 ASIN: B000GBX3JS
  3. ^ Barker, Nancy Nichols, Brother to the Sun king: Philippe, Duke of Orléans, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1989.
  4. ^ Van der Cruysse, Dirk (1988) (in French). Madame Palatine, princesse européenne. Fayard. pp. 165. ISBN 2213022003. "Philippe de Lorraine était de trois ans le cadet de Philippe d'Orléans. Séduisant, brutal et dénué de scrupules, il fut le grand amour de la vie de Monsieur. Il fut aussi le pire ennemi des deux épouses de celui-ci... Rapace comme un vautour, ce cadet de la branche française de la maison de Lorraine avait mis dès la fin des années 1650 le grappin sur Monsieur comme on harponne une baleine. Le jeune prince l'aimait avec une fougue qui inquiétait Madame Henriette et Cosnac, mais qui fit comprendre au Roi que, grâce à la figure charmante et la tête bien organisée du joli chevalier, il aurait barre sur son frère."  
  5. ^ Robinson, James, The History of Gastric Surgery, chapter 20, page 239. The History of Gastroenterology.
  6. ^ http://nygaard.howards.net/files/4/4031.htm Title of Valois
  7. ^ http://nygaard.howards.net/files/4/4031.htm Date of birth
  8. ^ Royal Genealogy, Information on Stuart, Henrietta Anne
  9. ^ ib. Barker, Nancy Nichols, Brother to the Sun king: Philippe, Duke of Orléans.

Titles

Henrietta Anne of England
Born: 26 June 1644 Died: 30 June 1670
French royalty
Preceded by
Vacant
Marguerite of Lorraine
Duchess of Orléans
as spouse of Duke of Orléans

1661–1670
Succeeded by
Vacant<br/Elizabeth Charlotte of the Palatinate

Princess Henrietta Anne of England
Duchess of Orléans

File:Henrietta Anne, Duchess of Orleans by Pierre
Portrait by Pierre Mignard
Spouse Philippe de France, duc d'Orléans
Issue
Marie Louise, Queen of Spain
Anne Marie, Queen of Sardinia
Father Charles I of England
Mother Henrietta Maria of France
Born 16 June or 26 June 1644
Bedford House, Exeter
Died 30 June 1670 (aged 26)
Château de Saint-Cloud, France

Henrietta Anne of England, Duchess of Orléans (born Henrietta 16 June (Old Style) 26 June (New Style) 1644 – 30 June 1670), in French Henriette d'Angleterre, known familiarly as Minette, was the youngest daughter of King Charles I of England and Henrietta Maria of France. The Jacobite claims to the throne following the death of Henry Benedict Stuart descend from her.

After her marriage to Monsieur, Philippe d'Orléans, brother of king Louis XIV, she became known as Madame at court.

Contents

Life

Henrietta was born at Bedford House, Exeter, at a time when the English Civil War was raging across the land. Two weeks after Henrietta's birth, her mother, the Queen, fled the country leaving her in the care of Lady Morton. Henrietta Anne (the "Anne" was added after she was baptized into the Catholic Church) was not reunited with her mother until she was two years old. After her father, Charles I of England, was beheaded in 1649, and a republic was proclaimed in England, Lady Morton brought her to France to live at the court of her cousin, King Louis XIV.

France

At the age of seventeen, Princess Henrietta married her first cousin, Philippe I, Duke of Orléans, who was the younger son of her maternal uncle Louis XIII and the only brother of Louis XIV. The wedding was held at the Palais Royal chapel in Paris on 31 March 1661. By then her brother Charles II had been restored to the thrones of England and Scotland and therefore the marriage was even more politically advantageous. The marriage was unhappy, and her husband preferred the affections of his gentlemen, who vied with Henrietta for power[citation needed].

Louis XIV was very close to his sister-in-law, and the two may have been lovers[citation needed]. Louis' mourning of her after her death was even greater than that of Philippe, her husband, lending credence to that theory[citation needed]. However, Philippe was extremely jealous of his wife, possibly abusive, and paraded a succession of male lovers before her.

Popular at court, much to Philippe's annoyance, Henriette was known as a pretty, good-natured girl who enjoyed flirting. She soon attracted the attention of her husband's older brother. In order to hide their attraction from the king's mother and wife, Henriette and Louis invented the story that he was constantly in Henriette's company in order to be close to one of her ladies-in-waiting, Louise de La Vallière. Only later did Henriette realize that the ruse had been so successful that Louis had indeed begun an affair with Louise[1].

Reluctantly and somewhat bitterly, Henriette stepped aside. Later, she seems to have taken one of her husband's earlier conquests, the comte de Guiche, as a lover[2]. This caused all sorts of arguments at the Palais Royal, the Orléans residence in Paris.

Children

Despite the marital dissension between Monsieur and Madame, several children were born of the union. Some believed at the time that the King was the real father of Henrietta's two daughters[citation needed]:

Scottish and English Royalty
House of Stuart
James VI & I
   Henry, Prince of Wales
   Elizabeth, Queen of Bohemia
   Charles I
   Robert, Duke of Kintyre
Charles I
   Charles II
   James II & VII
   Henry, Duke of Gloucester
   Mary, Princess Royal
   Henrietta, Duchess of Orléans
   Princess Elizabeth of England
Charles II
Illegitimate sons included
   James Scott, Duke of Monmouth
   Charles FitzRoy, Duke of Cleveland and Southampton
   Henry FitzRoy, Duke of Grafton
   George FitzRoy, Duke of Northumberland
   Charles Beauclerk, Duke of St Albans
   Charles Lennox, Duke of Richmond and Lennox
James II & VII
   Mary II
   Anne
   James Francis Edward Stuart
Grandchildren
   Charles Edward Stuart
   Henry Benedict Stuart
Mary II & William III
William III
Anne

Henriette had four miscarriages, in 1663, 1666, 1667, 1668.[5]

By the time of the birth of Anne Marie, the couple was notorious for their constant arguing at court and at home in the Palais Royal.[6] Philippe now had a new lover, and many were aware of the great influence this man had over Philippe.

The Chevalier de Lorraine

The favorites of Monsieur, invariably younger, handsome men, would dominate contemporary and historical commentary about his role at court, particularly with one man who shared his princely rank and much of his life:

Philip of Lorraine-Armagnac was three years younger than Philip of Orléans. Insinuating, brutal and devoid of scruple, he was the great love of the life of Monsieur. He was also the worst enemy of the latter's two wives. As greedy as a vulture, this cadet of the French branch of the House of Lorraine had, by the end of the 1650s, hooked Monsieur like a harpooned whale. The young prince loved him with a passion that worried Madame Henrietta and the court bishop, Cosnac, but it was plain to the King that, thanks to the attractive face and sharp mind of the good-looking cavalier, he would have his way with his brother.[1]

Under these circumstances, it is no surprise that Monsieur's first marriage was not a happy one. In January 1670, his wife prevailed upon the King to imprison the chevalier, first near Lyon, then in the Mediterranean island-fortress of the Château d'If, and finally he was banished to Rome. But by February Monsieur's protests and pleas persuaded the King to restore him to his brother's entourage.

Later life

Today, Henrietta is best known through her correspondence with her brother King Charles II of England, with whom she was very close. With her brother, she helped to negotiate the Secret Treaty of Dover (1670), which was an offensive and defensive alliance between England and France. When she visited her brother at Dover, she was accompanied by one of her ladies-in-waiting, Louise de Kérouaille. The English king became fascinated with Louise. After Henrietta's death, Louise was appointed by Charles to become a lady-in-waiting to his wife, the Portuguese princess Catherine of Braganza, and became his mistress.

Henrietta died at the Château de Saint-Cloud, near Paris on June 30, 1670, just two weeks after the treaty was signed. At the time of her death, it was widely believed that Henrietta-Anne had been poisoned by friends of her husband’s jealous lover and exiled favourite, the Chevalier de Lorraine. An autopsy was performed, however, and it was reported that Henrietta-Anne had died of peritonitis caused by a perforated ulcer.[2] At her funeral, the well-known orator Jacques-Bénigne Bossuet conducted her eulogy, the famous Oraison funèbre d'Henriette d'Angleterre. Her widowed husband took Elizabeth Charlotte of the Palatinate as his second wife; she was the daughter of Henrietta's first cousin.

  • Her eldest daughter died without issue.
  • Through her youngest daughter, Anne Marie d'Orléans, she is a direct ancestor of Louis XV and his descendants, the last Bourbon kings of France before the reign of Louis Philippe, King of the French, a descendant of her husband and his second wife.

Ancestors

References

Titles

Template:Start box |-

| colspan="3" style="background: #FFD700; text-align:center;" |
Henrietta Anne Stuart
Born: 26 June 1644 Died: 30 June 1670

|- ! colspan="3" style="background: #65BCFF" | French royalty |- style="text-align: center;" |- style="text-align:center;" |width="30%" align="center" rowspan="1"|Preceded by
Marguerite of Lorraine |width="40%" style="text-align: center;" rowspan="1"|Duchess of Orléans
as spouse of Duke of Orléans

1661–1670 |width="30%" align="center" rowspan="1"| Succeeded by
Elizabeth Charlotte of the Palatinate |- |


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