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The Right Honourable
 Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman 
GCB


In office
5 December 1905 – 3 April 1908
Monarch Edward VII
Preceded by Arthur Balfour
Succeeded by Herbert Henry Asquith

In office
6 February 1899 – 5 December 1905
Monarch Victoria
Edward VII
Prime Minister The Marquess of Salisbury
Arthur Balfour
Preceded by Sir William Harcourt
Succeeded by Arthur Balfour

In office
18 August 1892 – 21 June 1895
Prime Minister William Ewart Gladstone
The Earl of Rosebery
Preceded by Edward Stanhope
Succeeded by The Marquess of Lansdowne
In office
6 February 1886 – 20 July 1886
Prime Minister William Ewart Gladstone
Preceded by The Earl of Cranbrook
Succeeded by William Henry Smith

In office
22 May 1907 – 22 April 1908
Prime Minister Himself
Herbert Henry Asquith
Preceded by George Finch
Succeeded by Sir John Kennaway

Member of Parliament
for Stirling Burghs
In office
1868–1908
Preceded by John Ramsay
Succeeded by Arthur Ponsonby

Born 7 September 1836
Kelvinside, Glasgow, United Kingdom
Died 22 April 1908 (1908-04-23) (aged 71)
10 Downing Street, Whitehall, London, United Kingdom
Nationality British
Political party Liberal
Spouse(s) Charlotte Campbell-Bannerman
Alma mater University of Glasgow
Trinity College, Cambridge, United Kingdom
Profession Merchant
Religion Church of Scotland
Signature

Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman, GCB (7 September 1836 – 22 April 1908) was a British Liberal Party statesman who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1905 to 1908. No previous First Lord of the Treasury had been officially called "Prime Minister"; this term only came into official usage 5 days after he took office.

Known as CB, he was a firm believer in free trade, Irish Home Rule and the improvement of social conditions. Campbell-Bannerman led the Liberal Party to a landslide victory over the Conservative Party at the 1906 general election. The government he led introduced legislation to ensure trade unions could not be liable for damages incurred during strike action and to provide free school meals for children.

Contents

Early life

Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman (1836-1908)[1] was born at Kelvinside House in Glasgow, Scotland as Henry Campbell, the second son and youngest of the six children born to Sir James Campbell of Stracathro (1790–1876) and his wife Janet Bannerman (d. 1873). Sir James Campbell had started work at a young age in the clothing trade in Glasgow, before going into partnership with his brother in 1817 to found J.& W. Campbell & Co., a warehousing, general wholesale and retail drapery business.[2] Sir James was elected as a member of Glasgow Town Council in 1831 and stood as a Conservative candidate for Glasgow constituency in the 1837 and 1841 general elections, before serving as Lord Provost of Glasgow from 1840 to 1843.[3] Henry's older brother, James, was the Conservative Member of Parliament for Glasgow and Aberdeen Universities from 1880 to 1906. In 1871 Henry Campbell became Henry Campbell-Bannerman, the addition of the surname Bannerman being a requirement of the will of his uncle, Henry Bannerman, from whom he inherited the estate of Hunton Court in Kent.

Campbell-Bannerman was educated at the High School of Glasgow (1845–1847), the University of Glasgow (1851), and Trinity College, Cambridge (1854–1858),[4] where he achieved a Third-Class Degree in Classical Tripos. After graduating, he joined the family firm of J.& W. Campbell & Co., based in Glasgow’s Ingram Street. Campbell was made a partner in the firm in 1860. Following his marriage that year to Sarah Charlotte Bruce, Henry and his new bride set up residence at 6 Claremont Gardens in the Park district in the West End of Glasgow. The couple had no children.

Campbell-Bannerman spoke French, German and Italian, and every summer he and his wife spent a couple of months in Europe, usually in France and at the spa town of Marienbad in Bohemia.[5]

Member of Parliament

In April 1868, at the age of thirty-one, Campbell-Bannerman stood as a Liberal candidate in a by-election for the Stirling Burghs constituency, narrowly losing to fellow Liberal John Ramsay. However, at the general election in November of that year, Campbell-Bannerman defeated Ramsay and was elected to the House of Commons as Liberal Member of Parliament for Stirling Burghs — a constituency he was to represent for almost forty years.

Campbell-Bannerman was appointed as Financial Secretary to the War Office in Gladstone's First government in November 1871, serving in this position until 1874, and held it again from 1880 to 1882 in Gladstone's Second government. After serving as Parliamentary and Financial Secretary to the Admiralty between 1882 and 1884, Campbell-Bannerman entered Gladstone's cabinet as Chief Secretary for Ireland in 1884.

In Gladstone's Third (1886) and Fourth (1892–1894) governments and Rosebery's Government (1894–1895) he served as Secretary of State for War, where he persuaded the Duke of Cambridge, the Queen's cousin, to resign as Commander-in-Chief. This earned Campbell-Bannerman a knighthood.

Liberal leader

In 1898 Campbell-Bannerman succeeded Sir William Vernon Harcourt as leader of the Liberals in the House of Commons. The Boer War (1899–1902) split the Liberal party into Imperialist and Pro-Boer camps and Campbell-Bannerman had a difficult time in holding together the strongly divided party, which was defeated in the "khaki election" of 1900. However the Liberal Party was able to unite in its opposition to the Education Act 1902 and the Brussels Sugar Convention of 1902, in which Britain and nine other nations attempted to stabilise world sugar prices by setting up a commission to investigate export bounties and decide on penalties. The Conservative government had threatened countervailing duties and subsidies of West Indian sugar producers as a negotiating tool. The Convention would phase out export bounties and Britain would forbid the importation of subsidised sugar.[6] In a speech to the Cobden Club on 28 November 1902 Campbell-Bannerman denounced the Convention as threatening the sovereignty of Britain:

It means that we abandon our fiscal independence, together with our free-trade ways; that we subside into the tenth part of a Vehmgericht which is to direct us what sugar is to be countervailed, at what rate per cent. we are to countervail it, how much is to be put on for the bounty, and how much for the tariff being in excess of the convention tariff; and this being the established order of things, the British Chancellor of the Exchequer in his robes obeys the orders that he receives from this foreign convention, in which the Britisher is only one out of ten, and the House of Commons humbly submits to the whole transaction. ("Shame.") Sir, of all the insane schemes ever offered to a free country as a boon this is surely the maddest.[7]

However it was Joseph Chamberlain's proposals for Tariff Reform (protectionism) in May 1903 which provided the Liberals with a great cause on which to campaign.[8] Chamberlain's proposals dominated politics through the rest of 1903 up until the general election of 1906. Campbell-Bannerman, like other Liberals, held an unshakable belief in free trade.[9] He proclaimed: "...to dispute Free Trade, after fifty years' experience of it, is like disputing the law of gravitation".[10] On another occasion he explained the Liberals' support for free trade:

We are satisfied that it is right because it gives the freest play to individual energy and initiative and character and the largest liberty both to producer and consumer. ... trade is injured when it is not allowed to follow its natural course, and when it is either hampered or diverted by artificial obstacles. ... We believe in free trade because we believe in the capacity of our countrymen. That at least is why I oppose protection root and branch, veiled and unveiled, one-sided or reciprocal. I oppose it in any form. Besides we have experience of fifty years, during which our prosperity has become the envy of the world.[11]

In 1903 the Liberal Party's chief whip negotiated a pact with Ramsay MacDonald of the Labour Representation Committee to withdraw Liberal candidates in order to help LRC candidates in certain seats. Campbell-Bannerman got on well with Labour leaders and he said in 1903: "We are keenly in sympathy with the representatives of Labour. We have too few of them in the House of Commons".[12] However he was not a socialist.[13] One biographer has written: "He was deeply and genuinely concerned about the plight of the poor and so had readily adopted the rhetoric of progressivism, but he was not a progressive".[14]

The Liberals returned to power in December 1905 when Arthur Balfour resigned as Prime Minister, leaving Campbell-Bannerman to form a minority government. Campbell-Bannerman immediately dissolved Parliament and called a general election. In his first speech as premier on 21 December 1905, Campbell-Bannerman launched the Liberal election campaign, focusing on the traditional Liberal platform of "peace, retrenchment and reform":

Expenditure calls for taxes, and taxes are the plaything of the tariff reformer. Militarism, extravagance, protection are weeds which grow in the same field, and if you want to clear the field for honest cultivation you must root them all out. For my own part, I do not believe that we should have been confronted by the spectre of protection if it had not been for the South African war. ... Depend upon it that in fighting for our open ports and for the cheap food and material upon which the welfare of the people and the prosperity of our commerce depend we are fighting against those powers, privileges, injustices, and monopolies which are unalterably opposed to the triumph of democratic principles.[15]

The Liberals swept to power in a landslide victory.

Prime Minister

Campbell-Bannerman

Campbell-Bannerman's premiership saw the Entente with Russia in 1907, brought about principally by the Foreign Secretary, Sir Edward Grey. In that same year, Campbell-Bannerman achieved the honour of becoming the Father of the House, the only serving British Prime Minister to do so to date. Nevertheless his health soon took a turn for the worse, and he resigned as Prime Minister on 3 April 1908, to be succeeded by the Chancellor of the Exchequer, Herbert Henry Asquith. Campbell-Bannerman remained in residence at 10 Downing Street in the immediate aftermath of his resignation, and became the only (former) Prime Minister to die there, on 22 April 1908. His last words were "This is not the end of me".[16] Campbell-Bannerman was buried in the churchyard of Meigle Parish Church, Perthshire, near Belmont Castle, his home since 1887. A relatively modest stone plaque set in the exterior wall of the church serves as a memorial.

Legacy

Statue of Campbell-Bannerman in Stirling.

On the day of Campbell-Bannerman's death the flag of the National Liberal Club was lowered to half-mast, the blinds were drawn and his portrait was draped in black as a sign of mourning.[17] John Redmond, the leader of the Irish Nationalist Party, paid tribute to Campbell-Bannerman by saying that "We all feel that Ireland has lost a brave and considerate friend".[17] David Lloyd George said on hearing of Campbell-Bannerman's death:

I think it will be felt by the community as a whole as if they had lost a relative. Certainly those who have been associated with him closely for years will feel a deep sense of personal bereavement. I have never met a great public figure since I have been in politics who so completely won the attachment and affection of the men who came into contact with him. He was not merely admired and respected; he was absolutely loved by us all. I really cannot trust myself to say more. The masses of the people of this country, especially the more unfortunate of them, have lost the best friend they ever had in the high places of the land. His sympathy in all suffering was real, deep, and unaffected. He was truly a great man—a great head and a great heart. He was absolutely the bravest man I ever met in politics. He was entirely free from fear. He was a man of supreme courage. Ireland has certainly lost one of her truest friends, and what is true of Ireland is true of every section of the community of this Empire which has a fight to maintain against powerful foes.[17]

In an uncharacteristically emotional speech on 27 April, the day of Campbell-Bannerman's funeral, his successor Herbert Henry Asquith told the House of Commons:

What was the secret of the hold which in these later days he unquestionably had on the admiration and affection of men of all parties and all creeds? ...he was singularly sensitive to human suffering and wrong doing, delicate and even tender in his sympathies, always disposed to despise victories won in any sphere by mere brute force, an almost passionate lover of peace. And yet we have not seen in our time a man of greater courage—courage not of the defiant or aggressive type, but calm, patient, persistent, indomitable...In politics I think he may be fairly described as an idealist in aim, and an optimist by temperament. Great causes appealed to him. He was not ashamed, even on the verge of old age, to see visions and to dream dreams. He had no misgivings as to the future of democracy. He had a single-minded and unquenchable faith in the unceasing progress and the growing unity of mankind...He never put himself forward, yet no one had greater tenacity of purpose. He was the least cynical of mankind, but no one had a keener eye for the humours and ironies of the political situation. He was a strenuous and uncompromising fighter, a strong Party man, but he harboured no resentments, and was generous to a fault in appreciation of the work of others, whether friends or foes. He met both good and evil fortune with the same unclouded brow, the same unruffled temper, the same unshakable confidence in the justice and righteousness of his cause...He has gone to his rest, and to-day in this House, of which he was the senior and the most honoured Member, we may call a truce in the strife of parties, while we remember together our common loss, and pay our united homage to a gracious and cherished memory—

How happy is he born and taught
That serveth not another's will;
Whose armour is his honest thought,
And simple truth his utmost skill;
This man is freed from servile bands
Of hope to rise or fear to fall;
Lord of himself, though not of lands,
And, having nothing, yet hath all.[18][19]

Robert Smillie, the trade unionist and Labour MP, said that, after Gladstone, Campbell-Bannerman was the greatest man he had ever met.[20]

George Dangerfield said Campbell-Bannerman's death "was like the passing of true Liberalism. Sir Henry had believed in Peace, Retrenchment, and Reform, those amiable deities who presided so complacently over large portions of the Victorian era... And now almost the last true worshipper at those large, equivocal altars lay dead".[21] Campbell-Bannerman held firmly to the Liberal principles of Richard Cobden and William Gladstone.[14] It was not until Campbell-Bannerman's departure that the doctrines of New Liberalism came to be implemented.[22] Friedrich Hayek said: "Perhaps the government of H. Campbell-Bannerman... should be regarded as the last liberal government of the old type, while under his successor, H. H. Asquith, new experiments in social policy were undertaken which were only doubtfully compatible with the older liberal principles".[23]

There is a blue plaque outside Campbell-Bannerman's house at 6 Grosvenor Place, London SW1. On 6 December 2008 former Liberal Democrat leaders Charles Kennedy and David Steel, now Lord Steel of Aikwood, unveiled a plaque to commemorate Sir Henry at the home in Bath Street, Glasgow. Lord Steel praised his predecessor as Liberal Party leader as an "overlooked radical" whose 1906 landslide victory had paved the way for a succession of reforming governments. "He led the way for the longest period of successful radical government ever, which was continued by Herbert Asquith and David Lloyd George," Lord Steel said.[24]

His bronze bust, sculpted by Paul Raphael Montford is in Westminster Abbey (1908)[25].

Campbell-Bannerman's Government

Blue plaque at 6 Grosvenor Place, London

Changes

Notes

  1. ^ The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition, 2008, online
  2. ^ James MacLehose, Memoirs and Portraits of One Hundred Glasgow Men (Glasgow: James MacLehose and Sons, 1886), p.19.
  3. ^ MacLehose, p. 19.
  4. ^ Campbell [post Campbell Bannerman], Henry in Venn, J. & J. A., Alumni Cantabrigienses, Cambridge University Press, 10 vols, 1922–1958.
  5. ^ Roy Hattersley, Campbell-Bannerman (British Prime Ministers of the 20th century series) (London: Haus Publishing Limited, 2005), .
  6. ^ Frank Trentmann, Free Trade Nation. Commerce, Consumption, and Civil Society in Modern Britain (Oxford University Press, 2008), p. 157.
  7. ^ The Times (29 November 1902), p. 12.
  8. ^ John Wilson, C.B.: A Life of Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman (London: Constable, 1973), p. 394.
  9. ^ Wilson, p. 407.
  10. ^ Wilson, p. 410.
  11. ^ Wilson, p. 413.
  12. ^ Wilson, p. 394.
  13. ^ Wilson, p. 506.
  14. ^ a b A. J. A. Morris, ‘Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman (1836–1908)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, Sept 2004; online edn, Jan 2008, accessed 29 March 2009.
  15. ^ 'Sir H. Campbell-Bannerman At The Albert-Hall', The Times (22 December 1905), p. 7.
  16. ^ "Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman at 10 Downing Street". http://www.pm.gov.uk/output/Page141.asp. Retrieved 2007-01-31. 
  17. ^ a b c The Times (23 April 1908), p. 5.
  18. ^ http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1908/apr/27/the-late-prime-minister
  19. ^ Wilson, pp. 631-632.
  20. ^ Robert Smillie, My Life for Labour (Richmond, 1926), p. 242.
  21. ^ George Dangerfield, The Strange Death of Liberal England (Serif, 1997), p. 27.
  22. ^ W. H. Greenleaf, The British Political Tradition. Volume Two: The Ideological Heritage (London: Methuen, 1983), p. 150.
  23. ^ Friedrich Hayek, New Studies in Philosophy, Politics, Economics and the History of Ideas (Taylor & Francis, 1978), p. 130.
  24. ^ "Plaque unveiled to the forgotten Prime Minister, Glasgow Herald, 7 December 2008". http://www.theherald.co.uk/politics/news/display.var.2473356.0.Plaque_unveiled_to_the_forgotten_Prime_Minister_from_Glasgow.php. Retrieved 2008-12-07. 
  25. ^ "British war memorials · paul montford". http://www.web-mouse.co.uk/remembrance/additionalinfo/britishwarmemorials/hf-ai-bwm-montford.htm. Retrieved 2007-01-31. 

References

  • A. J. A. Morris, ‘Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman (1836–1908)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, Sept 2004; online edn, Jan 2008, accessed 29 March 2009.
  • John Wilson, C. B.: A Life of Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman (Constable & St Martin's Press, 1973).

Further reading

  • Ewen A. Cameron, '‘Maistly Scotch’ Campbell-Bannerman and Liberal Leadership', Journal of Liberal History, Issue 54, Spring 2007.
  • Tony Greaves, ‘Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman’, in Duncan Brack (ed.), Dictionary of Liberal Biography (Politico's, 1998), pp. 69–73.
  • J. F. Harris and C. Hazlehurst, ‘Campbell-Bannerman as prime minister’, History, 55 (1970), pp. 360–83.
  • Roy Hattersley, Campbell-Bannerman (British Prime Ministers of the 20th century series) (Haus, 2006).
  • T. P. O'Connor, Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman (Hodder & Stoughton, 1908).
  • J. A. Spender, The Life of the Right Honourable Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman GCB (Hodder & Stoughton, 1923).

External links

Political offices
Preceded by
John Vivian
Financial Secretary to the War Office
1871 – 1874
Succeeded by
Frederick Stanley
Preceded by
Robert Loyd-Lindsay
Financial Secretary to the War Office
1880 – 1882
Succeeded by
Sir Arthur Hayter
Preceded by
George Otto Trevelyan
Parliamentary Secretary to the Admiralty
1882 – 1884
Succeeded by
Thomas Brassey
Chief Secretary for Ireland
1884 – 1885
Succeeded by
Sir William Hart Dyke
Preceded by
The Viscount Cranbrook
Secretary of State for War
1886
Succeeded by
William Henry Smith
Preceded by
Edward Stanhope
Secretary of State for War
1892 – 1895
Succeeded by
The Marquess of Lansdowne
Preceded by
Sir William Harcourt
Leader of the Opposition
1899 – 1905
Succeeded by
Arthur Balfour
Preceded by
Arthur Balfour
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
5 December 1905 – 3 April 1908
Succeeded by
Herbert Henry Asquith
Leader of the House of Commons
1906 – 1908
Parliament of the United Kingdom
Preceded by
John Ramsay
Member of Parliament for Stirling Burghs
1868 – 1908
Succeeded by
Arthur Ponsonby
Party political offices
Preceded by
Sir William Harcourt
Leader of the British Liberal Party
1899 – 1908
Succeeded by
Herbert Henry Asquith
Honorary titles
Preceded by
George Henry Finch
Father of the House
1907 – 1908
Succeeded by
John Kennaway

Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman GCB (September 7, 1836April 22, 1908) was a British Liberal statesman who served as Prime Minister from December 5, 1905 until resigning due to ill health on April 3, 1908. No previous First Lord of the Treasury had been officially called "Prime Minister"; this term only came into official usage after he took office. In the 1906 general election he led the Liberal Party to their biggest ever majority.

Sourced

  • What do we mean by this Liberalism of which we talk? ... I should say it means the acknowledgement in practical life of the truth that men are best governed who govern themselves; that the general sense of mankind, if left alone, will make for righteousness; that artificial privileges and restraints upon freedom, so far as they are not required in the interests of the community, are hurtful; and that the laws, while, of course, they cannot equalise conditions, can, at least, avoid aggravating inequalities, and ought to have for their object the securing to every man the best chance he can have of a good and useful life.
    • The Liberal Magazine (January 1898), p. 530.
    • John Wilson, C.B.: A Life of Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman (London: Constable, 1973), p. 232.
  • I am half-surprised to find that as I go on I get more and more confirmed in the old advanced Liberal principles, economic, social, & political, with which I entered Parliament 30 years ago.
    • Letter to John Spencer (19 February, 1900).
    • John Wilson, C.B.: A Life of Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman (London: Constable, 1973), p. 326.
  • What is that policy? That now that we had got the men we had been fighting against down, we should punish them as severely as possible, devastate their country, burn their homes, break up their very instruments of agriculture.. It is that we should sweep – as the Spaniards did in Cuba; and how we denounced the Spaniards! – the women and children into camps...in some of which the death-rate has risen so high as 430 in the thousand. I do not say for a moment, because I do not think for a moment, that this is the deliberate and intentional policy of His Majesty's Government...at all events, it is the thing which is being done at this moment in the name and by the authority of this most humane and Christian nation. Yesterday I asked the leader of the House of Commons when the information would be afforded, of which we are so sadly in want. My request was refused. Mr. Balfour treated us with a short disquisition on the nature of war. A phrase often used is that "war is war", but when one comes to ask about it one is told that no war is going on, that it is not war. When is a war not a war? When it is carried on by methods of barbarism in South Africa.
    • Speech at the Holborn Restaurant (14 June, 1901).
    • John Wilson, C.B.: A Life of Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman (London: Constable, 1973), p. 349.
  • All that he said about the clean state and efficiency was an affront to Liberalism & was pure claptrap – Efficiency as a watchword! Who is against it? This is all a mere réchauffé of Mr. Sydney Webb who is evidently the chief instructor of the whole faction
    • Letter to Herbert Gladstone on Rosebery's speech advocating national efficiency collectivism (18 December, 1901).
    • John Wilson, C.B.: A Life of Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman (London: Constable, 1973), p. 371.
  • We are keenly in sympathy with the representatives of Labour. We have too few of them in the House of Commons. ...The Liberal party, high and low, have discovered, if they ever forgot it, that the real road to success...lies in adhering to the old principles of the party.
    • Speech to Liberals in Belmont (2 January, 1903).
    • John Wilson, C.B.: A Life of Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman (London: Constable, 1973), p. 394.
  • ...to dispute Free Trade, after fifty years' experience of it, is like disputing the law of gravitation.
    • Speech at Perth (5 June, 1903).
    • John Wilson, C.B.: A Life of Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman (London: Constable, 1973), p. 410.
  • We are satisfied that it is right because it gives the freest play to individual; energy and initiative and character and the largest liberty both to producer and consumer. ...trade is injured when it is not allowed to follow its natural course, and when it is either hampered or diverted by artificial obstacles. ...We believe in free trade because we believe in the capacity of our countrymen. That at least is why I oppose protection root and branch, veiled and unveiled, one-sided or reciprocal. I oppose it in any form. Besides we have experience of fifty years, during which our prosperity has become the envy of the world.
    • Speech at Bolton (15 October, 1903).
    • John Wilson, C.B.: A Life of Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman (London: Constable, 1973), p. 413.
  • The right hon. gentleman is like the Bourbons. He has learned nothing. He comes back to this new House of Commons with the same airy graces – the same subtle dialectics – and the same light and frivolous way of dealing with great questions. He little knows the temper of the new House of Commons if he thinks those methods will prevail here. The right hon. gentleman has...asked certain questions which he seemed to think were posers. ...I have no direct answer to give to them. They are utterly futile, nonsensical and misleading. They are invented by the right hon. gentleman for the purpose of occupying time in this debate. I say, enough of this foolery. ... Move your amendments and let us get to business.
    • Speech in the House of Commons answering A. J. Balfour (12 March, 1906).
    • John Wilson, C.B.: A Life of Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman (London: Constable, 1973), p. 497.
  • ...the concentration of human beings in towns...is contrary to nature, and...this abnormal existence is bound to issue in suffering, deterioration, and gradual destruction to the mass of the population...countless thousands of our fellow-men, and still a larger number of children...are starved of air and space and sunshine. ...This view of city life, which is gradually coming home to the heart and understanding and the conscience of our people, is so terrible that it cannot be put away. What is all our wealth and learning and the fine flower of our civilisation and our Constitution and our political theories – what are all these but dust and ashes, if the men and women, on whose labour the whole social fabric is maintained, are doomed to live and die in darkness and misery in the recesses of our great cities? We may undertake expeditions on behalf of oppressed tribes and races, we may conduct foreign missions, we may sympathise with the cause of unfortunate nationalities; but it is our own people, surely, who have the first claim upon us...the air must be purified...the sunshine must be allowed to stream in, the water and the food must be kept pure and unadulterated, the streets light and clean...the measure of your success in bringing these things to pass will be the measure of the arresting of the terrible powers of race degeneration which is going on in the countless sunless streets.
    • Speech in Belmont (25 January, 1907).
    • John Wilson, C.B.: A Life of Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman (London: Constable, 1973), p. 588.

External links

Wikipedia
Wikipedia has an article about:

Simple English

The Rt Hon Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman

In office
5 December, 1905 – 3 April, 1908
Preceded by Arthur Balfour
Succeeded by Herbert Henry Asquith

Born 7 September, 1836
Kelvinside, Glasgow, Scotland
Died 22 April, 1908
10 Downing Street, Whitehall, London, England
Political party Liberal

The Rt.Hon. Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman (7 September 183622 April 1908) was a Scottish- born British Liberal statesman. He served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from December 5 1905 until resigning because of bad health on April 3 1908.

Campbell-Bannerman was born in Glasgow, Scotland, in 1836 as Henry Campbell. The surname Bannerman was added to his surname in 1871 as required by his uncle's will. It was a requirement of his inheritance of his uncle's Kent estate, Hunton Court.








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