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Henry III of Castile: Wikis

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Castilian and Leonese royalty
House of Trastámara
Escudo Corona de Castilla.png

Henry II
Children include
   John I
   Eleanor, Queen of Navarre
John I
Children include
   Henry III
   Ferdinand I of Aragon, Valencia and Sicily
Henry III and II of Leon
Children include
   John II
   Maria, Queen of Aragon, Valencia, Sicily and Naples
John II
Children include
   Henry IV
   Isabella I
   Alfonso, Prince of Asturias
Henry IV and III of Leon
Children
   Joan, Queen of Portugal
Isabella I with Ferdinand V
Children
   Isabella, Queen of Portugal
   John, Prince of Asturias
   Joanna the Mad
   Maria, Queen of Portugal
   Catherine, Queen of England
Joanna

Henry III (October 4, 1379 – December 25, 1406), sometimes known as Henry the Sufferer or Henry the Infirm (Spanish: Enrique el Doliente) was the son of John I and Eleanor of Aragon, and succeeded him as King of Castile and León in 1390.

Henry III of Castile on a stained glass window in Alcazar of Segovia, Spain

Henry was born in Burgos, the capital of Castile. Before becoming king, he was known by the title Prince of Asturias, designating him as the heir apparent. After succeeding to the throne at 11, Henry took power at 14. Despite his nickname, he engaged in a vigorous foreign policy and maneuvers during the first few years of the 15th century. He was able to pacify the nobility and restore royal power. During his reign, the Castilian fleet won several victories against the English; Henry sent a naval fleet in 1400 that destroyed Tétouan in North Africa, a pirate base. In 1402, Henry began the colonization of the Canary Islands, sending French explorer Jean de Béthencourt. He deflected a Portuguese invasion with an attack on Badajoz, finally signing a peace treaty with Juan I of Portugal in 1402. He restarted the conflict against the kingdom of Granada, winning a victory at Collejares, near Úbeda in 1406. He also sent Payo Gómez de Sotomayor and Hernán Sánchez de Palazuelos, and later Ruy González de Clavijo, as ambassadors to Timur.

In 1388, Henry married Katherine of Lancaster (Catalina de Lancaster; 1372–1418), the daughter of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster and Gaunt's second wife, Constance of Castile, who was the elder daughter of Pedro of Castile. This ended a dynastic conflict and solidified the House of Trastamara. Henry and Catherine's son became John II of Castile, who succeeded Henry when he died in Toledo, Catherine acting as Regent of Castile because John II was then underage.

Ancestry

Henry's ancestors in three generations
Henry III of Castile Father:
John I of Castile
Paternal Grandfather:
Henry II of Castile
Paternal Great-grandfather:
Alfonso XI of Castile
Paternal Great-grandmother:
Eleanor of Guzman
Paternal Grandmother:
Juana Manuel of Castile
Paternal Great-grandfather:
Juan Manuel, Duke of Peñafiel
Paternal Great-grandmother:
Blanca de La Cerda y Lara
Mother:
Eleanor of Aragon
Maternal Grandfather:
Peter IV of Aragon
Maternal Great-grandfather:
Alfonso IV of Aragon
Maternal Great-grandmother:
Teresa d'Entença
Maternal Grandmother:
Eleanor of Sicily
Maternal Great-grandfather:
Peter II of Sicily
Maternal Great-grandmother:
Elisabeth of Carinthia

Children

All of them by his wife Catherine of Lancaster:

Henry III of Castile
Born: 4 October 1379 Died: 1406
Preceded by
John I
King of Castile and León
1390-1406
Succeeded by
John II
New title Prince of Asturias
1388-1390
Vacant
Title next held by
John II
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