The Full Wiki

More info on Henry VIII

Henry VIII: Wikis

  
  
  

Did you know ...


More interesting facts on Henry VIII

Include this on your site/blog:

Encyclopedia

(Redirected to Henry VIII of England article)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Henry VIII
King of England (more...)
Reign 21 April 1509 – 28 January 1547 (&0000000000000037.00000037 years, &0000000000000282.000000282 days)
Coronation 24 June 1509 (aged 17)
Predecessor Henry VII
Successor Edward VI
Spouse Catherine of Aragon
Anne Boleyn
Jane Seymour
Anne of Cleves
Catherine Howard
Catherine Parr
Issue
Mary I of England
Henry FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Richmond and Somerset
Elizabeth I of England
Edward VI of England
House House of Tudor
Father Henry VII of England
Mother Elizabeth of York
Born 28 June 1491(1491-06-28)
Greenwich Palace, Greenwich
Died 28 January 1547 (aged 55)
Palace of Whitehall, London
Burial St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle
Signature
Religion Christian (Anglican,
previously Roman Catholic)
.Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England from 21 April 1509 until his death.^ Henry ll England, King of .

^ Henry 11 Plantagenet King England .

^ Henry Plantagenet ll King of England .

.He was also Lord of Ireland (later King of Ireland) and claimant to the Kingdom of France.^ John "Lackland" King of England PLANTAGENET Lord Of Ireland & Count Of Mortain .

.Henry was the second monarch of the House of Tudor, succeeding his father, Henry VII.^ Henry (VII, King ofEngland) Tudor .

^ Henry Tudor VII King of england .

^ Henry vii Tudor King of England .

Henry VIII was a significant figure in the history of the English monarchy. Although in the great part of his reign he brutally suppressed the influence of the Protestant Reformation in England,[1][2] a movement having some roots with John Wycliffe in the 14th century, he is more popularly known for his role in the separation of the Church of England from the Roman Catholic Church. Henry's struggles with Rome ultimately led to the separation of the Church of England from papal authority, the Dissolution of the Monasteries, and establishing himself as the Supreme Head of the Church of England. .He changed religious ceremonies and rituals and closed down the monasteries, while remaining a fervent believer in core Catholic theological teachings, even after his excommunication from the Roman Catholic Church following the annulment of his marriage to first wife Catherine of Aragon and the marriage to his second wife, Anne Boleyn.^ Catherine of Aragon (Wife) b.

^ Anne Boleyn (Wife) b.

[1][3] .Royal support for the English Reformation began with his heirs, the devout Edward VI and the renowned Elizabeth I, whilst daughter Mary I temporarily reinstated papal authority over England.^ Elizabeth (daughter of Edward) .

^ Elizabeth Daughter of Edward IV of England .

^ Edward VI King Of England .

Henry also oversaw the legal union of England and Wales with the Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542. He is also noted for his six wives, two of whom were beheaded.

Contents

Early years: 1491–1509

Born in Greenwich Palace, Henry VIII was the third child of Henry VII and Elizabeth of York.[4] .Of the young Henry's six siblings, only three — Arthur, Prince of Wales; Margaret; and Mary — survived infancy, the other three were Elizabeth Tudor, Edmund Tudor, Duke of Somerset and Katherine Tudor.^ Edmund son of Henry VII Tudor .

^ Arthur Tudor, Prince ofWales .

^ Hey Henry, why is the City of McDonough jumping all over the only black owned business that's been on the Square for over three years?

.In 1493, at the age of two, Henry was appointed Constable of Dover Castle and Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports.^ Endd .: M. to my lord Warden of the Cinq Portes, xxvij o Aprilis 1545.
  • Henry VIII - April 1545, 26-30 | British History Online 16 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.british-history.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

In 1494, he was created Duke of York. .He was subsequently appointed Earl Marshal of England and Lord Lieutenant of Ireland.^ John "Lackland" King of England PLANTAGENET Lord Of Ireland & Count Of Mortain .

^ Thomas Plantagenet Earl of Norfolk, Marshal of England, Royal Ancest .

^ Thomas de Holand , KG, Lord Woodstock, Marshal of England .

Henry was given a first-rate education from leading tutors, becoming fluent in Latin, French, and Spanish.[5] .As it was expected that the throne would pass to Prince Arthur, Henry's older brother, Henry was prepared for a life in the church.^ Hey Henry, I would like to thank the gentleman who gave my mother the sign Kindness Shows - Pass it On at the church near Warren Holder Park on November 29.

^ Hey Henry, I would like to pay tribute to Jerry Harris Brannan, born 11/3/46 and passed away 8/9/2005.

^ Hey Henry, many older folks are passing their land to their children who just wish to make money and sell to ones building homes.

[6]

Death of Arthur

.In 1502, Arthur died at the age of 15. His death thrust all his duties upon his younger brother, Henry, who then became Prince of Wales.^ Ryan Plantz Hey Henry, to all the smokers who are currently upset with the smoking ban....

^ Hey Henry, violent music - violent behavior - promoting criminal behavior and Pimp lifestyles and the Bling-Bling of it all = violent death and destruction.

^ A big round of applause to Beau Kelley and all the people who worked on Taste of Henry.

.Henry VII renewed his efforts to seal a marital alliance between England and Spain, by offering Henry, Prince of Wales, in marriage to Prince Arthur's widow, Catherine of Aragon, the youngest surviving child of King Ferdinand II of Aragon and Queen Isabella I of Castile.^ Henry 7th Tudor King of England .

^ Henry 2nd 'Curtmantle' King of England .

^ Henry II of england .

[7]
Catherine as a young widow, by Henry VII's court painter, Michael Sittow, in c.1502.
.In order for the new Prince of Wales to marry his brother's widow, a dispensation from the Pope was normally required to overrule the impediment of affinity because, as told in the book of Leviticus, "If a brother is to marry the wife of a brother they will remain childless". Catherine swore that her marriage to Prince Arthur had not been consummated.^ I was also told that they would not bother yard sale signs because they are temporary.

^ ARTHUR TUDOR Prince of Wales .

^ Arthur Prince of Wales Tudor .

Still, both the English and Spanish parties agreed that an additional papal dispensation of affinity would be prudent to remove all doubt regarding the legitimacy of the marriage.
The impatience of Catherine's mother, Queen Isabella I, induced Pope Julius II to grant dispensation in the form of a Papal bull. .So, 14 months after her young husband's death, Catherine found herself betrothed to his even younger brother, Henry.^ You print my vents on a regular basis, but it takes my husband weeks at a time, or even months to get anything in print.

^ Hey Henry, in recognition of Black History Month, I would like to honor Emily Tubman, who used her late husband's fortune to free his slaves.

Yet by 1505, Henry VII lost interest in a Spanish alliance and the younger Henry declared that his betrothal had been arranged without his consent.
.Continued diplomatic manoeuvring over the fate of the proposed marriage lingered until the death of Henry VII in 1509. Only 17 years old, Henry married Catherine on 11 June 1509 and, on 24 June 1509, the two were crowned at Westminster Abbey.^ I have a two year old and a seven year old, and a thirteen year old.

^ The building is only four years old.

^ I looked in the phone book, lo and behold; there are two places here in good old Henry County that takes both recyclable materials and trash.

Early Reign: 1509–1525

Two days after his coronation he arrested his father's two most unpopular ministers, Sir Richard Empson and Edmund Dudley. .They were groundlessly charged with high treason and were executed in 1510. This was to become Henry's primary tactic for dealing with those who stood in his way.^ Hey Henry, am I the only person who thinks those new xenon headlights are hurtful & distracting for oncoming drivers?

^ Hey Henry, to the Civil War "Expert" stating, "Confederate soldiers are not American Veterans, they were Confederate Veterans" - CSA = Confederate States of AMERICA. Hey Henry, way to go Luella High School Fine Arts Department.

^ Hey Henry, too bad there is not a dumb____ vaccine for the venter who thinks George Bush cheated his way into office!

[4]
Eighteen year-old Henry after his coronation in 1509.
Henry cultivated the image of a Renaissance Man and his court was a centre of scholarly and artistic innovation and glamorous excess, epitomised by The Field of the Cloth of Gold. He was an accomplished musician, author, and poet. .His best known musical composition is "Pastime with Good Company" or "The Kynges Ballade". He was also an avid gambler and dice player, and excelled at sports, especially jousting, hunting, and real tennis.^ Hey Henry, I sure hope the good residents of Henry County realize what an amazingly talented and professional quality theater company we have in our very own Henry Players.

^ Hey Henry, the Henry Players production of "Les Miserables" was probably the best musical I've seen in the last 10 years of HP productions.

He was also known for his strong defence of conventional Christian piety.[5]

France and the Hapsburgs

In 1511, Pope Julius II proclaimed a Holy League against France. .This new alliance rapidly grew to include not only Spain and the Holy Roman Empire, but also England.^ Isabel Empress of the Holy Roman Empire PLANTAGENET .

.Henry decided to use the occasion as an excuse to expand his holdings in northern France.^ Excuse me Henry County....To all those people who complain about how Henry " used to be".

He concluded the Treaty of Westminster, a pledge of mutual aid with Spain against France, in November 1511 and prepared for involvement in the War of the League of Cambrai. In 1513, Henry invaded France and his troops defeated a French army at the Battle of the Spurs. .His brother-in-law, James IV of Scotland, invaded England at the behest of Louis XII of France,[8] but failed to draw Henry's attention away from France.^ Henry IV af England .

^ Henry iv King of England .

^ Henry IV "King of England" 1399 - 1413 Plantagenet .

The Scots were disastrously defeated at the Battle of Flodden Field on 9 September 1513. Among the slain was the Scottish King, whose death ended Scotland's brief involvement in the war.
.On 18 February 1516, Queen Catherine bore Henry his first child to survive infancy, Princess Mary of England, who later reigned as Mary I of England.^ Eleanor England Princess of England,queen of Castile .

^ Hey Henry, congratulation to the girl's basketball team from Henry County High, who qualified for the State Tournament for the first time in 20 years.

^ Hey Henry, the 27 folks who participated in Stockbridge's first peace vigil thank you for covering this historical event.

.(A son, Henry, Duke of Cornwall, had been born in 1511 but lived only a few weeks.^ Hey Henry, in a few more weeks, we will be half-way through the year and into summer.

^ Hey Henry, a few weeks ago I called my bank three times and got no answer.

^ Am I the only one who doesn't understand what kids living in Henry County have to be so angry about?

)

Power and authority

Financially, the reign of Henry was a near-disaster. .After inheriting a prosperous economy (augmented by seizures of church lands) heavy spending and high taxes damaged the economy.^ No wonder there is so much rezoning, landowners can't afford the high taxes on their land any more so they have no choice but to sell.

[9][10]
For example, Henry expanded the Royal Navy from 5 to 53 ships. He loved palaces; he began with a dozen and died with fifty-five, in which he hung 2,000 tapestries.[11] He took pride in showing off his collection of weapons, which included exotic archery equipment, 2,250 pieces of land ordnance and 6,500 handguns.[12]
From 1514 to 1529, Thomas Wolsey (1473–1530), a Catholic cardinal, served as lord chancellor and practically controlled domestic and foreign policy for the young king. He negotiated the truce with France that was signaled by the dramatic display of amity on the Field of the Cloth of Gold (1520). .He switched England back and forth as an ally of France and the Holy Roman Empire.^ Isabel Empress of the Holy Roman Empire PLANTAGENET .

^ Charlemagne of France, Holy Roman Emperor .

Wolsey centralised the national government and extended the jurisdiction of the conciliar courts, particularly the Star Chamber. .His use of forced loans to pay for foreign wars angered the rich, who were annoyed as well by his enormous wealth and ostentatious living.^ Concerning the poor guys who have to blow the Square off using only little handheld blowers: Could the city pay for some nice backpack blowers?

^ Well stop paying on our houses and any other loans we have, go on welfare and food stamps, and stop worrying about everything.

^ Then I read where the Social Security number is issued to all Americans so our income can be taxed and used as collateral to pay off loans from the Federal Reserve.

Wolsey disappointed the king when he failed to secure a quick divorce from Queen Katherine. .The treasury was empty after years of extravagance; the peers and people were dissatisfied and Henry needed an entirely new approach; Wolsey had to be replaced.^ Hey Henry, to the person who responded to my Hey Henry about New Birth Missionary South and told me I needed to "get the plank out of my eye," this is what I have to say.

^ Hey Henry, whoever said that the columnist Julia Dahl needed to go back to New York OBVIOUSLY does not have children in Henry County schools.

^ Hey Henry, I would hate to spoil my husband's new year's resolution, will you please help my husband with his venting!

After 16 years at the top he lost power in 1529 and in 1530 was arrested on false charges of treason and died in custody. Wolsey's fall was a warning to the Pope and to the clergy of England of what might be expected for failure to comply with the king's wishes. .Henry then took full control of his government, although at court numerous complex factions continued to try to ruin and destroy each other.^ Hey Henry, I get so tired of people thinking all African-American people know each other and can in some way control their behavior.

^ Hey Henry: two more banks in Stockbridge robbed today; other robberies took place last week as well in Northern Henry County.

Elton (1962) argues there was a major Tudor revolution in government. While crediting Henry with intelligence and shrewdness, Elton finds that much of the positive action, especially the break with Rome, was the work of Thomas Cromwell and not the king. .Elton sees Henry as competent, but too lazy to take direct control of affairs for any extended period; that is, the king was an opportunist who relied on others for most of his ideas and to do most of the work.^ Does it take the same amount of time for us to find out if a child abuser is working for the Henry County school system?

^ While most may be lazy and sorry people who wont work, I know for a fact that many do want to better themselves and recover.

^ I am sure most of the other poor spelling and grammar that you see on here came as a product of the government school system too.

.Henry's marital adventures are part of Elton's chain of evidence; a man who marries six wives, Elton notes, is not someone who fully controls his own fate.^ Hey Henry, the developer on Hemphill who is willing to donate $450,000 to the county for road improvements is for his own benefit.

^ Just as the car misses the child, the bullet coming from the gun in the hands of someone who has already shot an innocent man hits the child and brings to an end an innocent life.

^ Hey Henry, the Historical Preservation Committee should have to either purchase your property or pay your yearly fees if they can control what you can do with your own property.

Elton shows that Thomas Cromwell had conceived of a commonwealth of England that included popular participation through Parliament and that this was generally expressed in the preambles to legislation. .Parliamentary consent did not mean that the king had yielded any of his authority; Henry VIII was a paternalistic ruler who did not hesitate to use his power.^ Henry (VIII, King ofEngland) Tudor .

^ Henry viii Tudor King of England .

^ Hey Henry, Hell sure will be full to the brim with the people who have roamed this planet and did nothing but served themselves.

Popular "consent" was a means to augment rather than limit royal power.[13]

Reformation

Henry never formally repudiated the doctrines of the Roman Catholic Church, but he declared himself supreme head of the church in England. This, combined with subsequent actions, eventually resulted in a separated church, the Church of England. The pope behaved more as an Italian prince involved in secular affairs, which often obscured his religious role. .The Church treated England as a minor stepchild, allowing it one cardinal out of fifty, and no possibility of becoming pope.^ No one around here is offering you a bail out.

^ No one expects you to just stop and let people out.

^ Hey Henry, I would like to know why Henry County High School allowed to have children playing on their football team who live out of district, and when it is reported, no one does anything.

For reasons of state it was increasingly intolerable that major decisions in England were settled by Italians. The divorce issue exemplified the problem but was not itself the cause of the problem. As long as Cardinal Wolsey dominated the government the widespread sentiment for reform could go nowhere.[14] .Henry's reformation of the English church involved more complex motives and methods than his desire for a new wife and an heir.^ Hey Henry, my new year's resolution is to get more HEY HENRY's than my wife.

^ Hey Henry, Fred Thompson is thinking about running for president, is his new wife old enough to be first lady?

^ Hey Henry, the thought of the City Manager making almost $2,000 more a year as a bonus, and his wife making the same, not to mention the City Attorney, makes Enron looked better managed than our city.

.Henry asserted that his first marriage had never been valid, but the divorce issue was only one factor in Henry's desire to reform the church.^ Hey Henry, are we the only ones not getting our mail put in our own mail boxes?

^ Hey Henry, McDonough First United Methodist Church has outdone themselves this year with a wonderful Vacation Bible School.

^ Hey Henry, am I the only one who thinks new home construction in Henry County will come to a halt if Immigration and Naturalization ever checks the papers on the construction workers?

In 1536–37, he instituted a number of statutes-the act of appeal, the act of succession, the act of supremacy and others-that dealt with the relationship between the king and the pope and the structure of the Church of England. .During these years, Henry also suppressed monasteries and pilgrimage shrines in his attempt to reform the church.^ Hey Henry, McDonough First United Methodist Church has outdone themselves this year with a wonderful Vacation Bible School.

^ Hey Henry, the music played during the Easter egg hunt at Nash farms this year was very inappropriate for children's ears!

The king was always the dominant force in the making of religious policy; his policy, which he pursued skilfully and consistently, is best characterized as a search for the middle way.[15] .Questions over what was the true faith were resolved with the adoption of the orthodox "Act of Six Articles" (1539) and a careful holding of the balance between extreme factions after 1540. Even so the era saw movement away from religious orthodoxy, the more so as the pillars of the old beliefs, especially Thomas More and John Fisher, had been unable to accept the change and had been executed in 1535 for refusing to renounce papal authority.^ There are more people begging for money and its getting old and I am running out of change!

Critical for the Henrician reformation was the new political theology of obedience to the prince that was enthusiastically adopted by the Church of England in the 1530s. It reflected was Martin Luther's new interpretation of the fourth commandment and was mediated to an English audience by William Tyndale. The founding of royal authority on the Ten Commandments, and thus on the word of God, was a particularly attractive feature of this doctrine, which became a defining feature of Henrician religion. Rival tendencies within the Church of England sought to exploit it in the pursuit of their particular agendas. .Reformers strove to preserve its connections with the broader framework of Lutheran theology, with the emphasis on faith alone and the word of God, while conservatives emphasized good works, ceremonies, and charity.^ God bless her for her good works.

.The Reformers linked royal supremacy and the word of God in order to persuade Henry to publish the "Great Bible," an English translation that was a formidable prop for his new-found dignity.^ Hey Henry, great play, great acting, and neat how the Henry Players made me think of Monty Python with their tight English Accents.

^ Hey Henry, I paid a great deal of money to live in English Oaks and my house is falling apart.

^ Then look up and read a published work by the "great" Henry Ford, Sr.

[16]

Dissolving the monasteries

England possessed numerous religious houses that owned large tracts of land worked by tenants. Henry dissolved them (1536–1540)and transferred a fifth of England's landed wealth to new hands. .The program was designed primarily to create a landed gentry beholden to the crown, which would use the lands much more efficiently.^ No wonder there is so much rezoning, landowners can't afford the high taxes on their land any more so they have no choice but to sell.

^ The money taken at the gate goes to the athletic departments because they claim they need that much and more to run their programs.

Henry made radical changes in traditional religious practices. He ordered the clergy to preach against superstitious images, relics, miracles, and pilgrimages, and to remove most candles. The catechism of 1545, called the King's Primer, left out the saints. Latin rituals gave way to English. Shrines to saints were destroyed—including the popular one of St Thomas at Canterbury; relics were ridiculed as worthless old bones. The reforms alienated pious folk who believed in the old rituals depended on the monasteries for religious devotions and helped provoke the great northern rising of 1536–1537, known as the Pilgrimage of Grace. .It was the only real threat to Henry's security on the throne in all his reign.^ Hey Henry, why is the City of McDonough jumping all over the only black owned business that's been on the Square for over three years?

^ Hey Henry, it really makes me sick that the Board of Ed is taking away all of the fine arts programs.

^ Hey Henry, we all have those few pennies laying around that we think aren't really worth much.

Some 30,000 rebels in nine groups were led by the charismatic Robert Aske, together with most of the northern nobility. Aske went to London to negotiate terms; once there he was arrested, charged with treason and executed. About 200 rebels were executed and the disturbances ended.[17] .Elsewhere the changes were accepted and welcomed, as those who clung to Catholic rites kept quiet or moved in secrecy; they would reemerge in the reign (1553–58) of Henry's daughter Mary.^ Call the Henry County Times at 770-957-6314 and they will give you my information if you would like the blanket returned.

^ Hey Henry, am I the only person who thinks those new xenon headlights are hurtful & distracting for oncoming drivers?

^ Hey Henry, those who have recently moved here complain about the traffic and those of us that have lived here forever know how to get around it by going back roads.

Mistresses

.In spite of his popular image, Henry may not have had very many affairs outside marriage and (apart from women he later married) the identities of only two mistresses are completely undisputed: Elizabeth "Bessie" Blount and Mary Boleyn (although it is unlikely that they were the only two).^ Hey Henry (and McDonough), you know what they say, Two Reeves' are better than one (that is, one Reeves and one Reeves-Hubert)!

^ Hey Henry, many thanks to an anonymous, very thoughtful gentleman who picked up the tab at a Stockbridge restaurant for our birthday luncheon!

^ Hey Henry, I thought that was so nice of the two ladies to be out there with their signs walking up and down in the cold as they supported Moye's.

[18]
Elizabeth Blount gave birth to Henry's illegitimate son, Henry FitzRoy. .The young boy was made Duke of Richmond in June 1525 in what some thought was one step on the path to legitimatising him.^ I started feeling better and one young man knew I was very nervous, so he told me to smile and that made me feel so much better.

.In 1533, FitzRoy married Mary Howard, Anne Boleyn's first cousin, but died three years later without any successors.^ Mary Ann Barnette Hey Henry, my father is 67 years old and has worked all his life.

.At the time of FitzRoy's death the king was trying to pass a law that would allow his otherwise illegitimate son to become king.^ My question is if it doesn't pass the first time or even the second how would you know it would the third?

.Mary Boleyn was Henry's mistress before her sister, Anne, became his second wife.^ Mary Ann Barnette Hey Henry, my father is 67 years old and has worked all his life.

^ I just had to say Hey Henry and let you know how much reading it means to me (Mary Ann Barnette).

^ Anne Boleyn (Wife) .

.She is thought to have been Catherine's lady-in-waiting at some point between 1519 and 1526. There has been speculation that Mary's two children, Catherine and Henry, were fathered by Henry, but this has never been proven and the King never acknowledged them, as he did Henry FitzRoy.^ Hey Henry, I thought green lights meant go, and red lights meant stop, and also I thought stop signs meant to stop; I did not know they meant to cruise right on through.

^ Mary Ann Barnette Hey Henry, my father is 67 years old and has worked all his life.

^ Hey Henry, does anyone else out there think that maybe some of the truck drivers on the roads are former pilots?

.In 1510 it was reported that Henry was conducting an affair with one of the sisters of Edward Stafford, 3rd Duke of Buckingham, either Elizabeth or Anne Hastings, Countess of Huntingdon.^ Anne PLANTAGENET, Countess of Stafford .

^ Anne Plantagenet, Countess Of Stafford .

^ Anne PLANTAGENET , Countess of Stafford .

[19] Her brother, the Duke of Buckingham, became enraged and Lord George Hastings, her husband, sent her to a convent. Eustace Chapuys wrote, "the husband of that lady went away, carried her off and placed her in a convent sixty miles from here, that no one may see her."[20]
Henry also seems to have had an affair with one of the Shelton sisters in 1535. Traditionally it has been believed that this was Margaret (nicknamed "Madge"), but recent research has led to the claim that this was actually Mary.[21]
.There are also grounds for suspecting that he had an affair with an unknown woman in 1534. Alison Weir has argued that, aside from these five affairs, there were also numerous other short-term and secret liaisons, most of them conducted in the king's river-side mansion of Jordan House.^ Being a woman myself, I want to tell all these women out there that your car is not meant to be used as a powder room.

^ There are lots of tax paying people that live down these roads that are getting their cars trashed, not to mention their houses!

[22]

The King's Great Matter: 1525–1533

The Six Wives of
Henry VIII
Catherine aragon.jpg Catherine of Aragon
Anne boleyn.jpg Anne Boleyn
Hans Holbein d. J. 032b.jpg Jane Seymour
AnneCleves.jpg Anne of Cleves
HowardCatherine02.jpeg Catherine Howard
Catherine Parr from NPG cropped.jpg Catherine Parr
Henry became impatient with what he perceived as Catherine's inability to produce the heir he desired. All of Catherine's children died in infancy except their daughter Mary.[23] .Henry wanted a male heir, to avoid rival claims to the crown like those which had caused the Wars of the Roses before Henry's father, Henry VII, became king.^ Henry (VII, King ofEngland) Tudor .

^ Henry Tudor VII King of england .

^ Henry vii Tudor King of England .

The disastrous reign of Matilda, England's only ruling Queen to that point, may also have weighed on Henry's mind.
.In 1525, as Henry grew more impatient, he became enamoured of a charismatic young woman in the Queen's entourage, Anne Boleyn.^ Hey Henry, after reading a big chunk of the blog, I realized for sure that the wonderful McDonough where I grew up is no more.

[24] Anne at first resisted his attempts to seduce her, and refused to become his mistress as her sister Mary Boleyn had. .She said "I beseech your highness most earnestly to desist, and to this my answer in good part.^ Hey Henry, I would like to thank Most of the Salvation Army staff and volunteers for making my community service there a good experience.

^ And thank you Miss Georgia Teen, Katie Conkle, for your part in showing teens that setting goals is a good thing.

^ Hey Henry, my husband's doc must be a mime, because when I ask him what the M.D. said, the answer is always nothing.

.I would rather lose my life than my honesty."^ I always get my pets from a shelter, but I would not get my pets from the liberal, better than thou, Humane Society.

^ It has gotten so rude that people in my church and neighborhood have decided that they would rather go to the McDonough Library, than to have those people be very ugly to our faces in front of our children.

^ I think I'm going to like it here, but would rather do all my business with your Welcome Center than to deal with the ones at City Hall.

[25] .This refusal made Henry even more attracted, and he pursued her relentlessly.^ If not we will have even more trailers housing the children of Henry County taxpayers.

.Eventually, Anne saw her opportunity in Henry's infatuation and determined that she would only yield to his embraces as his acknowledged queen.^ Hey Henry, only a heart of stone could be unmoved by the strength, valor and determination displayed in Kilpatricks Charge on August 20, 1864 at Nash Farm.

[1] It soon became the King's absorbing desire to annul his marriage to Catherine.[26] It is possible that the idea of annulment had suggested itself to the King much before he noticed Anne, and it was most probably motivated by his desire for a male heir.
.Henry appealed directly to the Holy See, independently from Cardinal Thomas Wolsey from whom he kept his plans for Anne secret.^ Hey Henry, The Best Kept Secret in McDonough is at Season's Bistro.

Instead, Henry's secretary, William Knight, was sent to Pope Clement VII to sue for the annulment. The grounds were that the bull of Pope Julius II was obtained by false pretences, because Catherine's brief marriage to the sickly Arthur had been consummated. .Henry also petitioned, in the event of annulment, a dispensation to marry again to any woman even in the first degree of affinity, whether the affinity was contracted by lawful or unlawful connection.^ Hey Henry, the 27 folks who participated in Stockbridge's first peace vigil thank you for covering this historical event.

This clearly had reference to Anne.[1]
Catherine of Aragon, first queen of Henry VIII.
.However, as the pope was at that time imprisoned by Emperor Charles V, Knight had difficulty in getting access to him, and so only managed to obtain the conditional dispensation for a new marriage.^ Hey Henry, each time I pick up a newspaper I read how much more space and new buildings the county has obtained.

^ The highest paid city manager in the state...he makes more than Sonny Purdue, and his wife who works for him, and keeps getting raises.

.Henry now had no choice but to put the matter into the hands of Wolsey.^ Hey Henry, I am now convinced that I did the right thing by putting my child in private school last year.

.Wolsey did all he could to secure a decision in the King's favour, going so far as to arrange an ecclesiastical court to meet in England, with a representative from the Pope.^ Hey Henry, are we going to continue to let HCBOE make all of our decisions.

[1] .Shakespeare's play, Henry VIII, accurately records Catherine of Aragon's astounding coup in that remarkable courtroom in Act II, scene iv.^ Hey Henry, great play, great acting, and neat how the Henry Players made me think of Monty Python with their tight English Accents.

She bows low to Henry, put herself at his mercy, states her case with irrefutable eloquence and then sweeps out of the courtroom, a woman both formidable and clearly wronged. However much this moment swayed those present and the rest of the world to her side, the Pope had never had any intention of empowering his legate. Charles V resisted the annulment of his aunt's marriage, but it is not clear how far this influenced the pope. But it is clear that Henry saw that the Pope was unlikely to give him an annulment from the Emperor's aunt.[27] .The pope forbade Henry to proceed to a new marriage before a decision was given in Rome, not in England.^ Hey Henry, Peeksville & South Ola - Does anyone know if they plan to put a light here before the new schools are done?

Wolsey bore the blame. .Convinced that he was treacherous, Anne Boleyn maintained pressure until Wolsey was dismissed from public office in 1529. After being dismissed, the cardinal begged her to help him return to power, but she refused.^ Hey Henry, since my City Council person Monta Brown, ignored me I will certainly return the favor on his next run for public office.

He then began a secret plot to have Anne forced into exile and began communication with Queen Catherine and the Pope to that end. When this was discovered, Henry ordered Wolsey's arrest and had it not been for his death from illness in 1530, he might have been executed for treason.[28] .His replacement, Sir Thomas More, initially cooperated with the king's new policy, denouncing Wolsey in Parliament and proclaiming the opinion of the theologians at Oxford and Cambridge that the marriage of Henry to Catherine had been unlawful.^ Norf .—Thomas duke of Norfolk, Treasurer of England, Henry earl of Surrey, Henry earl of Sussex, Sir Ric.
  • Henry VIII - April 1545, 26-30 | British History Online 16 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.british-history.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Mountagu, Thomas Bromley, one of the justices of King's Bench, Sir John Seynt John.
  • Henry VIII - April 1545, 26-30 | British History Online 16 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.british-history.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Thomas duke of Norfolk, Treasurer of England, Henry earl of Surrey, Henry earl of Sussex, the mayor of Norwich, Sir [Ric] Southwell, Sir [Rog Town]esend, Sir Wm.
  • Henry VIII - April 1545, 26-30 | British History Online 16 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.british-history.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

.As Henry began to deny the authority of the Pope, More's qualms grew.^ Hey Henry, after reading a big chunk of the blog, I realized for sure that the wonderful McDonough where I grew up is no more.

.A year later, Queen Catherine was banished from court and her old rooms were given to Anne.^ Mary Ann Barnette Hey Henry, my father is 67 years old and has worked all his life.

With Wolsey gone, Anne now had considerable power over government appointments and political matters. She was an unusually educated and intellectual woman for her age, and was a keenly absorbed and engaged with the ideas of the Protestant Reformers. When Archbishop of Canterbury William Warham died, Anne had the Boleyn family's chaplain, Thomas Cranmer, appointed to the vacant position. Through the intervention of the King of France, this was conceded by Rome, the pallium being granted to him by Clement.[29]
The breaking of the power of Rome in England proceeded slowly. In 1532, a lawyer who was a supporter of Anne, Thomas Cromwell, brought before Parliament a number of acts including the Supplication against the Ordinaries and the Submission of the Clergy, which recognised Royal Supremacy over the church. .Following these acts, Thomas More resigned as Chancellor, leaving Cromwell as Henry's chief minister.^ Hey Henry, tell all these Bush bashers they need to look up some facts for themselves instead of following the lies of the Democrats.

^ Hey Henry, if the Chief of Police for McDonough was...more concerned about getting rid of crime, then the issue would be mass transit.

[30]

Second marriage

.Henry attended a meeting with the French king at Calais in the winter of 1532, in which he enlisted the support of Francis I of France for his new marriage.^ Hey Henry, you better start attending your Henry County Board of Commissioner's meetings unless you want your County run by a vocal minority.

^ At the Easter Egg Hunt, they had the Mr. Miss Special Henry County Queens and Kings to attend and also provided a hunt especially for people with special needs.

[31] Immediately upon returning to Dover in England, Henry and Anne went through a secret wedding service.[32] .She soon became pregnant and there was a second wedding service, which took place in London on 25 January 1533. Events now began to move quickly.^ Appears no employee there is over 25 and has no clue on how to run the place.

^ The 13 and under team took second place in a crowded field of 34 teams at the YBOA Georgia State Tournament this weekend.

On 23 May 1533, Cranmer, sitting in judgment at a special court convened at Dunstable Priory to rule on the validity of the king's marriage to Catherine of Aragon, declared the marriage of Henry and Catherine null and void. .Five days later, on 28 May 1533, Cranmer declared the marriage of Henry and Anne to be good and valid.^ Hey Henry, Speaker Pelosi talked about five-day work weeks and financial responsibility when she took over.

[33]
.Catherine was formally stripped of her title as queen, and Anne was consequently crowned queen consort on 1 June 1533. The queen gave birth slightly prematurely on 7 September 1533. Anne had given birth to a girl who was christened Elizabeth, in honour of Henry's mother, Elizabeth of York.^ Hey Henry, I would like to thank the gentleman who gave my mother the sign Kindness Shows - Pass it On at the church near Warren Holder Park on November 29.

^ Lets get smart around here, OK. Hey Henry, what is with our teenager girls who are Cheerleaders walking around with their back sides showing.

^ Hey Henry, to the person who responded to my Hey Henry about New Birth Missionary South and told me I needed to "get the plank out of my eye," this is what I have to say.

[34] Rejecting the decisions of the Pope, Parliament validated the marriage of Henry and Anne with the Act of Succession 1533. .Catherine's daughter, Lady Mary, was declared illegitimate, and Anne's issue were declared next in the line of succession.^ Paston, dec., which Sir Gilbert and Anne left issue Elizabeth, Mary, and the said Margaret.
  • Henry VIII - April 1545, 26-30 | British History Online 16 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.british-history.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

Most notable in this declaration was a clause repudiating "any foreign authority, prince or potentate". All adults in the Kingdom were required to acknowledge the Act's provisions by oath and those who refused were subject to imprisonment for life. Any publisher or printer of any literature alleging that the marriage was invalid was automatically guilty of high treason and could be punished by death.

Separation from Rome: 1533–1540

Anne Boleyn, Henry's second queen, a contemporary image painted when she was 25 years old.
Meanwhile, Parliament had forbidden all appeals to Rome and exacted the penalties of praemunire against all who introduced papal bulls into England. Parliament also prohibited the Church from making any regulations (canons) without the king's consent. .It was only then that Pope Clement at last took the step of launching sentences of excommunication against Henry and Thomas Cranmer,[35] declaring at the same time the archbishop's decree of annulment to be invalid and the marriage with Anne null and papal nuncio was withdrawn from England and diplomatic relations with Rome were broken off.^ Does it take the same amount of time for us to find out if a child abuser is working for the Henry County school system?

^ It took a little more effort than last time to steal this one to satisfy the Snoopy fetish you seem to have didn't it?

^ Hey Henry, if the police want to make extra money, all they have to do is sit and wait at the County high schools until the 3:35 dismissal time.

[29] Several more laws were passed in England. The Ecclesiastical Appointments Act 1534 required the clergy to elect bishops nominated by the Sovereign. .The Act of Supremacy in 1534 declared that the King was "the only Supreme Head in Earth of the Church of England" and the Treasons Act 1534 made it high treason, punishable by death, to refuse to acknowledge the King as such.^ Hey Henry, is it only on Sunday mornings at church that some 'Christians' behave, speak and act like true Christians should?

.In response to the excommunications, the Peter's Pence Act was passed in and it reiterated that England had "no superior under God, but only your Grace" and that Henry's "imperial crown" had been diminished by "the unreasonable and uncharitable usurpations and exactions" of the Pope.^ Hey Henry, the people who want to protect the environment only whine and cry because yes it might not kill you, but it will kill your children or theirs.

^ Hey Henry, to Kibbee Road - have heart and give room for our vehicles to comfortably meet and pass each other on your street!

^ Hey Henry, no, you have not been singled out because of your race.

[36]
.In defiance of the Pope the Church of England was now under Henry’s control, not Rome's.^ Italian infantry to that value, under the command of the Pope's nephew, who is now in the Court of France.
  • Henry VIII - April 1545, 26-30 | British History Online 16 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.british-history.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Hey Henry, and now the church wants to use Mt.

Protestant Reformers still faced persecution, particularly over objections to Henry's annulment.[2] .Many fled abroad where they met further difficulties, including the influential William Tyndale, who was eventually burned at King Henry's behest.^ Hey Henry, isn't it sad that we have so many ignorant and lazy people in our county that they don't even stop to get the facts straight!

^ And who takes that many calls that they have to wear a blinking ear piece 18 hours a day?

^ At the Easter Egg Hunt, they had the Mr. Miss Special Henry County Queens and Kings to attend and also provided a hunt especially for people with special needs.

.Theological and practical reforms would follow only under Henry's successors (see end of section).^ Hey Henry, what would it take to get the Department of Transportation to repair a large pot hole located at the north end of Kinsey Drive in Stockbridge.

^ Hey Henry, I took my children by the Welcome Center on the Trick or Treat on the Square day, only to see a big sign that said We dont have any candy!

^ The feds have sent millions and millions to New Orleans earmarked for levee improvements, only to see it end up in some local officials pockets.

Personal troubles

The king and queen were not pleased with married life. The royal couple enjoyed periods of calm and affection, but Anne refused to play the submissive role expected of her. .The vivacity and opinionated intellect that had made her so attractive as an illicit lover made her too independent for the largely ceremonial role of a royal wife, given that Henry expected absolute obedience from those who interacted with him in an official capacity at court.^ Hey Henry, am I the only person who thinks those new xenon headlights are hurtful & distracting for oncoming drivers?

^ Hey Henry, please continue to remember those families who lost their young boys in October.

^ I'm sure this comment was made by a person who does nothing to volunteer their time to this organization which gives them absolutely no right to say a word!

It also made her many enemies. For his part, Henry disliked Anne’s constant irritability and violent temper. After a false pregnancy or miscarriage in 1534, he saw her failure to give him a son as a betrayal. .As early as Christmas 1534, Henry was discussing with Cranmer and Cromwell the chances of leaving Anne without having to return to Catherine.^ Our roads are just barely wide enough for traffic without having to dodge the green and/or black hazards they leave in the way.

^ Hey Henry, is it true that a McDonough policewoman gave a ticket to a gentleman who rides his bike all over McDonough, and has for years without bothering anyone, for not having a light on his bike.

[37]
The Tower of London, the site of many royal executions.
Opposition to Henry's religious policies was quickly suppressed in England. A number of dissenting monks were tortured and executed. .The most prominent resisters included John Fisher, Bishop of Rochester, and Sir Thomas More, Henry's former Lord Chancellor, both of whom refused to take the oath to the King and were subsequently convicted of high treason and beheaded at Tower Hill, just outside the Tower of London.^ Hey Henry, both McDonough mayoral candidates showed their class, as they refused to address the attempted mud-slinging that started just before election day.

^ Hahahahaha....I just can't convince anyone outside of Henry County that I am living in a civilized place.

^ I looked in the phone book, lo and behold; there are two places here in good old Henry County that takes both recyclable materials and trash.

.These suppressions, including the Dissolution of the Lesser Monasteries Act of 1536, in turn contributed to further resistance among the English people, most notably in the Pilgrimage of Grace, a large uprising in northern England in October, 1536. Henry VIII promised the rebels he would pardon them and thanked them for raising the issues to his attention, then invited the rebel leader, Robert Aske to a royal banquet.^ These are the people I am most scared of.

^ Henry viii Tudor King of England .

^ I wish the people in Georgia would learn the English language too.

At the banquet, Henry asked Aske to write down what had happened so he could have a better idea of the problems he would "change". Aske did what the King asked, although what he had written would later be used against him as a confession. .The King's word could not be questioned (as he was held as God's chosen, and second only to God himself) so Aske told the rebels they had been successful and they could disperse and go home.^ Can you imagine; they could have shored up the levee and that dam would still have held if they had the funds.

^ Hey Henry, I heard the polite mechanic ask the manager if he should go ahead and change the oil in the lady's car....3 months but only 300 miles.

^ First they told me they're open until 4:30 - on Monday and Thursday only, mind you, which seems ridiculous.

.However, because Henry saw the rebels as traitors, he did not feel obliged to keep his promises.^ Hey Henry, how come my dog was not pet of the week, I submitted his picture a long time ago and his feelings are hurt because he hasn't been in it.

^ Hey Henry, Tim Coley promised speed bumps at Warren Holder Park, because people were acting as if this was a freeway and going top speed.

.The rebels realised that the King was not keeping his promises and rebelled again later that year, but their strength was less in the second attempt and the King ordered the rebellion crushed.^ Students may not appreciate them now, but I promise 15-20 years later, they will mean so much to them.

The leaders, including Aske, were arrested and executed for treason.

Execution of Anne Boleyn

On 8 January 1536 news reached the king and the queen that Catherine of Aragon had died. .Upon hearing the news of her death, Henry and Anne reportedly decked themselves in bright yellow clothing, yellow being the colour of mourning in Spain at the time.^ Hey Henry, to whoever stole the brand new, bright yellow cones from (a local school's) parking lot Friday night; shame on you!

^ Hey Henry, to the person in the March 1 edition who said "whats up with the new homes being built across from Publix on Hwy.

^ Hey Henry, each time I pick up a newspaper I read how much more space and new buildings the county has obtained.

Henry called for public displays of joy regarding Catherine's death. The queen was pregnant again, and she was aware of the consequences if she failed to give birth to a son. .Her life could be in danger, as with both wives dead, Henry would be free to remarry and no one could claim that the union was illegal.^ Hey Henry, if one were to examine the sign permits for the new sign on the Square in McDonough, one would find that it is probably an illegal sign.

^ Hey Henry, the McDonough city council ruled that no videotaping would be allowed at council meetings.

^ Hey Henry, I thought a person had to be dead before a park or public road could be named after them.

Later that month, the King was unhorsed in a tournament and was badly injured. It seemed for a time that the King's life was in danger. When news of this accident reached the queen she was sent into shock and miscarried a male child that was about 15 weeks old. This happened on the very day of Catherine’s funeral, 29 January 1536. For most observers, this personal loss was the beginning of the end of the royal marriage.[38]
Given the King's desperate desire for a son, the sequence of Anne's pregnancies has attracted much interest. .Author Mike Ashley speculated that Anne had two stillborn children after Elizabeth's birth and before the birth of the male child she miscarried in 1536.[39] Most sources attest only to the birth of Elizabeth in September 1533, a possible miscarriage in the summer of 1534, and the miscarriage of a male child, of almost four months gestation, in January 1536.[40] As Anne recovered from what would be her final miscarriage, Henry declared that his marriage had been the product of witchcraft.^ Hey Henry, are the Locust Grove Police waiting for a child to get hurt before they begin to enforce the helmet law?

^ Hey Henry, I would like to thank Most of the Salvation Army staff and volunteers for making my community service there a good experience.

^ Hey Henry, in response to "Cultural diversity vs. I would like to give some "white" insight to the author of that article.

The King's new mistress, Jane Seymour, was quickly moved into new quarters. This was followed by Anne's brother, George Boleyn, being refused a prestigious court honour, the Order of the Garter, which was instead given to Jane Seymour's brother.[41]
Five men, including Anne's own brother, were arrested on charges of incest and treason, accused of having sexual relationships with the queen.[42] On 2 May 1536 Anne was arrested and taken to the Tower of London. She was accused of adultery, incest and high treason.[43] Although the evidence against them was unconvincing, the accused were found guilty and condemned to death by the peers. George Boleyn and the other accused men were executed on 17 May 1536. At 8 a.m. on 19 May 1536, the queen was executed on Tower Green. She knelt upright, in the French style of executions. The execution was swift and consisted of a single stroke.[44]
Jane Seymour would become Henry's third wife.

Birth of a prince

.One day after Anne's execution in 1536 Henry became engaged to Jane Seymour, one of the Queen's ladies-in-waiting to whom the king had been showing favour for some time.^ I have dealt with some rude people in my time, but those ladies at City Hall in your lovely town, take the cake.

^ I just have one question, during the times that Henry County was on odd/even watering days, why was it okay for the businesses in the industrial parks in and around McDonough to continually water their lawns every day of the week?

^ Hey Henry, Mayor Copeland seems to be returning some political favors hiring 4 people who worked in his campaign: one being his executive assistant and one being the new city clerk.

They were married 10 days later. .At about the same time as this, his third marriage, Henry granted his assent to the Laws in Wales Act 1535, which legally annexed Wales, uniting England and Wales into one unified nation.^ Does it take the same amount of time for us to find out if a child abuser is working for the Henry County school system?

^ Hey Henry, how about those ELCA Varsity Softball players, 3-time Region 5A Champs and two time State Division A Champs!

^ Hey Henry, did you know that it cost about $7 to get into one high school football game in Henry County.

.This was followed by the Act of Succession 1536, which declared Henry's children by Queen Jane to be next in the line of succession and declared both the Lady Mary and the Lady Elizabeth illegitimate, thus excluding them from the throne.^ Hey Henry, I have been walking my dog at Heritage Park for the past two weeks and I noticed that the sewer line coming from the bathroom is overflowing next to the playground.

^ Hey Henry, standing in line at the tag office today, a lady behind me was talking on her cell and to be honest, she was loud.

The king was granted the power to further determine the line of succession in his will. In 1537, Jane gave birth to a son, Prince Edward, the future Edward VI. The birth was difficult and the queen died at Hampton Court Palace on 24 October 1537 from an infection. After Jane's death, the entire court mourned with Henry for an extended period. .Henry considered Jane to be his "true" wife, being the only one who had given him the male heir he so desperately sought.^ I thought I was the only one in this county who sees the President for what he really is.

^ Hey Henry, am I the only one who thinks new home construction in Henry County will come to a halt if Immigration and Naturalization ever checks the papers on the construction workers?

^ Hey Henry, in answer to the person who questioned why they were more houses being built in the subdivision on Racetrack Road and why they are so close together.

He was later to be buried next to her at his death.

Final years: 1540–1547

Henry around 1539 or 1540
In 1540, Henry sanctioned the destruction of shrines to saints. At this time, Henry desired to marry once again to ensure the succession. .Thomas Cromwell, created Earl of Essex, suggested Anne, the sister of the Protestant Duke of Cleves, who was seen as an important ally in case of a Roman Catholic attack on England.^ Thomas of Woodstock England Earl of Buckingham Duke of Gloucest .

^ Thomas Prince of England Plantagenet Earl of Norfolk .

^ Richard Plantagenet Earl of Cromwell And King of The Romans .

Hans Holbein the Younger was dispatched to Cleves to paint a portrait of Anne for the king. Although it has been said that he painted her in a more flattering light, it is unlikely that the portrait was highly inaccurate, since Holbein remained in favour at court. .After regarding Holbein's portrayal, and urged by the complimentary description of Anne given by his courtiers, Henry agreed to wed Anne.^ Hey Henry, I agree the GBI should investigate the McDonough city hall situation with regard to city officials James and Nan Lee.

On Anne's arrival in England, Henry is said to have found her utterly unattractive, privately calling her a "Flanders Mare".
Portrait of Anne of Cleves by Hans Holbein the Younger, 1539.
Henry wished to annul the marriage in order to marry another. .The Duke of Cleves had become engaged in a dispute with the Holy Roman Emperor, with whom Henry had no desire to quarrel.^ Hey Henry, since when does it become legal for someone to park in a handicapped space with no permit?

^ Charlemagne of France, Holy Roman Emperor .

Queen Anne was intelligent enough not to impede Henry's quest for an annulment. Upon the question of marital sex, she testified that her marriage had never been consummated. .Henry was said to have come into the room each night and merely kissed his new bride on the forehead before retiring.^ Hey Henry, if you didnt come to Hampton for their Christmas parade and tree lighting, you missed a great night.

^ Hey Henry, I drove by the Square on Friday night, so nice to see so many people come out and enjoy the events.

^ Hey Henry, am I the only one who thinks new home construction in Henry County will come to a halt if Immigration and Naturalization ever checks the papers on the construction workers?

All impediments to an annulment were thus removed.
.The marriage was subsequently dissolved and Anne received the title of "The King's Sister", and was granted Hever Castle, the former residence of the Boleyn family.^ In my opinion as a life long resident of this county, as well as a member of a long standing family of the county, is that Quinn's self-proclaimed title is misleading as well as damaging.

Cromwell, meanwhile, fell out of favour for his role in arranging the marriage and was subsequently attainted and beheaded. The office of Viceregent in Spirituals, which had been specifically created for him, was not filled.
Miniature Portrait of Catherine Howard by Hans Holbein the Younger, 1540.
.On 28 July 1540, (the same day Cromwell was executed) Henry married the young Catherine Howard (also Katherine), Anne Boleyn's first cousin and a lady-in-waiting of Anne's.^ Hey Henry, Fred Thompson is thinking about running for president, is his new wife old enough to be first lady?

^ Hey Henry, on the first day of school, I took my child and was totally disgusted at the clothes that Henry County High School kids are wearing.

^ Hey Henry, to all the young men and women from McDonough First United Methodist Church that are graduating from the different high schools in the Henry County area.

[45] He was absolutely delighted with his new queen. Soon after her marriage, however, Queen Catherine had an affair with the courtier Thomas Culpeper. She also employed Francis Dereham, who was previously informally engaged to her and had an affair with her prior to her marriage, as her secretary. Thomas Cranmer, who was opposed to the powerful Roman Catholic Howard family, brought evidence of Queen Catherine's activities to the king's notice. .Though Henry originally refused to believe the allegations, he allowed Cranmer to conduct an investigation, which resulted in Queen Catherine's implication.^ Hey, Henry, I moved away from McDonough two years ago because I refused to believe that the rest of the world was just like McDonough.

.When questioned, the queen could have admitted a prior contract to marry Dereham, which would have made her subsequent marriage to Henry invalid, but she instead claimed that Dereham had forced her to enter into an adulterous relationship.^ Thanks CVS! Hey Henry, instead of renovating the McDonough library, could the grant be used to actually put some more books in it?

^ Hey Henry, dogs don't have souls...I would hate to be the dog that belongs to the person who made such a knowledgeable comment.

^ Hey Henry, a big thank you to Food Depot for carrying apple juice made from American apples instead of concentrate from China!

Dereham, meanwhile, exposed Queen Catherine's relationship with Thomas Culpeper. As was the case with Anne Boleyn, Catherine Howard could not technically have been guilty of adultery, as the marriage was officially null and void from the beginning. Again, this point was ignored, and Catherine was executed on 13 February 1542. She was aged between 17 and 22 when she died (opinions differ as to her year of birth). That same year, England's remaining monasteries were all dissolved, and their property transferred to the Crown. .Abbots and priors lost their seats in the House of Lords; only archbishops and bishops came to comprise the ecclesiastical element of the body.^ Makerell, abbot of Barlinges, Adam Sedbarre, abbot of Jervaulx, Wm, Wood, prior of Brydlyngton, lords Darcy and Hussey, Sir Robert Conestable, Sir Fras.
  • Henry VIII - April 1545, 26-30 | British History Online 16 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.british-history.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ The only way we can get them to do that is for everyone to ask what the rating is prior to being seated.

The Lords Spiritual, as members of the clergy with seats in the House of Lords were known, were for the first time outnumbered by the Lords Temporal.
Catherine Parr, Henry's sixth and final wife.
Henry married his last wife, the wealthy widow Catherine Parr, in 1543. She argued with Henry over religion; she was a reformer, but Henry remained a conservative. This behaviour nearly proved her undoing, but she saved herself by a show of submissiveness. .She helped reconcile Henry with his first two daughters, the Lady Mary and the Lady Elizabeth.^ Hey Henry, Fred Thompson is thinking about running for president, is his new wife old enough to be first lady?

^ Hey Henry, how come my daughter has to pay $2 for a school locker for the year, but it cost $5 for a P.E. locker for two semesters?

^ Hey Henry, I thought that was so nice of the two ladies to be out there with their signs walking up and down in the cold as they supported Moye's.

.In 1544, an Act of Parliament put the daughters back in the line of succession after Edward, Prince of Wales, though they were still deemed illegitimate.^ Edward (prince Wales) Plantagenet .

^ They put their lives on the line everyday.

^ They spend more money putting trailers out in the back of schools and rezoning kids to other schools than they do on the kids Education.

The same act allowed Henry to determine further succession to the throne in his will.
A mnemonic for the fates of Henry's wives is "divorced, beheaded, died, divorced, beheaded, survived". An alternative version is "King Henry the Eighth, to six wives he was wedded: One died, one survived, two divorced, two beheaded". (Or, more succinctly, "Two beheaded, one died, two divorced, one survived.") The phrase may be misleading. Firstly, Henry was never divorced from any of his wives; rather, his marriages to them were annulled by the Church of England. Secondly, four marriages — not two — ended in annulments. .The marriages to Anne Boleyn and Catherine Howard were annulled shortly before their executions and, although her marriage to Henry was annulled, Anne of Cleves survived him, as did Catherine Parr, so two wives — not just one — "survived". Lastly, four wives — not just one — died during Henry's reign.^ Hey Henry, did you know that it cost about $7 to get into one high school football game in Henry County.

^ Thanks Smead, from one who thanks you for just being in Henry County.

^ I just have one question, during the times that Henry County was on odd/even watering days, why was it okay for the businesses in the industrial parks in and around McDonough to continually water their lawns every day of the week?

Catherine of Aragon died of cancer (although at the time poison was suspected), Anne Boleyn was executed by beheading, Jane Seymour died of an infection sustained from childbirth, and Catherine Howard was also executed by beheading. .Some might argue that the one wife who died as stated in the mnemonic did so by natural causes instead of by execution or murder, but we know today that Catherine of Aragon died of cancer, which is as "natural" as (or no more so than) an infection contracted during childbirth, which resulted in Seymour's death.^ Some of the have nots have more class than the richest people and some of the richest people are of the lowest class.

^ Hey Henry, To the parents of the students who attend HCHS. The Principal stated "that enforcing the dress code at the school is more important than the students education."

^ There is more than one city in Henry County!

.The cruelty and tyrannical egotism of Henry became more apparent as he advanced in years and his health began to fail.^ Hey Henry, in a few more weeks, we will be half-way through the year and into summer.

^ Hey Henry, has anyone realized that six high school volleyball teams from Henry County advanced to the state sectional competition this year, including first year school Woodland High?

^ Hey Henry, isn't bringing in a consultant team that the CFO has personally known for more than 10 years, a conflict of interest?

.A wave of political executions which had commenced with that of Edmund de la Pole, Duke of Suffolk in 1513 ended with Henry Earl of Surrey in January, 1547. Although some sources claim that according to Holinshed the number of executions in this reign amounted to 72,000, the figure referred to "great thieves, petty thieves, and rogues" and the source is not Holinshed but the English clergyman William Harrison.^ Henry de Grosment Plantagenet Duke of .

^ Henry "de Grosmont" Plantagenet 1st Duke of Lancaster .

^ Henry de Grosment Plantagenet Duke of Lancaster .

This inflated figure came from Gerolamo Cardano who in turn got it from the Roman Catholic Bishop of Lisieux.[46]

Death and succession

King Henry VIII died in the Palace of Whitehall in 1547.
.Late in life, Henry became obese (with a waist measurement of 54 inches/137 cm) and had to be moved about with the help of mechanical inventions.^ Life used to be great here in Henry that is why so many of you moved here and now it is the same as the rest of Atlanta!

^ Hey Henry, to the person complaining about Ellistown Road being a dirt road, it was dirt when you moved there.

^ Hey Henry, it's a little to LATE too be trying to do something about the GANGS NOW! They are already here.

He was covered with painful, suppurating boils and possibly suffered from gout. His obesity dates from a jousting accident in 1536 in which he suffered a leg wound. This prevented him from exercising and gradually became ulcerated. It undoubtedly hastened his death at the age of 55, which occurred on 28 January 1547 in the Palace of Whitehall, on what would have been his father's 90th birthday. He expired soon after allegedly uttering these last words: "Monks! Monks! Monks!"[47]
.The theory that Henry suffered from syphilis was first promoted approximately 100 years after his death[citation needed], but has been disregarded by most serious historians.^ Hey Henry, McDonough First United Methodist Church has outdone themselves this year with a wonderful Vacation Bible School.

^ Hey Henry, has anyone realized that six high school volleyball teams from Henry County advanced to the state sectional competition this year, including first year school Woodland High?

^ Hey Henry, congratulation to the girl's basketball team from Henry County High, who qualified for the State Tournament for the first time in 20 years.

.Syphilis was a well-known disease in Henry's time, and although his contemporary, Francis I of France was treated for it, the notes left from Henry's physicians do not indicate that the English king was.^ This is a thank you note to the Henry County Times.

^ Hey Henry, this goes out to all the citizens of Henry County who may go to a "well-known" chiropractor located in Stockbridge.

.A more recent and credible theory suggests that Henry's medical symptoms, and those of his older sister Margaret Tudor, are also characteristic of untreated Type II diabetes.^ Hey Henry, for all those who do not believe God is the answer to stopping terrorism, consider a bumper sticker that I saw recently: Guns kill terrorists.

^ Margaret (Henry) Tudor .

Meeting of Henry VIII and Maximilian.
Henry VIII was buried in St George's Chapel in Windsor Castle, next to his wife Jane Seymour. Over a hundred years later Charles I was buried in the same vault.
.Within a little more than a decade after his death, all three of his royal heirs sat on the English throne, and all three left no descendants.^ I sat there for three minutes at 11:00 the other night, waiting for the light to change with no traffic coming in either direction.

^ In all the courts I have been a juror or observer in a court, the judge and all officials were more than courteous and never used inappropriate language.

^ It took a little more effort than last time to steal this one to satisfy the Snoopy fetish you seem to have didn't it?

.Under the Act of Succession 1543, Henry's only surviving legitimate son, Edward, inherited the Crown, becoming Edward VI.^ Hey Henry, is it only on Sunday mornings at church that some 'Christians' behave, speak and act like true Christians should?

.Since Edward was only nine years old at the time, he could not exercise actual power.^ The building is only four years old.

^ Hey Henry, does anyone else miss the old First State Bank display showing only the date and time?

^ I have been living on Hwy 155 N. since I was 10 years old.

.Henry's will designated 16 executors to serve on a council of regency until Edward reached the age of 18. The executors chose Edward Seymour, 1st Earl of Hertford, Jane Seymour's elder brother, to be Lord Protector of the Realm.^ Henry PLANTAGENET 1st Earl of Lancaster .

^ York, president of the Council in the North, Norfolk, Suffolk, Russell, Edward earl of Hereford ( sic ), Great Chamberlain, C. bp.
  • Henry VIII - April 1545, 26-30 | British History Online 16 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.british-history.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Wilts.— Audeley, Norfolk, Suffolk, Henry marquis of Dorset, Russell, Edward earl of Hertforde Great Chamberlain.
  • Henry VIII - April 1545, 26-30 | British History Online 16 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.british-history.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

In default of heirs to Edward, the throne was to pass to Henry VIII's daughter by Catherine of Aragon, the Princess Mary and her heirs. .If Mary's issue also failed, the crown was to go to Henry's daughter by Anne Boleyn, Princess Elizabeth, and her heirs.^ Hey Henry, our deepest condolences go out to The Hodges Family on the loss of their daughter Angie.

^ VIII., in right of Anne his wife, then dec., one of the daughters and co-heirs of Wm.
  • Henry VIII - April 1545, 26-30 | British History Online 16 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.british-history.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Paston, dec., which Sir Gilbert and Anne left issue Elizabeth, Mary, and the said Margaret.
  • Henry VIII - April 1545, 26-30 | British History Online 16 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.british-history.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

.Finally, if Elizabeth's line also became extinct, the crown was to be inherited by the descendants of Henry VIII's deceased younger sister, Mary Tudor, Duchess of Suffolk.^ Henry viii Tudor King of England .

^ Henry (VIII, King ofEngland) Tudor .

^ Henry VIII "King of England" 1509 - 1547 Tudor .

.The descendants of Henry's sister Margaret Tudor – the royal family of Scotland – were therefore excluded from succession according to this act.^ Margaret Tudor , Queen of Scotland .

^ Margaret TUDOR Queen of Scotland .

^ Margaret, Queen of Scotland Tudor .

Issue

Public image and memory

.Henry worked hard to present an image of unchallengeable authority and irresistible power.^ Hey Henry, will the last hard working, law abiding citizen leaving Clayton County to come to Henry County, please close the door behind you!

^ Hey Henry, dress codes are created to present a professional image of a company, business, or city.

^ Hey Henry, congratulations to Kelsey Spinks of Eagles Landing High School for being selected as one of the High School Scholar Athletes Of The Year presented by Georgia Power.

He executed at will, beheading more English notables than any monarch before or since. .The roll of heads included two wives, one cardinal, twenty peers, four leading public servants, and six of the king's close attendants and friends, not to mention various heads of monasteries.^ I noticed Larry Stanley graced not one but two Henry County publications this week!

^ Obviously the school principal is either so close to retirement that he doesn't care or he doesn't have the nerve to replace the two head coaches.

In addition Cardinal Wolsey died in prison.
A big, strong man (over six foot tall and broad in proportion)[48], he excelled at jousting and hunting. .More than pastimes, they were political devices that served multiple goals, from enhancing his athletic royal image to impressing foreign emissaries and rulers, to conveying Henry's ability to suppress any rebellion.^ Hey Henry, it appears that the City of Morrow is more interested in preserving Historical McDonough than the McDonough Hysterical Preservation Council is.

^ Hey Henry, Why do city councilmembers get more than 5 minutes to rattle on about issues that they are addressing from a personal perspective?

^ Hey Henry, To the parents of the students who attend HCHS. The Principal stated "that enforcing the dress code at the school is more important than the students education."

Thus he arranged a jousting tournament at Greenwich in 1517, where he wore gilded armour, gilded horse trappings, and outfits of velvet, satin and cloth of gold dripping with pearls and jewels. .It suitably impressed foreign ambassadors, one of whom wrote home that, "The wealth and civilisation of the world are here, and those who call the English barbarians appear to me to render themselves such."^ What makes things so bad is that the lucky ones who survive and return home safely are treated like dirt by our V.A. and government.

^ I have met more mean spirited so called Christians who speak with such hatred and do nothing but gossip maliciously about other people.

^ Hey Henry, a lady who needed her kitchen done wrote in and expressed her frustration with the service at the Home Depot in north Henry County.

.Henry finally retired from the lists in 1536 after a heavy fall from his horse left him unconscious for two hours, but he continued to sponsor two lavish tournaments a year.^ Hey Henry, to the person who left two little starving kittens on the sidewalk in front of Subway on Fairview Rd.

^ Hey Henry, congratulation to the girl's basketball team from Henry County High, who qualified for the State Tournament for the first time in 20 years.

^ Hey Henry, I have only been a resident of Henry County for two years now but I am really impressed with Chairman Harper.

[49] .He then started adding weight and lost that trim athletic look that had made him so handsome; Henry's courtiers began dressing in heavily padded clothes to emulate—and flatter—their increasingly stout monarch.^ Hey Henry, to the person who suggested somebody starting a support group for folks who've lost their jobs, why don't you start it?

^ He has recently started looking for another job, but people look at his age and turn him away.

^ Hey Henry, to the person wanting to start a support group for those who have lost jobs.

Henry was an intellectual. .The first well-educated English king, he was thoroughly at home in his well-stocked library; he personally annotated many books and wrote and published his own book.^ Hey Henry, to the person griping about the McDonough library; A: you know nothing about grants, because it is illegal to divert a construction grant to buy books.

^ Counties that aren't in the Pines, and have their own library systems, such as Gwinnet and Dekalb, get books in as soon as they are published.

.He founded Christ Church Cathedral School, Oxford in 1546. To promote the public support for the reformation of the church, Henry had numerous pamphlets and lectures prepared.^ Hey Henry, McDonough First United Methodist Church has outdone themselves this year with a wonderful Vacation Bible School.

^ Hey Henry, to all the young men and women from McDonough First United Methodist Church that are graduating from the different high schools in the Henry County area.

^ Come out and support the Henry County High School Studio 54 Players - April 27, 28 and 29.

For example, Richard Sampson's Oratio (1534) was a legalistic argument for absolute obedience to the temporal power as vested in divine law and Christian love ("obey my commandments"). Sampson cited historical precedents (now known to be spurious) to support his claim that the English church had always been independent from Rome.[50] At the popular level theater and minstrel troupes funded by the crown traveled around the land to promote the new religious practices and ridicule the old. In the polemical plays they presented, the pope and Catholic priests and monks were mocked as foreign devils, while the glorious king was hailed as a brave and heroic defender of the true faith.[51]
Henry VIII was an avid gambler and dice player. He was also an accomplished musician, author, and poet; his best known piece of music is "Pastime with Good Company" ("The Kynges Ballade"). He is often reputed to have written "Greensleeves" but probably did not. .The King was also involved in the original construction and improvement of several significant buildings, including Nonsuch Palace, King's College Chapel, Cambridge and Westminster Abbey in London.^ Feb 1466 in Westminster,Palace,London,England .

.Many of the existing buildings Henry improved were properties confiscated from Wolsey, such as Christ Church, Oxford, Hampton Court Palace, the Palace of Whitehall, and Trinity College, Cambridge.^ It is such a shame there are inconsiderate people in Henry County that would dump their trash on someone's private property.

^ Oct 1537 in Hampton Court,Palace,England .

^ Hey Henry, many older folks are passing their land to their children who just wish to make money and sell to ones building homes.

The only surviving piece of clothing worn by Henry VIII is a cap of maintenance awarded to the Mayor of Waterford, along with a bearing sword, in 1536. It currently resides in the Waterford Museum of Treasures. A suit of Henry's armour is on display in the Tower of London. .In the centuries since his death, Henry has inspired or been mentioned in numerous artistic and cultural works.^ You would think my neighbor would know that since he works for LG PD. Hey Henry, what does an English barber do for a living?

^ Hey Henry, you are correct that you do not have to be a mortician to be a coroner; but at least morticians have a working knowledge of death related studies.

Royal finances

.Henry inherited a vast fortune from his father Henry VII who had, in contrast to his son, been frugal and careful with money.^ Edmund son of Henry VII Tudor .

^ Hey Henry, we have a son who is moderately retarded.

^ Hey Henry, many older folks are passing their land to their children who just wish to make money and sell to ones building homes.

This fortune was estimated to £1,250,000 (£375 million by today's standards).[52] .Much of this wealth was spent by Henry on maintaining his court and household, including many of the building works he undertook on royal palaces.^ Thanks so much to the expeditious and courteous Henry County policeman that stopped and changed my tire for me on Friday, May 16.

^ Hey Henry, I see the county is doing some construction work on the court house clock tower, must be getting ready to gold plate it.

^ Hey Henry, each time I pick up a newspaper I read how much more space and new buildings the county has obtained.

.Tudor monarchs had to fund all the expenses of government out of their own income.^ The New Orleans government is one of the most corrupt in the nation, a black hole for funding of all types.

This income came from the Crown lands that Henry owned as well as from customs duties like tonnage and poundage, granted by parliament to the king for life. .During Henry's reign the revenues of the Crown remained constant (around £100,000),[53] but were eroded by inflation and rising prices brought about by war.^ By the way- what about the other $100,000+ that the city has lost in 2005?

^ Hey Henry, it's sad that we're all excited that gas prices are getting down to what we used to complain about them getting up to!

^ Hey Henry, what's even worse about the ticket prices to get into the football game is that not every football related program gets a share of the money.

Indeed it was war and Henry's dynastic ambitions in Europe that meant that the surplus he had inherited from his father was exhausted by the mid-1520s. .Whereas Henry VII had not involved Parliament in his affairs very much, Henry VIII had to turn to Parliament during his reign for money, in particular for grants of subsidies to fund his wars.^ Undated Grants of 36 Henry VIII. .
  • Henry VIII - April 1545, 26-30 | British History Online 16 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.british-history.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Hey Henry, we're spending too much SPLOST money on that Fairview area.

^ Hey Henry, thanks so very much to Brenda Nail DeLauder for her article on January 23.

.The Dissolution of the Monasteries also provided a means to replenish the treasury and as a result the Crown took possession of monastic lands worth £120,000 (£36 million) a year.^ That particular property holds more principles and meanings than the land is worth.

[54] .But Henry had to debase the coinage in 1526 and 1539 in order to solve his financial problems and despite efforts by his ministers to reduce the costs and wastage at court, Henry died in debt.^ Hey Henry, America does not have a financial problem: it has a stupidity problem.

Legacy

.Though mainly motivated by dynastic and personal concerns, and despite never really abandoning the fundamentals of the Roman Catholic Church, Henry ensured that the greatest act of his reign would be one of the most radical and decisive of any English monarch.^ Hey Henry, I would like to thank Most of the Salvation Army staff and volunteers for making my community service there a good experience.

^ Hey Henry, what is the person's motive and agenda who has written two weeks in a row about restaurant health inspection reports?

^ Hey Henry, Please tell "church lady" that wearing a cross from her neck does make her a good person.

His break with Rome in 1533–34 was an act with enormous consequences for the subsequent course of English history beyond the Tudor dynasty. Not only in making possible the transformation of England into a powerful (albeit very distinctive) nation; but also in the seizing of economic and political power from the Church by the aristocracy, chiefly through the acquisition of monastic lands and assets – a short-term strategy with long-term social consequences. .Henry's decision to entrust the regency of his son Edward's minor years to a decidedly reform-oriented regency council, dominated by Edward Seymour, most likely for the simple tactical reason that Seymour seemed likely to provide the strongest leadership for the kingdom, ensured that the English Reformation would be consolidated and even furthered during his son's reign.^ It seems like school teachers are only liked by politicians during election years.

^ Hey Henry, I would like to thank Most of the Salvation Army staff and volunteers for making my community service there a good experience.

^ During his five-week vacation in Texas, George W. was told that a terrorist attack was imminent and that New York was the most likely target.

Such ironies marked other aspects of his legacy.
Silver groat of Henry VIII, minted c. 1540. The reverse depicts the quartered arms of England and France.
He fostered humanist learning and yet was responsible for the deaths of several outstanding English humanists. During the reign of Henry VIII, as many as 72,000 people are estimated to have been executed.[55] .Obsessed with securing the succession to the throne, he left as his only heirs a young son (who died before his 16th birthday) and two daughters adhering to different religions.^ I especially liked the old crone in the audience who banished two teens talking on their cell phones before the play beganturned out she was part of the troupe.

^ They have only one player who has ever played football before and yet they play from their hearts with no complaints.

^ Of the 94 soldiers from Georgia who have died from the violence in Iraq, one of Stockbridge's sons is among them.

.The power of the state was magnified, yet so too (at least after Henry's death) were demands for increased political participation by the middle class.^ Hey Henry, you are correct that you do not have to be a mortician to be a coroner; but at least morticians have a working knowledge of death related studies.

^ I just dont understand how law states you can not discriminate against age yet everyone in Henry County does!

.Henry worked with some success to make England once again a major player on the European scene but depleted his treasury in the course of doing so, a legacy that has remained an issue for English monarchs ever since.^ Hey Henry, kudos to the Henry County Health Department for finally hiring some food inspectors who are actually doing their jobs.

^ So you actually think that the real issues, the true reality of it all, will be discussed OR will the majority remain politically correct and not say it like it is?

^ These two ladies worked hard and selflessly to make sure everything was taken care of behind the scenes so that the end result would be a great one.

.Scarisbrick (1968) concludes that Henry was a formidable, captivating man who "wore regality with a splendid conviction."^ Hey Henry, I would like to thank the man who stopped and change a tire for my pregnant daughter and grandson on Old Jackson Rd.

^ Hey Henry, to the man who made such a big fuss at the Commissioners meeting about the fire truck blocking the driveway at the school....shame on you!

.But unpredictably his overpowering charm could turn into anger and shouting, for he was high-strung and unstable; hypochondriac and possessed of a strong streak of cruelty.^ Dutchtown High is already eliminating drama next year because too few students could fit it into their schedules with all the state-required courses.

.Smith (1971) considered him an egotistical border-line neurotic given to great fits of temper and deep and dangerous suspicions, with a mechanical and conventional, but deeply-held piety, having at best "a mediocre intellect" to hold these contradictory forces in harness.^ Sounds like he is a person with road rage and might consider having someone drive him before he commits murder.

^ On his best days, he can rise to mediocrity; at all times, he listens to the poison whispered to him by his puppet masters, Rove and Cheney.

English navy

.Together with Alfred the Great and Charles II, Henry is traditionally cited as one of the founders of the Royal Navy.^ Possible Royal Line to King Henry II .

.His reign featured some naval warfare and, more significantly, large royal investment in shipbuilding (including a few spectacular great ships such as Mary Rose), dockyards (such as HMNB Portsmouth) and naval innovations (such as the use of cannon on board ship – although archers were still deployed on medieval-style forecastles and bowcastles as the ship's primary armament on large ships, or co-armament where cannons were used).^ Thanks CVS! Hey Henry, instead of renovating the McDonough library, could the grant be used to actually put some more books in it?

.However, in some ways this is a misconception since Henry did not bequeath to his immediate successors a navy in the sense of a formalised organisation with structures, ranks, and formalised munitioning structures but only in the sense of a set of ships.^ Hey Henry, I get so tired of people thinking all African-American people know each other and can in some way control their behavior.

^ Hey Henry, the intersection of Colvin and Harris Drives has to be the only place in the country where a dirt road (Harris) has the right of way across a $3 million paved road (Colvin).

^ Some of the girls that did not make the team were seniors that have been cheering since Middle School and others girls that had cheered for Varsity Competition for the past 2 years that clearly should have made the team.

Elizabeth I still had to cobble together a set of privately owned ships to fight off the Spanish Armada (which consisted of about 130 warships and converted merchant ships) and in the former, formal sense the modern British navy, the Royal Navy, is largely a product of the Anglo-Dutch naval rivalry of the seventeenth century. Still, Henry's reign marked the birth of English naval power and was a key factor in England's later victory over the Spanish Armada.
.Henry's break with Rome incurred the threat of a large-scale French or Spanish invasion.^ Hey Henry, how many more car break-ins, car thefts, home invasions, burglaries are we going to have before something is done?

To guard against this he strengthened existing coastal defence fortresses (such as Dover Castle and, also at Dover, Moat Bulwark and Archcliffe Fort which he personally visited for a few months to supervise, as is commemorated in the modern exhibition in the keep of Dover Castle). He also built a chain of new 'castles' (in fact, large bastioned and garrisoned gun batteries) along Britain's southern and eastern coasts from East Anglia to Cornwall, largely built of material gained from the demolition of monasteries. These were also known as Henry VIII's Device Forts.

Style and arms

English Royalty
House of Tudor
England Arms 1405.svg
Royal Coat of Arms
Henry VIII
   Henry, Duke of Cornwall
   Mary I
   Elizabeth I
   Edward VI
Several changes were made to the royal style during his reign. .Henry originally used the style "Henry the Eighth, by the Grace of God, King of England, France and Lord of Ireland". In 1521, pursuant to a grant from Pope Leo X rewarding a book by Henry, the Defence of the Seven Sacraments, attacking Martin Luther, the royal style became "Henry the Eighth, by the Grace of God, King of England and France, Defender of the Faith and Lord of Ireland". Following Henry's excommunication, Pope Paul III rescinded the grant of the title "Defender of the Faith", but an Act of Parliament declared that it remained valid; and it continues in royal usage to the present day.^ Henry ll England, King of .

^ Henry III Plantagenet, 23rd King of England .

^ Henry 11 Plantagenet King England .

In 1535, Henry added the "supremacy phrase" to the royal style, which became "Henry the Eighth, by the Grace of God, King of England and France, Defender of the Faith, Lord of Ireland and of the Church of England in Earth Supreme Head". In 1536, the phrase "of the Church of England" changed to "of the Church of England and also of Ireland".
Henry's shield as The Duke of York.
.In 1541, Henry had the Irish Parliament change the title "Lord of Ireland" to "King of Ireland" with the Crown of Ireland Act 1542, after being advised that many Irish people regarded the Pope as the true head of their country, with the Lord acting as a mere representative.^ John "Lackland" King of England PLANTAGENET Lord Of Ireland & Count Of Mortain .

.The reason the Irish regarded the Pope as their overlord was that Ireland had originally been given to the King Henry II of England by Pope Adrian IV in the twelfth century as a feudal territory under papal overlordship.^ Henry ll England, King of .

^ Henry 11 Plantagenet King England .

^ Henry Plantagenet ll King of England .

.The meeting of Irish Parliament that proclaimed Henry VIII as King of Ireland was the first meeting attended by the Gaelic Irish chieftains as well as the Anglo-Irish aristocrats.^ Henry viii Tudor King of England .

^ Henry (VIII, King ofEngland) Tudor .

^ Henry VIII "King of England" 1509 - 1547 Tudor .

.The style "Henry the Eighth, by the Grace of God, King of England, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith and of the Church of England and also of Ireland in Earth Supreme Head" remained in use until the end of Henry's reign.^ Henry ll England, King of .

^ Henry 11 Plantagenet King England .

^ Henry Plantagenet ll King of England .

Henry's motto was "Coeur Loyal" ("true heart") and he had this embroidered on his clothes in the form of a heart symbol and with the word "loyal". His emblem was the Tudor rose and the Beaufort portcullis.
As Duke of York, Henry used the arms of his father (i.e. those of the kingdom), differenced by a label of three points ermine. .As king, Henry's arms were the same as those used by his predecessors since Henry IV: Quarterly, Azure three fleurs-de-lys Or (for France) and Gules three lions passant guardant in pale Or (for England).^ Henry 7th Tudor King of England .

^ Henry 2nd 'Curtmantle' King of England .

^ Henry 111 king of England .


Current celebrations

An exhibition called Henry VIII: Man and Monarch, curated by David Starkey,[56] was held at the British Library in 2009.

Ancestry

Marriages and issue

Name Birth Death Notes
By Catherine of Aragon (married Greenwich Palace 11 June 1509; annulled 23 May 1533)
Unnamed Daughter 31 January 1510 2 February 1510
Henry, Duke of Cornwall 1 January 1511 22 February 1511
Henry, Duke of Cornwall December 1514 died within one month of birth
Queen Mary I 18 February 1516 17 November 1558 married 1554, Philip II of Spain; no issue
Unnamed Daughter November 1518 died within one week of birth
By Anne Boleyn (married Westminster Abbey 25 January 1533; annulled 17 May 1536) beheaded on 19 May 1536
Queen Elizabeth I 7 September 1533 24 March 1603 never married; no issue
Henry, Duke of Cornwall 1534 1534
Henry, Duke of Cornwall 29 January 1536 1536
By Jane Seymour (married York 30 May 1536; Jane Seymour died 24 October 1537)
King Edward VI 12 October 1537 6 July 1553 unmarried; no issue
By Anne of Cleves (married Greenwich Palace 6 January 1540; annulled 9 July 1540)
no issue
By Catherine Howard (married Oatlands Palace 28 July 1540; annulled 23 November 1541) beheaded on 13 February 1542
no issue
By Catherine Parr (married Hampton Court Palace 12 July 1543; Henry VIII died 28 January 1547)
no issue
By Elizabeth Blount
Henry FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Richmond and Somerset 15 June 1519 23 July 1536 illegitimate; married 1533, the Lady Mary Howard; no issue
By Jane Dobson
Ethelreda Tudor c. 1520 1555 married John Harington; no issue
By Mary Boleyn
(Some writers, such as Alison Weir, question whether Henry Carey was fathered by Henry VIII.[57])
Catherine Carey, Lady Knollys c. 1524 15 January 1569 married Sir Francis Knollys; had issue
Henry Carey, Baron Hunsdon 4 March 1526 23 July 1596 married 1545, Ann Morgan; had issue
.By Mary Berkeley
(There is no evidence to prove he was Henry's son except through eye witness accounts, who claimed a resemblance to the King.
^ Hey Henry, amen to the reader who remarked that the Henry County governments claims of poverty are absurd.

^ Hey Henry, we have a son who is moderately retarded.

^ Hey Henry, just a reminder to those of you who use Iris Lake Road in McDonough as a cut through.

)
John Perrot c. 1527 3 November 1592 married 1. Anne Cheney; 2. Jane Pruet, both of whom produced issue. He also had issue with his mistress Sybil Jones.

List of Popes from Henry VIII Age 12 to Death

Arthur Tudor the older brother of Henry VIII died after 20 weeks of marriage when Henry was age 10. Elizabeth of York, his mother, died when Henry was age 11.
Pontificate Portrait Involvement with Henry VIII
Julius II
31 October 1503 – 21 February 1513
Henry VIII between ages of 12 and 21.
Henry and the Pope close allies.
09julius.jpg Granted the dispensation for Henry to marry the widow of his brother. Julius was the warrior pope. In 1511 the Holy League was formed for the purpose of delivering Italy from French rule. England joined the League on 17 November 1511.
Leo X
9 March 1513 – 1 December 1521
Henry VIII between ages of 21 and 30.
Henry and the Pope close allies.
Pope-leo10.jpg .Granted Henry VIII the title of Defender of the Faith in the last week of his life.^ Undated Grants of 36 Henry VIII. .
  • Henry VIII - April 1545, 26-30 | British History Online 16 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.british-history.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Hey Henry, congratulations to Henry County Middle School on defeating Ola last week, 14-8 in 8th grade football!

^ The last decade of his life was spent defending his reputation.

Excommunicated Martin Luther.
Adrian VI
9 January 1522 – 14 September 1523
Henry VIII between ages of 30 and 32.
Short pontificate.
Hadrian VI.jpg Only Dutch pope. Pontificate lasted only 613 days.
Clement VII
26 November 1523 – 25 September 1534
Henry VIII between ages of 32 and 42.
Henry formed Anglican Church
Clement VII. Sebastiano del Piombo. c.1531..jpg .Henry VIII had made known to Wolsey in May, 1527, that he wished to be divorced.^ Hey Henry, this goes out to all the citizens of Henry County who may go to a "well-known" chiropractor located in Stockbridge.

He pretended that his conscience was uneasy at the marriage contracted under papal dispensation with his brother's widow. As his first act was to solicit from the Holy See contingently upon the granting of the divorce, a dispensation from the impediment of affinity in the first degree (an impediment which stood between him and any legal marriage with Anne on account of his previous carnal intercourse with Anne's sister Mary), the scruple of conscience cannot have been very sincere. Moreover, as Queen Catherine solemnly swore that the marriage between herself and Henry's elder brother Arthur had never been consummated, there had consequently never been any real affinity between her and Henry.
[58]
Paul III
13 October 1534 – 10 November 1549
Henry VIII between ages of 42 and death.
Final break from pope.
Tizian 083b.jpg Catherine of Aragon died 15 months after his election. On 17-Dec-1538, four years into his pontificate, Paul III excommunicated Henry VIII.

Depictions in literature and popular culture

See also

References

Notes
  1. ^ a b c d e Wikisource-logo.svg "Henry VIII" in the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia.
  2. ^ a b See above, "Martyrdom of William Tyndale".
  3. ^ See above, "Second marriage".
  4. ^ a b Crofton, p.128.
  5. ^ a b Crofton, p.129
  6. ^ Churchill, p.29
  7. ^ Crofton, p.126.
  8. ^ Guicciardini, History of Italy, 280.
  9. ^ Elton (1977)
  10. ^ MacCulloch (1995)
  11. ^ Simon Thurley, "Palaces for a nouveau riche king." History Today, (June 1991), Vol. 41, #6 in Academic Search Premier
  12. ^ Jonathan Davies, "'We Do Fynde in Our Countre Great Lack of Bowes and Arrows': Tudor Military Archery and the Inventory of King Henry VIII," Journal of the Society for Army Historical Research 2005 83(333): 11–29. Issn: 0037-9700
  13. ^ G. R. Elton, The Tudor Revolution in Government: Administrative Changes in the Reign of Henry VIII (1962) online edition; Elton, Reform and Reformation: England, 1509–1558 (1977) is sharply hostile toward the king—an "ego-centric monstrosity," whose reign "owed its successes and virtues to better and greater men about him; most of its horrors and failures sprang more directly from himself." p. 43
  14. ^ A. F. Pollard, Henry VIII (1905) provides the classic statement of the Henrician position, esp. pp 230–38, noting that Spain and France stayed loyal because they controlled the papacy.
  15. ^ G. W. Bernard, The King's Reformation: Henry VIII and the Remaking of the English Church (2005)
  16. ^ Richard Rex, "The Crisis of Obedience: God's Word and Henry's Reformation." Historical Journal 1996 39(4): 863–894. Issn: 0018-246x in Jstor
  17. ^ M. L. Bush, "The Tudor Polity and the Pilgrimage of Grace." Historical Research 2007 80(207): 47–72. Issn: 0950-3471 Fulltext: Ebsco; Geoffrey Moorhouse, The Pilgrimage of Grace: The Rebellion That Shook Henry VIII's Throne (2003) excerpt and text search
  18. ^ Fraser consides that only three named mistresses are definitely known: Bessie Blount, Mary Boleyn and Madge Shelton, but even the last is now disputed. Fraser, Antonia (1994). The Wives of Henry VIII. Vintage Books. p. Page 220. ISBN 9780679730019. http://books.google.com/books?id=24UKxUPB5goC. 
  19. ^ Hart, Kelly (2009). The Mistresses of Henry VIII (First date=June 1, 2009 ed.). The History Press. p. 27. ISBN 0752448358. http://books.google.com/books?id=r6HGPAAACAAJ. 
  20. ^ PRO, E36/215 f.449
  21. ^ Weir, Alison. The Lady in the Tower. pp. 13–14,375. 
  22. ^ Weir, Henry VIII: King and Court (2002).
  23. ^ Lacey, p.70.
  24. ^ Scarisbrick, p. 154.
  25. ^ Weir, p. 160.
  26. ^ Brigden, p.114.
  27. ^ Morris, p.166.
  28. ^ Haigh p.92f
  29. ^ a b Wikisource-logo.svg "Clement VII" in the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia.
  30. ^ Williams p. 136.
  31. ^ Williams, p.123.
  32. ^ Starkey, pp. 462–464.
  33. ^ Williams, p.124.
  34. ^ Williams, pp.128–131.
  35. ^ Historians disagree on the exact date of the excommunication; according to Winston Churchill's 'History of the English Speaking Peoples', the bull of 1533 was a draft with penalties left blank and was not made official until 1535. Others say Henry was not officially excommunicated until 1538, by Pope Paul III, brother of Cardinal Franklin de la Thomas.
  36. ^ Lehmberg.
  37. ^ Williams, p.138.
  38. ^ Williams, p.141.
  39. ^ Ashley, p.240.
  40. ^ Williams, chapter 4.
  41. ^ Williams, p.142.
  42. ^ Williams, pp.143–144.
  43. ^ Hibbert, pp.54–55.
  44. ^ Hibbert, p.60.
  45. ^ Farquhar, Michael (2001). A Treasure of Royal Scandals, p.75. Penguin Books, New York. ISBN 0739420259.
  46. ^ Harrison, William; Georges Edelen The Description of England: Classic Contemporary Account of Tudor Social Life' Dover Publications Inc.; New edition edition (Feb 1995) originally published 1557 ISBN 978-0486282756 p.193 "Bishop+of+Lisieux"+Henry+VIII+"William+Harrison"&ei=KY-ySsWdB5iwMoDIndcD#v=onepage&q=&f=false
  47. ^ Davies, p. 687.
  48. ^ People were smaller in those days. A comparable man today would be a star athlete at 6'5" and 250 pounds.
  49. ^ Steven Gunn, "Tournaments and early Tudor chivalry," History Today, (June 1991), Vol. 41, #6 in Academic Search Premier; James Williams, "Hunting and the Royal Image of Henry VIII" Sport in History 2005 25(1): 41–59. Issn: 1746-0263
  50. ^ Andrew A. Chibi, "Richard Sampson, His Oratio, and Henry VIII's Royal Supremacy." Journal of Church and State 1997 39(3): 543–560. Issn: 0021-969x Fulltext: Ebsco
  51. ^ See Thomas Betteridge, "The Henrician Reformation and Mid-Tudor Culture." Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies 2005 35(1): 91–109. Issn: 1082-9636 Fulltext: Ebsco. Original documents are collected by the Centre for Research in Early English Drama at Victoria University, Toronto
  52. ^ Weir, p.13
  53. ^ Weir, p.64
  54. ^ Weir, p. 393
  55. ^ "History of the Death Penalty". Public Broadcasting Service (PBS).
  56. ^ "Henry VIII: Man and Monarch". http://www.bl.uk/henry. Retrieved 2009-07-03. 
  57. ^ Weir, p.216.
  58. ^ "Pope Clement VII Catholic Encyclopedia". http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/04024a.htm. 

Sources

  • The New World by Winston Churchill (1966).
  • The Reformation Parliament, 1529–1536 by Stanford E. Lehmberg (1970).
  • Henry VIII and his Court by Neville Williams (1971).
  • The Life and Times of Henry VIII by Robert Lacey (1972).
  • The Six Wives of Henry VIII by Alison Weir (1991) ISBN 0802136834.
  • English Reformations by Christopher Haigh (1993).
  • Europe: A history by Norman Davies (1998) ISBN 978-0060974688.
  • Europe and England in the Sixteenth Century by T. A. Morris (1998).
  • New Worlds, Lost Worlds by Susan Brigden (2000).
  • Henry VIII: The King and His Court by Alison Weir (2001).
  • British Kings & Queens by Mike Ashley (2002) ISBN 0-7867-1104-3.
  • Henry VIII: The King and His Court by Alison Weir (2002) ISBN 034543708X.
  • Six Wives: The Queens of Henry VIII by David Starkey (2003) ISBN 0060005505.
  • The Kings and Queens of England by Ian Crofton (2006).

Bibliography

Biographical

  • Bowle, John. Henry VIII: A Study of Power in Action Little, Brown, 1964.
  • Erickson, Carolly. Mistress Anne: The Exceptional Life of Anne Boleyn. (1984) 464 pp. popular biography
  • Cressy, David. ."Spectacle and Power: Apollo and Solomon at the Court of Henry VIII." History Today 1982 32(oct): 16–22. Issn: 0018-2753 Fulltext: Ebsco Traces the transition of Henry from Renaissance monarch (the youthful Apollo) to Reformation patriarch (the aging Solomon) using the graphics and visual images displayed in his court, festivals, and kingdom.
  • Gardner, James.^ Thanks so much to the expeditious and courteous Henry County policeman that stopped and changed my tire for me on Friday, May 16.

    ^ Hey Henry, in recognition of Black History Month, I would like to honor Emily Tubman, who used her late husband's fortune to free his slaves.

    ."Henry VIII" in Cambridge Modern History vol 2 (1903), a brief political history online edition
  • Graves, Michael.^ A list of all Hey Henrys from the Online Edition.

    .Henry VIII (2003) 217pp, topical coverage
  • Ives, E. W. "Henry VIII (1491–1547)", in The Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (2004), online at OUP, a good starting point
  • Pollard, A.F. Henry VIII (1905) 470 pp; the first modern biography, accurate and still valuable valueonline edition
  • Rex, Richard.^ Hey Henry, Great Escape Theatres, which started out pretty good has turned into a joke and getting progressively worse!

    ^ A list of all Hey Henrys from the Online Edition.

    Henry VIII and the English Reformation. (1993). 205 pp.
  • Ridley, Jasper. Henry VIII. (1985). 473 pp. popular biography
  • Scarisbrick, J. J. Henry VIII (1968) 592pp, a favourable scholarly biography
  • Smith, Lacey Baldwin. .Henry VIII: The Mask of Royalty (1971), a leading scholar writes the psycho-history of Henryonline edition
  • Starkey, David.^ A list of all Hey Henrys from the Online Edition.

    Six Wives: the Queens of Henry VIII (2003) excerpt and text search
  • Starkey, David. The Reign of Henry VIII: Personalities and Politics (1986). 174pp
  • Starkey, David, and Susan Doran. Henry VIII: Man and Monarch (2009) 288pp
  • Tytler, Patrick Fraser (1836), Life of King Henry the Eighth, Edinburgh: Oliver & Boyd (published 1837), http://books.google.com/books?id=lWUDAAAAQAAJ, retrieved 2008-08-17 
  • Weir, Alison. Henry VIII, King and Court (2001). 640pp a flattering portrait excerpt and text search
  • Weir, Alison. The Children of Henry VIII. (1996). 400 pp.

Scholarly studies

.
  • Bernard, G. W. The King's Reformation: Henry VIII and the Remaking of the English Church. (2005).^ King Henry VIII of England .

    ^ Henry VIII Stewart King of England .

    ^ Henry Tudor, Henry, VIII, King of England .

    712 pp. excerpts and text search
  • Bernard, G. W. "The Making of Religious Policy, 1533–1546: Henry VIII and the Search for the Middle Way." Historical Journal 1998 41(2): 321–349. Issn: 0018-246x Fulltext: in Jstor
  • Bernard, G. W. War, Taxation, and Rebellion in Early Tudor England: Henry VIII, Wolsey, and the Amicable Grant of 1525. (1986). .164 pp
  • Elton, G. R. The Tudor Revolution in Government: Administrative Changes in the Reign of Henry VIII (1953; revised 1962), major interpretation online edition
    • Coleman, Christoper, and David Starkey, eds.^ Henry (VIII, King ofEngland) Tudor .

      ^ Henry viii Tudor King of England .

      ^ A list of all Hey Henrys from the Online Edition.

      .Revolution Reassessed: Revision in the History of Tudor Government and Administration (1986), evaluates Elton thesis
  • Elton, G. R. Reform and Reformation: England, 1509–1558 (1977), hostile to Henry
  • Fielder, Martha Anne.^ Henry VII "King of England" 1485 - 1509 Tudor .

    ^ Henry VIII "King of England" 1509 - 1547 Tudor .

    ^ Henry VII Tudor King of England (1485-1509) .

    ."Iconographic Themes in Portraits of Henry VIII." PhD dissertation Texas Christian U. 1985. 232 pp.^ 'Henry VIII: April 1545, 26-30', Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, Henry VIII, Volume 20 Part 1: January-July 1545 (1905), pp.
    • Henry VIII - April 1545, 26-30 | British History Online 16 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.british-history.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

    DAI 1985 46(6): 1424-A. DA8517256 Fulltext: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses
  • Fox, Alistair, and John Guy, eds. Reassessing the Henrician Age: Humanism, Politics and Reform 1500–1550 (1986), 242pp; advanced essays by scholars
  • Head, David M. "Henry VIII's Scottish Policy: a Reassessment." Scottish Historical Review 1982 61(1): 1–24. Issn: 0036-9241 Argues that if Henry intended to take over Scotland then his 1542 victory at Solway Moss was the opportune moment, for the French were unable to intervene, the Scottish nobility was in disarray, and the infant Mary was in line for Scotland's throne. .Instead, Henry adopted a policy similar to that in Ireland, since he could not afford outright conquest or the luxury of diplomacy.
  • Lindsey, Karen.^ Thanks CVS! Hey Henry, instead of renovating the McDonough library, could the grant be used to actually put some more books in it?

    .Divorced, Beheaded, Survived: A Feminist Reinterpretation of the Wives of Henry VIII (1995) online edition
  • Loades, David.^ A list of all Hey Henrys from the Online Edition.

    Henry VIII: Court, Church and Conflict (2007) 248pp; by a leading scholar excerpt and text search
  • MacCulloch, Diarmaid, ed. The Reign of Henry VIII: Politics, Policy, and Piety. (1995). 313 pp. essays by scholars
  • Marshall, Peter. "(Re)defining the English Reformation," Journal of British Studies July 2009, Vol. 48 Issue 3, pp 564–85,
  • Mackie, J. D. The Earlier Tudors, 1485–1558 (1952), a political survey of the era online edition
  • Moorhouse, Geoffrey. .Great Harry's Navy: How Henry VIII Gave England Seapower
  • Moorhouse, Geoffrey.^ Henry Tudor VIII of England .

    ^ King Henry VIII of England .

    ^ Henry VIII Stewart King of England .

    The Last Divine Office: Henry VIII and the Dissolution of the Monasteries (2009)
  • Slavin, Arthur J., ed. Henry VIII and the English Reformation (1968), readings by historians. online edition
  • Smith, H. Maynard. .Henry VIII and the Reformation (1948) online edition
  • Wagner, John A. (2003).^ A list of all Hey Henrys from the Online Edition.

    ."Bosworth Field to Bloody Mary: An Encyclopedia of the Early Tudors."^ Mary "Bloody Mary" TUDOR .

    ^ Mary "Bloody Mary" TUDOR Queen Of France .

    (Greenwood). ISBN 1-57356-540-7.
  • Walker, Greg. Writing under Tyranny: English Literature and the Henrician Reformation. (2005). 556 pp.

Historiography and memory

  • Head, David M. "'If a Lion Knew His Own Strength': the Image of Henry VIII and His Historians." International Social Science Review 1997 72(3–4): 94–109. Issn: 0278-2308 Fulltext: Ebsco
  • Hoak, Dale. "Politics, Religion and the English Reformation, 1533–1547: Some Problems and Issues." History Compass 2005 3 (Britain and Ireland): 7 pp Issn: 1478-0542 Fulltext: Blackwell Synergy
  • Ives, Eric. ."Will the Real Henry VIII Please Stand Up?"^ Hey Henry, do we really have nothing better to do except to complain about a few yard sale signs being up too long.

    ^ Hey Henry, please hurry up and get the recreational center built so that Henry County kids have a local place to swim.

    ^ Hey Henry, can you please tell the pet owners in the Whispering Willow Subdivision that if they are going to walk their pets to please make sure they have a clean up bag with them.

    History Today 2006 56(2): 28–36. Issn: 0018-2753 Fulltext: Ebsco
  • Rankin, Mark. .'Imagining Henry VIII: Cultural Memory and the Tudor King, 1535–1625'. PhD Dissrertation, Ohio State.^ Henry 7th Tudor King of England .

    ^ Henry (VII, King ofEngland) Tudor .

    ^ Henry VIII "King of England" 1509 - 1547 Tudor .

    U. Dissertation Abstracts International 2007 68(5): 1987-A. DA3264565, 403p.

Primary sources

  • Williams, C. M. A. H. English Historical Documents, 1485–1558 (1996) online sources

External links

Henry VIII of England
Born: 28 June 1491 Died: 28 January 1547
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Henry VII
Lord of Ireland
21 April 1509 – 28 January 1547
Declared king by an act
of the Irish Parliament
King of England
21 April 1509 – 28 January 1547
Succeeded by
Edward VI
Vacant
Title last held by
Edward Bruce
King of Ireland
1541–1547
Political offices
Preceded by
Sir William Scott
Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports
1493–1509
Succeeded by
Sir Edward Poyning
English royalty
Preceded by
Arthur, Prince of Wales
Heir to the English Throne
as heir apparent
2 April 1502 – 21 April 1509
Succeeded by
Margaret Tudor
Prince of Wales
1502–1509
Vacant
Title next held by
Edward VI
Peerage of England
Preceded by
Arthur
Duke of Cornwall
1502–1509
Vacant
Title next held by
Henry Tudor
New creation Duke of York
3rd creation
1494–1509
Merged in crown
Titles in pretence
Preceded by
Henry VII
— TITULAR —
King of France
21 April 1509 – 28 January 1547
Succeeded by
Edward VI

Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Henry VIII may refer to:
This is a disambiguation page; that is, one that points to other pages that might otherwise have the same name. If you followed a link here, you might want to go back and fix that link to point to the appropriate specific page.

Source material

Up to date as of January 22, 2010
(Redirected to The Life of King Henry the Eighth article)

From Wikisource

THE LIFE OF KING HENRY VIII
by William Shakespeare
Facsimile of the first page of The Life of King Henry the Eighth from the First Folio, published in 1623
DRAMATIS PERSONAE (Persons Represented):
KING HENRY THE EIGHTH
CARDINAL WOLSEY
CARDINAL CAMPEIUS
CAPUCIUS, Ambassador from the Emperor Charles V
CRANMER, archbishop of Canterbury
DUKE OF NORFOLK
DUKE OF BUCKINGHAM
DUKE OF SUFFOLK
EARL OF SURREY
LORD CHAMBERLAIN
LORD CHANCELLOR
GARDINER, bishop of Winchester
BISHOP OF LINCOLN
LORD ABERGAVENNY
LORD SANDYS (called also SIR WILLIAM SANDYS)
SIR HENRY GUILDFORD
SIR THOMAS LOVELL
SIR ANTHONY DENNY
SIR NICHOLAS VAUX
Secretaries to Wolsey
CROMWELL, servant to Wolsey
GRIFFITH, gentleman usher to Queen Katherine
Three Gentlemen
DOCTOR BUTTS, physician to the King
Garter King-at-Arms
Surveyor to the Duke of Buckingham
BRANDON, and a Sergeant-at-Arms
Door-keeper of the Council-chamber
Porter, and his Man
Page to Gardiner
A Crier
QUEEN KATHERINE, wife to King Henry, afterwards divorced
ANNE BULLEN, her Maid of Honour, afterwards Queen
An old Lady, friend to Anne Bullen
PATIENCE, woman to Queen Katherine
Spirits
Several Lords and Ladies in the Dumb Shows; Women attending upon the Queen; Scribes, Officers, Guards, and other Attendants
SCENE: London; Westminster; Kimbolton

Contents

THE PROLOGUE.

I COME no more to make you laugh: things now
That bear a weighty and a serious brow,
Sad, high, and working, full of state and woe,
Such noble scenes as draw the eye to flow,
We now present. Those that can pity, here
May, if they think it well, let fall a tear;
The subject will deserve it. Such as give
Their money out of hope they may believe,
May here find truth too. Those that come to see
Only a show or two, and so agree
The play may pass, if they be still and willing,
I'll undertake may see away their shilling
Richly in two short hours. Only they
That come to hear a merry bawdy play,
A noise of targets, or to see a fellow
In a long motley coat guarded with yellow,
Will be deceiv'd; for, gentle hearers, know,
To rank our chosen truth with such a show
As fool and fight is, beside forfeiting
Our own brains, and the opinion that we bring
To make that only true we now intend,
Will leave us never an understanding friend.
Therefore, for goodness' sake, and as you are known
The first and happiest hearers of the town,
Be sad, as we would make ye; think ye see
The very persons of our noble story
As they were living; think you see them great,
And follow'd with the general throng and sweat
Of thousand friends; then, in a moment, see
How soon this mightiness meets misery;
And if you can be merry then, I'll say
A man may weep upon his wedding-day.

ACT I.

SCENE 1. London. An ante-chamber in the palace.

[Enter the Duke of Norfolk at one door; at the other, the Duke of Buckingham and the Lord Abergavenny.]
BUCKINGHAM.
Good morrow, and well met. How have ye done
Since last we saw in France?
NORFOLK.
I thank your Grace,
Healthful; and ever since a fresh admirer
Of what I saw there.
BUCKINGHAM
An untimely ague
Stay'd me a prisoner in my chamber when
Those suns of glory, those two lights of men,
Met in the vale of Andren.
NORFOLK.
'Twixt Guynes and Arde.
I was then present, saw them salute on horseback;
Beheld them, when they lighted, how they clung
In their embracement, as they grew together;
Which had they, what four thron'd ones could have weigh'd
Such a compounded one?
BUCKINGHAM
All the whole time
I was my chamber's prisoner.
NORFOLK.
Then you lost
The view of earthly glory. Men might say,
Till this time pomp was single, but now married
To one above itself. Each following day
Became the next day's master, till the last
Made former wonders its. To-day the French,
All clinquant, all in gold, like heathen gods,
Shone down the English; and, to-morrow, they
Made Britain India: every man that stood
Show'd like a mine. Their dwarfish pages were
As cherubins, all gilt; the madams too,
Not us'd to toil, did almost sweat to bear
The pride upon them, that their very labour
Was to them as a painting. Now this masque
Was cried incomparable; and the ensuing night
Made it a fool and beggar. The two kings,
Equal in lustre, were now best, now worst,
As presence did present them; him in eye,
Still him in praise; and, being present both,
'Twas said they saw but one; and no discerner
Durst wag his tongue in censure. When these suns—
For so they phrase 'em—by their heralds challeng'd
The noble spirits to arms, they did perform
Beyond thought's compass, that former fabulous story,
Being now seen possible enough, got credit,
That Bevis was believ'd.
BUCKINGHAM
O, you go far!
NORFOLK.
As I belong to worship and affect
In honour honesty, the tract of ev'rything
Would by a good discourser lose some life,
Which action's self was tongue to. All was royal;
To the disposing of it nought rebell'd,
Order gave each thing view; the office did
Distinctly his full function.
BUCKINGHAM
Who did guide,
I mean, who set the body and the limbs
Of this great sport together, as you guess?
NORFOLK.
One, certes, that promises no element
In such a business.
BUCKINGHAM
I pray you, who, my lord?
NORFOLK.
All this was ord'red by the good discretion
Of the right reverend Cardinal of York.
BUCKINGHAM
The devil speed him! no man's pie is freed
From his ambitious finger. What had he
To do in these fierce vanities? I wonder
That such a keech can with his very bulk
Take up the rays o' th' beneficial sun,
And keep it from the earth.
NORFOLK.
Surely, sir,
There's in him stuff that puts him to these ends;
For, being not propp'd by ancestry, whose grace
Chalks successors their way, nor call'd upon
For high feats done to the crown; neither allied
To eminent assistants; but, spider-like,
Out of his self-drawing web, he gives us note,
The force of his own merit makes his way;
A gift that heaven gives for him, which buys
A place next to the King.
ABERGAVENNY.
I cannot tell
What heaven hath given him,—let some graver eye
Pierce into that; but I can see his pride
Peep through each part of him. Whence has he that?
If not from hell, the devil is a niggard,
Or has given all before, and he begins
A new hell in himself.
BUCKINGHAM.
Why the devil,
Upon this French going out, took he upon him,
Without the privity o' the King, to appoint
Who should attend on him? He makes up the file
Of all the gentry; for the most part such
To whom as great a charge as little honour
He meant to lay upon; and his own letter,
The honourable board of council out,
Must fetch him in he papers.
ABERGAVENNY.
I do know
Kinsmen of mine, three at the least, that have
By this so sicken'd their estates, that never
They shall abound as formerly.
BUCKINGHAM.
O, many
Have broke their backs with laying manors on 'em
For this great journey. What did this vanity
But minister communication of
A most poor issue?
NORFOLK.
Grievingly I think
The peace between the French and us not values
The cost that did conclude it.
BUCKINGHAM.
Every man,
After the hideous storm that follow'd, was
A thing inspir'd; and, not consulting, broke
Into a general prophecy, that this tempest,
Dashing the garment of this peace, aboded
The sudden breach on't.
NORFOLK.
Which is budded out;
For France hath flaw'd the league, and hath attach'd
Our merchants' goods at Bordeaux.
ABERGAVENNY.
Is it therefore
The ambassador is silenc'd?
NORFOLK.
Marry, is't.
ABERGAVENNY.
A proper title of a peace, and purchas'd
At a superfluous rate!
BUCKINGHAM.
Why, all this business
Our reverend Cardinal carried.
NORFOLK.
Like it your Grace,
The state takes notice of the private difference
Betwixt you and the Cardinal. I advise you—
And take it from a heart that wishes towards you
Honour and plenteous safety—that you read
The Cardinal's malice and his potency
Together, to consider further that
What his high hatred would effect wants not
A minister in his power. You know his nature,
That he's revengeful, and I know his sword
Hath a sharp edge; it's long, and, 't may be said,
It reaches far, and where 'twill not extend,
Thither he darts it. Bosom up my counsel,
You'll find it wholesome. Lo, where comes that rock
That I advise your shunning.
[Enter .Cardinal Wolsey, the purse borne before him, certain of the Guard, and two Secretaries, with papers.^ CARDINAL WOLSEY Look'd he o' the inside of the paper?

^ Enter Cardinal Wolsey, the purse borne before him, certain of the Guard, and two Secretaries with papers.
  • Henry VIII, by William Shakespeare (act1) 2 February 2010 15:28 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ CARDINAL WOLSEY Heaven's peace be with him!

The Cardinal in his passage fixeth his eye on Buckingham, and Buckingham on him, both full of disdain.]
WOLSEY.
The Duke of Buckingham's surveyor, ha?
Where's his examination?
SECRETARY.
Here, so please you.
WOLSEY.
Is he in person ready?
SECRETARY.
Ay, please your Grace.
WOLSEY.
Well, we shall then know more; and Buckingham
Shall lessen this big look.
[Exeunt Wolsey and his train.]
BUCKINGHAM.
This butcher's cur is venom-mouth'd, and I
Have not the power to muzzle him; therefore best
Not wake him in his slumber. A beggar's book
Outworths a noble's blood.
NORFOLK.
What, are you chaf'd?
Ask God for temp'rance; that's the appliance only
Which your disease requires.
BUCKINGHAM.
I read in 's looks
Matter against me, and his eye revil'd
Me as his abject object. At this instant
He bores me with some trick. He's gone to the King;
I'll follow, and outstare him.
NORFOLK.
Stay, my lord,
And let your reason with your choler question
What 'tis you go about. To climb steep hills
Requires slow pace at first. Anger is like
A full hot horse, who being allow'd his way,
Self-mettle tires him. Not a man in England
Can advise me like you; be to yourself
As you would to your friend.
BUCKINGHAM.
I'll to the King,
And from a mouth of honour quite cry down
This Ipswich fellow's insolence, or proclaim
There's difference in no persons.
NORFOLK.
Be advis'd;
Heat not a furnace for your foe so hot
That it do singe yourself. We may outrun,
By violent swiftness, that which we run at,
And lose by over-running. Know you not,
The fire that mounts the liquor till 't run o'er,
In seeming to augment it wastes it? Be advis'd.
I say again, there is no English soul
More stronger to direct you than yourself,
If with the sap of reason you would quench,
Or but allay, the fire of passion.
BUCKINGHAM.
Sir,
I am thankful to you; and I'll go along
By your prescription; but this top-proud fellow,
Whom from the flow of gall I name not, but
From sincere motions, by intelligence,
And proofs as clear as founts in July when
We see each grain of gravel, I do know
To be corrupt and treasonous.
NORFOLK.
Say not "treasonous."
BUCKINGHAM.
To the King I'll say't, and make my vouch as strong
As shore of rock. Attend. This holy fox,
Or wolf, or both,—for he is equal ravenous
As he is subtle, and as prone to mischief
As able to perform't; his mind and place
Infecting one another, yea, reciprocally—
Only to show his pomp as well in France
As here at home, suggests the King our master
To this last costly treaty, the interview,
That swallowed so much treasure, and like a glass
Did break i' the rinsing.
NORFOLK.
Faith, and so it did.
BUCKINGHAM.
Pray, give me favour, sir. This cunning Cardinal
The articles o' the combination drew
As himself pleas'd; and they were ratified
As he cried "Thus let be," to as much end
As give a crutch to the dead. But our count-cardinal
Has done this, and 'tis well; for worthy Wolsey,
Who cannot err, he did it. Now this follows,—
Which, as I take it, is a kind of puppy
To the old dam, treason,—Charles the Emperor,
Under pretence to see the Queen his aunt,—
For 'twas indeed his colour, but he came
To whisper Wolsey,—here makes visitation.
His fears were, that the interview betwixt
England and France might, through their amity,
Breed him some prejudice; for from this league
Peep'd harms that menac'd him. He privily
Deals with our Cardinal; and, as I trow,—
Which I do well, for I am sure the Emperor
Paid ere he promis'd; whereby his suit was granted
Ere it was ask'd—but when the way was made,
And pav'd with gold, the Emperor thus desir'd,
That he would please to alter the King's course,
And break the foresaid peace. Let the King know,
As soon he shall by me, that thus the Cardinal
Does buy and sell his honour as he pleases
And for his own advantage.
NORFOLK.
I am sorry
To hear this of him; and could wish he were
Something mistaken in't.
BUCKINGHAM.
No, not a syllable:
I do pronounce him in that very shape
He shall appear in proof.
[Enter Brandon, a Sergeant-at-arms before him, and two or three of the Guard.]
.BRANDON. Your office, sergeant; execute it.^ BRANDON. Your office, sergeant; execute it.
  • The Life of King Henry the Eighth - Wikisource 10 February 2010 10:55 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • The Life of King Henry the Eighth - Wikisource 2 February 2010 15:28 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ BRAN. Your office, sergeant; execute it.
  • Henry VIII 16 January 2010 15:015 UTC readdle.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Your office, sergeant; execute it.
  • Henry VIII, by William Shakespeare (act1) 2 February 2010 15:28 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

SERGEANT.
Sir,
My lord the Duke of Buckingham, and Earl
Of Hereford, Stafford, and Northampton, I
Arrest thee of high treason, in the name
Of our most sovereign king.
BUCKINGHAM.
Lo, you, my lord,
The net has fall'n upon me! I shall perish
Under device and practice.
BRANDON.
I am sorry
To see you ta'en from liberty, to look on
The business present. 'Tis his Highness' pleasure
You shall to the Tower.
BUCKINGHAM.
It will help nothing
To plead mine innocence; for that dye is on me
Which makes my whit'st part black. The will of Heaven
Be done in this and all things! I obey.
O my Lord Abergavenny, fare you well!
BRANDON.
Nay, he must bear you company.
[To Abergavenny.] The King
Is pleas'd you shall to the Tower, till you know
How he determines further.
ABERGAVENNY.
As the Duke said,
The will of Heaven be done, and the King's pleasure
By me obey'd!
BRANDON.
Here is warrant from
The King to attach Lord Montacute, and the bodies
Of the Duke's confessor, John de la Car,
One Gilbert Peck, his chancellor,—
BUCKINGHAM.
So, so;
These are the limbs o' the plot. No more, I hope?
BRANDON.
A monk o' the Chartreux.
BUCKINGHAM
O, Nicholas Hopkins?
BRANDON.
He.
BUCKINGHAM.
My surveyor is false; the o'er-great Cardinal
Hath show'd him gold; my life is spann'd already.
I am the shadow of poor Buckingham,
Whose figure even this instant cloud puts on,
By dark'ning my clear sun. My lord, farewell.
[Exeunt.]
.

SCENE II. The same.^ SCENE II. The same.
  • The Life of King Henry the Eighth - Wikisource 10 February 2010 10:55 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • The Life of King Henry the Eighth - Wikisource 2 February 2010 15:28 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Scene II The same.

^ Scene II. The same.
  • The Life of King Henry the Eighth, by William Shakespeare 20 September 2009 16:43 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

The council-chamber.

[Cornets. Enter the King, leaning on the Cardinal's shoulder, the Nobles, and Sir Thomas Lovell; the Cardinal places himself under the King's feet on his right side.]
KING.
My life itself, and the best heart of it,
Thanks you for this great care. I stood i' the level
Of a full-charg'd confederacy, and give thanks
To you that chok'd it. Let be call'd before us
That gentleman of Buckingham's; in person
I'll hear his confessions justify;
And point by point the treasons of his master
He shall again relate.
[A noise within, crying "Room for the Queen!" .Enter Queen Katherine, ushered by the Duke of Norfolk, and the Duke of Suffolk; she kneels.^ Enter QUEEN KATHARINE, ushered by NORFOLK, and SUFFOLK: she kneels.

^ Enter Queen Katherine, ushered by the Duke of Norfolk, and the Duke of Suffolk; she kneels.
  • The Life of King Henry the Eighth - Wikisource 10 February 2010 10:55 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • The Life of King Henry the Eighth - Wikisource 2 February 2010 15:28 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A noise within, crying ‘Room for the Queen!’ Enter Queen Katharine, ushered by Norfolk, and Suffolk: she kneels.
  • The Life of King Henry the Eighth, by William Shakespeare 20 September 2009 16:43 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]
  • Henry VIII, by William Shakespeare (act1) 2 February 2010 15:28 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

The King riseth from his state, takes her up, kisses and placeth her by him.]
QUEEN KATHERINE.
Nay, we must longer kneel; I am a suitor.
KING.
Arise, and take place by us. Half your suit
Never name to us, you have half our power;
The other moiety, ere you ask, is given.
Repeat your will and take it.
QUEEN KATHERINE.
Thank your Majesty.
That you would love yourself, and in that love
Not unconsidered leave your honour, nor
The dignity of your office, is the point
Of my petition.
KING.
Lady mine, proceed.
QUEEN KATHERINE.
I am solicited, not by a few,
And those of true condition, that your subjects
Are in great grievance. There have been commissions
Sent down among 'em, which hath flaw'd the heart
Of all their loyalties; wherein, although,
My good Lord Cardinal, they vent reproaches
Most bitterly on you, as putter on
Of these exactions, yet the King our master—
Whose honour Heaven shield from soil!—even he escapes not
Language unmannerly, yea, such which breaks
The sides of loyalty, and almost appears
In loud rebellion.
NORFOLK.
Not "almost appears,"
It doth appear; for, upon these taxations,
The clothiers all, not able to maintain
The many to them longing, have put off
The spinsters, carders, fullers, weavers, who,
Unfit for other life, compell'd by hunger
And lack of other means, in desperate manner
Daring the event to the teeth, are all in uproar,
And danger serves among them.
KING.
Taxation!
Wherein? and what taxation? My Lord Cardinal,
You that are blam'd for it alike with us,
Know you of this taxation?
WOLSEY.
Please you, sir,
I know but of a single part, in aught
Pertains to the state, and front but in that file
Where others tell steps with me.
QUEEN KATHERINE.
No, my lord?
You know no more than others? But you frame
Things that are known alike, which are not wholesome
To those which would not know them, and yet must
Perforce be their acquaintance. These exactions,
Whereof my sovereign would have note, they are
Most pestilent to the hearing; and, to bear 'em,
The back is sacrifice to the load. They say
They are devis'd by you; or else you suffer
Too hard an exclamation.
KING.
Still exaction!
The nature of it? In what kind, let's know,
Is this exaction?
QUEEN KATHERINE.
I am much too venturous
In tempting of your patience; but am bold'ned
Under your promis'd pardon. The subjects' grief
Comes through commissions, which compels from each
The sixth part of his substance, to be levied
Without delay; and the pretence for this
Is nam'd, your wars in France. This makes bold mouths;
Tongues spit their duties out, and cold hearts freeze
Allegiance in them; their curses now
Live where their prayers did; and it's come to pass
This tractable obedience is a slave
To each incensed will. I would your Highness
Would give it quick consideration, for
There is no primer business.
KING.
By my life,
This is against our pleasure.
WOLSEY.
And for me,
I have no further gone in this than by
A single voice; and that not pass'd me but
By learned approbation of the judges. If I am
Traduc'd by ignorant tongues, which neither know
My faculties nor person, yet will be
The chronicles of my doing, let me say
'Tis but the fate of place, and the rough brake
That virtue must go through. We must not stint
Our necessary actions, in the fear
To cope malicious censurers; which ever,
As ravenous fishes, do a vessel follow
That is new-trimm'd, but benefit no further
Than vainly longing. What we oft do best,
By sick interpreters, once weak ones, is
Not ours, or not allow'd; what worst, as oft,
Hitting a grosser quality, is cried up
For our best act. If we shall stand still,
In fear our motion will be mock'd or carp'd at,
We should take root here where we sit, or sit
State-statues only.
KING.
Things done well,
And with a care, exempt themselves from fear;
Things done without example, in their issue
Are to be fear'd. Have you a precedent
Of this commission? I believe, not any.
We must not rend our subjects from our laws,
And stick them in our will. Sixth part of each?
A trembling contribution! Why, we take
From every tree lop, bark, and part o' the timber;
And, though we leave it with a root, thus hack'd,
The air will drink the sap. To every county
Where this is question'd send our letters, with
Free pardon to each man that has deni'd
The force of this commission. Pray, look to't;
I put it to your care.
WOLSEY.
A word with you. [To the Secretary, aside.]
Let there be letters writ to every shire,
Of the King's grace and pardon. The grieved commons
Hardly conceive of me; let it be nois'd
That through our intercession this revokement
And pardon comes. I shall anon advise you
Further in the proceeding.
[Exit Secretary.]
[Enter Surveyor.]
QUEEN KATHERINE.
I am sorry that the Duke of Buckingham
Is run in your displeasure.
KING.
It grieves many.
The gentleman is learn'd, and a most rare speaker;
To nature none more bound; his training such
That he may furnish and instruct great teachers,
And never seek for aid out of himself. Yet see,
When these so noble benefits shall prove
Not well dispos'd, the mind growing once corrupt,
They turn to vicious forms, ten times more ugly
Than ever they were fair. This man so complete,
Who was enroll'd 'mongst wonders, and when we,
Almost with ravish'd list'ning, could not find
His hour of speech a minute; he, my lady,
Hath into monstrous habits put the graces
That once were his, and is become as black
As if besmear'd in hell. Sit by us; you shall hear—
This was his gentleman in trust—of him
Things to strike honour sad. Bid him recount
The fore-recited practices, whereof
We cannot feel too little, hear too much.
WOLSEY.
Stand forth, and with bold spirit relate what you,
Most like a careful subject, have collected
Out of the Duke of Buckingham.
KING.
Speak freely.
SURVEYOR.
First, it was usual with him, every day
It would infect his speech, that if the King
Should without issue die, he'll carry it so
To make the sceptre his. These very words
I've heard him utter to his son-in-law,
Lord Abergavenny; to whom by oath he menac'd
Revenge upon the Cardinal.
WOLSEY.
Please your Highness, note
This dangerous conception in this point.
Not friended by his wish, to your high person
His will is most malignant; and it stretches
Beyond you, to your friends.
QUEEN KATHERINE.
My learn'd Lord Cardinal,
Deliver all with charity.
KING.
Speak on.
How grounded he his title to the crown?
Upon our fail? To this point hast thou heard him
At any time speak aught?
SURVEYOR.
He was brought to this
By a vain prophecy of Nicholas Henton.
KING.
What was that Henton?
SURVEYOR.
Sir, a Chartreux friar,
His confessor; who fed him every minute
With words of sovereignty.
KING.
How know'st thou this?
SURVEYOR.
Not long before your Highness sped to France,
The Duke being at the Rose, within the parish
Saint Lawrence Poultney, did of me demand
What was the speech among the Londoners
Concerning the French journey. I repli'd,
Men fear the French would prove perfidious,
To the King's danger. Presently the Duke
Said, 'twas the fear, indeed; and that he doubted
'Twould prove the verity of certain words
Spoke by a holy monk, "that oft," says he,
"Hath sent to me, wishing me to permit
John de la Car, my chaplain, a choice hour
To hear from him a matter of some moment;
Whom after under the confession's seal
He solemnly had sworn, that what he spoke
My chaplain to no creature living but
To me should utter, with demure confidence
This pausingly ensu'd: 'Neither the King nor's heirs,
Tell you the Duke, shall prosper. Bid him strive
To gain the love o' the commonalty. The Duke
Shall govern England."'
QUEEN KATHERINE.
If I know you well,
You were the Duke's surveyor, and lost your office
On the complaint o' the tenants. Take good heed
You charge not in your spleen a noble person
And spoil your nobler soul; I say, take heed;
Yes, heartily beseech you.
KING.
Let him on.
Go forward.
SURVEYOR.
On my soul, I'll speak but truth.
I told my lord the Duke, by the devil's illusions
The monk might be deceiv'd; and that 'twas dangerous for him
To ruminate on this so far, until
It forg'd him some design; which, being believ'd,
It was much like to do. He answer'd, "Tush,
It can do me no damage;" adding further
That, had the King in his last sickness fail'd,
The Cardinal's and Sir Thomas Lovell's heads
Should have gone off.
KING.
Ha! what, so rank? Ah ha!
There's mischief in this man. Canst thou say further?
SURVEYOR.
I can, my liege.
KING.
Proceed.
SURVEYOR.
Being at Greenwich,
After your Highness had reprov'd the Duke
About Sir William Bulmer,—
KING.
I remember
Of such a time; being my sworn servant,
The Duke retain'd him his. But on; what hence?
SURVEYOR.
"If," quoth he, "I for this had been committed,"
—As, to the Tower, I thought,—"I would have play'd
The part my father meant to act upon
The usurper Richard; who, being at Salisbury,
Made suit to come in 's presence; which if granted,
As he made semblance of his duty, would
Have put his knife into him."
KING.
A giant traitor!
WOLSEY.
Now, madam, may his Highness live in freedom,
And this man out of prison?
QUEEN KATHERINE.
God mend all!
KING.
There's something more would out of thee; what say'st?
SURVEYOR.
After "the Duke his father," with "the knife,"
He stretch'd him, and, with one hand on his dagger,
Another spread on 's breast, mounting his eyes,
He did discharge a horrible oath; whose tenour
Was, were he evil us'd, he would outgo
His father by as much as a performance
Does an irresolute purpose.
KING.
There's his period,
To sheathe his knife in us. He is attach'd.
Call him to present trial. If he may
Find mercy in the law, 'tis his; if none,
Let him not seek 't of us. By day and night,
He's traitor to th' height.
[Exeunt.]

SCENE III. An ante-chamber in the palace.

[Enter the Lord Chamberlain and Lord Sandys.]
CHAMBERLAIN.
Is't possible the spells of France should juggle
Men into such strange mysteries?
SANDYS.
New customs,
Though they be never so ridiculous,
Nay, let 'em be unmanly, yet are follow'd.
CHAMBERLAIN.
As far as I see, all the good our English
Have got by the late voyage is but merely
A fit or two o' the face; but they are shrewd ones;
For when they hold 'em, you would swear directly
Their very noses had been counsellors
To Pepin or Clotharius, they keep state so.
SANDYS.
They have all new legs, and lame ones. One would take it,
That never saw 'em pace before, the spavin
Or springhalt reign'd among 'em.
CHAMBERLAIN.
Death! my lord,
Their clothes are after such a pagan cut too,
That, sure, they've worn out Christendom.
[Enter Sir Thomas Lovell.]
How now!
What news, Sir Thomas Lovell?
LOVELL.
Faith, my lord,
I hear of none, but the new proclamation
That's clapp'd upon the court-gate.
CHAMBERLAIN.
What is't for?
LOVELL.
The reformation of our travell'd gallants,
That fill the court with quarrels, talk, and tailors.
CHAMBERLAIN.
I'm glad 'tis there. Now I would pray our monsieurs
To think an English courtier may be wise,
And never see the Louvre.
LOVELL.
They must either,
For so run the conditions, leave those remnants
Of fool and feather that they got in France,
With all their honourable points of ignorance
Pertaining thereunto, as fights and fireworks,
Abusing better men than they can be,
Out of a foreign wisdom, renouncing clean
The faith they have in tennis and tall stockings,
Short blist'red breeches, and those types of travel,
And understand again like honest men,
Or pack to their old playfellows. There, I take it,
They may, "cum privilegio," wear away
The lag end of their lewdness and be laugh'd at.
SANDYS.
'Tis time to give 'em physic, their diseases
Are grown so catching.
CHAMBERLAIN.
What a loss our ladies
Will have of these trim vanities!
LOVELL.
Ay, marry,
There will be woe indeed, lords; the sly whoresons
Have got a speeding trick to lay down ladies.
A French song and a fiddle has no fellow.
SANDYS.
The devil fiddle 'em! I am glad they are going,
For, sure, there's no converting of 'em. Now
An honest country lord, as I am, beaten
A long time out of play, may bring his plainsong
And have an hour of hearing; and, by 'r Lady,
Held current music too.
CHAMBERLAIN.
Well said, Lord Sandys;
Your colt's tooth is not cast yet.
SANDYS.
No, my lord;
Nor shall not, while I have a stump.
CHAMBERLAIN.
Sir Thomas,
Whither were you a-going?
LOVELL.
To the Cardinal's.
Your lordship is a guest too.
CHAMBERLAIN.
O, 'tis true:
This night he makes a supper, and a great one,
To many lords and ladies; there will be
The beauty of this kingdom, I'll assure you.
LOVELL.
That churchman bears a bounteous mind indeed,
A hand as fruitful as the land that feeds us;
His dews fall everywhere.
CHAMBERLAIN.
No doubt he's noble;
He had a black mouth that said other of him.
SANDYS.
He may, my lord; has wherewithal; in him
Sparing would show a worse sin than ill doctrine.
Men of his way should be most liberal;
They are set here for examples.
CHAMBERLAIN.
True, they are so;
But few now give so great ones. My barge stays;
Your lordship shall along. Come, good Sir Thomas,
We shall be late else; which I would not be,
For I was spoke to, with Sir Henry Guildford,
This night to be comptrollers.
SANDYS.
I am your lordship's.
[Exeunt.]

SCENE IV. A Hall in York Place.

[Hautboys. .A small table under a state for the Cardinal, a longer table for the guests.^ A small table under a state for Cardinal Wolsey, a longer table for the guests.
  • The Life of King Henry the Eighth, by William Shakespeare 20 September 2009 16:43 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ King Henry VIII takes place under the cloth of state; Cardinal Wolsey and Cardinal Campeius sit under him as judges.
  • The Life of King Henry the Eighth, by William Shakespeare 20 September 2009 16:43 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

Then enter Anne Bullen and divers other Ladies and Gentlemen as guests, at one door; at another door, enter Sir Henry Guildford.]
GUILDFORD.
Ladies, a general welcome from his Grace
Salutes ye all; this night he dedicates
To fair content and you. None here, he hopes,
In all this noble bevy, has brought with her
One care abroad. He would have all as merry
As, first, good company, good wine, good welcome,
Can make good people.
[Enter Lord Chamberlain, Lord Sandys, and Sir Thomas Lovell.]
O, my lord, you're tardy;
The very thought of this fair company
Clapp'd wings to me.
CHAMBERLAIN.
You are young, Sir Harry Guildford.
SANDYS.
Sir Thomas Lovell, had the Cardinal
But half my lay thoughts in him, some of these
Should find a running banquet ere they rested,
I think would better please 'em. By my life,
They are a sweet society of fair ones.
LOVELL.
O, that your lordship were but now confessor
To one or two of these!
SANDYS.
I would I were;
They should find easy penance.
LOVELL.
Faith, how easy?
SANDYS.
As easy as a down-bed would afford it.
CHAMBERLAIN.
Sweet ladies, will it please you sit? Sir Harry,
Place you that side; I'll take the charge of this.
His Grace is ent'ring. Nay, you must not freeze;
Two women plac'd together makes cold weather.
My Lord Sandys, you are one will keep 'em waking;
Pray, sit between these ladies.
SANDYS.
By my faith,
And thank your lordship. By your leave, sweet ladies.
If I chance to talk a little wild, forgive me;
I had it from my father.
ANNE.
Was he mad, sir?
SANDYS.
O, very mad, exceeding mad; in love too;
But he would bite none. Just as I do now,
He would kiss you twenty with a breath.
[Kisses her.]
CHAMBERLAIN.
Well said, my lord.
So, now you're fairly seated. Gentlemen,
The penance lies on you, if these fair ladies
Pass away frowning.
SANDYS.
For my little cure,
Let me alone.
[Hautboys. Enter Cardinal Wolsey, and takes his state.]
WOLSEY.
You're welcome, my fair guests. That noble lady
Or gentleman that is not freely merry
Is not my friend. This, to confirm my welcome;
And to you all, good health.
[Drinks.]
SANDYS.
Your Grace is noble.
Let me have such a bowl may hold my thanks,
And save me so much talking.
WOLSEY.
My Lord Sandys,
I am beholding to you; cheer your neighbours.
Ladies, you are not merry. Gentlemen,
Whose fault is this?
SANDYS.
The red wine first must rise
In their fair cheeks, my lord; then we shall have 'em
Talk us to silence.
ANNE.
You are a merry gamester,
My Lord Sandys.
SANDYS.
Yes, if I make my play.
Here's to your ladyship; and pledge it, madam,
For 'tis to such a thing,—
ANNE.
You cannot show me.
SANDYS.
I told your Grace they would talk anon.
[Drum and trumpet, chambers discharged.]
WOLSEY.
What's that?
CHAMBERLAIN.
Look out there, some of ye.
[Exit Servant.]
WOLSEY.
What warlike voice,
And to what end, is this? Nay, ladies, fear not;
By all the laws of war you're privileg'd.
[Re-enter Servant.]
CHAMBERLAIN.
How now! what is't?
SERVANT.
A noble troop of strangers,
For so they seem. They've left their barge and landed,
And hither make, as great ambassadors
From foreign princes.
WOLSEY.
Good Lord Chamberlain,
Go, give 'em welcome; you can speak the French tongue;
And, pray, receive 'em nobly, and conduct 'em
Into our presence, where this heaven of beauty
Shall shine at full upon them. Some attend him.
[Exit Chamberlain, attended. All rise, and tables remov'd.]
You have now a broken banquet; but we'll mend it.
A good digestion to you all; and once more
I shower a welcome on ye. Welcome all!
[Hautboys. .Enter the King, and others, as masquers, habited like shepherds, usher'd by the Lord Chamberlain.^ Enter KING HENRY VIII and others, as masquers, habited like shepherds, ushered by the Chamberlain.
  • KING HENRY VIII 2 February 2010 15:28 UTC www.it.usyd.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Enter King Henry VIII and others, as masquers, habited like shepherds, ushered by the Chamberlain.
  • The Life of King Henry the Eighth, by William Shakespeare 20 September 2009 16:43 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Enter the KING, and others, as maskers, habited like shepherds, usher'd by the LORD CHAMBERLAIN. They pass directly before the CARDINAL, and gracefully salute him A noble company!
  • William Shakespeare: King Henry the Eighth. 20 September 2009 16:43 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

They pass directly before the Cardinal, and gracefully salute him.]
A noble company! What are their pleasures?
CHAMBERLAIN.
Because they speak no English, thus they pray'd
To tell your Grace, that, having heard by fame
Of this so noble and so fair assembly
This night to meet here, they could do no less,
Out of the great respect they bear to beauty,
But leave their flocks; and, under your fair conduct,
Crave leave to view these ladies and entreat
An hour of revels with 'em.
WOLSEY.
Say, Lord Chamberlain,
They have done my poor house grace; for which I pay 'em
A thousand thanks, and pray 'em take their pleasures.
[They choose ladies for the dance. The King chooses Anne Bullen.]
KING.
The fairest hand I ever touch'd! O beauty,
Till now I never knew thee!
[Music. Dance.]
WOLSEY.
My lord!
CHAMBERLAIN.
Your Grace?
WOLSEY.
Pray, tell 'em thus much from me:
There should be one amongst 'em, by his person,
More worthy this place than myself; to whom,
If I but knew him, with my love and duty
I would surrender it.
CHAMBERLAIN.
I will, my lord.
[Whispers the Masquers.]
WOLSEY.
What say they?
CHAMBERLAIN.
Such a one, they all confess,
There is indeed; which they would have your Grace
Find out, and he will take it.
WOLSEY.
Let me see, then.
By all your good leaves, gentlemen; here I'll make
My royal choice.
KING.
Ye have found him, Cardinal. [Unmasking.]
You hold a fair assembly; you do well, lord.
You are a churchman, or, I'll tell you, Cardinal,
I should judge now unhappily.
WOLSEY.
I am glad
Your Grace is grown so pleasant.
KING.
My Lord Chamberlain,
Prithee come hither. What fair lady's that?
CHAMBERLAIN.
An't please your Grace, Sir Thomas Bullen's daughter,—
The Viscount Rochford,—one of her Highness' women.
KING.
By heaven, she is a dainty one. Sweetheart,
I were unmannerly to take you out
And not to kiss you. A health, gentlemen
Let it go round.
WOLSEY.
Sir Thomas Lovell, is the banquet ready
I' the privy chamber?
LOVELL.
Yes, my lord.
WOLSEY.
Your Grace,
I fear, with dancing is a little heated.
KING.
I fear, too much.
WOLSEY.
There's fresher air, my lord,
In the next chamber.
KING.
Lead in your ladies, every one. Sweet partner,
I must not yet forsake you; let's be merry.
Good my Lord Cardinal, I have half a dozen healths
To drink to these fair ladies, and a measure
To lead 'em once again; and then let's dream
Who's best in favour. Let the music knock it.
[Exeunt with trumpets.]

ACT II.

SCENE 1. Westminster. A street.

[Enter two Gentlemen at several doors.]
FIRST GENTLEMAN.
Whither away so fast?
SECOND GENTLEMAN.
O, God save ye!
Even to the hall, to hear what shall become
Of the great Duke of Buckingham.
FIRST GENTLEMAN.
I'll save you
That labour, sir. All's now done, but the ceremony
Of bringing back the prisoner.
SECOND GENTLEMAN.
Were you there?
FIRST GENTLEMAN.
Yes, indeed, was I.
SECOND GENTLEMAN.
Pray, speak what has happen'd.
FIRST GENTLEMAN.
You may guess quickly what.
SECOND GENTLEMAN.
Is he found guilty?
FIRST GENTLEMAN.
Yes, truly is he, and condemn'd upon't.
SECOND GENTLEMAN.
I am sorry for't.
FIRST GENTLEMAN.
So are a number more.
SECOND GENTLEMAN.
But, pray, how pass'd it?
FIRST GENTLEMAN.
I'll tell you in a little. The great Duke
Came to the bar; where to his accusations
He pleaded still not guilty and alleged
Many sharp reasons to defeat the law.
The King's attorney on the contrary
Urg'd on the examinations, proofs, confessions
Of divers witnesses; which the Duke desir'd
To have brought viva voce to his face;
At which appear'd against him his surveyor;
Sir Gilbert Peck his chancellor; and John Car,
Confessor to him, with that devil-monk,
Hopkins, that made this mischief.
SECOND GENTLEMAN.
That was he
That fed him with his prophecies?
FIRST GENTLEMAN.
The same.
All these accus'd him strongly; which he fain
Would have flung from him, but, indeed, he could not.
And so his peers, upon this evidence,
Have found him guilty of high treason. Much
He spoke, and learnedly, for life; but all
Was either pitied in him or forgotten.
SECOND GENTLEMAN.
After all this, how did he bear himself?
FIRST GENTLEMAN.
When he was brought again to the bar, to hear
His knell rung out, his judgment, he was stirr'd
With such an agony, he sweat extremely,
And something spoke in choler, ill, and hasty.
But he fell to himself again, and sweetly
In all the rest show'd a most noble patience.
SECOND GENTLEMAN.
I do not think he fears death.
FIRST GENTLEMAN.
Sure, he does not;
He never was so womanish. The cause
He may a little grieve at.
SECOND GENTLEMAN.
Certainly
The Cardinal is the end of this.
FIRST GENTLEMAN.
'Tis likely,
By all conjectures: first, Kildare's attainder,
Then deputy of Ireland; who remov'd,
Earl Surrey was sent thither, and in haste too,
Lest he should help his father.
SECOND GENTLEMAN.
That trick of state
Was a deep envious one.
FIRST GENTLEMAN.
At his return
No doubt he will requite it. This is noted,
And generally, whoever the King favours,
The Cardinal instantly will find employment,
And far enough from court too.
SECOND GENTLEMAN.
All the commons
Hate him perniciously, and, o' my conscience,
Wish him ten fathom deep. This duke as much
They love and dote on; call him bounteous Buckingham,
The mirror of all courtesy,—
[Enter Buckingham from his arraignment; tipstaves before him; the axe with the edge towards him; halberds on each side; accompanied with Sir Thomas Lovell, Sir Nicholas Vaux, Sir William Sandys, and common people.]
FIRST GENTLEMAN.
Stay there, sir,
And see the noble ruin'd man you speak of.
SECOND GENTLEMAN.
Let's stand close, and behold him.
BUCKINGHAM.
All good people,
You that thus far have come to pity me,
Hear what I say, and then go home and lose me.
I have this day receiv'd a traitor's judgement,
And by that name must die; yet, Heaven bear witness,
And if I have a conscience, let it sink me,
Even as the axe falls, if I be not faithful!
The law I bear no malice for my death;
'T has done, upon the premises, but justice;
But those that sought it I could wish more Christians.
Be what they will, I heartily forgive 'em;
Yet let 'em look they glory not in mischief,
Nor build their evils on the graves of great men,
For then my guiltless blood must cry against 'em.
For further life in this world I ne'er hope,
Nor will I sue, although the King have mercies
More than I dare make faults. You few that lov'd me
And dare be bold to weep for Buckingham,
His noble friends and fellows, whom to leave
Is only bitter to him, only dying,
Go with me, like good angels, to my end;
And, as the long divorce of steel falls on me,
Make of your prayers one sweet sacrifice,
And lift my soul to heaven. Lead on, o' God's name.
LOVELL.
I do beseech your Grace, for charity,
If ever any malice in your heart
Were hid against me, now to forgive me frankly.
BUCKINGHAM.
Sir Thomas Lovell, I as free forgive you
As I would be forgiven. I forgive all.
There cannot be those numberless offences
'Gainst me, that I cannot take peace with; no black envy
Shall mark my grave. Commend me to his Grace;
And, if he speak of Buckingham, pray, tell him
You met him half in heaven. My vows and prayers
Yet are the King's; and, till my soul forsake,
Shall cry for blessings on him. May he live
Longer than I have time to tell his years!
Ever belov'd and loving may his rule be!
And when old Time shall lead him to his end,
Goodness and he fill up one monument!
LOVELL.
To the water side I must conduct your Grace;
Then give my charge up to Sir Nicholas Vaux,
Who undertakes you to your end.
VAUX.
Prepare there,
The Duke is coming. See the barge be ready;
And fit it with such furniture as suits
The greatness of his person.
BUCKINGHAM.
Nay, Sir Nicholas,
Let it alone; my state now will but mock me.
When I came hither, I was Lord High Constable
And Duke of Buckingham; now, poor Edward Bohun.
Yet I am richer than my base accusers,
That never knew what truth meant. I now seal it;
And with that blood will make 'em one day groan for't.
My noble father, Henry of Buckingham,
Who first rais'd head against usurping Richard,
Flying for succour to his servant Banister,
Being distress'd, was by that wretch betray'd,
And without trial fell; God's peace be with him!
Henry the Seventh succeeding, truly pitying
My father's loss, like a most royal prince,
Restor'd me to my honours, and, out of ruins,
Made my name once more noble. Now his son,
Henry the Eighth, life, honour, name, and all
That made me happy, at one stroke has taken
For ever from the world. I had my trial,
And, must needs say, a noble one; which makes me
A little happier than my wretched father.
Yet thus far we are one in fortunes: both
Fell by our servants, by those men we lov'd most;
A most unnatural and faithless service.
Heaven has an end in all; yet, you that hear me,
This from a dying man receive as certain:
Where you are liberal of your loves and counsels
Be sure you be not loose; for those you make friends
And give your hearts to, when they once perceive
The least rub in your fortunes, fall away
Like water from ye; never found again
But where they mean to sink ye. All good people,
Pray for me! I must now forsake ye. The last hour
Of my long weary life is come upon me.
Farewell!
And when you would say something that is sad,
Speak how I fell. I have done; and God forgive me!
[Exeunt Duke and train.]
FIRST GENTLEMAN.
O, this is full of pity! Sir, it calls,
I fear, too many curses on their heads
That were the authors.
SECOND GENTLEMAN.
If the Duke be guiltless,
'Tis full of woe; yet I can give you inkling
Of an ensuing evil, if it fall,
Greater than this.
FIRST GENTLEMAN.
Good angels keep it from us!
What may it be? You do not doubt my faith, sir?
SECOND GENTLEMAN.
This secret is so weighty, 'twill require
A strong faith to conceal it.
FIRST GENTLEMAN.
Let me have it.
I do not talk much.
SECOND GENTLEMAN.
I am confident;
You shall, sir. Did you not of late days hear
A buzzing of a separation
Between the King and Katherine?
FIRST GENTLEMAN.
Yes, but it held not;
For when the King once heard it, out of anger
He sent command to the Lord Mayor straight
To stop the rumour, and allay those tongues
That durst disperse it.
SECOND GENTLEMAN.
But that slander, sir,
Is found a truth now; for it grows again
Fresher than e'er it was; and held for certain
The King will venture at it. Either the Cardinal,
Or some about him near, have, out of malice
To the good Queen, possess'd him with a scruple
That will undo her. To confirm this too,
Cardinal Campeius is arriv'd, and lately;
As all think, for this business.
FIRST GENTLEMAN.
'Tis the Cardinal;
And merely to revenge him on the Emperor
For not bestowing on him, at his asking,
The archbishopric of Toledo, this is purpos'd.
SECOND GENTLEMAN.
I think you have hit the mark; but is't not cruel
That she should feel the smart of this? The Cardinal
Will have his will, and she must fall.
FIRST GENTLEMAN.
'Tis woeful.
We are too open here to argue this;
Let's think in private more.
[Exeunt.]

SCENE II. An ante-chamber in the palace.

[Enter the Lord Chamberlain, reading this letter:.]
CHAMBERLAIN.
"My lord, the horses your lordship sent for,
with all the care had, I saw well chosen, ridden, and furnish'd.
They were young and handsome, and of the best breed in the north.
When they were ready to set out for London, a man of
my Lord Cardinal's, by commission and main power, took
'em from me, with this reason: His master would be serv'd
before a subject, if not before the King; which stopp'd
our mouths, sir." I fear he will indeed. Well, let him have them:
He will have all, I think.
[Enter to the Lord Chamberlain the Dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk.]
NORFOLK.
Well met, my Lord Chamberlain.
CHAMBERLAIN.
Good day to both your Graces.
SUFFOLK.
How is the King employ'd?
CHAMBERLAIN.
I left him private,
Full of sad thoughts and troubles.
NORFOLK.
What's the cause?
CHAMBERLAIN.
It seems the marriage with his brother's wife
Has crept too near his conscience.
SUFFOLK.
No, his conscience
Has crept too near another lady.
NORFOLK.
'Tis so.
This is the Cardinal's doing, the king-cardinal.
That blind priest, like the eldest son of Fortune,
Turns what he list. The King will know him one day.
SUFFOLK.
Pray God he do! he'll never know himself else.
NORFOLK.
How holily he works in all his business!
And with what zeal! for, now he has crack'd the league
Between us and the Emperor, the Queen's great nephew,
He dives into the King's soul, and there scatters
Dangers, doubts, wringing of the conscience,
Fears, and despairs; and all these for his marriage.
And out of all these to restore the King,
He counsels a divorce; a loss of her
That, like a jewel, has hung twenty years
About his neck, yet never lost her lustre;
Of her that loves him with that excellence
That angels love good men with; even of her
That, when the greatest stroke of fortune falls,
Will bless the King. And is not this course pious?
CHAMBERLAIN.
Heaven keep me from such counsel! 'Tis most true
These news are everywhere; every tongue speaks 'em,
And every true heart weeps for't. All that dare
Look into these affairs see this main end,
The French king's sister. Heaven will one day open
The King's eyes, that so long have slept upon
This bold bad man.
SUFFOLK.
And free us from his slavery.
NORFOLK.
We had need pray,
And heartily, for our deliverance;
Or this imperious man will work us an
From princes into pages. All men's honours
Lie like one lump before him, to be fashion'd
Into what pitch he please.
SUFFOLK.
For me, my lords,
I love him not, nor fear him; there's my creed.
As I am made without him, so I'll stand,
If the King please; his curses and his blessings
Touch me alike, they'are breath I not believe in.
I knew him, and I know him; so I leave him
To him that made him proud, the Pope.
NORFOLK.
Let's in;
And with some other business put the King
From these sad thoughts, that work too much upon him.
My lord, you'll bear us company?
CHAMBERLAIN.
Excuse me,
The King has sent me otherwhere. Besides,
You'll find a most unfit time to disturb him.
Health to your lordships!
NORFOLK.
Thanks, my good Lord Chamberlain.
[Exit Lord Chamberlain; Norfolk draws the curtain, and discovers the King reading pensively.]
SUFFOLK.
How sad he looks! Sure, he is much afflicted.
KING.
Who's there, ha?
NORFOLK.
Pray God he be not angry.
KING.
Who's there, I say? How dare you thrust yourselves
Into my private meditations?
Who am I? ha?
NORFOLK.
A gracious king that pardons all offences
Malice ne'er meant. Our breach of duty this way
Is business of estate; in which we come
To know your royal pleasure.
KING.
Ye are too bold.
Go to; I'll make ye know your times of business.
Is this an hour for temporal affairs, ha?
[Enter Wolsey and Campeius, with a commission.]
Who's there? My good Lord Cardinal? O my Wolsey,
The quiet of my wounded conscience,
Thou art a cure fit for a King. [To Campeius.] You're welcome,
Most learned reverend sir, into our kingdom;
Use us and it. [To Wolsey.] My good lord, have great care
I be not found a talker.
WOLSEY.
Sir, you cannot.
I would your Grace would give us but an hour
Of private conference.
KING.
[To Norfolk and Suffolk.] We are busy; go.
NORFOLK.
[Aside to Suffolk.] This priest has no pride in him?
SUFFOLK.
[Aside to Norfolk.] Not to speak of.
I would not be so sick, though, for his place.
But this cannot continue.
NORFOLK.
[Aside to Suffolk.] If it do,
I'll venture one have-at-him.
SUFFOLK.
[Aside to Norfolk.] I another.
[Exeunt Norfolk and Suffolk.]
WOLSEY.
Your Grace has given a precedent of wisdom
Above all princes, in committing freely
Your scruple to the voice of Christendom.
Who can be angry now? What envy reach you?
The Spaniard, tied by blood and favour to her,
Must now confess, if they have any goodness,
The trial just and noble. All the clerks,
I mean the learned ones, in Christian kingdoms
Have their free voices. Rome, the nurse of judgement,
Invited by your noble self, hath sent
One general tongue unto us, this good man,
This just and learned priest, Cardinal Campeius,
Whom once more I present unto your Highness.
KING.
And once more in mine arms I bid him welcome,
And thank the holy conclave for their loves.
They have sent me such a man I would have wish'd for.
CAMPEIUS.
Your Grace must needs deserve all strangers' loves,
You are so noble. To your Highness' hand
I tender my commission; by whose virtue,
The court of Rome commanding—you, my Lord
Cardinal of York, are join'd with me their servant
In the unpartial judging of this business.
KING.
Two equal men. The Queen shall be acquainted
Forthwith for what you come. Where's Gardiner?
WOLSEY.
I know your Majesty has always lov'd her
So dear in heart not to deny her that
A woman of less place might ask by law,
Scholars allow'd freely to argue for her.
KING.
Ay, and the best she shall have; and my favour
To him that does best; God forbid else. Cardinal,
Prithee, call Gardiner to me, my new secretary.
I find him a fit fellow.
[Exit Wolsey.]
[Re-enter Wolsey, with Gardiner.]
WOLSEY.
[Aside to Gardiner.]
Give me your hand. Much joy and favour to you;
You are the King's now.
GARDINER.
[Aside to Wolsey.] But to be commanded
For ever by your Grace, whose hand has rais'd me.
KING.
Come hither, Gardiner.
[Walks and whispers.]
CAMPEIUS.
My Lord of York, was not one Doctor Pace
In this man's place before him?
WOLSEY.
Yes, he was.
CAMPEIUS.
Was he not held a learned man?
WOLSEY.
Yes, surely.
CAMPEIUS.
Believe me, there's an ill opinion spread then
Even of yourself, Lord Cardinal.
WOLSEY.
How! of me?
CAMPEIUS.
They will not stick to say you envi'd him,
And fearing he would rise, he was so virtuous,
Kept him a foreign man still; which so griev'd him
That he ran mad and died.
WOLSEY.
Heav'n's peace be with him!
That's Christian care enough. For living murmurers
There's places of rebuke. He was a fool,
For he would needs be virtuous. That good fellow,
If I command him, follows my appointment;
I will have none so near else. Learn this, brother,
We live not to be grip'd by meaner persons.
KING.
Deliver this with modesty to the Queen.
[Exit Gardiner.]
The most convenient place that I can think of
For such receipt of learning is Black-Friars;
There ye shall meet about this weighty business.
My Wolsey, see it furnish'd. O, my lord,
Would it not grieve an able man to leave
So sweet a bedfellow? But, conscience, conscience!
O, 'tis a tender place; and I must leave her.
[Exeunt.]

SCENE III. An ante-chamber of the Queen's apartments.

[Enter Anne Bullen and an Old Lady.]
ANNE.
Not for that neither. Here's the pang that pinches:
His Highness having liv'd so long with her, and she
So good a lady that no tongue could ever
Pronounce dishonour of her,—by my life,
She never knew harm-doing—O, now, after
So many courses of the sun enthroned,
Still growing in a majesty and pomp, the which
To leave a thousand-fold more bitter than
'Tis sweet at first to acquire,—after this process,
To give her the avaunt, it is a pity
Would move a monster.
OLD LADY.
Hearts of most hard temper
Melt and lament for her.
ANNE.
O, God's will, much better
She ne'er had known pomp! Though't be temporal,
Yet, if that quarrel, fortune, do divorce
It from the bearer, 'tis a sufferance panging
As soul and body's severing.
OLD LADY.
Alas, poor lady!
She's a stranger now again.
ANNE.
So much the more
Must pity drop upon her. Verily,
I swear, 'tis better to be lowly born
And range with humble livers in content,
Than to be perk'd up in a glist'ring grief,
And wear a golden sorrow.
OLD LADY.
Our content
Is our best having.
ANNE.
By my troth and maidenhead,
I would not be a queen.
OLD LADY.
Beshrew me, I would,
And venture maidenhead for't; and so would you,
For all this spice of your hypocrisy.
You, that have so fair parts of woman on you,
Have too a woman's heart, which ever yet
Affected eminence, wealth, sovereignty;
Which, to say sooth, are blessings; and which gifts,
Saving your mincing, the capacity
Of your soft cheveril conscience would receive,
If you might please to stretch it.
ANNE.
Nay, good troth.
OLD LADY.
Yes, troth and troth. You would not be a queen?
ANNE.
No, not for all the riches under heaven.
OLD LADY.
'Tis strange. A three-pence bow'd would hire me,
Old as I am, to queen it. But, I pray you,
What think you of a duchess? Have you limbs
To bear that load of title?
ANNE.
No, in truth.
OLD LADY.
Then you are weakly made; pluck off a little.
I would not be a young count in your way,
For more than blushing comes to. If your back
Cannot vouchsafe this burden, 'tis too weak
Ever to get a boy.
ANNE.
How you do talk!
I swear again I would not be a queen
For all the world.
OLD LADY.
In faith, for little England
You'd venture an emballing. I myself
Would for Carnarvonshire, although there long'd
No more to the crown but that. Lo, who comes here?
[Enter the Lord Chamberlain.]
CHAMBERLAIN.
Good morrow, ladies. What were't worth to know
The secret of your conference?
ANNE.
My good lord,
Not your demand; it values not your asking.
Our mistress' sorrows we were pitying.
CHAMBERLAIN.
It was a gentle business, and becoming
The action of good women. There is hope
All will be well.
ANNE.
Now, I pray God, amen!
CHAMBERLAIN.
You bear a gentle mind, and heavenly blessings
Follow such creatures. That you may, fair lady,
Perceive I speak sincerely, and high note's
Ta'en of your many virtues, the King's Majesty
Commends his good opinion of you, and
Does purpose honour to you no less flowing
Than Marchioness of Pembroke; to which title
A thousand pound a year, annual support,
Out of his grace he adds.
ANNE.
I do not know
What kind of my obedience I should tender.
More than my all is nothing; nor my prayers
Are not words duly hallowed, nor my wishes
More worth than empty vanities; yet prayers and wishes
Are all I can return. Beseech your lordship,
Vouchsafe to speak my thanks and my obedience,
As from a blushing handmaid, to his Highness;
Whose health and royalty I pray for.
CHAMBERLAIN.
Lady,
I shall not fail to approve the fair conceit
The King hath of you. [Aside.] I have perus'd her well.
Beauty and honour in her are so mingled
That they have caught the King; and who knows yet
But from this lady may proceed a gem
To lighten all this isle? I'll to the King,
And say I spoke with you.
[Exit Lord Chamberlain.]
ANNE.
My honour'd lord.
OLD LADY.
Why, this it is: see, see!
I have been begging sixteen years in court,
Am yet a courtier beggarly, nor could
Come pat betwixt too early and too late
For any suit of pounds; and you, O fate!
A very fresh-fish here—fie, fie, fie upon
This compell'd fortune!—have your mouth fill'd up
Before you open it.
ANNE.
This is strange to me.
OLD LADY.
How tastes it? Is it bitter? Forty pence, no.
There was a lady once, 'tis an old story,
That would not be a queen, that would she not,
For all the mud in Egypt. Have you heard it?
ANNE.
Come, you are pleasant.
OLD LADY.
With your theme, I could
O'ermount the lark. The Marchioness of Pembroke!
A thousand pounds a year for pure respect!
No other obligation! By my life,
That promises moe thousands; Honour's train
Is longer than his foreskirt. By this time
I know your back will bear a duchess. Say,
Are you not stronger than you were?
ANNE.
Good lady,
Make yourself mirth with your particular fancy,
And leave me out on't. Would I had no being,
If this salute my blood a jot. It faints me,
To think what follows.
The Queen is comfortless, and we forgetful
In our long absence. Pray, do not deliver
What here you've heard to her.
OLD LADY.
What do you think me?
[Exeunt.]

SCENE IV. A hall in Black-Friars.

[Trumpets, sennet, and cornets. .Enter two Vergers, with short silver wands; next them, two Scribes, in the habit of doctors; after them, the Archbishop of Canterbury alone; after him, the Bishops of Lincoln, Ely, Rochester, and Saint Asaph; next them, with some small distance, follows a Gentleman bearing the purse, with the great seal, and a cardinal's hat; then two Priests, bearing each silver cross; then a Gentleman Usher bareheaded, accompanied with a Sergeant-at-arms bearing a silver mace; then two Gentlemen bearing two great silver pillars; after them, side by side, the two Cardinals; two Noblemen with the sword and mace.^ Enter two VERGERS, with short silver wands; next them, two SCRIBES, in the habit of doctors; after them, the ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY alone; after him, the BISHOPS OF LINCOLN, ELY, ROCHESTER, and SAINT ASAPH; next them, with some small distance, follows a GENTLEMAN bearing the purse, with the great seal, and a Cardinal's hat; then two PRIESTS, bearing each silver cross; then a GENTLEMAN USHER bareheaded, accompanied with a SERGEANT-AT-ARMS bearing a silver mace; then two GENTLEMEN bearing two great silver pillars; after them, side by side, the two CARDINALS, WOLSEY and CAMPEIUS; two NOBLEMEN with the sword and mace.
  • William Shakespeare: King Henry the Eighth. 20 September 2009 16:43 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Enter two Vergers, with short silver wands; next them, two Scribes, in the habit of doctors; after them, CANTERBURY alone; after him, LINCOLN, Ely, Rochester, and Saint Asaph; next them, with some small distance, follows a Gentleman bearing the purse, with the great seal, and a cardinal's hat; then two Priests, bearing each a silver cross; then a Gentleman-usher bare-headed, accompanied with a Sergeant-at-arms bearing a silver mace; then two Gentlemen bearing two great silver pillars; after them, side by side, CARDINAL WOLSEY and CARDINAL CAMPEIUS; two Noblemen with the sword and mace.
  • KING HENRY VIII 2 February 2010 15:28 UTC www.it.usyd.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ [Enter the two Cardinals, Wolsey and Campeius.
  • The Life of King Henry the Eighth - Wikisource 10 February 2010 10:55 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • The Life of King Henry the Eighth - Wikisource 2 February 2010 15:28 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

.The King takes place under the cloth of state; the two Cardinals sit under him as judges.^ The King takes place under the cloth of state; the two Cardinals sit under him as judges.
  • The Life of King Henry the Eighth - Wikisource 10 February 2010 10:55 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • The Life of King Henry the Eighth - Wikisource 2 February 2010 15:28 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Enter Cardinal Wolsey, and takes his state.
  • The Life of King Henry the Eighth - Wikisource 10 February 2010 10:55 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • The Life of King Henry the Eighth - Wikisource 2 February 2010 15:28 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ King Henry VIII takes place under the cloth of state; Cardinal Wolsey and Cardinal Campeius sit under him as judges.
  • The Life of King Henry the Eighth, by William Shakespeare 20 September 2009 16:43 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

.The Queen takes place some distance from the King.^ KING. Arise, and take place by us.
  • William Shakespeare: King Henry the Eighth. 20 September 2009 16:43 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ The Queen takes place some distance from the King.
  • The Life of King Henry the Eighth - Wikisource 10 February 2010 10:55 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • The Life of King Henry the Eighth - Wikisource 2 February 2010 15:28 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The King takes place under the cloth of state; the two Cardinals sit under him as judges.
  • The Life of King Henry the Eighth - Wikisource 10 February 2010 10:55 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • The Life of King Henry the Eighth - Wikisource 2 February 2010 15:28 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Bishops place themselves on each side the court, in manner of consistory; below them, the Scribes.^ Queen Katharine takes place some distance from King Henry VIII. The Bishops place themselves on each side the court, in manner of a consistory; below them, the Scribes.
  • The Life of King Henry the Eighth, by William Shakespeare 20 September 2009 16:43 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ The Bishops place themselves on each side the court, in manner of consistory; below them, the Scribes.
  • The Life of King Henry the Eighth - Wikisource 10 February 2010 10:55 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • The Life of King Henry the Eighth - Wikisource 2 February 2010 15:28 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ QUEEN KATHARINE takes place some distance from KING HENRY VIII. The Bishops place themselves on each side the court, in manner of a consistory; below them, the Scribes.
  • KING HENRY VIII 2 February 2010 15:28 UTC www.it.usyd.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

.The Lords sit next the Bishops.^ The Lords sit next the Bishops.
  • The Life of King Henry the Eighth - Wikisource 10 February 2010 10:55 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • KING HENRY VIII 2 February 2010 15:28 UTC www.it.usyd.edu.au [Source type: Original source]
  • The Life of King Henry the Eighth - Wikisource 2 February 2010 15:28 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

The rest of the Attendants stand in convenient order about the stage.]
WOLSEY.
Whilst our commission from Rome is read,
Let silence be commanded.
KING.
What's the need?
It hath already publicly been read,
And on all sides the authority allow'd;
You may, then, spare that time.
WOLSEY.
Be't so. Proceed.
SCRIBE.
Say, Henry King of England, come into the court.
CRIER.
Henry King of England, etc.
KING.
Here.
SCRIBE.
Say, Katherine Queen of England, come into the court.
CRIER.
Katherine Queen of England, etc.
[The Queen makes no answer, rises out of her chair, goes about the court, comes to the King, and kneels at his feet; then speaks.]
QUEEN KATHERINE.
Sir, I desire you do me right and justice,
And to bestow your pity on me; for
I am a most poor woman, and a stranger,
Born out of your dominions, having here
No judge indifferent, nor no more assurance
Of equal friendship and proceeding. Alas, sir,
In what have I offended you? What cause
Hath my behaviour given to your displeasure,
That thus you should proceed to put me off
And take your good grace from me? Heaven witness,
I have been to you a true and humble wife,
At all times to your will conformable;
Ever in fear to kindle your dislike,
Yea, subject to your countenance, glad or sorry
As I saw it inclin'd. When was the hour
I ever contradicted your desire,
Or made it not mine too? Or which of your friends
Have I not strove to love, although I knew
He were mine enemy? What friend of mine
That had to him deriv'd your anger, did I
Continue in my liking? nay, gave notice
He was from thence discharg'd? Sir, call to mind
That I have been your wife in this obedience
Upward of twenty years, and have been blest
With many children by you. If, in the course
And process of this time, you can report,
And prove it too, against mine honour aught,
My bond to wedlock, or my love and duty,
Against your sacred person, in God's name,
Turn me away; and let the foul'st contempt
Shut door upon me, and so give me up
To the sharp'st kind of justice. Please you, sir,
The King, your father, was reputed for
A prince most prudent, of an excellent
And unmatch'd wit and judgment; Ferdinand,
My father, King of Spain, was reckon'd one
The wisest prince that there had reign'd by many
A year before; it is not to be question'd
That they had gather'd a wise council to them
Of every realm, that did debate this business,
Who deem'd our marriage lawful; wherefore I humbly
Beseech you, sir, to spare me till I may
Be by my friends in Spain advis'd, whose counsel
I will implore. If not, i' the name of God,
Your pleasure be fulfill'd!
WOLSEY.
You have here, lady,
And of your choice, these reverend fathers; men
Of singular integrity and learning,
Yea, the elect o' the land, who are assembled
To plead your cause. It shall be therefore bootless
That longer you desire the court; as well
For your own quiet, as to rectify
What is unsettled in the King.
CAMPEIUS.
His Grace
Hath spoken well and justly; therefore, madam,
It's fit this royal session do proceed,
And that, without delay, their arguments
Be now produc'd and heard.
QUEEN KATHERINE.
Lord Cardinal,
To you I speak.
WOLSEY.
Your pleasure, madam?
QUEEN KATHERINE.
Sir,
I am about to weep; but, thinking that
We are a queen, or long have dream'd so, certain
The daughter of a king, my drops of tears
I'll turn to sparks of fire.
WOLSEY.
Be patient yet.
QUEEN KATHERINE.
I will, when you are humble; nay, before,
Or God will punish me. I do believe,
Induced by potent circumstances, that
You are mine enemy, and make my challenge
You shall not be my judge; for it is you
Have blown this coal betwixt my lord and me,
Which God's dew quench! Therefore I say again,
I utterly abhor, yea, from my soul
Refuse you for my judge; whom, yet once more,
I hold my most malicious foe, and think not
At all a friend to truth.
WOLSEY.
I do profess
You speak not like yourself, who ever yet
Have stood to charity and display'd the effects
Of disposition gentle, and of wisdom
O'ertopping woman's pow'r. Madam, you do me wrong.
I have no spleen against you, nor injustice
For you or any. How far I have proceeded,
Or how far further shall, is warranted
By a commission from the consistory,
Yea, the whole consistory of Rome. You charge me
That I have blown this coal. I do deny it.
The King is present: if it be known to him
That I gainsay my deed, how may he wound,
And worthily, my falsehood! yea, as much
As you have done my truth. If he know
That I am free of your report, he knows
I am not of your wrong. Therefore in him
It lies to cure me; and the cure is, to
Remove these thoughts from you; the which before
His Highness shall speak in, I do beseech
You, gracious madam, to unthink your speaking
And to say so no more.
QUEEN KATHERINE.
My lord, my lord,
I am a simple woman, much too weak
To oppose your cunning. You're meek and humble-mouth'd;
You sign your place and calling, in full seeming,
With meekness and humility; but your heart
Is cramm'd with arrogancy, spleen, and pride.
You have, by fortune and his Highness' favours,
Gone slightly o'er low steps and now are mounted
Where powers are your retainers, and your words,
Domestics to you, serve your will as 't please
Yourself pronounce their office. I must tell you,
You tender more your person's honour than
Your high profession spiritual; that again
I do refuse you for my judge; and here,
Before you all, appeal unto the Pope,
To bring my whole cause 'fore his Holiness,
And to be judg'd by him.
[She curtsies to the King, and offers to depart.]
CAMPEIUS.
The Queen is obstinate,
Stubborn to justice, apt to accuse it, and
Disdainful to be tried by't; 'tis not well.
She's going away.
KING.
Call her again.
CRIER.
Katherine Queen of England, come into the court.
GENTLEMAN USHER.
Madam, you are call'd back.
QUEEN KATHERINE.
What need you note it? Pray you keep your way;
When you are call'd, return. Now, the Lord help!
They vex me past my patience. Pray you, pass on.
I will not tarry; no, nor ever more
Upon this business my appearance make
In any of their courts.
[Exeunt Queen, and her Attendants.]
KING.
Go thy ways, Kate.
That man i' the world who shall report he has
A better wife, let him in nought be trusted,
For speaking false in that. Thou art, alone,
If thy rare qualities, sweet gentleness,
Thy meekness saint-like, wife-like government,
Obeying in commanding, and thy parts
Sovereign and pious else, could speak thee out,
The queen of earthly queens. She's noble born;
And, like her true nobility, she has
Carried herself towards me.
WOLSEY.
Most gracious sir,
In humblest manner I require your Highness,
That it shall please you to declare, in hearing
Of all these ears,—for, where I am robb'd and bound,
There must I be unloos'd, although not there
At once and fully satisfied,—whether ever I
Did broach this business to your Highness, or
Laid any scruple in your way, which might
Induce you to the question on't? or ever
Have to you, but with thanks to God for such
A royal lady, spake one the least word that might
Be to the prejudice of her present state,
Or touch of her good person?
KING.
My Lord Cardinal,
I do excuse you; yea, upon mine honour,
I free you from't. You are not to be taught
That you have many enemies, that know not
Why they are so, but, like to village-curs,
Bark when their fellows do: by some of these
The Queen is put in anger. You're excus'd;
But will you be more justifi'd? You ever
Have wish'd the sleeping of this business; never desir'd
It to be stirr'd; but oft have hind'red, oft,
The passages made toward it. On my honour,
I speak my good Lord Cardinal to this point,
And thus far clear him. Now, what mov'd me to't,
I will be bold with time and your attention:
Then mark the inducement. Thus it came; give heed to't:
My conscience first receiv'd a tenderness,
Scruple, and prick, on certain speeches utter'd
By the Bishop of Bayonne, then French ambassador;
Who had been hither sent on the debating
A marriage 'twixt the Duke of Orleans and
Our daughter Mary. I' the progress of this business,
Ere a determinate resolution, he,
I mean the Bishop, did require a respite;
Wherein he might the King his lord advertise
Whether our daughter were legitimate,
Respecting this our marriage with the dowager,
Sometimes our brother's wife. This respite shook
The bosom of my conscience, enter'd me,
Yea, with a splitting power, and made to tremble
The region of my breast; which forc'd such way,
That many maz'd considerings did throng
And press'd in with this caution. First, methought
I stood not in the smile of Heaven; who had
Commanded nature, that my lady's womb,
If it conceiv'd a male child by me, should
Do no more offices of life to't than
The grave does to the dead; for her male issue
Or died where they were made, or shortly after
This world had air'd them. Hence I took a thought
This was a judgement on me; that my kingdom,
Well worthy the best heir o' the world, should not
Be gladded in't by me. Then follows, that
I weigh'd the danger which my realms stood in
By this my issue's fail; and that gave to me
Many a groaning throe. Thus hulling in
The wild sea of my conscience, I did steer
Toward this remedy, whereupon we are
Now present here together; that's to say,
I meant to rectify my conscience,—which
I then did feel full sick, and yet not well,—
By all the reverend fathers of the land
And doctors learn'd. First I began in private
With you, my Lord of Lincoln. You remember
How under my oppression I did reek,
When I first mov'd you.
LINCOLN.
Very well, my liege.
KING.
I have spoke long; be pleas'd yourself to say
How far you satisfi'd me.
LINCOLN.
So please your Highness,
The question did at first so stagger me,
Bearing a state of mighty moment in't
And consequence of dread, that I committed
The daring'st counsel which I had to doubt;
And did entreat your Highness to this course
Which you are running here.
KING.
I then mov'd you,
My Lord of Canterbury; and got your leave
To make this present summons. Unsolicited
I left no reverend person in this court;
But by particular consent proceeded
Under your hands and seals. Therefore, go on;
For no dislike i' the world against the person
Of the good queen, but the sharp thorny points
Of my alleged reasons, drives this forward.
Prove but our marriage lawful, by my life
And kingly dignity, we are contented
To wear our mortal state to come with her,
Katherine our queen, before the primest creature
That's paragon'd o' the world.
CAMPEIUS.
So please your Highness,
The Queen being absent, 'tis a needful fitness
That we adjourn this court till further day.
Meanwhile must be an earnest motion
Made to the Queen, to call back her appeal
She intends unto his Holiness.
KING.
[Aside.] I may perceive
These Cardinals trifle with me; I abhor
This dilatory sloth and tricks of Rome.
My learn'd and well-beloved servant, Cranmer,
Prithee, return. With thy approach, I know,
My comfort comes along.—Break up the court!
I say, set on.
[Exuent in manner as they enter'd.]

ACT THIRD

SCENE I. London. The Queen's apartments.

[The Queen and her women, as at work.]
QUEEN KATHERINE.
Take thy lute, wench; my soul grows
sad with troubles.
Sing, and disperse 'em, if thou canst. Leave working.
SONG
Orpheus with his lute made trees
And the mountain tops that freeze
Bow themselves when he did sing.
To his music plants and flowers
Ever sprung; as sun and showers
There had made a lasting spring.
Every thing that heard him play,
Even the billows of the sea,
Hung their heads, and then lay by.
In sweet music is such art,
Killing care and grief of heart
Fall asleep, or hearing, die.
[Enter a Gentleman.]
QUEEN KATHERINE.
How now!
GENTLEMAN.
An't please your Grace, the two great Cardinals
Wait in the presence.
QUEEN KATHERINE.
Would they speak with me?
GENTLEMAN.
They will'd me say so, madam.
QUEEN KATHERINE.
Pray their Graces
To come near. [Exit Gentleman.] What can be their business
With me, a poor weak woman, fallen from favour?
I do not like their coming. Now I think on't,
They should be good men, their affairs as righteous.
But all hoods make not monks.
[Enter the two Cardinals, Wolsey and Campeius.]
WOLSEY.
Peace to your Highness!
QUEEN KATHERINE.
Your Graces find me here part of housewife;
I would be all, against the worst may happen.
What are your pleasures with me, reverend lords?
WOLSEY.
May it please you, noble madam, to withdraw
Into your private chamber, we shall give you
The full cause of our coming.
QUEEN KATHERINE.
Speak it here;
There's nothing I have done yet, o' my conscience,
Deserves a corner. Would all other women
Could speak this with as free a soul as I do!
My lords, I care not, so much I am happy
Above a number, if my actions
Were tried by every tongue, every eye saw 'em,
Envy and base opinion set against 'em,
I know my life so even. If your business
Seek me out, and that way I am wife in,
Out with it boldly. Truth loves open dealing.
WOLSEY.
Tanta est erga te mentis integritas, regina serenissima,—
QUEEN KATHERINE.
O, good my lord, no Latin;
I am not such a truant since my coming,
As not to know the language I have liv'd in.
A strange tongue makes my cause more strange, suspicious;
Pray, speak in English. Here are some will thank you,
If you speak truth, for their poor mistress' sake.
Believe me, she has had much wrong. Lord Cardinal,
The willing'st sin I ever yet committed
May be absolv'd in English.
WOLSEY.
Noble lady,
I am sorry my integrity should breed,
And service to his Majesty and you,
So deep suspicion, where all faith was meant.
We come not by the way of accusation
To taint that honour every good tongue blesses,
Nor to betray you any way to sorrow;
You have too much, good lady; but to know
How you stand minded in the weighty difference
Between the King and you; and to deliver,
Like free and honest men, our just opinions
And comforts to your cause.
CAMPEIUS.
Most honour'd madam,
My Lord of York, out of his noble nature,
Zeal and obedience he still bore your Grace,
Forgetting, like a good man, your late censure
Both of his truth and him, which was too far,
Offers, as I do, in a sign of peace,
His service and his counsel.
QUEEN KATHERINE.
[Aside.] To betray me.—
My lords, I thank you both for your good wills.
Ye speak like honest men; pray God, ye prove so!
But how to make ye suddenly an answer,
In such a point of weight, so near mine honour,—
More near my life, I fear,—with my weak wit,
And to such men of gravity and learning,
In truth I know not. I was set at work
Among my maids; full little, God knows, looking
Either for such men or such business.
For her sake that I have been,—for I feel
The last fit of my greatness—good your Graces,
Let me have time and counsel for my cause.
Alas, I am a woman, friendless, hopeless!
WOLSEY.
Madam, you wrong the King's love with these fears.
Your hopes and friends are infinite.
QUEEN KATHERINE.
In England
But little for my profit. Can you think, lords,
That any Englishman dare give me counsel?
Or be a known friend, 'gainst his Highness' pleasure,
Though he be grown so desperate to be honest,
And live a subject? Nay, forsooth; my friends,
They that much weigh out my afflictions,
They that my trust must grow to, live not here;
They are, as all my other comforts, far hence
In mine own country, lords.
CAMPEIUS.
I would your Grace
Would leave your griefs, and take my counsel.
QUEEN KATHERINE.
How, sir?
CAMPEIUS.
Put your main cause into the King's protection;
He's loving and most gracious. 'Twill be much
Both for your honour better and your cause;
For if the trial of the law o'ertake ye,
You'll part away disgrac'd.
WOLSEY.
He tells you rightly.
QUEEN KATHERINE.
Ye tell me what ye wish for both,—my ruin.
Is this your Christian counsel? Out upon ye!
Heaven is above all yet; there sits a judge
That no king can corrupt.
CAMPEIUS.
Your rage mistakes us.
QUEEN KATHERINE.
The more shame for ye! Holy men I thought ye,
Upon my soul, two reverend cardinal virtues;
But cardinal sins and hollow hearts I fear ye.
Mend 'em, for shame, my lords! Is this your comfort,
The cordial that ye bring a wretched lady,
A woman lost among ye, laugh'd at, scorn'd?
I will not wish ye half my miseries;
I have more charity; but say, I warn'd ye.
Take heed, for heaven's sake, take heed, lest at once
The burden of my sorrows fall upon ye.
WOLSEY.
Madam, this is a mere distraction;
You turn the good we offer into envy.
QUEEN KATHERINE.
Ye turn me into nothing. Woe upon ye
And all such false professors! Would you have me—
If you have any justice, any pity;
If ye be anything but churchmen's habits—
Put my sick cause into his hands that hates me?
Alas, he's banish'd me his bed already,
His love, too, long ago! I am old, my lords,
And all the fellowship I hold now with him
Is only my obedience. What can happen
To me above this wretchedness? All your studies
Make me a curse like this.
CAMPEIUS.
Your fears are worse.
QUEEN KATHERINE.
Have I liv'd thus long—let me speak myself,
Since virtue finds no friends—a wife, a true one?
A woman, I dare say without vain-glory,
Never yet branded with suspicion?
Have I with all my full affections
Still met the King? lov'd him next Heav'n? obey'd him?
Been, out of fondness, superstitious to him?
Almost forgot my prayers to content him?
And am I thus rewarded! 'Tis not well, lords.
Bring me a constant woman to her husband,
One that ne'er dream'd a joy beyond his pleasure;
And to that woman, when she has done most,
Yet will I add an honour,—a great patience.
WOLSEY.
Madam, you wander from the good we aim at.
QUEEN KATHERINE.
My lord, I dare not make myself so guilty,
To give up willingly that noble title
Your master wed me to. Nothing but death
Shall e'er divorce my dignities.
WOLSEY.
Pray hear me.
QUEEN KATHERINE.
Would I had never trod this English earth,
Or felt the flatteries that grow upon it!
Ye have angels' faces, but Heaven knows your hearts.
What will become of me now, wretched lady!
I am the most unhappy woman living.
Alas, poor wenches, where are now your fortunes!
Shipwreck'd upon a kingdom, where no pity,
No friends, no hope; no kindred weep for me;
Almost no grave allow'd me. Like the lily,
That once was mistress of the field and flourish'd,
I'll hang my head and perish.
WOLSEY.
If your Grace
Could but be brought to know our ends are honest,
You'd feel more comfort. Why should we, good lady,
Upon what cause, wrong you? Alas, our places,
The way of our profession is against it;
We are to cure such sorrows, not to sow 'em.
For goodness' sake, consider what you do;
How you may hurt yourself, ay, utterly
Grow from the King's acquaintance, by this carriage.
The hearts of princes kiss obedience,
So much they love it; but to stubborn spirits
They swell, and grow as terrible as storms.
I know you have a gentle, noble temper,
A soul as even as a calm; pray, think us
Those we profess, peacemakers, friends, and servants.
CAMPEIUS.
Madam, you'll find it so. You wrong your virtues
With these weak women's fears. A noble spirit
As yours was, put into you, ever casts
Such doubts, as false coin, from it. The King loves you;
Beware you lose it not. For us, if you please
To trust us in your business, we are ready
To use our utmost studies in your service.
QUEEN KATHERINE.
Do what ye will, my lords; and, pray, forgive me
If I have us'd myself unmannerly;
You know I am a woman, lacking wit
To make a seemly answer to such persons.
Pray, do my service to his Majesty;
He has my heart yet, and shall have my prayers
While I shall have my life. Come, reverend fathers,
Bestow your counsels on me. She now begs,
That little thought, when she set footing here,
She should have bought her dignities so dear.
[Exeunt.]

SCENE II. Ante-chamber to the King's apartment.

[Enter the Duke of Norfolk, the Duke of Suffolk, the Earl of Surrey, and the Lord Chamberlain.]
NORFOLK.
If you will now unite in your complaints
And force them with a constancy, the Cardinal
Cannot stand under them. If you omit
The offer of this time, I cannot promise
But that you shall sustain moe new disgraces,
With these you bear already.
SURREY.
I am joyful
To meet the least occasion that may give me
Remembrance of my father-in-law, the Duke,
To be reveng'd on him.
SUFFOLK.
Which of the peers
Have uncontemn'd gone by him, or at least
Strangely neglected? When did he regard
The stamp of nobleness in any person
Out of himself?
CHAMBERLAIN.
My lords, you speak your pleasures.
What he deserves of you and me I know;
What we can do to him, though now the time
Gives way to us, I much fear. If you cannot
Bar his access to the King, never attempt
Anything on him; for he hath a witchcraft
Over the King in 's tongue.
NORFOLK.
O, fear him not;
His spell in that is out. The King hath found
Matter against him that for ever mars
The honey of his language. No, he's settled,
Not to come off, in his displeasure.
SURREY.
Sir,
I should be glad to hear such news as this
Once every hour.
NORFOLK.
Believe it, this is true.
In the divorce his contrary proceedings
Are all unfolded; wherein he appears
As I would wish mine enemy.
SURREY.
How came
His practices to light?
SUFFOLK.
Most strangely.
SURREY.
O, how, how?
SUFFOLK.
The Cardinal's letters to the Pope miscarried,
And came to the eye o' the King; wherein was read,
How that the Cardinal did entreat his Holiness
To stay the judgement o' the divorce; for if
It did take place, "I do" quoth he "perceive
My king is tangled in affection to
A creature of the Queen's, Lady Anne Bullen."
SURREY.
Has the King this?
SUFFOLK.
Believe it.
SURREY.
Will this work?
CHAMBERLAIN.
The King in this perceives him, how he coasts
And hedges his own way. But in this point
All his tricks founder, and he brings his physic
After his patient's death. The King already
Hath married the fair lady.
SURREY.
Would he had!
SUFFOLK.
May you be happy in your wish, my lord!
For, I profess, you have it.
SURREY.
Now, all my joy
Trace the conjunction!
SUFFOLK.
My amen to't!
NORFOLK.
All men's!
SUFFOLK.
There's order given for her coronation.
Marry, this is yet but young, and may be left
To some ears unrecounted. But, my lords,
She is a gallant creature, and complete
In mind and feature. I persuade me, from her
Will fall some blessing to this land, which shall
In it be memoriz'd.
SURREY.
But, will the King
Digest this letter of the Cardinal's?
The Lord forbid!
NORFOLK.
Marry, amen!
SUFFOLK.
No, no;
There be moe wasps that buzz about his nose
Will make this sting the sooner. Cardinal Campeius
Is stolen away to Rome; hath ta'en no leave;
He's left the cause o' the King unhandled, and
Is posted, as the agent of our Cardinal,
To second all his plot. I do assure you
The King cried "Ha!" at this.
CHAMBERLAIN.
Now, God incense him,
And let him cry "Ha!" louder!
NORFOLK.
But, my lord,
When returns Cranmer?
SUFFOLK.
He is return'd in his opinions; which
Have satisfied the King for his divorce,
Together with all famous colleges
Almost in Christendom. Shortly, I believe,
His second marriage shall be publish'd, and
Her coronation. Katherine no more
Shall be call'd Queen, but Princess Dowager
And widow to Prince Arthur.
NORFOLK.
This same Cranmer's
A worthy fellow, and hath ta'en much pain
In the King's business.
SUFFOLK.
He has; and we shall see him
For it an archbishop.
NORFOLK.
So I hear.
SUFFOLK.
'Tis so.
[Enter Wolsey and Cromwell.]
The Cardinal!
NORFOLK.
Observe, observe, he's moody.
WOLSEY.
The packet, Cromwell,
Gave't you the King?
CROMWELL.
To his own hand, in 's bedchamber.
WOLSEY.
Look'd he o' the inside of the paper?
CROMWELL.
Presently
He did unseal them; and the first he view'd,
He did it with a serious mind; a heed
Was in his countenance. You he bade
Attend him here this morning.
WOLSEY.
Is he ready
To come abroad?
CROMWELL.
I think, by this he is.
WOLSEY.
Leave me awhile.
[Exit Cromwell.]
[Aside.] It shall be to the Duchess of Alencon,
The French king's sister; he shall marry her.
Anne Bullen! No; I'll no Anne Bullens for him;
There's more in't than fair visage. Bullen!
No, we'll no Bullens. Speedily I wish
To hear from Rome. The Marchioness of Pembroke!
NORFOLK.
He's discontented.
SUFFOLK.
May be, he hears the King
Does whet his anger to him.
SURREY.
Sharp enough,
Lord, for thy justice!
WOLSEY.
[Aside.] The late queen's gentlewoman, a knight's daughter,
To be her mistress' mistress! the Queen's queen!
This candle burns not clear: 'tis I must snuff it;
Then out it goes. What though I know her virtuous
And well deserving? yet I know her for
A spleeny Lutheran; and not wholesome to
Our cause, that she should lie i' the bosom of
Our hard-rul'd King. Again, there is sprung up
An heretic, an arch one, Cranmer; one
Hath crawl'd into the favour of the King,
And is his oracle.
NORFOLK.
He's vex'd at something.
[Enter the King, reading a schedule, and Lovell.]
SURREY.
I would 'twere something that would fret the string,
The master-cord on 's heart!
SUFFOLK.
The King, the King!
KING.
What piles of wealth hath he accumulated
To his own portion! and what expense by the hour
Seems to flow from him! How, i' the name of thrift,
Does he rake this together! Now, my lords,
Saw you the Cardinal?
NORFOLK.
My lord, we have
Stood here observing him. Some strange commotion
Is in his brain; he bites his lip, and starts;
Stops on a sudden, looks upon the ground,
Then lays his finger on his temple; straight
Springs out into fast gait; then stops again,
Strikes his breast hard; and anon he casts
His eye against the moon. In most strange postures
We have seen him set himself.
KING.
It may well be;
There is a mutiny in 's mind. This morning
Papers of state he sent me to peruse,
As I requir'd; and wot you what I found
There,—on my conscience, put unwittingly?
Forsooth, an inventory, thus importing
The several parcels of his plate, his treasure,
Rich stuffs, and ornaments of household; which
I find at such proud rate, that it out-speaks
Possession of a subject.
NORFOLK.
It's Heaven's will!
Some spirit put this paper in the packet,
To bless your eye withal.
KING.
If we did think
His contemplation were above the earth ,
And fix'd on spiritual object, he should still
Dwell in his musings; but I am afraid
His thinkings are below the moon, not worth
His serious considering.
[King takes his seat; whispers Lovell, who goes to the Cardinal.]
WOLSEY.
Heaven forgive me!
Ever God bless your Highness!
KING.
Good my lord,
You are full of heavenly stuff, and bear the inventory
Of your best graces in your mind; the which
You were now running o'er. You have scarce time
To steal from spiritual leisure a brief span
To keep your earthly audit. Sure, in that
I deem you an ill husband, and am glad
To have you therein my companion.
WOLSEY.
Sir,
For holy offices I have a time; a time
To think upon the part of business which
I bear i' the state; and Nature does require
Her times of preservation, which perforce
I, her frail son, amongst my brethren mortal,
Must give my tendance to.
KING.
You have said well.
WOLSEY.
And ever may your Highness yoke together,
As I will lend you cause, my doing well
With my well saying!
KING.
'Tis well said again;
And 'tis a kind of good deed to say well;
And yet words are no deeds. My father lov'd you;
He said he did; and with his deed did crown
His word upon you. Since I had my office,
I have kept you next my heart; have not alone
Employ'd you where high profits might come home,
But par'd my present havings, to bestow
My bounties upon you.
WOLSEY.
[Aside.] What should this mean?
SURREY.
[Aside.] The Lord increase this business!
KING.
Have I not made you
The prime man of the state? I pray you, tell me,
If what I now pronounce you have found true
And, if you may confess it, say withal,
If you are bound to us or no. What say you?
WOLSEY.
My sovereign, I confess your royal graces,
Shower'd on me daily, have been more than could
My studied purposes requite, which went
Beyond all man's endeavours. My endeavours
Have ever come too short of my desires,
Yet fil'd with my abilities. Mine own ends
Have been mine so that evermore they pointed
To the good of your most sacred person and
The profit of the state. For your great graces
Heap'd upon me, poor undeserver, I
Can nothing render but allegiant thanks,
My prayers to heaven for you, my loyalty,
Which ever has and ever shall be growing,
Till death, that winter, kill it.
KING.
Fairly answer'd.
A loyal and obedient subject is
Therein illustrated. The honour of it
Does pay the act of it, as i' the contrary,
The foulness is the punishment. I presume
That, as my hand has open'd bounty to you,
My heart dropp'd love, my pow'r rain'd honour, more
On you than any, so your hand and heart,
Your brain, and every function of your power,
Should, notwithstanding that your bond of duty,
As 'twere in love's particular, be more
To me, your friend, than any.
WOLSEY.
I do profess
That for your Highness' good I ever labour'd
More than mine own, that am, have, and will be—
Though all the world should crack their duty to you,
And throw it from their soul; though perils did
Abound, as thick as thought could make 'em, and
Appear in forms more horrid,—yet my duty,
As doth a rock against the chiding flood,
Should the approach of this wild river break,
And stand unshaken yours.
KING.
'Tis nobly spoken.
Take notice, lords, he has a loyal breast,
For you have seen him open't. Read o'er this;
[Giving him papers.]
And, after, this; and then to breakfast with
What appetite you have.
[Exit King, frowning upon Cardinal Wolsey; the Nobles throng after him, smiling and whispering.]
WOLSEY.
What should this mean?
What sudden anger's this? How have I reap'd it?
He parted frowning from me, as if ruin
Leap'd from his eyes. So looks the chafed lion
Upon the daring huntsman that has gall'd him;
Then makes him nothing. I must read this paper;
I fear, the story of his anger. 'Tis so;
This paper has undone me. 'Tis the account
Of all that world of wealth I have drawn together
For mine own ends; indeed, to gain the popedom
And fee my friends in Rome. O negligence,
Fit for a fool to fall by! What cross devil
Made me put this main secret in the packet
I sent the King? Is there no way to cure this?
No new device to beat this from his brains?
I know 'twill stir him strongly; yet I know
A way, if it take right, in spite of fortune,
Will bring me off again. What's this? "To the Pope!"
The letter, as I live, with all the business
I writ to 's Holiness. Nay then, farewell!
I have touch'd the highest point of all my greatness;
And from that full meridian of my glory,
I haste now to my setting. I shall fall
Like a bright exhalation in the evening,
And no man see me more.
[Re-enter to Wolsey, the Dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk, the Earl Of Surrey, and the Lord Chamberlain.]
NORFOLK.
Hear the King's pleasure, Cardinal! who commands you
To render up the great seal presently
Into our hands; and to confine yourself
To Asher House, my Lord of Winchester's,
Till you hear further from his Highness.
WOLSEY.
Stay!
Where's your commission, lords? Words cannot carry
Authority so weighty.
SUFFOLK.
Who dares cross 'em,
Bearing the King's will from his mouth expressly?
WOLSEY.
Till I find more than will or words to do it,
I mean your malice, know, officious lords,
I dare and must deny it. Now I feel
Of what coarse metal ye are moulded, envy.
How eagerly ye follow my disgraces,
As if it fed ye! and how sleek and wanton
Ye appear in every thing may bring my ruin!
Follow your envious courses, men of malice!
You have Christian warrant for 'em, and, no doubt,
In time will find their fit rewards. That seal
You ask with such a violence, the King,
Mine and your master, with his own hand gave me,
Bade me enjoy it, with the place and honours,
During my life; and, to confirm his goodness,
Tied it by letters-patents. Now, who'll take it?
SURREY.
The King, that gave it.
WOLSEY.
It must be himself, then.
SURREY.
Thou art a proud traitor, priest.
WOLSEY.
Proud lord, thou liest!
Within these forty hours Surrey durst better
Have burnt that tongue than said so.
SURREY.
Thy ambition,
Thou scarlet sin, robb'd this bewailing land
Of noble Buckingham, my father-in-law.
The heads of all thy brother cardinals,
With thee and all thy best parts bound together,
Weigh'd not a hair of his. Plague of your policy!
You sent me deputy for Ireland,
Far from his succour, from the King, from all
That might have mercy on the fault thou gav'st him;
Whilst your great goodness, out of holy pity,
Absolv'd him with an axe.
WOLSEY.
This, and all else
This talking lord can lay upon my credit,
I answer is most false. The Duke by law
Found his deserts. How innocent I was
From any private malice in his end,
His noble jury and foul cause can witness.
If I lov'd many words, lord, I should tell you
You have as little honesty as honour,
That in the way of loyalty and truth
Toward the King, my ever royal master,
Dare mate a sounder man than Surrey can be
And all that love his follies.
SURREY.
By my soul,
Your long coat, priest, protects you; thou shouldst feel
My sword i' the life-blood of thee else. My lords,
Can ye endure to hear this arrogance?
And from this fellow? If we live thus tamely,
To be thus jaded by a piece of scarlet,
Farewell nobility! Let his Grace go forward
And dare us with his cap like larks.
WOLSEY.
All goodness
Is poison to thy stomach.
SURREY.
Yes, that goodness
Of gleaning all the land's wealth into one,
Into your own hands, Cardinal, by extortion;
The goodness of your intercepted packets
You writ to the Pope against the King. Your goodness,
Since you provoke me, shall be most notorious.
My Lord of Norfolk, as you are truly noble,
As you respect the common good, the state
Of our despis'd nobility, our issues,
Who, if he live, will scarce be gentlemen,
Produce the grand sum of his sins, the articles
Collected from his life. I'll startle you
Worse than the sacring bell, when the brown wench
Lay kissing in your arms, Lord Cardinal.
WOLSEY.
How much, methinks, I could despise this man,
But that I am bound in charity against it!
NORFOLK.
Those articles, my lord, are in the King's hand:
But, thus much, they are foul ones.
WOLSEY.
So much fairer
And spotless shall mine innocence arise,
When the King knows my truth.
SURREY.
This cannot save you.
I thank my memory, I yet remember
Some of these articles; and out they shall.
Now, if you can blush and cry "guilty," Cardinal,
You'll show a little honesty.
WOLSEY.
Speak on, sir;
I dare your worst objections. If I blush,
It is to see a nobleman want manners.
SURREY.
I had rather want those than my head. Have at you!
First, that, without the King's assent or knowledge,
You wrought to be a legate; by which power
You maim'd the jurisdiction of all bishops.
NORFOLK.
Then, that in all you writ to Rome, or else
To foreign princes, "Ego et Rex meus"
Was still inscrib'd; in which you brought the King
To be your servant.
SUFFOLK.
Then, that, without the knowledge
Either of king or council, when you went
Ambassador to the Emperor, you made bold
To carry into Flanders the great seal.
SURREY.
Item, you sent a large commission
To Gregory de Cassado, to conclude,
Without the King's will or the state's allowance,
A league between his Highness and Ferrara.
SUFFOLK.
That, out of mere ambition, you have caus'd
Your holy hat to be stamp'd on the King's coin.
SURREY.
Then, that you have sent innumerable substance—
By what means got, I leave to your own conscience—
To furnish Rome, and to prepare the ways
You have for dignities; to the mere undoing
Of all the kingdom. Many more there are;
Which, since they are of you, and odious,
I will not taint my mouth with.
CHAMBERLAIN.
O my lord,
Press not a falling man too far! 'tis virtue.
His faults lie open to the laws; let them,
Not you, correct him. My heart weeps to see him
So little of his great self.
SURREY.
I forgive him.
SUFFOLK.
Lord Cardinal, the King's further pleasure is,
Because all those things you have done of late
By your power legatine within this kingdom,
Fall into the compass of a praemunire,
That therefore such a writ be sued against you;
To forfeit all your goods, lands, tenements,
Chattels, and whatsoever, and to be
Out of the King's protection. This is my charge.
NORFOLK.
And so we'll leave you to your meditations
How to live better. For your stubborn answer
About the giving back the great seal to us,
The King shall know it, and, no doubt, shall thank you.
So fare you well, my little good Lord Cardinal.
[Exeunt all but Wolsey.]
WOLSEY.
So farewell to the little good you bear me.
Farewell! a long farewell, to all my greatness!
This is the state of man: to-day he puts forth
The tender leaves of hopes; to-morrow blossoms,
And bears his blushing honours thick upon him;
The third day comes a frost, a killing frost,
And, when he thinks, good easy man, full surely
His greatness is a-ripening, nips his root,
And then he falls, as I do. I have ventur'd,
Like little wanton boys that swim on bladders,
This many summers in a sea of glory,
But far beyond my depth. My high-blown pride
At length broke under me, and now has left me,
Weary and old with service, to the mercy
Of a rude stream, that must for ever hide me.
.Vain pomp and glory of this world, I hate ye!^ Vain pomp and glory of this world, I hate ye!
  • The Life of King Henry the Eighth - Wikisource 10 February 2010 10:55 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • The Life of King Henry the Eighth - Wikisource 2 February 2010 15:28 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

.I feel my heart new open'd.^ I feel my heart new open'd.
  • The Life of King Henry the Eighth - Wikisource 10 February 2010 10:55 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • The Life of King Henry the Eighth - Wikisource 2 February 2010 15:28 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I am able now, methinks, Out of a fortitude of soul I feel, To endure more miseries and greater far Than my weak-hearted enemies dare offer.
  • The Life of King Henry the Eighth - Wikisource 10 February 2010 10:55 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • The Life of King Henry the Eighth - Wikisource 2 February 2010 15:28 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ My heart is broken and I hope you feel the same pain I feel.

O, how wretched
Is that poor man that hangs on princes' favours!
There is, betwixt that smile we would aspire to,
That sweet aspect of princes, and their ruin,
More pangs and fears than wars or women have;
And when he falls, he falls like Lucifer,
Never to hope again.
[Enter Cromwell, standing amazed.]
Why, how now, Cromwell!
CROMWELL.
I have no power to speak, sir.
WOLSEY.
What, amaz'd
At my misfortunes? Can thy spirit wonder
A great man should decline? Nay, an you weep,
I am fallen indeed.
CROMWELL.
How does your Grace?
WOLSEY.
Why, well,
Never so truly happy, my good Cromwell.
I know myself now; and I feel within me
A peace above all earthly dignities,
A still and quiet conscience. The King has cur'd me,
I humbly thank his Grace; and from these shoulders,
These ruin'd pillars, out of pity, taken
A load would sink a navy, too much honour.
O, 'tis a burden, Cromwell, 'tis a burden
Too heavy for a man that hopes for heaven!
CROMWELL.
I am glad your Grace has made that right use of it.
WOLSEY.
I hope I have. I am able now, methinks,
Out of a fortitude of soul I feel,
To endure more miseries and greater far
Than my weak-hearted enemies dare offer.
What news abroad?
CROMWELL.
The heaviest and the worst
Is your displeasure with the King.
WOLSEY.
God bless him!
CROMWELL.
The next is, that Sir Thomas More is chosen
Lord Chancellor in your place.
WOLSEY.
That's somewhat sudden;
But he's a learned man. May he continue
Long in his Highness' favour, and do justice
For truth's sake and his conscience; that his bones,
When he has run his course and sleeps in blessings,
May have a tomb of orphans' tears wept on 'em!
What more?
CROMWELL.
That Cranmer is return'd with welcome,
Install'd Lord Archbishop of Canterbury.
WOLSEY.
That's news indeed.
CROMWELL.
Last, that the Lady Anne,
Whom the King hath in secrecy long married,
This day was view'd in open as his queen,
Going to chapel; and the voice is now
Only about her coronation.
WOLSEY.
There was the weight that pull'd me down.
O Cromwell,
The King has gone beyond me! All my glories
In that one woman I have lost for ever.
No sun shall ever usher forth mine honours,
Or gild again the noble troops that waited
Upon my smiles. Go, get thee from me, Cromwell!
I am a poor fallen man, unworthy now
To be thy lord and master. Seek the King!
That sun, I pray, may never set! I have told him
What and how true thou art. He will advance thee;
Some little memory of me will stir him—
I know his noble nature—not to let
Thy hopeful service perish too. Good Cromwell,
Neglect him not; make use now, and provide
For thine own future safety.
CROMWELL.
O my lord,
Must I, then, leave you? Must I needs forgo
So good, so noble, and so true a master?
Bear witness, all that have not hearts of iron,
With what a sorrow Cromwell leaves his lord.
The King shall have my service; but my prayers
For ever and for ever shall be yours.
WOLSEY.
Cromwell, I did not think to shed a tear
In all my miseries; but thou hast forc'd me,
Out of thy honest truth, to play the woman.
Let's dry our eyes; and thus far hear me, Cromwell;
And when I am forgotten, as I shall be,
And sleep in dull cold marble, where no mention
Of me more must be heard of, say, I taught thee;
Say, Wolsey, that once trod the ways of glory,
And sounded all the depths and shoals of honour,
Found thee a way, out of his wreck, to rise in;
A sure and safe one, though thy master miss'd it.
Mark but my fall, and that that ruin'd me.
Cromwell, I charge thee, fling away ambition!
By that sin fell the angels; how can man, then,
The image of his Maker, hope to win by it?
Love thyself last. Cherish those hearts that hate thee;
Corruption wins not more than honesty.
Still in thy right hand carry gentle peace,
To silence envious tongues. Be just, and fear not;
Let all the ends thou aim'st at be thy country's,
Thy God's, and truth's; then if thou fall'st, O Cromwell,
Thou fall'st a blessed martyr! Serve the King!
And, prithee, lead me in.
There take an inventory of all I have,
To the last penny; 'tis the King's. My robe,
And my integrity to Heaven, is all
I dare now call mine own. O Cromwell, Cromwell!
Had I but serv'd my God with half the zeal
I serv'd my king, He would not in mine age
Have left me naked to mine enemies.
CROMWELL.
Good sir, have patience.
WOLSEY.
So I have. Farewell
The hopes of court! My hopes in heaven do dwell.
[Exeunt.]

ACT FOURTH

SCENE I. A street in Westminster.

[Enter two Gentlemen, meeting one another.]
FIRST GENTLEMAN.
You're well met once again.
SECOND GENTLEMAN.
So are you.
FIRST GENTLEMAN.
You come to take your stand here, and behold
The Lady Anne pass from her coronation?
SECOND GENTLEMAN.
'Tis all my business. At our last encounter,
The Duke of Buckingham came from his trial.
FIRST GENTLEMAN.
'Tis very true; but that time offer'd sorrow;
This, general joy.
SECOND GENTLEMAN.
'Tis well. The citizens,
I am sure, have shown at full their royal minds—
As, let 'em have their rights, they are ever forward—
In celebration of this day with shows,
Pageants, and sights of honour.
FIRST GENTLEMAN.
Never greater,
Nor, I'll assure you, better taken, sir.
SECOND GENTLEMAN.
May I be bold to ask what that contains,
That paper in your hand?
FIRST GENTLEMAN.
Yes; 'tis the list
Of those that claim their offices this day
By custom of the coronation.
The Duke of Suffolk is the first, and claims
To be High Steward; next, the Duke of Norfolk,
He to be Earl Marshal. You may read the rest.
SECOND GENTLEMAN.
I thank you, sir; had I not known those customs,
I should have been beholding to your paper.
But, I beseech you, what's become of Katherine,
The Princess Dowager? How goes her business?
FIRST GENTLEMAN.
That I can tell you too. The Archbishop
Of Canterbury, accompanied with other
Learned and reverend fathers of his order,
Held a late court at Dunstable, six miles off
From Ampthill where the Princess lay; to which
She was often cited by them, but appear'd not;
And, to be short, for not appearance and
The King's late scruple, by the main assent
Of all these learned men she was divorc'd,
And the late marriage made of none effect;
Since which she was remov'd to Kimbolton,
Where she remains now sick.
SECOND GENTLEMAN.
Alas, good lady!
[Trumpets.]
The trumpets sound; stand close, the Queen is coming.
[Hautboys.]
THE ORDER OF THE CORONATION.
1. A lively flourish of trumpets.
2. Then, Two Judges.
3. Lord Chancellor, with purse and mace before him.
4. Choristers, singing. Music.
5. Mayor of London, bearing the mace. Then Garter, in his coat
of arms, and on his head he wore a gilt copper crown.
6. Marquess Dorset, bearing a sceptre of gold, on his head a
demi-coronal of gold. With him, the Earl of Surrey, bearing the
rod of silver with the dove, crowned with an earl's coronet.
Collars of SS.
7. Duke of Suffolk, in his robe of estate, his coronet on his
head, bearing a long white wand, as high steward. With him,
The Duke of Norfolk, with the rod of marshalship, a coronet
on his head. Collars of SS.
8. A canopy borne by four of the Cinque-ports; under it, the
Queen in her robe, in her hair richly adorned with pearl,
crowned. On each side her, the Bishops of London and
Winchester.
9. The old Duchess of Norfolk, in a coronal of gold, wrought
with flowers, bearing the Queen's train.
10. Certain Ladies or Countesses, with plain circlets of gold
without flowers.
[Exeunt, first passing over the stage in order and state, and then a great flourish of trumpets.]
SECOND GENTLEMAN.
A royal train, believe me. These I know.
Who's that that bears the sceptre?
FIRST GENTLEMAN.
Marquess Dorset;
And that the Earl of Surrey, with the rod.
SECOND GENTLEMAN.
A bold brave gentleman. That should be
The Duke of Suffolk?
FIRST GENTLEMAN.
'Tis the same: High Steward.
SECOND GENTLEMAN.
And that my Lord of Norfolk?
FIRST GENTLEMAN.
Yes.
SECOND GENTLEMAN.
Heaven bless thee! [Looking on the Queen.]
Thou hast the sweetest face I ever look'd on.
Sir, as I have a soul, she is an angel;
Our king has all the Indies in his arms,
And more and richer, when he strains that lady.
I cannot blame his conscience.
FIRST GENTLEMAN.
They that bear
The cloth of honour over her, are four barons
Of the Cinque-ports.
SECOND GENTLEMAN.
Those men are happy; and so are all are near her.
I take it, she that carries up the train
Is that old noble lady, Duchess of Norfolk.
FIRST GENTLEMAN.
It is; and all the rest are countesses.
SECOND GENTLEMAN.
Their coronets say so. These are stars indeed;
And sometimes falling ones.
FIRST GENTLEMAN.
No more of that.
[Exit the last of the procession.]
[Enter a third Gentleman.]
God save you, sir! Where have you been broiling?
THIRD GENTLEMAN.
Among the crowds i' the Abbey, where a finger
Could not be wedg'd in more. I am stifled
With the mere rankness of their joy.
SECOND GENTLEMAN.
You saw the ceremony?
THIRD GENTLEMAN.
That I did.
FIRST GENTLEMAN.
How was it?
THIRD GENTLEMAN.
Well worth the seeing.
SECOND GENTLEMAN.
Good sir, speak it to us.
THIRD GENTLEMAN.
As well as I am able. The rich stream
Of lords and ladies, having brought the Queen
To a prepar'd place in the choir, fell of
A distance from her; while her Grace sat down
To rest a while, some half an hour or so,
In a rich chair of state, opposing freely
The beauty of her person to the people,—
Believe me, sir, she is the goodliest woman
That ever lay by man;—which when the people
Had the full view of, such a noise arose
As the shrouds make at sea in a stiff tempest,
As loud, and to as many tunes. Hats, cloaks,—
Doublets, I think,—flew up; and had their faces
Been loose, this day they had been lost. Such joy
I never saw before. Great-belli'd women,
That had not half a week to go, like rams
In the old time of war, would shake the press
And make 'em reel before 'em. No man living
Could say "This is my wife" there; all were woven
So strangely in one piece.
SECOND GENTLEMAN.
But what follow'd?
THIRD GENTLEMAN.
At length her Grace rose, and with modest paces
Came to the altar; where she kneel'd, and saintlike
Cast her fair eyes to heaven and pray'd devoutly;
Then rose again and bow'd her to the people,
When by the Archbishop of Canterbury
She had all the royal makings of a queen,
As holy oil, Edward Confessor's crown,
The rod, and bird of peace, and all such emblems
Laid nobly on her; which perform'd, the choir,
With all the choicest music of the kingdom,
Together sung "Te Deum." So she parted,
And with the same full state pac'd back again
To York Place, where the feast is held.
FIRST GENTLEMAN.
Sir,
You must no more call it York Place, that's past;
For, since the Cardinal fell, that title's lost.
'Tis now the King's, and call'd Whitehall.
THIRD GENTLEMAN.
I know it;
But 'tis so lately alter'd, that the old name
Is fresh about me.
SECOND GENTLEMAN.
What two reverend bishops
Were those that went on each side of the Queen?
THIRD GENTLEMAN.
Stokesly and Gardiner; the one of Winchester,
Newly preferr'd from the King's secretary;
The other, London.
SECOND GENTLEMAN.
He of Winchester
Is held no great good lover of the Archbishop's,
The virtuous Cranmer.
THIRD GENTLEMAN.
All the land knows that.
However, yet there is no great breach; when it comes,
Cranmer will find a friend will not shrink from him.
SECOND GENTLEMAN.
Who may that be, I pray you?
THIRD GENTLEMAN.
Thomas Cromwell;
A man in much esteem with the King, and truly
A worthy friend. The King has made him master
O' the jewel house,
And one, already, of the privy council.
SECOND GENTLEMAN.
He will deserve more.
THIRD GENTLEMAN.
Yes, without all doubt.
Come, gentlemen, ye shall go my way, which
Is to the court, and there ye shall be my guests;
Something I can command. As I walk thither,
I'll tell ye more.
BOTH.
You may command us, sir.
[Exeunt.]

SCENE II. Kimbolton.

[Enter Katherine, Dowager, sick; led between Griffith, her gentleman usher, and Patience, her woman.]
GRIFFITH.
How does your Grace?
KATHERINE.
O Griffith, sick to death!
My legs, like loaden branches, bow to the earth,
Willing to leave their burden. Reach a chair.
So; now, methinks, I feel a little ease.
Didst thou not tell me, Griffith, as thou led'st me,
That the great child of honour, Cardinal Wolsey,
Was dead?
GRIFFITH.
Yes, madam; but I think your Grace,
Out of the pain you suffer'd, gave no ear to't.
KATHERINE.
Prithee, good Griffith, tell me how he died.
If well, he stepp'd before me, happily
For my example.
GRIFFITH.
Well, the voice goes, madam:
For after the stout Earl Northumberland
Arrested him at York, and brought him forward,
As a man sorely tainted, to his answer,
He fell sick suddenly, and grew so ill
He could not sit his mule.
KATHERINE.
Alas, poor man!
GRIFFITH.
At last, with easy roads, he came to Leicester,
Lodg'd in the abbey; where the reverend abbot,
With all his covent, honourably receiv'd him;
To whom he gave these words: "O, father abbot,
An old man, broken with the storms of state,
Is come to lay his weary bones among ye;
Give him a little earth for charity!"
So went to bed, where eagerly his sickness
Pursu'd him still; and, three nights after this,
About the hour of eight, which he himself
Foretold should be his last, full of repentance,
Continual meditations, tears, and sorrows,
He gave his honours to the world again,
His blessed part to heaven, and slept in peace.
KATHERINE.
So may he rest; his faults lie gently on him!
Yet thus far, Griffith, give me leave to speak him,
And yet with charity. He was a man
Of an unbounded stomach, ever ranking
Himself with princes; one that, by suggestion,
Tied all the kingdom. Simony was fair-play;
His own opinion was his law; i' the presence
He would say untruths; and be ever double
Both in his words and meaning. He was never,
But where he meant to ruin, pitiful.
His promises were, as he then was, mighty;
But his performance, as he is now, nothing.
Of his own body he was ill, and gave
The clergy ill example.
GRIFFITH.
Noble madam,
Men's evil manners live in brass; their virtues
We write in water. May it please your Highness
To hear me speak his good now?
KATHERINE.
Yes, good Griffith;
I were malicious else.
GRIFFITH.
This Cardinal,
Though from an humble stock, undoubtedly
Was fashion'd to much honour from his cradle.
He was a scholar, and a ripe and good one;
Exceeding wise, fair-spoken, and persuading;
Lofty and sour to them that lov'd him not,
But to those men that sought him, sweet as summer.
And though he were unsatisfied in getting,
Which was a sin, yet in bestowing, madam,
He was most princely: ever witness for him
Those twins of learning that he rais'd in you,
Ipswich and Oxford! one of which fell with him,
Unwilling to outlive the good that did it;
The other, though unfinish'd, yet so famous,
So excellent in art, and still so rising,
That Christendom shall ever speak his virtue.
His overthrow heap'd happiness upon him;
For then, and not till then, he felt himself,
And found the blessedness of being little;
And, to add greater honours to his age
Than man could give him, he died fearing God.
KATHERINE.
After my death I wish no other herald,
No other speaker of my living actions,
To keep mine honour from corruption,
But such an honest chronicler as Griffith.
Whom I most hated living, thou hast made me,
With thy religious truth and modesty,
Now in his ashes honour. Peace be with him!
Patience, be near me still, and set me lower:
I have not long to trouble thee. Good Griffith,
Cause the musicians play me that sad note
I nam'd my knell, whilst I sit meditating
On that celestial harmony I go to.
[Sad and solemn music.]
GRIFFITH.
She is asleep. Good wench, let's sit down quiet,
For fear we wake her; softly, gentle Patience.
[The vision. .Enter, solemnly tripping one after another, six personages, clad in white robes, wearing on their heads garlands of bays, and golden vizards on their faces; branches of bays or palm in their hands.^ Enter, solemnly tripping one after another, six personages, clad in white robes, wearing on their heads garlands of bays, and golden vizards on their faces; branches of bays or palm in their hands.
  • The Life of King Henry the Eighth, by William Shakespeare 20 September 2009 16:43 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Suffolk, in his robe of estate, his coronet on his head, bearing a long white wand, as high-steward.
  • The Life of King Henry the Eighth, by William Shakespeare 20 September 2009 16:43 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Enter two Gentlemen, meeting one another .
  • The Life of King Henry the Eighth, by William Shakespeare 20 September 2009 16:43 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

.They first congee unto her, then dance; and, at certain changes, the first two hold a spare garland over her head; at which the other four make reverent curtsies.^ They first congee unto her, then dance; and, at certain changes, the first two hold a spare garland over her head; at which the other four make reverent curtsies; then the two that held the garland deliver the same to the other next two, who observe the same order in their changes, and holding the garland over her head: which done, they deliver the same garland to the last two, who likewise observe the same order: at which, as it were by inspiration, she makes in her sleep signs of rejoicing, and holdeth up her hands to heaven: and so in their dancing vanish, carrying the garland with them.
  • The Life of King Henry the Eighth, by William Shakespeare 20 September 2009 16:43 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

.Then the two that held the garland deliver the same to the other next two, who observe the same order in their changes, and holding the garland over her head; which done, they deliver the same garland to the last two, who likewise observe the same order; at which, as it were by inspiration, she makes in her sleep signs of rejoicing, and holdeth up her hands to heaven: and so in their dancing vanish, carrying the garland with them.^ They first congee unto her, then dance; and, at certain changes, the first two hold a spare garland over her head; at which the other four make reverent curtsies.
  • The Life of King Henry the Eighth - Wikisource 10 February 2010 10:55 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • The Life of King Henry the Eighth - Wikisource 2 February 2010 15:28 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Then the two that held the garland deliver the same to the other next two, who observe the same order in their changes, and holding the garland over her head; which done, they deliver the same garland to the last two, who likewise observe the same order; at which, as it were by inspiration, she makes in her sleep signs of rejoicing, and holdeth up her hands to heaven: and so in their dancing vanish, carrying the garland with them.
  • The Life of King Henry the Eighth - Wikisource 10 February 2010 10:55 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • The Life of King Henry the Eighth - Wikisource 2 February 2010 15:28 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They first congee unto her, then dance; and, at certain changes, the first two hold a spare garland over her head; at which the other four make reverent curtsies; then the two that held the garland deliver the same to the other next two, who observe the same order in their changes, and holding the garland over her head: which done, they deliver the same garland to the last two, who likewise observe the same order: at which, as it were by inspiration, she makes in her sleep signs of rejoicing, and holdeth up her hands to heaven: and so in their dancing vanish, carrying the garland with them.
  • The Life of King Henry the Eighth, by William Shakespeare 20 September 2009 16:43 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

The music continues.]
KATHERINE.
Spirits of peace, where are ye? Are ye all gone,
And leave me here in wretchedness behind ye?
GRIFFITH.
Madam, we are here.
KATHERINE.
It is not you I call for.
Saw ye none enter since I slept?
GRIFFITH.
None, madam.
KATHERINE.
No? Saw you not, even now, a blessed troop
Invite me to a banquet; whose bright faces
Cast thousand beams upon me, like the sun?
They promis'd me eternal happiness,
And brought me garlands, Griffith, which I feel
I am not worthy yet to wear. I shall, assuredly.
GRIFFITH.
I am most joyful, madam, such good dreams
Possess your fancy.
KATHERINE.
Bid the music leave,
They are harsh and heavy to me.
[Music ceases.]
PATIENCE.
Do you note
How much her Grace is alter'd on the sudden?
How long her face is drawn! How pale she looks,
And of an earthly cold! Mark her eyes!
GRIFFITH.
She is going, wench. Pray, pray.
PATIENCE.
Heaven comfort her!
[Enter a Messenger.]
MESSENGER.
An't like your Grace,—
KATHERINE.
You are a saucy fellow.
Deserve we no more reverence?
GRIFFITH.
You are to blame,
Knowing she will not lose her wonted greatness,
To use so rude behaviour. Go to, kneel.
MESSENGER.
I humbly do entreat your Highness' pardon;
My haste made me unmannerly. There is staying
A gentleman, sent from the King, to see you.
KATHERINE.
Admit him entrance, Griffith; but this fellow
Let me ne'er see again.
[Exit Messenger.]
[Enter Capucius.]
I:f my sight fail not,
You should be lord ambassador from the Emperor,
My royal nephew, and your name Capucius.
CAPUCIUS.
Madam, the same; your servant.
KATHERINE.
O, my lord,
The times and titles now are alter'd strangely
With me since first you knew me. But, I pray you,
What is your pleasure with me?
CAPUCIUS.
Noble lady,
First, mine own service to your Grace; the next,
The King's request that I would visit you,
Who grieves much for your weakness, and by me
Sends you his princely commendations,
And heartily entreats you take good comfort.
KATHERINE.
O my good lord, that comfort comes too late;
'Tis like a pardon after execution.
That gentle physic, given in time, had cur'd me;
But now I am past all comforts here, but prayers.
How does his Highness?
CAPUCIUS.
Madam, in good health.
KATHERINE.
So may he ever do! and ever flourish,
When I shall dwell with worms, and my poor name
Banish'd the kingdom! Patience, is that letter,
I caused you write, yet sent away?
PATIENCE.
No, madam.
[Giving it to Katherine.]
KATHERINE.
Sir, I most humbly pray you to deliver
This to my lord the King.
CAPUCIUS.
Most willing, madam.
KATHERINE.
In which I have commended to his goodness
The model of our chaste loves, his young daughter;
The dews of heaven fall thick in blessings on her!
Beseeching him to give her virtuous breeding,—
She is young, and of a noble modest nature,
I hope she will deserve well,—and a little
To love her for her mother's sake, that lov'd him,
Heaven knows how dearly. My next poor petition
Is, that his noble Grace would have some pity
Upon my wretched women, that so long
Have follow'd both my fortunes faithfully;
Of which there is not one, I dare avow,
And now I should not lie, but will deserve,
For virtue and true beauty of the soul,
For honesty and decent carriage,
A right good husband; let him be a noble;
And, sure, those men are happy that shall have 'em.
The last is, for my men,—they are the poorest,
But poverty could never draw 'em from me—
That they may have their wages duly paid 'em,
And something over to remember me by.
If Heaven had pleas'd to have given me longer life
And able means, we had not parted thus.
These are the whole contents; and, good my lord,
By that you love the dearest in this world,
As you wish Christian peace to souls departed,
Stand these poor people's friend, and urge the King
To do me this last right.
CAPUCIUS.
By heaven, I will,
Or let me lose the fashion of a man!
KATHERINE.
I thank you, honest lord. Remember me
In all humility unto his Highness.
Say his long trouble now is passing
Out of this world; tell him, in death I bless'd him,
For so I will. Mine eyes grow dim. Farewell,
My lord. Griffith, farewell. Nay, Patience,
You must not leave me yet. I must to bed;
Call in more women. When I am dead, good wench,
Let me be us'd with honour. Strew me over
With maiden flowers, that all the world may know
I was a chaste wife to my grave. Embalm me,
Then lay me forth. Although unqueen'd, yet like
A queen, and daughter to a king, inter me.
I can no more.
[Exeunt, leading Katherine.]

ACT FIFTH

SCENE I. A gallery in the palace.

[Enter Gardiner, Bishop of Winchester, a page with a torch before him, met by Sir Thomas Lovell.]
GARDINER.
It's one o'clock, boy, is't not?
PAGE.
It hath struck.
GARDINER.
These should be hours for necessities,
Not for delights; times to repair our nature
With comforting repose, and not for us
To waste these times. Good hour of night, Sir Thomas!
Whither so late?
LOVELL.
Came you from the King, my lord?
GARDINER.
I did, Sir Thomas; and left him at primero
With the Duke of Suffolk.
LOVELL.
I must to him too,
Before he go to bed. I'll take my leave.
GARDINER.
Not yet, Sir Thomas Lovell. What's the matter?
It seems you are in haste. An if there be
No great offence belongs to't, give your friend
Some touch of your late business. Affairs, that walk,
As they say spirits do, at midnight, have
In them a wilder nature than the business
That seeks despatch by day.
LOVELL.
My lord, I love you;
And durst commend a secret to your ear
Much weightier than this work. The Queen's in labour,
They say in great extremity; and fear'd
She'll with the labour end.
GARDINER.
The fruit she goes with
I pray for heartily, that it may find
Good time, and live; but for the stock, Sir Thomas,
I wish it grubb'd up now.
LOVELL.
Methinks I could
Cry thee amen; and yet my conscience says
She's a good creature, and, sweet lady, does
Deserve our better wishes.
GARDINER.
But, sir, sir,
Hear me, Sir Thomas. You're a gentleman
Of mine own way; I know you wise, religious;
And, let me tell you, it will ne'er be well,
'Twill not, Sir Thomas Lovell, take't of me,
Till Cranmer, Cromwell, her two hands, and she,
Sleep in their graves.
LOVELL.
Now, sir, you speak of two
The most remark'd i' the kingdom. As for Cromwell,
Beside that of the jewel house, is made master
O' the rolls, and the King's secretary; further, sir,
Stands in the gap and trade of moe preferments,
With which the time will load him. The Archbishop
Is the King's hand and tongue; and who dare speak
One syllable against him?
GARDINER.
Yes, yes, Sir Thomas,
There are that dare; and I myself have ventur'd
To speak my mind of him: and indeed this day,
Sir, I may tell it you, I think I have
Incens'd the lords o' the council, that he is,
For so I know he is, they know he is,
A most arch heretic, a pestilence
That does infect the land; with which they moved
Have broken with the King, who hath so far
Given ear to our complaint, of his great grace
And princely care foreseeing those fell mischiefs
Our reasons laid before him, hath commanded
To-morrow morning to the council-board
He be convented. He's a rank weed, Sir Thomas,
And we must root him out. From your affairs
I hinder you too long. Good-night, Sir Thomas.
LOVELL.
Many good-nights, my lord! I rest your servant.
[Exeunt Gardiner and Page.]
[Enter the King and Suffolk.]
KING.
Charles, I will play no more to-night.
My mind's not on't; you are too hard for me.
SUFFOLK.
Sir, I did never win of you before.
KING.
But little, Charles;
Nor shall not, when my fancy's on my play.
Now, Lovell, from the Queen what is the news?
LOVELL.
I could not personally deliver to her
What you commanded me, but by her woman
I sent your message; who return'd her thanks
In the great'st humbleness, and desir'd your Highness
Most heartily to pray for her.
KING.
What say'st thou, ha?
To pray for her? What, is she crying out?
LOVELL.
So said her woman; and that her suff'rance made
Almost each pang a death.
KING.
Alas, good lady!
SUFFOLK.
God safely quit her of her burden, and
With gentle travail, to the gladding of
Your Highness with an heir!
KING.
'Tis midnight, Charles;
Prithee, to bed; and in thy prayers remember
The estate of my poor queen. Leave me alone;
For I must think of that which company
Will not be friendly to.
SUFFOLK.
I wish your Highness
A quiet night; and my good mistress will
Remember in my prayers.
KING.
Charles, good-night.
[Exit Suffolk.]
[Enter Sir Anthony Denny.]
Well, sir, what follows?
DENNY.
Sir, I have brought my lord the Archbishop,
As you commanded me.
KING.
Ha! Canterbury?
DENNY.
Ay, my good lord.
KING.
'Tis true; where is he, Denny?
DENNY.
He attends your Highness' pleasure.
KING.
Bring him to us.
[Exit Denny.]
LOVELL.
[Aside.] This is about that which the bishop spake.
I am happily come hither.
[Re-enter Denny, with Cranmer.]
KING.
Avoid the gallery. [Lovell seems to stay.]
Ha! I have said. Be gone.
What!
[Exeunt Lovell and Denny.]
CRANMER.
[Aside.] I am fearful; wherefore frowns he thus?
'Tis his aspect of terror. All's not well.
KING.
How now, my lord! you do desire to know
Wherefore I sent for you.
CRANMER.
[Kneeling.] It is my duty
To attend your Highness' pleasure.
KING.
Pray you, arise,
My good and gracious Lord of Canterbury.
Come, you and I must walk a turn together;
I have news to tell you. Come, come, me your hand.
Ah, my good lord, I grieve at what I speak,
And am right sorry to repeat what follows.
I have, and most unwillingly, of late
Heard many grievous, I do say, my lord,
Grievous complaints of you; which, being consider'd,
Have mov'd us and our council, that you shall
This morning come before us; where, I know,
You cannot with such freedom purge yourself
But that, till further trial in those charges
Which will require your answer, you must take
Your patience to you, and be well contented
To make your house our Tower. You a brother of us,
It fits we thus proceed, or else no witness
Would come against you.
CRANMER.
[Kneeling.] I humbly thank your Highness;
And am right glad to catch this good occasion
Most throughly to be winnowed, where my chaff
And corn shall fly asunder; for, I know,
There's none stands under more calumnious tongues
Than I myself, poor man.
KING.
Stand up, good Canterbury!
Thy truth and thy integrity is rooted
In us, thy friend. Give me thy hand, stand up;
Prithee, let's walk. Now, by my holidame,
What manner of man are you? My lord, I look'd
You would have given me your petition, that
I should have ta'en some pains to bring together
Yourself and your accusers; and to have heard you,
Without indurance, further.
CRANMER.
Most dread liege,
The good I stand on is my truth and honesty.
If they shall fail, I, with mine enemies,
Will triumph o'er my person; which I weigh not,
Being of those virtues vacant. I fear nothing
What can be said against me.
KING.
Know you not
How your state stands i' th' world, with the whole world?
Your enemies are many, and not small; their practices
Must bear the same proportion; and not ever
The justice and the truth o' the question carries
The due o' the verdict with it. At what ease
Might corrupt minds procure knaves as corrupt
To swear against you? Such things have been done.
You are potently oppos'd, and with a malice
Of as great size. Ween you of better luck,
I mean, in perjur'd witness, than your Master,
Whose minister you are, whiles here He liv'd
Upon this naughty earth? Go to, go to!
You take a precipice for no leap of danger,
And woo your own destruction.
CRANMER.
God and your Majesty
Protect mine innocence, or I fall into
The trap is laid for me!
KING.
Be of good cheer;
They shall no more prevail than we give way to.
Keep comfort to you; and this morning see
You do appear before them. If they shall chance,
In charging you with matters, to commit you,
The best persuasions to the contrary
Fail not to use, and with what vehemency
The occasion shall instruct you. If entreaties
Will render you no remedy, this ring
Deliver them, and your appeal to us
There make before them. Look, the good man weeps!
He's honest, on mine honour. God's blest mother!
I swear he is true-hearted; and a soul
None better in my kingdom. Get you gone,
And do as I have bid you.
[Exit Cranmer.]
He has strangled his language in his tears.
[Enter Old Lady, Lovell following.]
GENTLEMAN.
[Within.] Come back! What mean you?
OLD LADY.
I'll not come back; the tidings that I bring
Will make my boldness manners. Now, good angels
Fly o'er thy royal head, and shade thy person
Under their blessed wings!
KING.
Now, by thy looks
I guess thy message. Is the Queen deliver'd?
Say ay; and of a boy.
OLD LADY.
Ay, ay, my liege;
And of a lovely boy. The God of Heaven
Both now and ever bless her! 'tis a girl,
Promises boys hereafter. Sir, your queen
Desires your visitation, and to be
Acquainted with this stranger. 'Tis as like you
As cherry is to cherry.
KING.
Lovell!
LOVELL.
Sir?
KING.
Give her an hundred marks. I'll to the Queen.
[Exit.]
OLD LADY.
An hundred marks! By this light, I'll ha' more.
An ordinary groom is for such payment.
I will have more, or scold it out of him.
Said I for this, the girl was like to him?
I will have more, or else unsay't; and now,
While it is hot, I'll put it to the issue.
[Exeunt.]

SCENE II. Lobby before the council-chamber.

[Pursuivants, .Pages, etc., attending.^ [Pursuivants, Pages, etc., attending.
  • The Life of King Henry the Eighth - Wikisource 10 February 2010 10:55 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • The Life of King Henry the Eighth - Wikisource 2 February 2010 15:28 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

Enter Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury.]
CRANMER.
I hope I am not too late; and yet the gentleman,
That was sent to me from the council, pray'd me
To make great haste. All fast? what means this? Ho!
Who waits there? Sure, you know me?
[Enter Keeper.]
KEEPER.
Yes, my lord;
But yet I cannot help you.
CRANMER.
Why?
KEEPER.
Your Grace must wait till you be call'd for.
[Enter Doctor Butts.]
CRANMER.
So.
BUTTS.
[Aside.] This is a piece of malice. I am glad
I came this way so happily; the King
Shall understand it presently.
[Exit.]
CRANMER.
[Aside.] 'Tis Butts,
The King's physician. As he pass'd along,
How earnestly he cast his eyes upon me!
Pray Heaven, he sound not my disgrace! For certain,
This is of purpose laid by some that hate me—
God turn their hearts! I never sought their malice—
To quench mine honour; they would shame to make me
Wait else at door, a fellow-counsellor,
'Mong boys, grooms, and lackeys. But their pleasures
Must be fulfill'd, and I attend with patience.
[Enter the King and Butts, at a window above.]
BUTTS.
I'll show your Grace the strangest sight—
KING.
What's that, Butts?
BUTTS.
I think your Highness saw this many a day.
KING.
Body o' me, where is it?
BUTTS.
There, my lord,
The high promotion of his Grace of Canterbury;
Who holds his state at door, 'mongst pursuivants,
Pages, and footboys.
KING.
Ha! 'tis he, indeed.
Is this the honour they do one another?
'Tis well there's one above 'em yet. I had thought
They had parted so much honesty among 'em,
At least, good manners, as not thus to suffer
A man of his place, and so near our favour,
To dance attendance on their lordships' pleasures,
And at the door too, like a post with packets.
By holy Mary, Butts, there's knavery.
Let 'em alone, and draw the curtain close;
We shall hear more anon.
[Exeunt.]

SCENE III. The council-chamber.

[A council-table brought in with chairs and stools, and placed under the state. .Enter Lord Chancellor; places himself at the upper end of the table on the left hand, a seat being left void above him, as for Canterbury's seat.^ Enter Lord Chancellor; places himself at the upper end of the table on the left hand, a seat being left void above him, as for Canterbury's seat.
  • The Life of King Henry the Eighth - Wikisource 10 February 2010 10:55 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • The Life of King Henry the Eighth - Wikisource 2 February 2010 15:28 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Enter Chancellor; places himself at the upper end of the table on the left hand; a seat being left void above him, as for Cranmer’s seat.
  • The Life of King Henry the Eighth, by William Shakespeare 20 September 2009 16:43 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ My Lord of York, was not one Doctor Pace In this man's place before him?
  • The Life of King Henry the Eighth - Wikisource 10 February 2010 10:55 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • The Life of King Henry the Eighth - Wikisource 2 February 2010 15:28 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

.Duke of Suffolk, Duke of Norfolk, Surrey, Lord Chamberlain, Gardiner, seat themselves in order on each side.^ Duke of Suffolk, Duke of Norfolk, Surrey, Lord Chamberlain, Gardiner, seat themselves in order on each side.
  • The Life of King Henry the Eighth - Wikisource 10 February 2010 10:55 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • The Life of King Henry the Eighth - Wikisource 2 February 2010 15:28 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Suffolk, Norfolk, Surrey, Chamberlain, Gardiner, seat themselves in order on each side.
  • The Life of King Henry the Eighth, by William Shakespeare 20 September 2009 16:43 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ The Duke of Suffolk is the first, and claims To be high-steward; next, the Duke of Norfolk, He to be earl marshal: you may read the rest.
  • The Life of King Henry the Eighth, by William Shakespeare 20 September 2009 16:43 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

.Cromwell at lower end, as secretary.^ Cromwell at lower end, as secretary.
  • The Life of King Henry the Eighth - Wikisource 10 February 2010 10:55 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • The Life of King Henry the Eighth - Wikisource 2 February 2010 15:28 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

Keeper at the door.]
CHANCELLOR.
Speak to the business, master secretary.
Why are we met in council?
CROMWELL.
Please your honours,
The chief cause concerns his Grace of Canterbury.
GARDINER.
Has he had knowledge of it?
CROMWELL.
Yes.
NORFOLK.
Who waits there?
KEEPER.
Without, my noble lords?
GARDINER.
Yes.
KEEPER.
My Lord Archbishop;
And has done half an hour, to know your pleasures.
CHANCELLOR.
Let him come in.
KEEPER.
Your Grace may enter now.
[Cranmer approaches the council-table.]
CHANCELLOR.
My good Lord Archbishop, I'm very sorry
To sit here at this present, and behold
That chair stand empty; but we all are men,
In our own natures frail, and capable
Of our flesh; few are angels: out of which frailty
And want of wisdom, you, that best should teach us,
Have misdemean'd yourself, and not a little,
Toward the King first, then his laws, in filling
The whole realm, by your teaching and your chaplains,
For so we are inform'd, with new opinions
Divers and dangerous, which are heresies
And, not reform'd, may prove pernicious.
GARDINER.
Which reformation must be sudden too,
My noble lords; for those that tame wild horses
Pace 'em not in their hands to make 'em gentle,
But stop their mouth with stubborn bits and spur 'em
Till they obey the manage. If we suffer,
Out of our easiness and childish pity
To one man's honour, this contagious sickness,
Farewell all physic! And what follows then?
Commotions, uproars, with a general taint
Of the whole state; as, of late days, our neighbours,
The upper Germany, can dearly witness,
Yet freshly pitied in our memories.
CRANMER.
My good lords, hitherto in all the progress
Both of my life and office, I have labour'd,
And with no little study, that my teaching
And the strong course of my authority
Might go one way, and safely; and the end
Was ever, to do well; nor is there living,
I speak it with a single heart, my lords,
A man that more detests, more stirs against,
Both in his private conscience and his place,
Defacers of a public peace, than I do.
Pray Heaven, the King may never find a heart
With less allegiance in it! Men that make
Envy and crooked malice nourishment
Dare bite the best. I do beseech your lordships,
That, in this case of justice, my accusers,
Be what they will, may stand forth face to face
And freely urge against me.
SUFFOLK.
Nay, my lord,
That cannot be. You are a counsellor,
And, by that virtue, no man dare accuse you.
GARDINER.
My lord, because we have business of more moment,
We will be short with you. 'Tis his Highness' pleasure
And our consent, for better trial of you,
From hence you be committed to the Tower;
Where, being but a private man again,
You shall know many dare accuse you boldly,
More than, I fear, you are provided for.
CRANMER.
Ah, my good Lord of Winchester, I thank you.
You are always my good friend; if your will pass,
I shall both find your lordship judge and juror,
You are so merciful. I see your end;
'Tis my undoing. Love and meekness, lord,
Become a churchman better than ambition.
Win straying souls with modesty again,
Cast none away. That I shall clear myself,
Lay all the weight ye can upon my patience,
I make as little doubt as you do conscience
In doing daily wrongs. I could say more,
But reverence to your calling makes me modest.
GARDINER.
My lord, my lord, you are a sectary,
That's the plain truth. Your painted gloss discovers,
To men that understand you, words and weakness.
CROMWELL.
My Lord of Winchester, you are a little,
By your good favour, too sharp; men so noble,
However faulty, yet should find respect
For what they have been. 'Tis a cruelty
To load a falling man.
GARDINER.
Good master secretary,
I cry your honour mercy. You may, worst
Of all this table, say so.
CROMWELL.
Why, my lord?
GARDINER.
Do not I know you for a favourer
Of this new sect? Ye are not sound.
CROMWELL.
Not sound?
GARDINER.
Not sound, I say.
CROMWELL.
Would you were half so honest!
Men's prayers then would seek you, not their fears.
GARDINER.
I shall remember this bold language.
CROMWELL.
Do.
Remember your bold life too.
CHANCELLOR.
This is too much.
Forbear, for shame, my lords.
GARDINER.
I have done.
CROMWELL.
And I.
CHANCELLOR.
Then thus for you, my lord: it stands agreed,
I take it, by all voices, that forthwith
You be convey'd to the Tower a prisoner;
There to remain till the King's further pleasure
Be known unto us. Are you all agreed, lords?
ALL.
We are.
CRANMER.
Is there no other way of mercy,
But I must needs to the Tower, my lords?
GARDINER.
What other
Would you expect? You are strangely troublesome.
Let some o' the guard be ready there.
[Enter the guard.]
CRANMER.
For me?
Must I go like a traitor thither?
GARDINER.
Receive him,
And see him safe i' the Tower.
CRANMER.
Stay, good my lords,
I have a little yet to say. Look there, my lords;
By virtue of that ring, I take my cause
Out of the gripes of cruel men, and give it
To a most noble judge, the King my master.
CHAMBERLAIN.
This is the King's ring.
SURREY.
'Tis no counterfeit.
SUFFOLK.
'Tis the right ring, by heaven! I told ye all,
When we first put this dangerous stone a-rolling,
'Twould fall upon ourselves.
NORFOLK.
Do you think, my lords,
The King will suffer but the little finger
Of this man to be vex'd?
CHAMBERLAIN.
'Tis now too certain.
How much more is his life in value with him?
Would I were fairly out on't!
CROMWELL.
My mind gave me,
In seeking tales and informations
Against this man, whose honesty the devil
And his disciples only envy at,
Ye blew the fire that burns ye. Now have at ye!
[Enter King, frowning on them; takes his seat.]
GARDINER.
Dread sovereign, how much are we bound to Heaven
In daily thanks, that gave us such a prince;
Not only good and wise, but most religious;
One that, in all obedience, makes the Church
The chief aim of his honour; and, to strengthen
That holy duty, out of dear respect,
His royal self in judgement comes to hear
The cause betwixt her and this great offender.
KING.
You were ever good at sudden commendations,
Bishop of Winchester. But know, I come not
To hear such flattery now, and in my presence;
They are too thin and bare to hide offences.
To me you cannot reach you play the spaniel,
And think with wagging of your tongue to win me;
But, whatsoe'er thou tak'st me for, I'm sure
Thou hast a cruel nature and a bloody.
[To Cranmer.] Good man, sit down. Now let me see the proudest
He, that dares most, but wag his finger at thee:
By all that's holy, he had better starve
Than but once think this place becomes thee not.
SURREY.
May it please your Grace,—
KING.
No, sir, it does not please me.
I had thought I had had men of some understanding
And wisdom of my council; but I find none.
Was it discretion, lords, to let this man,
This good man,—few of you deserve that title,—
This honest man, wait like a lousy footboy
At chamber-door? and one as great as you are?
Why, what a shame was this! Did my commission
Bid ye so far forget yourselves? I gave ye
Power as he was a councillor to try him,—
Not as a groom. There's some of ye, I see,
More out of malice than integrity,
Would try him to the utmost, had ye mean;
Which ye shall never have while I live.
CHANCELLOR.
Thus far,
My most dread sovereign, may it like your Grace
To let my tongue excuse all. What was purpos'd
Concerning his imprisonment was rather,
If there be faith in men, meant for his trial
And fair purgation to the world, than malice,
I'm sure, in me.
KING.
Well, well, my lords, respect him;
Take him, and use him well, he's worthy of it.
I will say thus much for him, if a prince
May be beholding to a subject, I
Am, for his love and service, so to him.
Make me no more ado, but all embrace him.
Be friends, for shame, my lords! My Lord of Canterbury,
I have a suit which you must not deny me;
That is, a fair young maid that yet wants baptism,
You must be godfather, and answer for her.
CRANMER.
The greatest monarch now alive may glory
In such an honour; how may I deserve it,
That am a poor and humble subject to you?
KING.
Come, come, my lord, you'd spare your spoons.
You shall have two noble partners with you, the old Duchess
of Norfolk and Lady Marquess Dorset. Will these please you?
Once more, my Lord of Winchester, I charge you, embrace and
love this man.
GARDINER.
With a true heart
And brother-love I do it.
CRANMER.
And let Heaven
Witness how dear I hold this confirmation.
KING.
Good man, those joyful tears show thy true heart.
The common voice, I see, is verified
Of thee, which says thus, "Do my Lord of Canterbury
A shrewd turn, and he is your friend for ever."
Come, lords, we trifle time away; I long
To have this young one made a Christian.
As I have made ye one, lords, one remain;
So I grow stronger, you more honour gain.
[Exeunt.]

SCENE IV. The palace yard.

[Noise and tumult within. Enter Porter and his Man.]
PORTER.
You'll leave your noise anon, ye rascals; do you take
the court for Paris-garden? Ye rude slaves, leave your gaping.
VOICE.
[Within.] Good master porter, I belong to the larder.
PORTER.
Belong to the gallows, and be hang'd, ye rogue! Is this
a place to roar in? Fetch me a dozen crab-tree staves, and strong
ones; these are but switches to 'em. I'll scratch your heads. You
must be seeing christenings? Do you look for ale and cakes here,
you rude rascals?
MAN.
Pray, sir, be patient. 'Tis as much impossible—
Unless we sweep 'em from the door with cannons—
To scatter 'em, as 'tis to make 'em sleep
On May-day morning; which will never be.
We may as well push against Paul's, as stir 'em.
PORTER.
How got they in, and be hang'd?
MAN.
Alas, I know not: how gets the tide in?
As much as one sound cudgel of four foot—
You see the poor remainder—could distribute,
I made no spare, sir.
PORTER.
You did nothing, sir.
MAN.
I am not Samson, nor Sir Guy, nor Colbrand,
To mow 'em down before me; but if I spar'd any
That had a head to hit, either young or old,
He or she, cuckold or cuckold-maker,
Let me ne'er hope to see a chine again;
And that I would not for a cow, God save her!
VOICE.
[Within.] Do you hear, master porter?
PORTER.
I shall be with you presently, good master puppy.—
Keep the door close, sirrah.
MAN.
What would you have me do?
PORTER.
What should you do, but knock 'em down by the dozens? Is this
Moorfields to muster in? Or have we some strange Indian with the
great tool come to court, the women so besiege us? Bless me, what
a fry of fornication is at door! On my Christian conscience, this
one christening will beget a thousand; here will be father,
godfather, and all together.
MAN.
The spoons will be the bigger, sir. There is a fellow somewhat
near the door, he should be a brazier by his face, for, o' my
conscience, twenty of the dog-days now reign in's nose; all that
stand about him are under the line, they need no other penance:
that fire-drake did I hit three times on the head, and three
times was his nose discharged against me; he stands there, like a
mortar-piece, to blow us. There was a haberdasher's wife of
small wit near him, that rail'd upon me till her pink'd porringer
fell off her head, for kindling such a combustion in the state. I
miss'd the meteor once, and hit that woman; who cried out
"Clubs!" when I might see from far some forty truncheoners draw
to her succour, which were the hope o' the Strand, where she was
quartered. They fell on; I made good my place; at length they
came to the broomstaff to me; I defied 'em still; when suddenly a
file of boys behind 'em, loose shot, deliver'd such a shower of
pebbles, that I was fain to draw mine honour in, and let 'em win
the work. The devil was amongst 'em, I think, surely.
PORTER.
These are the youths that thunder at a playhouse, and fight for
bitten apples; that no audience but the tribulation of Tower-hill
or the limbs of Limehouse, their dear brothers, are able to
endure. I have some of 'em in Limbo Patrum, and there they are
like to dance these three days; besides the running banquet of
two beadles that is to come.
[Enter Lord Chamberlain.]
CHAMBERLAIN.
Mercy o' me, what a multitude are here!
They grow still too; from all parts they are coming
As if we kept a fair here! Where are these porters,
These lazy knaves? Ye have made a fine hand, fellows.
There's a trim rabble let in. Are all these
Your faithful friends o' the suburbs? We shall have
Great store of room, no doubt, left for the ladies,
When they pass back from the christening.
PORTER.
An't please your honour,
We are but men; and what so many may do,
Not being torn a-pieces, we have done.
An army cannot rule 'em.
CHAMBERLAIN.
As I live,
If the King blame me for't, I'll lay ye all
By the heels, and suddenly; and on your heads
Clap round fines for neglect. Ye're lazy knaves;
And here ye lie baiting of bombards, when
Ye should do service. Hark! the trumpets sound;
They're come already from the christening.
Go, break among the press, and find a way out
To let the troops pass fairly; or I'll find
A Marshalsea shall hold ye play these two months.
PORTER.
Make way there for the princess.
MAN.
You great fellow,
Stand close up, or I'll make your head ache.
PORTER.
You i' the camlet, get up o' the rail;
I'll peck you o'er the pales else.
[Exeunt.]

SCENE V. The palace.

[Enter trumpets, sounding; then two .Aldermen, Lord Mayor, Garter, Cranmer, Duke of Norfolk with his marshal's staff, Duke of Suffolk, two Noblemen bearing great standing-bowls for the christening-gifts; then four Noblemen bearing a canopy, under which the Duchess of Norfolk, godmother, bearing the child richly habited in a mantle, etc., train borne by a Lady; then follows the Marchioness Dorset, the other godmother, and Ladies.^ [Enter trumpets, sounding; then two Aldermen, Lord Mayor, Garter, Cranmer, Duke of Norfolk with his marshal's staff, Duke of Suffolk, two Noblemen bearing great standing-bowls for the christening-gifts; then four Noblemen bearing a canopy, under which the Duchess of Norfolk, godmother, bearing the child richly habited in a mantle, etc., train borne by a Lady; then follows the Marchioness Dorset, the other godmother, and Ladies.
  • The Life of King Henry the Eighth - Wikisource 10 February 2010 10:55 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • The Life of King Henry the Eighth - Wikisource 2 February 2010 15:28 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Duke of Suffolk, Duke of Norfolk, Surrey, Lord Chamberlain, Gardiner, seat themselves in order on each side.
  • The Life of King Henry the Eighth - Wikisource 10 February 2010 10:55 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • The Life of King Henry the Eighth - Wikisource 2 February 2010 15:28 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ We shall have Great store of room, no doubt, left for the ladies, When they pass back from the christening.
  • The Life of King Henry the Eighth - Wikisource 10 February 2010 10:55 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • The Life of King Henry the Eighth - Wikisource 2 February 2010 15:28 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

The troop pass once about the stage, and Garter speaks.]
GARTER.
Heaven, from thy endless goodness, send prosperous
life, long and ever happy, to the high and mighty Princess of
England, Elizabeth!
[Flourish. Enter King and Guard.]
CRANMER.
[Kneeling.] And to your royal Grace, and the good queen,
My noble partners, and myself, thus pray:
All comfort, joy, in this most gracious lady,
Heaven ever laid up to make parents happy,
May hourly fall upon ye!
KING.
Thank you, good Lord Archbishop.
What is her name?
CRANMER.
Elizabeth.
KING.
Stand up, lord.
[The King kisses the child.]
With this kiss take my blessing: God protect thee!
Into whose hand I give thy life.
CRANMER.
Amen.
KING.
My noble gossips, ye have been too prodigal.
I thank ye heartily; so shall this lady,
When she has so much English.
CRANMER.
Let me speak, sir,
For Heaven now bids me; and the words I utter
Let none think flattery, for they'll find 'em truth.
This royal infant—Heaven still move about her!—
Though in her cradle, yet now promises
Upon this land a thousand thousand blessings,
Which time shall bring to ripeness. She shall be—
But few now living can behold that goodness—
A pattern to all princes living with her,
And all that shall succeed. Saba was never
More covetous of wisdom and fair virtue
Than this pure soul shall be. All princely graces,
That mould up such a mighty piece as this is,
With all the virtues that attend the good,
Shall still be doubled on her. Truth shall nurse her,
Holy and heavenly thoughts still counsel her.
She shall be lov'd and fear'd: her own shall bless her;
Her foes shake like a field of beaten corn,
And hang their heads with sorrow. Good grows with her.
In her days every man shall eat in safety,
Under his own vine, what he plants, and sing
The merry songs of peace to all his neighbours.
God shall be truly known; and those about her
From her shall read the perfect ways of honour,
And by those claim their greatness, not by blood.
Nor shall this peace sleep with her; but as when
The bird of wonder dies, the maiden phoenix,
Her ashes new create another heir
As great in admiration as herself;
So shall she leave her blessedness to one,
When heaven shall call her from this cloud of darkness,
Who from the sacred ashes of her honour
Shall star-like rise as great in fame as she was,
And so stand fix'd. Peace, plenty, love, truth, terror,
That were the servants to this chosen infant,
Shall then be his, and like a vine grow to him.
Wherever the bright sun of heaven shall shine,
His honour and the greatness of his name
Shall be, and make new nations. He shall flourish,
And, like a mountain cedar, reach his branches
To all the plains about him. Our children's children
Shall see this, and bless Heaven.
KING.
Thou speakest wonders.
CRANMER.
She shall be, to the happiness of England,
An aged princess; many days shall see her,
And yet no day without a deed to crown it.
Would I had known no more! but she must die,
She must, the saints must have her; yet a virgin,
A most unspotted lily shall she pass
To the ground, and all the world shall mourn her.
KING.
O Lord Archbishop,
Thou hast made me now a man! Never, before
This happy child, did I get anything.
This oracle of comfort has so pleas'd me,
That when I am in heaven I shall desire
To see what this child does, and praise my Maker.
I thank ye all. To you, my good Lord Mayor,
And you, good brethren, I am much beholding;
I have receiv'd much honour by your presence,
And ye shall find me thankful. Lead the way, lords.
Ye must all see the Queen, and she must thank ye,
She will be sick else. This day, no man think
Has business at his house; for all shall stay.
This little one shall make it holiday.
[Exeunt.]

EPILOGUE

'Tis ten to one this play can never please
All that are here. Some come to take their ease,
And sleep an act or two; but those, we fear,
We have frighted with our trumpets; so, 'tis clear,
They'll say 'tis nought: others, to hear the city
Abus'd extremely, and to cry "That's witty!"
Which we have not done neither: that, I fear,
All the expected good we're like to hear
For this play at this time, is only in
The merciful construction of good women;
For such a one we show'd 'em. If they smile
And say 'twill do, I know, within a while
All the best men are ours; for 'tis ill hap
If they hold when their ladies bid 'em clap.
PD-icon.svg This work published before January 1, 1923 is in the .public domain worldwide because the author died at least 100 years ago.^ That backs up what I said a year ago: 100,000 killed by our troops.

^ Hey, Henry, I moved away from McDonough two years ago because I refused to believe that the rest of the world was just like McDonough.


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 06, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Henry VIII of England, which are similar to those in the above article.








Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message